1. Chicago – Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, novels, film, theater, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago also has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language. The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad, manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stageChicago – Clockwise from top: Downtown Chicago, the Chicago Theatre, the 'L', Navy Pier, Millennium Park, the Field Museum, and the Willis Tower.
2. Chicago metropolitan area – The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago, Illinois, and its suburbs. With an estimated population of 9.4 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States, Chicagoland is the area that is closely linked to the city through geographic, social, economic, and cultural ties. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world’s largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees, the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. The Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was originally designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and it comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana. As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, the Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States. The 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,427,676 and this loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues, and other factors. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows, The OMB also defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area. The Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area combines the areas of Chicago, Michigan City. This area represents the extent of the market pool for the entire region. The CSA has a population of 9,928,312, the Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000. The term “urban agglomeration” refers to the contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It usually incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area, Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area. The term Chicagoland has no definition, and the region is often considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA. Colonel Robert R. McCormick, editor and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, mcCormicks conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states. The first usage was in the Tribunes July 27,1926 front page headline, Chicagolands Shrines, A Tour of Discoveries and he stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area. The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, today, the Chicago Tribunes usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, and the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage, Kane, the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. For example, many residents who live in some of the more distant satellite counties nonetheless refer to themselves as being from Chicago or ChicagoansChicago metropolitan area – Chicago
3. List of United States cities by population – The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States. As defined by the United States Census Bureau, an incorporated place includes a variety of designations, including city, town, village, borough, a few exceptional Census Designated Places are also included in the Census Bureaus listing of incorporated places. Consolidated city-counties represent a type of government that includes the entire population of a county. Some consolidated city-counties, however, include multiple incorporated places and this list presents only that portion of such consolidated city-counties that are not a part of another incorporated place. A different ranking is evident when considering U. S. metropolitan area populations, the following table lists the 304 incorporated places in the United States with a population of at least 100,000 on July 1,2015, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau. A city is displayed in if it is a state or federal capital. Five states—Delaware, Maine, Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming—do not have cities with populations of 100,000 or more, smaller incorporated places are not included. The mean density is 4,128.21 inhabitants per square mile, the median is 3,160.85 inhabitants per square mile. The following table lists the five municipalities of Puerto Rico with a greater than 100,000 on July 1,2016. Census-designated places with populations of at least 100,000 according to the 2010 Census, a CDP is a concentration of population identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes. CDPs are delineated for each decennial census as the counterparts of incorporated places such as cities, towns. CDPs are populated areas that lack separate municipal government, but which otherwise physically resemble incorporated places, unlike the incorporated cities in the main list, the US Census Bureau does not release annual population estimates for CDPs. S. Cities that, in past censuses, have had populations of at least 100,000 but have since decreased beneath this threshold or have been consolidated with or annexed into a neighboring city. The percent decline in population from its peak Census count to the most recent Census estimate in 2015, any additional notes of significant importance. Demographics of the United States United States Census Bureau List of U. S. SList of United States cities by population – Population tables of U.S. cities
4. List of United States metropolitan areas – The United States Office of Management and Budget has defined 382 Metropolitan Statistical Areas for the United States and seven for Puerto Rico. SList of United States metropolitan areas – Population tables of U.S. cities
5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
6. Lake Michigan – Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and it is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, ports along its shores include Chicago, Milwaukee, Green Bay, Wisconsin, Gary, Indiana, and Benton Harbor, Michigan. The word Michigan originally referred to the lake itself, and is believed to come from the Ojibwa word mishigami meaning great water, some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians. Their culture declined after 800 AD, and for the few hundred years. The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan, in the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of Michigan, named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a role in the development of Chicago. The first person to reach the bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump. Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition, in 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College. This formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake, One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated, Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes wholly within the borders of the United States, the others are shared with Canada. It lies in the known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has an area of 22,404 sq. mi, making it the largest lake entirely within one country by surface area. It is the half of Lake Michigan–Huron, which is the largest body of fresh water in the world. It is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long, the lakes average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet, while its greatest depth is 153 fathoms 5 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water, Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bayLake Michigan – Landsat image
7. Great Lakes – Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the worlds surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles, and the volume is 5,439 cubic miles. Due to their sea-like characteristics the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas, Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The southern half of the Great Lakes is bordered by the Great Lakes Megalopolis, the lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to a large number of aquatic species. Many invasive species have been introduced due to trade, and some threaten the regions biodiversity, though the five lakes reside in separate basins, they form a single, naturally interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin. The lakes form a chain connecting the interior of North America to the Atlantic Ocean. From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River, water flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, the lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers, and are studded with approximately 35,000 islands. There are also several smaller lakes, often called inland lakes. The surface area of the five primary lakes combined is roughly equal to the size of the United Kingdom, while the area of the entire basin is about the size of the UK. Lake Michigan is the one of the Great Lakes that is located entirely within the United States. The lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Both Ontario and Michigan include in their boundaries portions of four of the lakes, Ontario does not border Lake Michigan, New York and Wisconsins jurisdictions extend into two lakes, and the remaining states into one of the lakes. This designation, however, is not universal and those living on the shore of Lake Superior often refer to all the other lakes as the lower lakes, because they are farther south. This corresponds to thinking of Lakes Erie and Ontario as down south, vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered upbound even though they are sailing toward its effluent current. The Chicago River and Calumet River systems connect the Great Lakes Basin to the Mississippi River System through man-made alterations, the St. Marys River, including the Soo Locks, connects Lake Superior to Lake Huron. The Straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan to Lake Huron, the St. Clair River connects Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair. The Detroit River connects Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie, the Niagara River, including Niagara Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Welland Canal, bypassing the Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, the Saint Lawrence River connects Lake Ontario to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which connects to the Atlantic OceanGreat Lakes – Satellite image of the Great Lakes, April 24, 2000, with lake names added
8. List of urban areas by population – This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population as of 2014/2015. The figures here have taken from Demographias World Urban Areas study. Demographia defines an area as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market. Except in Australia, the use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer. Demographia uses maps, satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization, Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units often includes large rural areas. Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, a, National census authority data agglomeration data. B, Demographia land area based upon map or satellite photograph analysis. C, Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas, D, Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate. E, Demographia population estimate from national census authority data, F, Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports. L, Demographia population estimate from local authority data, N, Combined urban area using national census authority data. W, Population estimate based upon the World Bank Urban Area 2015 estimate and this is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan area, finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas. Urban areas are confined to a nation, unless there is freedom of movement between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland, thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. According to the report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. Brinkhoff, The Principal Agglomerations of the World Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques insee. fr - Geopolis study of urban areas Gridded Population of the WorldList of urban areas by population – Population tables of world cities
9. Chicago Portage – The Chicago Portage is a water gap connecting the watersheds and the navigable waterways of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes. The official flag of the City of Chicago includes four red stars symbolizing city history, a principal feature of the Chicago Portage water gap is that water can flow through it in either direction across the continental divide. It has flowed from east to west, west to east, there have been two long-term reversals, and short-term reversals still happen today. Initially, water flowed from east to west starting about 10,000 years ago, about 3,000 years ago, this flow mostly stopped, and the Chicago Portage became a wind gap, except during floods when it flowed from west to east. In the year 1900, it was reversed to flow continuously from east to west. The Chicago Portage was formed as the Wisconsin glaciation retreated northward about 10,000 years ago and this was a substantial river, carving the channel later used by the main and south branches of the Chicago River, and the Des Plaines River. Until perhaps 3,000 years ago, the lakes had two outlets, one at Chicago, and the other via the St. Clair River at Port Huron. Eventually the St. Clair River outlet eroded slightly more quickly and this location is now 3100 West 31st Street in Chicago. The portage was revealed to Europeans in 1673 when the French explorers, Louis Joliet and they were guided to the portage by local Native Americans and continued along the Illinois and Des Plaines Rivers. Near where the Des Plaines was separated from the Chicago River they encountered an area known as Mud Lake. Seasonally, this was a waterway or a muddy slough of 8 miles. This connected the Des Plaines to the Chicago River, which flowed into Lake Michigan. At the time, the Chicago Portage was the most strategic location in the interior of the North American continent, control of the Portage was critical if the French were to contain English expansion in the New World. According to Joliet, a canal of half a league across the Chicago Portage would allow easy navigation from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, in 1848, the Illinois and Michigan Canal was opened, breaching the water divide and enabling navigation between the two waterways. In 1900 it was replaced by the larger Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, after the Chicago River was reversed and diverted to the new canal, the Mississippi watershed is now separated from the Great Lakes by only the Chicago Locks. The quantity of water allowed to pass is regulated by the U. S. and this remnant was left behind when the water level of Lake Michigan-Huron dropped as the St. Clair River captured the flow of the Chicago Outlet River. Mud Lake could be wet, dry, marshy, or frozen, depending on the season and it was drained in several stages, starting with the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal in 1848, which bisected it. Several other attempts were made to drain Mud Lake, with the Chicago Sanitary, a small remnant of Mud Lake still exists as a wetland area in Forest View, between the Stevenson Expressway, railroad tracks, and West 51st Street, near the Forest View water towerChicago Portage – Maps of the Chicago Portage, on a sign at Chicago Portage National Historic Site
10. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
11. Midwest – It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, all of which are also part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Indianapolis, Columbus, Detroit, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Cleveland, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, railroads, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, Indiana, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation. The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are also known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave statesMidwest – Typical terrain of the Driftless Area as viewed from Wildcat Mountain State Park in Vernon County, Wisconsin
12. Global city – A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system. The most complex of these entities is the city, whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct. Patrick Geddes also used the world city later in 1915. More recently, the term has been described as being synonymous with an influence and financial capital. Global city status is considered to be beneficial and desired, and because of this, many groups have tried to classify, although there is a consensus upon leading world cities, the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included. Smith and Peter J. Taylor established the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, the GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks. The 2004 rankings acknowledged several new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. The following is a list of the cities in the rankings, as they appear on the GaWC website, Alpha ++ cities are cities most integrated with the economy, London. Alpha + cities are advanced service niches for the economy, Hong Kong, Paris, Singapore, Shanghai, Tokyo, Beijing, Sydney. The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in Tokyo issued a study of global cities in 2016. The ranking is based on six categories, Economy, Research & Development, Cultural Interaction, Livability, Environment. This Japanese ranking also breaks down top ten world cities ranked in subjective categories such as manager, researcher, artist, visitor, Global Power City top 10,1. Vienna In 2008, the American journal Foreign Policy, in conjunction with the Chicago-based consulting firm A. T, kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, published a ranking of global cities, based on consultation with Saskia Sassen, Witold Rybczynski, and others. Foreign Policy noted that the world’s biggest, most interconnected cities help set global agendas, weather transnational dangers and they are the engines of growth for their countries and the gateways to the resources of their regions. The Wealth Report is made by the London-based estate agent Knight Frank LLP together with the Citi Private Bank, the report includes a Global Cities Survey, evaluating which cities are considered the most important to the world’s HNWIs. In 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit, ranked the competitiveness of cities according to their demonstrated ability to attract capital, businesses, talent. The State of the World’s CitiesGlobal city – London
13. Chicago Pile-1 – Chicago Pile-1, when it achieved criticality, became the worlds first artificial nuclear reactor. Its construction was part of the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to create atomic bombs during World War II and it was built by the Manhattan Projects Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago, under the west viewing stands of the original Stagg Field. The reactor was assembled in November 1942, by a team that included Fermi, Leo Szilard, discoverer of the reaction, and Herbert L. Anderson, Walter Zinn, Martin D. Whitaker. It contained 45,000 graphite blocks weighing 400 short tons used as neutron moderators, unlike most subsequent nuclear reactors, it had no radiation shielding or cooling system as it only operated at very low power. The shape of the pile was intended to be roughly spherical, in 1943, CP-1 was moved to Red Gate Woods, and reconfigured to become Chicago Pile-2. There, it was operated until 1954, when it was dismantled and buried, the stands at Stagg Field were demolished in August 1957, but the site is now a National Historic Landmark and a Chicago Landmark. The concept of a chain reaction was first hypothesized by the Hungarian scientist Leo Szilard on 12 September 1933. Szilard realized that if a nuclear reaction produced neutrons or dineutrons, which caused further nuclear reactions. Szilard proposed using mixtures of lighter known isotopes which produced neutrons in copious amounts and he filed a patent for his idea of a simple nuclear reactor the following year. In order for a reaction to occur, fissioning uranium atoms had to emit additional neutrons to keep the reaction going. Subsequent work confirmed that fast neutrons were indeed produced by fission, Szilard obtained permission from the head of the Physics Department at Columbia, George B. Pegram, to use a laboratory for three months, and persuaded Walter Zinn to become his collaborator and they conducted a simple experiment on the seventh floor of Pupin Hall at Columbia, using a radium-beryllium source to bombard uranium with neutrons. They discovered significant neutron multiplication in uranium, proving that a chain reaction might be possible. Fermi and Szilard still believed that enormous quantities of uranium would be required for an atomic bomb, an initial design planned to use the U-235, but sufficient quantities still proved limited at the time. Szilard suggested to Fermi that they use carbon in the form of graphite as a moderator, as a back-up plan, he considered heavy water. Fermi estimated that a fissioning uranium nucleus produced 1.73 neutrons on average and it was enough, but a careful design was called for to minimize losses. Szilard estimated he would need about 50 short tons of graphite and 5 short tons of uranium, in December 1940, Fermi and Szilard met with Herbert G. MacPherson and Victor C. Hamister at National Carbon to discuss the existence of impurities in graphiteChicago Pile-1 – Site of the First Self Sustaining Nuclear Reaction
14. Nuclear reactor – This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor, formerly known as a pile, is a device used to initiate. Nuclear reactors are used at power plants for electricity generation. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a fluid, which runs through steam turbines. These either drive a ships propellers or turn electrical generators, Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, some are run only for research. As of April 2014, the IAEA reports there are 435 nuclear power reactors in operation, when a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission. The heavy nucleus splits into two or more nuclei, releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation, and free neutrons. A portion of neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons. This is known as a chain reaction. To control such a chain reaction, neutron poisons and neutron moderators can change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fission. Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if monitoring detects unsafe conditions, commonly-used moderators include regular water, solid graphite and heavy water. Some experimental types of reactor have used beryllium, and hydrocarbons have been suggested as another possibility, the reactor core generates heat in a number of ways, The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these nuclei collide with nearby atoms. The reactor absorbs some of the rays produced during fission. Heat is produced by the decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. This decay heat-source will remain for some even after the reactor is shut down. A kilogram of uranium-235 converted via nuclear processes releases approximately three times more energy than a kilogram of coal burned conventionally. A nuclear reactor coolant — usually water but sometimes a gas or a metal or molten salt — is circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generatesNuclear reactor – Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland
15. Chicago school (architecture) – Chicagos architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. The style is known as Commercial style. In the history of architecture, the Chicago School was a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century, a Second Chicago School later emerged in the 1940s and 1970s which pioneered new building technologies and structural systems such as the tube-frame structure. Contemporary publications used the phrase Commercial Style to describe the innovative tall buildings of the era rather than proposing any sort of unified school, sometimes elements of neoclassical architecture are used in Chicago School skyscrapers. Many Chicago School skyscrapers contain the three parts of a classical column, the Chicago window originated in this school. It is a window consisting of a large fixed center panel flanked by two smaller double-hung sash windows. The arrangement of windows on the facade typically creates a grid pattern, the Chicago window combined the functions of light-gathering and natural ventilation, a single central pane was usually fixed, while the two surrounding panes were operable. These windows were often deployed in bays, known as oriel windows, frank Lloyd Wright started in the firm of Adler and Sullivan but created his own Prairie Style of architecture. The Home Insurance Building, which some regarded as the first skyscraper in the world, was built in Chicago in 1885 and was demolished in 1931 and its first and purest expression was the 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments and their technological achievements. This was supported and enlarged in the 1960s due to the ideas of structural engineer Fazlur Khan and he introduced a new structural system of framed tubes in skyscraper design and construction. Closely spaced interconnected exterior columns form the tube, horizontal loads, for example wind, are supported by the structure as a whole. About half the surface is available for windows. Framed tubes allow fewer interior columns, and so create more floor space. Where larger openings like garage doors are required, the frame must be interrupted. The first building to apply the tube-frame construction was the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building which Khan designed and was completed in Chicago by 1963. Today, there are different styles of architecture all throughout the city, such as the Chicago School, neo-classical, art deco, modern, architecture of Chicago Chicago Landmarks Early Commercial architecture Chicago Seven Palazzo style architecture Condit, Carl W. The Chicago school of architecture, a history of commercial and public building in the Chicago area, 1875-1925Chicago school (architecture) – The Chicago Building by Holabird & Roche (1904-1905) is a prime example of the Chicago School, displaying both variations of the Chicago window
16. List of tallest buildings in the world – This list of tallest buildings in the world ranks skyscrapers by height. Only buildings with continuously occupiable floors are included, thus non-building structures and it maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world. The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m, the CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, however, and some buildings listed within these list articles are not considered complete by the CTBUH. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are ranked higher than the Willis Tower with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers lower roofs. Until 1996, the worlds tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires and this led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building employed only a short spire and was 927 ft tall and had a higher top occupied floor. At present, the Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, as of 2017, this list includes all 139 buildings which reach a height of 300 metres or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Worldwide, as there are plans in the five years for more than 80 buildings in the same height range. This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point and this measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are added, removed. This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower in height, the former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latters antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof categories and this is a list of 82 buildings taller than 300 metres or 65 floors that are currently under construction. More than half of the buildings are located in China, ^ Destroyed buildings not included B. ^ Topped out but not completed, ^ Topped out in 1992, when construction was halted. Work was restarted in 2008, exterior work completed in 2011, council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat BuildingHeightsList of tallest buildings in the world – The 828m tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai has been the tallest building in the world since 2008. The Burj Khalifa has been classified as Megatall.
