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Catholicity (from Greek καθολικότητα της εκκλησίας, "catholicity of the church") or catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, "universal doctrine") is a concept that encompasses the beliefs and practices of numerous Christian denominations, most notably those that describe themselves as Catholic in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church, as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: "[I believe] in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church."

While catholicism is most commonly associated with the faith and practices of the Catholic Church led by the Pope in Rome, the traits of catholicity, and thus the term catholic, are also claimed and possessed by other denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Church of the East. It also occurs in Lutheranism, Anglicanism, as well as Independent Catholicism and other Christian denominations. While traits used to define catholicity, as well as recognition of these traits in other denominations, vary among these groups, such attributes include formal sacraments, an episcopal polity, apostolic succession, highly structured liturgical worship, and other shared Ecclesiology. The Catholic Church is also known as the Roman Catholic Church; the term Roman Catholic is used especially in ecumenical contexts and in countries where other churches use the term Catholic, to distinguish it from broader meanings of the term.

Among Protestant and related traditions, catholic is used in the sense of indicating a self-understanding of continuity of faith and practice from Early Christianity as delineated in the Nicene Creed. Among Methodist, Lutheran, Moravian, and Reformed denominations the term "catholic" is used in the in claiming to be "heirs of the apostolic faith". These denominations consider themselves to be catholic, teaching that the term "designates the historic, orthodox mainstream of Christianity whose doctrine was defined by the ecumenical councils and creeds" and as such, most Reformers "appealed to this catholic tradition and believed they were in continuity with it."

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The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c.1140), was the proximate cause of the Second Crusade.

The Second Crusade (11451149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. Edessa was the first of the Crusader states to have been founded during the First Crusade (1095–1099), and was the first to fall. The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other important European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe and were somewhat hindered by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus; after crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and, in 1148, participated in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately lead to the fall of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century.

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Credit: Sanchezn

Notre Dame de Paris, known simply as Notre Dame in English , is a Gothic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in Paris, France, with its main entrance to the west. It is still used as a Roman Catholic cathedral and is the seat of the Archbishop of Paris.

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Benedict XVI

Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: Benedictus PP. XVI; German Benedikt XVI.; Italian: Benedetto XVI, born Joseph Alois Ratzinger on 16 April 1927) was the 265th Pope, the spiritual head of the Catholic Church, and as such, Sovereign of the Vatican City State, until his resignation was effective, on 28 February 2013. He was elected on 19 April 2005 in a papal conclave, celebrated his papal inauguration mass on 24 April 2005, and took possession of his cathedral, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, on 7 May 2005. Pope Benedict XVI has both German and Vatican citizenship. He succeeded Pope John Paul II, who died on 2 April 2005 (and with whom he had worked before the Sede vacante). Benedict XVI was also the Bishop of Rome. Benedict XVI is a well-known Catholic theologian and a prolific author, a defender of traditional Catholic doctrine and values.

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The altar at Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kraków

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Feast Day of February 20

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Saint Eucherius (French: Saint Eucher) (Orléans, 687?–20 February 743), nephew of Savaric, bishop of Auxerre, was bishop of Orléans.

Eucherius was born in Orleans, Gaul, as the son of a rich family. His uncle Suaviac was the bishop of Orleans.

After having completed his education, impressed by a sentence of Paul's first letter to the Corinthians, "This world as we see it is passing away" (1 Corinthians 7:31), he decided to live in the Benedictine monastery of Jumièges in the north of Gaul for some time. He soon gained a reputation as a well educated and devoted monk.

After seven years, in 721 his uncle died and Eucherius was chosen to be his successor. Eucherius was 25 years old. Asked by the people, and clergy of Orléans to be the new bishop, he said: "How easy could I, beguiled by the glamour and delight of the world, lose the crown of salvation, I wanted to gain here." Eucherius was horrified at the notion of being bishop and sought the protection of his brother monks, but they preferred the public good and resigned him up for that important charge.

Although he was unwilling to take the office, he proved to be an excellent bishop, loved and venerated by the people of his diocese.

He opposed Charles Martel when the latter confiscated church property to fund his war efforts against the Moorish invasions from Al-Andalus and to reward his loyal vassals. When Charles returned from his victory in Tours, he ordered Eucherius to come to Verneuil upon the Oise, in the diocese of Beauvais, where Charles then kept his court. There he exiled Eucherius and all his relatives to Cologne.

The extraordinary esteem which his virtue procured him caused Charles to send Eucherius to a fortress in the territory of Liege, but the governor of Liege gave him permission to live in the abbey of Sarchinium, of St Trond's, near Bruxelles.

There he died on February 20, 738.

In the ninth century Hincmar of Reims related the story of the vision with which St. Eucher was said to have been favoured and which showed Charles in hell, to which he had been condemned for robbing the Church of its property.
Attributes: as a bishop

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Pope Leo X


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Divine Mercy



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