17. Willis Tower – The Willis Tower, built as and still commonly referred to as Sears Tower, is a 108-story,1, 450-foot skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The building is considered an achievement for its architect Fazlur Kahn. The Willis Tower is the second-tallest building in the United States, more than one million people visit its observation deck each year, making it one of Chicagos most popular tourist destinations. The structure was renamed in 2009 by the Willis Group as part of its lease on a portion of the towers space, the buildings official address is 233 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60606. In 1969, Sears, Roebuck & Co. was the largest retailer in the world, Sears executives decided to consolidate the thousands of employees in offices distributed throughout the Chicago area into one building on the western edge of Chicagos Loop. Sears asked its counsel, Arnstein, Gluck, Weitzenfeld & Minow to suggest a location. This latter site was decided upon, and preliminary inquiries determined that the necessary permits could be obtained, the next step was to acquire the property, a team of attorneys from the Arnstein law firm, headed by Andrew Adsit, began buying the property parcel by parcel. Sears purchased 15 old buildings from 100 owners and paid $2.7 million to the City of Chicago for the portion of Quincy Street that divided the property. Their team of architect Bruce Graham and structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan designed the building as nine square tubes, all nine tubes would rise up to the 50th floor of the building. At the 50th floor, the northwest and southeast tubes end, at the 66th floor, the northeast and the southwest tubes end. At the 90th floor, the north, east, and south tubes end, the remaining west and center tubes continue up to the 108th floor. The Willis Tower was the first building to use Khans bundled tube structure and this innovative design was structurally efficient and economic, at 1,450 feet, it provided more space and rose higher than the Empire State Building, yet cost much less per unit area. This structural system would prove influential in skyscraper construction. It has been used in most supertall buildings since then, including the worlds tallest building, to honor Khans contributions, the Structural Engineers Association of Illinois commissioned a sculpture of him for the lobby of the Willis Tower. The latter floor areas had to be designed to a plate, with a high window-space to floor-space ratio, to be attractive. Smaller floorplates required a structure to yield sufficient square footage. The height was restricted by a limit imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration to protect air traffic, the financing of the tower was provided by the Sears company. It was topped with two antennas to permit local television and radio broadcasts, Sears and the City of Chicago approved the design, and the first steel was put in place in April 1971Willis Tower – The Sears Tower in 1998
18. Trump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago) – The Trump International Hotel and Tower, also known as Trump Tower Chicago and Trump Tower, is a skyscraper condo-hotel in downtown Chicago, Illinois. The building, named after businessman and current President of the United States, Donald Trump, was designed by architect Adrian Smith of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Bovis Lend Lease built the 98-story structure, which reaches a height of 1,388 feet including its spire and it is next to the main branch of the Chicago River, with a view of the entry to Lake Michigan beyond a series of bridges over the river. When topped out in 2009, it became the fourth-tallest building in the US and it surpassed the citys John Hancock Center as the building with the highest residence in the world, and held this title until the completion of the Burj Khalifa. The design of the building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, the 339-room hotel opened for business with limited accommodations and services on January 30,2008, then full accommodation and services on April 28. A restaurant on the 16th floor, Sixteen, opened in early 2008 to favorable reviews, the building topped out in late 2008 and construction was completed in 2009. As of 2015, the hotel is three in Chicago with an elite five-star Forbes Travel Guide rating. It hosts a restaurant that is one of three five-star Forbes-rated restaurants in the city and a spa that is one of six that is at least a four-star Forbes-rated in the Chicago area in 2015. Sixteen is one of five restaurants in Chicago with at least a Michelin Guide two-star rating in 2016, the tower sits at 401 North Wabash Avenue in the River North Gallery District, part of the Near North Side community area of Chicago. The building is across the Chicago River from the Chicago Loop and it is a block away from the southern end of the Magnificent Mile portion of Michigan Avenue. The restaurant, Sixteen, has a view of the Chicago Rivers entrance to Lake Michigan. The design of the building incorporates three setback features designed to provide continuity with the surrounding skyline, each reflecting the height of a nearby building. The third setback, on the east side, relates to 330 North Wabash building, however, some views distort the alignment of the second setback. The setbacks and rounded edges of the building combat vortex formation, the body of the building is raised 30 feet above the main Wabash entrance and 70 feet above the Chicago River. The buildings Permasteelisa curtain wall uses clear low-emissivity coated glass and a curved wing-shaped polished stainless-steel mullion system that projects 9 inches from the glass line and it incorporates a brushed stainless steel spandrel panels and clear anodized aluminum. The building has 2,600,000 square feet of space, rises to 98 stories. These include studio apartments, a mixture of suites with one to four bedrooms, the tower also features a luxury hotel condominium with 339 guest rooms. The building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a garage, a hotelTrump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago) – Trump International Hotel and Tower as viewed from the Chicago River
19. University of Chicago – The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It holds top-ten positions in national and international rankings and measures. The university currently enrolls approximately 5,700 students in the College, Chicagos physics department helped develop the worlds first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of universitys Stagg Field. The university is home to the University of Chicago Press. With an estimated date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university. Both Harper and future president Robert Maynard Hutchins advocated for Chicagos curriculum to be based upon theoretical and perennial issues rather than on applied sciences, the University of Chicago has many prominent alumni. 92 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, students, faculty, or staff, similarly,34 faculty members and 16 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur “Genius Grant”. Rockefeller on land donated by Marshall Field, while the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings. The original physical campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B, Cobb who provided the funds for the campus first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, and matched Marshall Fields pledge of $100,000. Organized as an independent institution legally, it replaced the first Baptist university of the same name, william Rainey Harper became the modern universitys first president on July 1,1891, and the university opened for classes on October 1,1892. The business school was founded thereafter in 1898, and the law school was founded in 1902, Harper died in 1906, and was replaced by a succession of three presidents whose tenures lasted until 1929. During this period, the Oriental Institute was founded to support, in 1896, the university affiliated with Shimer College in Mount Carroll, Illinois. The agreement provided that either party could terminate the affiliation on proper notice, several University of Chicago professors disliked the program, as it involved uncompensated additional labor on their part, and they believed it cheapened the academic reputation of the university. The program passed into history by 1910, in 1929, the universitys fifth president, Robert Maynard Hutchins, took office, the university underwent many changes during his 24-year tenure. In 1933, Hutchins proposed a plan to merge the University of Chicago. During his term, the University of Chicago Hospitals finished construction, also, the Committee on Social Thought, an institution distinctive of the university, was created. Money that had been raised during the 1920s and financial backing from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the school to survive through the Great Depression, during World War II, the university made important contributions to the Manhattan Project. The university was the site of the first isolation of plutonium and of the creation of the first artificial, in the early 1950s, student applications declined as a result of increasing crime and poverty in the Hyde Park neighborhoodUniversity of Chicago – An early convocation ceremony at the University of Chicago
20. Chicago school of economics – In the context of macroeconomics, it is connected to the freshwater school of macroeconomics, in contrast to the saltwater school based in coastal universities. Chicago macroeconomic theory rejected Keynesianism in favor of monetarism until the mid-1970s, the freshwater-saltwater distinction is largely antiquated today, as the two traditions have heavily incorporated ideas from each other. Other economists affiliated with Chicago have made their impact in fields as diverse as social economics, thus, there is not a clear delineation of the Chicago school of economics, a term that is more commonly used in the popular media than in academic circles. They met together in frequent intense discussions that helped set a group outlook on economic issues, the 1950s saw the height of popularity of the Keynesian school of economics, so the members of the University of Chicago were considered outside the mainstream. Nonetheless, these scholars had an important influence on the thought of Milton Friedman and George Stigler, most notably in the development of price theory, however, their relationship to the modern macroeconomists, led by Robert Lucas, Jr. and Eugene Fama, is more blurred. A further significant branching of Chicago thought was dubbed by George Stigler as Chicago political economy and his work was originally focused in labor economics. His work partly inspired the popular economics book Freakonomics and he is considered one of the founding fathers of Chicago political economy. Ronald Coase was the most prominent economic analyst of law and the 1991 Nobel Prize-winner and his first major article, The Nature of the Firm, argued that the reason for the existence of firms is the existence of transaction costs. Rational individuals trade through bilateral contracts on open markets until the costs of transactions mean that using corporations to produce things is more cost-effective, only the existence of transaction costs may prevent this. So, the law ought to pre-empt what would happen, the idea is that law and regulation are not as important or effective at helping people as lawyers and government planners believe. Coase and others like him wanted a change of approach, to put the burden of proof for positive effects on a government that was intervening in the market, by analysing the costs of action. Eugene Fama is an American financial economist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2013 for his work on asset pricing and is the seventh most highly cited economist of all time. In his tract, Railroads and American Economic Growth, Essays in Econometric History, Milton Friedman stands as one of the most influential economists of the late twentieth century. A student of Frank Knight, he won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1976 for, among other things, Friedman argued that the Great Depression had been caused by the Federal Reserves policies through the 1920s, and worsened in the 1930s. Friedman argued that government policy is more desirable than government intervention in the economy. One of the great mistakes is to judge policies and programs by their intentions rather than their results, governments should aim for a neutral monetary policy oriented toward long-run economic growth, by gradual expansion of the money supply. He advocated the quantity theory of money, that general prices are determined by money, therefore, active monetary or fiscal policy can have unintended negative effects. The slogan that money matters has come to be associated with Friedman, lars Peter Hansen is an American economist who won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2013 with Eugene Fama and Robert Shiller for their work on asset pricingChicago school of economics – Richard Posner ran a blog with Gary Becker.
21. Chicago school (sociology) – While involving scholars at several Chicago area universities, the term is often used interchangeably to refer to the University of Chicagos sociology department. Following World War II, a Second Chicago School arose whose members used symbolic interactionism combined with methods of field research, Thomas, Frederic Thrasher, Louis Wirth, Florian Znaniecki. Activist, social scientist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Jane Addams also forged and maintained ties with some of the members of the Chicago School of Sociology. The Chicago School is best known for its urban sociology and for the development of the symbolic interactionist approach and it has focused on human behavior as shaped by social structures and physical environmental factors, rather than genetic and personal characteristics. Biologists and anthropologists had accepted the theory of evolution as demonstrating that animals adapt to their environments, originally, Chicago was a clean slate, an empty physical environment. By 1860, Chicago was a town with a population of 10,000. There was great growth after the fire of 1871, by 1910, the population exceeded two million. The rapidity of the increase was due to an influx of immigrants and it produced homelessness, poor housing conditions, and bad working conditions based on low wages and long hours. But equally, Thomas and Znaniecki stress that the freedom of immigrants released from the controls of Europe to the unrestrained competition of the new city was a dynamic for growth. See also the broken windows thesis, for Thomas, the groups themselves had to reinscribe and reconstruct themselves to prosper. Burgess studied the history of development and concluded that the city had not grown at the edges. e, zone maps which demonstrated that the major problems were clustered in the city center. Thomas also developed techniques of self-reporting life histories to provide balance to the analysis. Park, Burgess, and McKenzie are credited with institutionalizing, if not establishing and they are also criticized for their overly empiricist and idealized approach to the study of society but, in the inter-war years, their attitudes and prejudices were normative. Three broad themes characterized this period of Chicago studies, culture contact and conflict. This arises from Thomas and Znaniecki and studies how ethnic groups interact and compete in a process of community succession, an important part of this work concerned African Americans, the work of E. Franklin Frazier and Drake and Cayton shaped white Americas perception of black communities for decades. Succession in community institutions as stakeholders and actors in the ebb, Cressey studied the dance hall and commercialized entertainment services, Kincheloe studied church succession, Janowitz studied the community press, and Hughes studied the real-estate board. Merriams commitment to reform politics was matched by Gosnell who researched voting. Gosnell, Wilson, Grimshaw considered African American politics, and Banfield, in identified communities and/or neighborhoods, or in society at large, and social relationships that traditionally encourage co-operation between peopleChicago school (sociology) – Sociology
22. Chicago Bears – The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bears compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference North division. The Bears have won nine NFL Championships and one Super Bowl and hold the NFL record for the most enshrinees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, the Bears have also recorded more victories than any other NFL franchise. The franchise was founded in Decatur, Illinois, in 1919 and it is one of only two remaining franchises from the NFLs founding. The team played games at Wrigley Field on Chicagos North Side through the 1970 season, they now play at Soldier Field on the Near South Side. The Bears have a rivalry with the Green Bay Packers. The team headquarters, Halas Hall, is in the Chicago suburb of Lake Forest, the Bears practice at adjoining facilities there during the season. They hold their training camp from late July to mid-August at Ward Field on the campus of Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois. Originally named the Decatur Staleys, the club was established by the A. E. Staley food starch company of Decatur and this was the typical start for several early professional football franchises. The company hired George Halas and Edward Dutch Sternaman in 1920 to run the team, the 1920 Decatur Staleys season was their inaugural regular season completed in the newly formed American Professional Football Association. Full control of the team was turned over to Halas and Sternaman in 1921, official team and league records cite Halas as the founder as he took over the team in 1920 when it became a charter member of the NFL. The team relocated to Chicago in 1921, where the club was renamed the Chicago Staleys, under an agreement reached by Halas and Sternaman with Staley, Halas purchased the rights to the club from Staley for US$100. In 1922, Halas changed the name from the Staleys to the Bears. The team moved into Wrigley Field, which was home to the Chicago Cubs baseball franchise, as with several early NFL franchises, the Bears derived their nickname from their citys baseball team. Halas liked the bright colors of his alma mater, the University of Illinois. The Staleys/Bears dominated the league in the early years and their rivalry with the Chicago Cardinals, the oldest in the NFL, was key in four out of the first six league titles. During that span, the Bears posted 34 shutouts, the Bears rivalry with the Green Bay Packers is one of the oldest and most storied in American professional sports, dating back to 1921. The franchise was a success under Halas, capturing the NFL Championship in 1921Chicago Bears – The team's founder George Halas (right) with NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle
23. Chicago Blackhawks – The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League and they have won six Stanley Cup championships since their founding in 1926. The Blackhawks are one of the Original Six NHL teams along with the Detroit Red Wings, Montreal Canadiens, Toronto Maple Leafs, Boston Bruins, since 1994, the clubs home rink is the United Center. The club had played for 65 years at Chicago Stadium. The clubs original owner was Frederic McLaughlin, who owned the club until his death in 1944, under McLaughlin, a hands-on owner who fired many coaches during his ownership, the club won two Stanley Cup titles. The club was owned by the Norris family, who as owners of the Chicago Stadium were the clubs landlord. At first, the Norris ownership was as part of a syndicate fronted by long-time executive Bill Tobin, after the senior James E. Norris died in 1952, the Norris assets were spread among family members and James D. Norris became owner. Norris Jr. took an active interest in the team and under his ownership, after James D. Norris died in 1966, the Wirtz family became owners of the franchise. In 2007, the club came under the control of Rocky Wirtz, who is credited with turning around the organization, under Rocky Wirtz, the Blackhawks won the Stanley Cup three times within six seasons. On May 1,1926, the NHL awarded a franchise for Chicago to a syndicate headed by former football star Huntington Hardwick of Boston. However, only one later, Hardwicks group sold out to Chicago coffee tycoon Frederic McLaughlin. McLaughlin had been a commander with the 333rd Machine Gun Battalion of the 86th Infantry Division during World War I and this Division was nicknamed the Blackhawk Division after a Native American of the Sauk nation, Black Hawk, who was a prominent figure in the history of Illinois. McLaughlin named the new team in honor of the military unit. The Black Hawks began play in the 1926–27 season, along with new expansion franchises Detroit Cougars, McLaughlin took a very active role in running the team despite having no background in the sport. McLaughlin hired Bill Tobin, a goaltender who had played in the Western league, as his assistant. He was also interested in promoting American hockey players, then very rare in professional hockey. The Hawks first season was a moderate success and they played their first game on November 17 when they played the Toronto St. Patricks in the Chicago Coliseum. The Black Hawks won their first game 4–1, in front of a crowd of over 7,000 and they ended up finishing the season in third place with a record of 19–22–3Chicago Blackhawks – Ron Murphy and Eric Nesterenko battle in front of the Toronto net
24. Chicago Bulls – The Chicago Bulls are an American professional basketball team based in Chicago. The Bulls compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the leagues Eastern Conference Central Division. The team was founded on January 16,1966, the team plays its home games at the United Center, an arena shared with the Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League. The Bulls saw their greatest success during the 1990s and they are known for having one of the NBAs greatest dynasties, winning six NBA championships between 1991 and 1998 with two three-peats. All six championship teams were led by Hall of Famers Michael Jordan, Scottie Pippen, the Bulls are the only NBA franchise to win multiple championships and never lose an NBA Finals series in their history. The Bulls won 72 games during the 1995–96 NBA season, setting an NBA record that stood until the Golden State Warriors won 73 games during the 2015–16 NBA season. The Bulls were the first team in NBA history to win 70 games or more in a season. Many experts and analysts consider the 1996 Bulls to be one of the greatest teams in NBA history, Michael Jordan and Derrick Rose have both won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award while playing for the Bulls, for a total of six MVP awards. The Bulls share rivalries with the Detroit Pistons, New York Knicks, Miami Heat, the Bulls rivalry with the Pistons was highlighted heavily during the late 1980s and early 1990s. On January 16,1966 Chicago was granted an NBA franchise to be called the Bulls, the Chicago Bulls became the third NBA franchise in the city, after the Chicago Stags and the Chicago Packers/Zephyrs. The Bulls founder, Dick Klein, was the Bulls only owner to play professional basketball. He served as the Bulls president and general manager in their initial years, after the 1966 NBA Expansion Draft, the newly founded Chicago Bulls were allowed to acquire players from the previously established teams in the league for the upcoming 1966–67 season. The team started in the 1966–67 NBA season, and posted the best record by a team in NBA history. In their first two seasons, the Bulls played most of their games at the International Amphitheatre, before moving to Chicago Stadium. Fan interest was diminishing after four seasons, with one game in the 1967–68 NBA season having an attendance of 891. The Bulls under Williams and head coach Dick Motta qualified for four straight playoffs and had attendances grow to over 10,000, in 1972, the Bulls set a franchise win-loss record at 57 wins and 25 losses. During the 1970s, the Bulls relied on Jerry Sloan, forwards Bob Love and Chet Walker, point guard Norm Van Lier, the team made the conference finals in 1975 but lost to the Golden State Warriors,4 games to 3. After four 50-win seasons, Williams returned to Philadelphia, and Motta decided to become GM as well, the Bulls ended up declining, winning only 24 games in the 1975–1976 seasonChicago Bulls – Michael Jordan was drafted third overall by the Bulls in 1984. He won six championships and six Finals MVPs for Chicago.
25. Chicago Cubs – The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the National League Central division. The team plays its games at Wrigley Field, located on the citys North Side. The Cubs are one of two league teams in Chicago, the other, the Chicago White Sox, is a member of the American League Central division. The Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, was a member of the NL in 1876. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series, the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, the 108-year drought was also the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason eight times through the 2016 season. The Cubs are known as the North Siders, a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, there is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals and also a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers. There is also a rivalry with the White Sox. The Cubs began play in 1876 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, the White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and quickly established themselves as one of the new leagues top teams. Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first ever National League pennant, which at the time was the games top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, and Spalding, the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, and Anson established himself as the games first true superstar. In 1885 and 86, after winning N. L. pennants, both seasons resulted in match ups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886. This was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886. As a result, Chicagos club nickname transitioned, and by 1890 they had known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes Ansons ColtsChicago Cubs – The 1876 White Stockings won the N.L. Championship
26. Chicago White Sox – The Chicago White Sox is an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The White Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the American League Central division. The White Sox play their games at Guaranteed Rate Field. They are one of two league clubs in Chicago, the other is the Chicago Cubs, who are a member of the National League Central division. The team is owned by Jerry Reinsdorf. One of the American Leagues eight charter franchises, the Chicago team was established as a major baseball club in 1900. The club was called the Chicago White Stockings, but this was soon shortened to Chicago White Sox. The team played games at South Side Park before, in 1910. The White Sox won the 1906 World Series with a team dubbed the Hitless Wonders, and the 1917 World Series led by Eddie Cicotte, Eddie Collins. The 1919 World Series was marred by the Black Sox Scandal, in response, Major League Baseballs new Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned the players from Major League Baseball for life. In 1959, led by Early Wynn, Nellie Fox, Luis Aparicio and manager Al Lopez and they won the AL pennant in 2005, and went on to win the World Series. The White Sox originated as the Sioux City Cornhuskers of the Western League, in 1894, Charles Comiskey bought the Cornhuskers and moved them to St. Paul, Minnesota, where they became the St. Paul Saints. In 1901, the Western League broke the National Agreement and became the new major league American League, the very first season in the American League ended with a White Stockings championship. However, that would be the end of the season as the World Series did not begin until 1903, the franchise, now known as the Chicago White Sox, made its first World Series appearance in 1906, beating the crosstown Cubs in six games. The White Sox would win a pennant and second World Series in 1917, beating the New York Giants in six games with help from stars Eddie Cicotte. The Sox were heavily favored in the 1919 World Series, huge bets on the Reds fueled speculation that the series had been fixed. This set the franchise back, as they did not win another pennant for 40 years. The White Sox did not finish in the half of the American League again until after club founder Charles Comiskey died and passed ownership of the club to his sonChicago White Sox – 1906 White Sox, with club founder Charles Comiskey
27. Chicago Mercantile Exchange – The Chicago Mercantile Exchange is an American financial and commodity derivative exchange based in Chicago and located at 20 S. Wacker Drive. The CME was founded in 1898 as the Chicago Butter and Egg Board, originally, the exchange was a non-profit organization. The Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CME Group is Terrence A. Duffy, Bryan Durkin is President, on August 18,2008, shareholders approved a merger with the New York Mercantile Exchange and COMEX. The Merc, CBOT, NYMEX and COMEX are now owned by the CME Group. Today, CME is the largest options and futures contracts open interest of any exchange in the world. The Merc trades several types of instruments, interest rates, equities, currencies. It also offers trading in alternative investments, such as weather, as a Designated Self-Regulatory Organization, the CME had primary regulatory-audit authority over firms such as MF Global. Trading is conducted in two methods, an open format and the CME Globex electronic trading platform. Approximately 90 percent of volume at the exchange occurs electronically on Globex. Operating during regular trading hours, the open outcry method consists of floor traders standing in a pit to call out orders, prices. Different colored jackets are worn by the traders to indicate what firm they are a part of, in addition, complex hand signals are used. These hand signals were first used in the 1970s, today, however, headsets are also used by the brokers to communicate with the traders. The pits are areas of the floor that are lowered to facilitate communication, the pits can be raised and lowered depending on trading volume. To an onlooker, the open system can look chaotic and confusing. An illustrated project to record the hand signal language used in CMEs trading pits has been compiled, operating virtually around the clock, today the CME Globex trading system is at the heart of CME. Proposed in 1987, it was introduced in 1992 as the first global electronic trading platform for futures contracts and this fully electronic trading system allows market participants to trade from booths at the exchange or while sitting in a home or office thousands of miles away. On 19 October 2004, the one billionth transaction was recorded, when Globex was first launched, it used Reuters technology and network. September 1998 saw the launch of the generation of Globex using a modified version of the NSC trading systemChicago Mercantile Exchange – Chicago Mercantile Exchange Building
28. LaSalle Street – LaSalle Street is a major north-south street in Chicago named for Sieur de La Salle, an early explorer of Illinois. The portion that runs through the Chicago Loop is considered to be Chicagos financial district, South of the Financial District, LaSalle Street gets cut off for a while by the Amtrak/Metra Rail yard from Taylor St to 1600 South. It runs parallel to the Rock Island District Metra line, South of 26th Street, it serves as a frontage road for the Dan Ryan Expressway until 47th street, where it merges with Wentworth Avenue. South of 47th, it starts and stops as a street until it finally terminates at West 147th Street in Riverdale. The stretch of LaSalle Street and its adjacent buildings in the Loop is recognized as the West Loop—LaSalle Street Historic District, the south end of LaSalle Street terminates at the art-deco Chicago Board of Trade Building, a Chicago Landmark and National Historic Landmark. The LaSalle Street Station commuter terminal is located south of the Board of Trade. An art deco skyscraper at 135 S. LaSalle and a modern skyscraper 190 S. LaSalle line the street, one North LaSalle, the former Field Building, Chicago City Hall and the James R. Thompson Center are located within the Loop on LaSalle Street. The Rookery Building is a landmark located at 219 South LaSalle Street. Completed by John Wellborn Root and Daniel Burnham of Burnham and Root in 1888 and it measures 181 feet, is twelve stories tall and is one of the oldest standing high-rises in Chicago. It has a style with exterior load-bearing walls and an interior steel frame. Closed in 1906, the tunnel was deepened and reopened to electric street car traffic in 1911-12, the tunnel was closed permanently in 1939 to make way for subway construction. Moving north from the Loop, the crosses the Chicago River using the La Salle Street Bridge. In the Near North Side,300 North LaSalle is located on the banks of the Chicago River. On the corner at Chicago Avenue, LaSalle is adjacent to the entrance of Moody Bible Institute, the street ends 10-blocks north, in Lincoln Park, just past its intersection with North Avenue, where Moody Church stands on the east side of LaSalle. North of the river, the signage refers to, LaSalle Boulevard. Between North Avenue and Lake Shore Drive, the signage refers to, the street, Chicago Board of Trade Building, and 200 North LaSalle were used in the 2005 film Batman Begins and its sequel The Dark Knight, as well as in the 1999 movie Payback. The view facing south down the canyon has been used in the movies The Untouchables, Public Enemies, Transformers, Dark of the Moon, the canyon was in the movie Ferris Buellers Day Off. Notes Media related to Financial District, Chicago at Wikimedia CommonsLaSalle Street – from the old Chicago Board of Trade Building (May 15, 1916)
29. Chicago Board of Trade Building – The Chicago Board of Trade Building is a skyscraper located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. It stands at 141 W. Jackson Boulevard at the foot of the LaSalle Street canyon, built in 1930 and first designated a Chicago Landmark on May 4,1977, the building was listed as a National Historic Landmark on June 2,1978. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 16,1978, in 2012, the CME Group sold the CBOT Building to a consortium of real estate investors, including GlenStar Properties LLC and USAA Real Estate Company. The current structure is known for its art deco architecture, sculptures and large-scale stone carving, an aluminum, three-story art deco statue of Ceres, goddess of agriculture, caps the building. The building is a sightseeing attraction and location for shooting movies. On April 3,1848, the Board of Trade opened for business at 101 South Water Street, when 122 members were added in 1856, it was moved to the corner of South Water and LaSalle Streets. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed this building, in 1882 construction began of the CBOTs new home, which opened at the current location on May 1,1885. The building was designed by William W. Boyington, best known today for his work on the Chicago Water Tower and it faced Jackson Street with 180 ft feet of frontage, and was built from structural steel and granite taken from the Fox Island quarry near Vinalhaven, Maine. With a rear of enameled brick, it was 10 stories tall and featured a tower 320 ft tall containing a clock and 4,500 pounds bell. The interiors were finished in mahogany and frescoed and it was also the first building in the city to exceed 300 ft in height and at the time was the tallest building in Chicago. The building attracted tourists, visitors, and protesters, the building, on which two million dollars had been lavished in the midst of an economic depression, was denounced by the anarchists as. The crowning symbol of all that was hateful in the property system. The procession were cheered by thousands of spectators, viewing galleries were opened to the public for the first time in honor of the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition. In 1895, the tower was removed and the tallest building in Chicago record was then held by the 302 ft tall Masonic Temple Building. Built on caissons surrounded by muck, the house was rendered structurally unsound in the 1920s when construction began across the street on the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The 1885 building was demolished in 1929, and the exchange temporarily moved to Van Buren and Clark while a new building was constructed at the LaSalle. The 1885 allegorical architectural sculptures of 35 ft Industry and Agriculture, in 1925, the Chicago Board of Trade commissioned Holabird & Root to design the current building. The general contractors Hegeman & Harris built it for $11.3 million and it serves as the southern border for the skyscrapers hugging LaSalle Street and is taller than surrounding structures for several blocksChicago Board of Trade Building – Chicago Board of Trade Building
30. Art Institute of Chicago – The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicagos Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States. Recognized for its efforts and popularity among visitors, the museum hosts approximately 1.5 million guests annually. The growth of the collection has warranted several additions to the museums original 1893 building, the Art Institute is connected to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, a leading art school, making it one of the few remaining unified arts institutions in the United States. In 1866, a group of 35 artists founded the Chicago Academy of Design in a studio on Dearborn Street, the organization was modeled after European art academies, such as the Royal Academy, with Academicians and Associate Academicians. The Academys charter was granted in March 1867, classes started in 1868, meeting every day at a cost of $10 per month. The Academys success enabled it to build a new home for the school, a stone building on 66 West Adams Street. When the Great Chicago Fire destroyed the building in 1871 the Academy was thrown into debt, attempts to continue despite the loss by using rented facilities failed. By 1878 the Academy was $10,000 in debt, members tried to rescue the ailing institution by making deals with local businessmen, before some finally abandoned it in 1879 to found a new organization, named the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. When the Chicago Academy of Design went bankrupt the same year, in 1882, the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts changed its name to the current Art Institute of Chicago and elected as its first president the banker and philanthropist Charles L. Also in 1882, the purchased a lot on the southwest corner of Michigan Avenue. By January 1885 the trustees recognized the need to provide space for the organizations growing collection. The city agreed, and the building was completed in time for the year of the fair. Construction costs were met by selling the Michigan/Van Buren property, on October 31,1893 the Institute moved into the new building. For the opening reception on December 8,1893, Theodore Thomas, from the 1900s to the 1960s the school offered with the Logan Family the Logan Medal of the Arts, an award which became one of the most distinguished awards presented to artists in the US. Between 1959 and 1970 the Institute was a key site in the battle to gain art and documentary photography a place in galleries, under curator Hugh Edwards and his assistants. As Director of the museum starting in the early 1980s, James N. Wood conducted an expansion of its collection. He retired from the museum in 2004, in 2006, the Art Institute began construction of The Modern Wing, an addition situated on the southwest corner of Columbus and Monroe. The project, designed by Pritzker Prize winning architect Renzo Piano, was completed, the 264, 000-square-foot building makes the Art Institute the second-largest art museum in the United StatesArt Institute of Chicago – One of the two lion statues (Kemeys, bronze 1893) flanking the Institute's main entrances
31. Millennium Park – Millennium Park is a public park located in the Loop community area of Chicago in Illinois, US, and originally intended to celebrate the second millennium. It is a prominent civic center near the citys Lake Michigan shoreline that covers a 24. 5-acre section of northwestern Grant Park, the area was previously occupied by parkland, Illinois Central rail yards, and parking lots. The park, which is bounded by Michigan Avenue, Randolph Street, Columbus Drive and East Monroe Drive, as of 2009, Millennium Park trailed only Navy Pier as a Chicago tourist attraction. In 2015, the became the location of the citys annual Christmas tree lighting. Planning of the began in October 1997. Construction began in October 1998, and Millennium Park was opened in a ceremony on July 16,2004, the three-day opening celebrations were attended by some 300,000 people and included an inaugural concert by the Grant Park Orchestra and Chorus. The park has received awards for its accessibility and green design, Millennium Park has free admission, and features the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Cloud Gate, the Crown Fountain, the Lurie Garden, and various other attractions. The park is connected by the BP Pedestrian Bridge and the Nichols Bridgeway to other parts of Grant Park, because the park sits atop a parking garage and the commuter rail Millennium Station, it is considered the worlds largest rooftop garden. Some observers consider Millennium Park to be the citys most important project since the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 and it far exceeded its originally proposed budget of $150 million. The final cost of $475 million was borne by Chicago taxpayers, the city paid $270 million, private donors paid the rest, and assumed roughly half of the financial responsibility for the cost overruns. The construction delays and cost overruns were attributed to planning, many design changes. Many critics have praised the completed park, in 2017, Millennium Park became the top tourist destination in Chicago, the Midwest, and placed among the top ten in the United States with 25 million annual visitors. From 1852 until 1997, the Illinois Central Railroad owned a right of way between downtown Chicago and Lake Michigan, in the area that became Grant Park and used it for railroad tracks. Lake Front Park, the White Stockings new ball grounds, was built in 1878 with a right field due to the railroad tracks. Daniel Burnham planned Grant Park around the Illinois Central Railroad property in his 1909 Plan of Chicago, in 1997, when the city gained airspace rights over the tracks, it decided to build a parking facility over them in the northwestern corner of Grant Park. Eventually, the city realized that a civic amenity might lure private dollars in a way that a municipal improvement would not. The park was planned under the name Lakefront Millennium Park. The park was conceived as a 16-acre landscape-covered bridge over a parking structure to be built on top of the Metra/Illinois Central Railroad tracks in Grant ParkMillennium Park – Millennium Park as seen from the north in 2005
32. Chicago Landmarks – Chicago Landmark is a designation of the Mayor of Chicago and the Chicago City Council for historic buildings and other sites in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Listed sites are selected after meeting a combination of criteria, including historical, economic, architectural, artistic, cultural, Mayor and the City Council appoint a nine-member Commission on Chicago Landmarks to develop landmark recommendations in accordance with a 1968 Chicago city ordinance. In Chicago, the preservation movement initially sought to ensure the survival of individual buildings of special significance. However, the movement has evolved to include districts and neighborhoods, preservation is now an integral element of urban planning and design. In 1957, Chicago City Council 5th ward Alderman Leon Despres began the preservation movement in Chicago. This led to the formation of the City Landmarks Commission, who chose 39 buildings as honorary landmarks, many landmarks have been designated with National Historic Landmark status by the United States Secretary of the Interior for historical significance. All of those and a number of districts, sites, buildings, structures. Not all Chicago Landmarks have been listed on the National Register, no Chicago Landmarks are classified as any other type of National Park System protected area including National Parks, National Monuments, or National Preserves. The charts below detail these designations for the city of Chicago-designated sites, for consistency, the list below uses the name from the Chicago Landmark website. Neighborhood names and boundaries are consistent with the Community areas in Chicago, as noted in the list above, there are many places that are designated as City landmarks but they have not been nationally registered. There are also approximately 200 nationally Registered Historic Places in Chicago that are not also designated Chicago Landmarks, of these,13 are further designated as U. SChicago Landmarks – Glessner House, designated on October 14, 1970, was one of the first official Chicago Landmarks.
33. Wrigley Field – Wrigley Field /ˈrɪɡli/ is a baseball park located on the North Side of Chicago, Illinois. It is the home of the Chicago Cubs, one of the citys two Major League Baseball franchises and it first opened in 1914 as Weeghman Park for Charles Weeghmans Chicago Whales of the Federal League, which folded after the 1915 baseball season. The Cubs played their first home game at the park on April 20,1916, chewing gum magnate William Wrigley Jr. of the Wrigley Company acquired complete control of the Cubs in 1921. It was named Cubs Park from 1920 to 1926, before being renamed Wrigley Field in 1927, in the North side community area of Lakeview in the Wrigleyville neighborhood, Wrigley Field is on an irregular block bounded by Clark and Addison Streets and Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. Wrigley Field is nicknamed The Friendly Confines, a phrase popularized by Mr. Cub, Hall of Fame shortstop and first baseman Ernie Banks. The oldest park in the National League, the current seating capacity is 41,268, it is the second-oldest in the majors after Fenway Park, between 1921 and 1970, it was also the home of the Chicago Bears of the National Football League. The elevation of its field is 600 feet above sea level. Baseball executive Charles Weeghman hired his architect Zachary Taylor Davis to design the park, the original tenants, the Chicago Whales came in second in the Federal League rankings in 1914 and won the league championship in 1915. In late 1915, Weeghmans Federal League folded, the resourceful Weeghman formed a syndicate including the chewing gum manufacturer William Wrigley Jr. to buy the Chicago Cubs from Charles P. Taft for about $500,000. Weeghman immediately moved the Cubs from the dilapidated West Side Grounds to his two-year-old park, in 1918, Wrigley acquired the controlling interest in the club. In November 1926, he renamed the park Wrigley Field, in 1927, an upper deck was added, and in 1937, Bill Veeck, the son of the club president, planted ivy vines against the outfield walls. The Ricketts family has been pursuing a Wrigley Field renovation since buying the team. Their current plan, revealed during the annual Cubs Convention in January 2013, calls for a $575-million, the team could not come to terms with the rooftop owners who have a lease with the team until 2023 in exchange for paying 17% of the gross revenues. In May 2014 the Cubs announced they would pursue the original 2013 plan to modify the park, the 1060 Project – Phase One started Monday, September 29,2014. During the off-season, the bleachers in both outfields were expanded and the footprint was extended further onto both Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. A3,990 sq ft Jumbotron scoreboard was added to the left field bleachers and it is topped with a sign advertising Wintrust Financial, a Rosemont-based bank and a Cubs Legacy Partner, the W in Wintrust flashes after every Cubs win. A2,400 sq ft video scoreboard was added in the right field bleachers. After the close of the extended 2015 season, work began on Phase Two of the project, the previous clubhouse space was utilized to enlarge the dugout and add two underground batting cages, an auditorium, and more team office spaceWrigley Field – Wrigley Field
34. Magnificent Mile – The Magnificent Mile, sometimes referred to as The Mag Mile, is an upscale section of Chicagos Michigan Avenue, running from the Chicago River to Oak Street in the Near North Side. The district is located adjacent to downtown, and one block east of Rush Street, the Magnificent Mile serves as the main thoroughfare between Chicagos Loop business district and its Gold Coast. It is generally the boundary of the Streeterville neighborhood, to its east. Real estate developer Arthur Rubloff of Rubloff Company gave the district its nickname in the 1940s, to date, rent on The Magnificent Mile is the eighth most expensive in the country, behind Fifth Avenue in New York and Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills. Several of the tallest buildings in the United States, such as the John Hancock Center, landmarks along the Magnificent Mile include Wrigley Building, Tribune Tower, the Chicago Water Tower, and the Allerton Hotel. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, State Street in the downtown Loop, the convenience of mass transit including streetcars and elevated trains, supported a retail corridor along State Street from Lake Street to Van Buren Street. By the 1920s, commuter suburbs began to have significant retail districts, prior to the bascule bridge construction, swing bridges across the river were open for ship traffic during half the daylight hours. The Rush Street Bridge was the bridge for this area. The opening of the Michigan Avenue Bridge in 1920 created a new commercial district, the concept for the Magnificent Mile was part of the 1909 Burnham Plan of Chicago. It was constructed during the 1920s to replace Pine Street, which had been lined with factories and warehouses near the river, the earliest building constructions varied in style, but challenged new heights in construction. The name the Magnificent Mile is a trademark of the Greater North Michigan Avenue Association. Soon the property values driven by the shopping districts were pricing out the nearby artists of Tower Town. Rubloff and Zeckendorf successfully developed and promoted the area until it became one of the most prestigious addresses of the city and that distinction holds today, and spurred new investment along the Magnificent Mile and throughout the Near North Side. After 1950, suburban development reduced the Loops daily significance to many Chicagoans as downtown retail sales slipped, however, the Magnificent Mile kept a luxury shopping district close to the central business district. The opening of the 74-story Water Tower Place in 1975 marked the return of Chicago to retailing prominence, by 1979, the State Street commercial corridor had lost its commercial vitality and was closed to street traffic for renovation including sidewalk widening until 1996. The area also has a concentration of the citys major media firms, such as the Chicago Tribune newspaper. The American Planning Association selected The Magnificent Mile as one of the 10 Great Streets for 2007 through its Great Places in America program, in recent years, The Magnificent Mile has added trees and flower-filled medians to reflect the changing seasons. The Magnificent Mile is also notable for its three shopping centers, Water Tower Place, The Shops at North Bridge, and 900 North Michigan ShopsMagnificent Mile – Chicago's Magnificent Mile looking south
35. Mail order – Mail order is the buying of goods or services by mail delivery. The buyer places an order for the products with the merchant through some remote method such as through a telephone call or web site. Then, the products are delivered to the customer, some merchants also allow the goods to be shipped directly to a third party consumer, which is an effective way to send a gift to an out-of-town recipient. A mail order catalogue is a publication containing a list of general merchandise from a company, companies who publish and operate mail order catalogues are referred to as cataloguers within the industry. Cataloguers buy or manufacture goods then market those goods to prospects, cataloguers may rent names from list brokers or cooperative databases. The catalogue itself is published in a fashion as any magazine publication and distributed through a variety of means, usually via a postal service. Sometimes supermarket products do mail order promotions, whereby people can send in the UPC plus shipping and handling to get a product made especially for the company, in 1498, the publisher Aldus Manutius of Venice printed a catalogue of the books he was printing. In 1667, the English gardener, William Lucas, published a seed catalogue, Catalogues spread to colonial America, where Benjamin Franklin is believed to have been the first cataloguer in British America. In 1744 he produced a catalogue of scientific and academic books. The Welsh entrepreneur Pryce Pryce-Jones set up the first modern mail order in 1861, starting off as an apprentice to a local draper in Newtown, Wales, he took over the business in 1856 and renamed it the Royal Welsh Warehouse, selling local Welsh flannel. The establishment of the Uniform Penny Post in 1840, and the extension of the network to Newtown. In 1861, Pryce-Jones hit upon a method of selling his wares. He distributed catalogues of his wares across the country, allowing people to choose the items they wished and order them via post, he would then dispatch the goods to the customer via the railways. It was a way of meeting the needs of customers in isolated rural locations who were either too busy or unable to get into Newtown to shop directly. This was the worlds first mail order business, an idea which would change the nature of retail in the coming century, the further expansion of the railways in the years that followed allowed Pryce Jones to greatly expand his customer base and his business grew rapidly. He supplied his products to a variety of famous clientele, including Florence Nightingale and Queen Victoria. He also began exporting drapery to the US and British colonies, by 1880, he had more than 100,000 customers and his success was rewarded in 1887 with a knighthood. In 1845, Tiffanys Blue Book was the first mail-order catalogue in the United States, in 1872, Aaron Montgomery Ward of Chicago produced a mail-order catalogue for his Montgomery Ward mail order businessMail order – The cover of the first Eaton's catalog, published in 1884. The Eaton's catalog would continue to be published until 1976.
36. Chicago Midway International Airport – Chicago Midway International Airport is a commercial airport on the southwest side of Chicago, Illinois, eight miles from the Loop. Formerly Chicagos main airport, traffic is dominated by low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines. Midway is the Dallas-based carriers largest focus city, as of 2013, the airport suffered a decline in traffic with the opening of OHare International Airport but later experienced significant traffic growth. Midway Airport is the second-largest passenger airport in the Chicago metropolitan area, as well as the state of Illinois, both the Stevenson Expressway and the Chicago Transit Authoritys Orange Line provide passengers access to Downtown Chicago. Originally named Chicago Air Park, Midway Airport was built on a 320-acre plot in 1923 with one cinder runway mainly for airmail flights, in 1926 the city leased the airport and named it Chicago Municipal Airport on December 12,1927. By 1928, the airport had twelve hangars and four runways, a major fire early on June 25,1930, destroyed two hangars and 27 aircraft,12 of them tri-motor passenger planes. The loss was estimated at more than two million dollars, the hangars destroyed were of the Universal Air Lines, Inc. and the Grey Goose Airlines, the latter under lease to Stout Air Lines. The fire followed an explosion of undetermined cause in the Universal hangar, in 1931 a new passenger terminal opened at 62nd St, the following year the airport claimed to be the Worlds Busiest with over 100,846 passengers on 60,947 flights. The March 1939 OAG shows 47 weekday departures,13 on United,13 American,9 TWA,4 Northwest, new Yorks airport was then the busiest airline airport in the United States, but Midway passed LaGuardia in 1948 and kept the title until 1960. The record-breaking 1945 Japan–Washington flight of B-29s refueled at the airport on their way to Washington DC, in July 1949 the airport was renamed after the Battle of Midway. That year Midway saw 3.2 million passengers, passengers peaked at 10 million in 1959, the diagram on the January 1951 C&GS approach chart shows four parallel pairs of runways, all 4240 ft or less except for 5730-ft runway 13R and 5230-ft runway 4R. Air France, Lufthansa, and REAL had a few flights per week. Midway was running out of room and in any case could not handle the 707 and DC-8 jets that appeared in 1959, every Chicago jet flight had to use OHare, which had opened to the airlines in 1955. Electras and Viscounts could have continued to fly out of Midway, from July 1962 until United returned in July 1964, Midways only scheduled airline was Chicago Helicopter. In August 1966 a total of four fixed-wing arrivals were scheduled, by 1967 reconstruction began at the airport, adding three new concourses with 28 gates and three ticket counters, and in 1968 the city invested $10 million in renovation funds. In May 1968 there were 22 scheduled departures, six United 727s to MSP, DCA and LGA,12 Northwest 727s to MSP and CLE, one Delta DC-9 to STL and three Ozark FH227s. Midway Airlines arrived on October 31,1979 with DC-9 nonstops to Kansas City, Detroit and Cleveland Lakefront and their September 1989 timetable shows 117 weekday departures to 29 cities, plus 108 departures on their commuter affiliates to 22 more cities. In 1982, the city of Chicago purchased Midway Airport from the Chicago Board of Education for $16 million, three years later, Southwest Airlines began operations at MidwayChicago Midway International Airport – Chicago Midway International Airport
37. Rapid transit – Rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains and they are typically integrated with other public transport and often operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little use of land, variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro, and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. The worlds first rapid-transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a railway in 1863. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, china has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world. The worlds longest single-operator rapid transit system by length is the Shanghai Metro. The worlds largest single rapid transit service provider by both length of revenue track (665 miles and number of stations is the New York City Subway. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. One of these terms may apply to a system, even if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In Scotland, however, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway, in the US, underground mass transit systems are primarily known as subways, whereas the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. In that vein, Chicagos commuter rail system, serving the area, is called Metra. Exceptions in naming rapid transit systems are Washington DCs subway system the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, and the Miami Metrorail, the opening of Londons steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit. Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant, experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient, faster and cleaner than steam, in 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, which was also fully underground. Both railways were merged into London Underground. The 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset, budapest in Hungary and Glasgow, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services. Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services, hybrid solutions have also evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systemsRapid transit – The New York City Subway is the world's largest rapid transit system by track length and by number of stations, at 469.
38. Railroad – Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries. With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, also, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and also the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth, decline and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used. The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in GermanyRailroad – Four BNSF GE C44-9W diesel locomotives hauling a mixed freight train along the banks of the Columbia River, between Kennewick and Wishram, Washington State, United States
39. Union Stock Yards – The Union Stock Yard & Transit Co. or The Yards, was the meatpacking district in Chicago for more than a century, starting in 1865. The district was operated by a group of companies that acquired swampland. By the 1890s, the money behind the Union Stockyards was Vanderbilt money. The Union Stockyards operated in the New City community area for 106 years, helping Chicago become known as hog butcher for the world, the stockyards became the focal point of the rise of some of the earliest international companies. These companies refined novel industrial innovations and influenced financial markets, both the rise and fall of the district owe their fortunes to the evolution of transportation services and technology in America. The stockyards have become an part of the popular culture of Chicagos history. From the Civil War until the 1920s and peaking in 1924, construction began in June 1865 with an opening on Christmas Day in 1865. The Yards closed at midnight on Friday, July 30,1971, the Union Stock Yard Gate was designated a Chicago Landmark on February 24,1972, and a National Historic Landmark on May 29,1981. Before construction of the various private stockyards, tavern owners provided pastures, with the spreading service of railroads, several small stockyards were created in and around the City of Chicago. In 1848, a called the Bulls Head Market was opened to the public. The Bulls Head Stock Yards were located at Madison Street and Ogden Avenue, in the years that followed, several small stockyards were scattered throughout the city. Between 1852 and 1865, five railroads were constructed to Chicago, the stockyards that sprang up were usually built along various rail lines of these new railroad companies. Some railroads built their own stockyards in Chicago, the Illinois Central and the Michigan Central railroads combined to build the largest set of pens on the lake shore east of Cottage Grove Avenue from 29th Street to 35th Street. In 1878, the New York Central Railroad managed to buy a controlling interest in the Michigan Central Railroad, in this way, Cornelius Vanderbilt, owner of the New York Central Railroad, got his start in the stockyard business in Chicago. The United States government purchased a great deal of beef and pork to feed the Union troops fighting the Civil War, with an influx of butchers and small meat packing concerns, the number of businesses greatly increased to process the flood of livestock being shipped to the Chicago stockyards. The goal was to butcher and process the livestock locally rather than transferring it to northern cities for butchering and processing. Keeping up with the number of animals arriving each day proved impossible until a new wave of consolidation and modernization altered the meatpacking business in the post-Civil War era. The Union Stock Yards, designed to consolidate operations, was built in 1864 on swampland south of the city, the stockyards were connected to the citys main rail lines by 15 miles of trackUnion Stock Yards – Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 1947
40. Al Capone – Alphonse Gabriel Al Capone, sometimes known by the nickname Scarface, was an American gangster who attained fame during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he was 33 years old, Capone was born in Brooklyn in New York City to Italian immigrants. He was considered a Five Points Gang member who became a bouncer in organized crime such as brothels. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capones rise, Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen almost killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone apparently reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games and he made donations to various charities and was viewed by many to be a modern-day Robin Hood. The federal authorities became intent on jailing Capone, and they prosecuted him for tax evasion in 1931, a federal crime and a novel strategy during the era. During the highly publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capones admissions of his income, Capone was convicted and sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his old team with experts in tax law, and his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling. He was already showing signs of syphilitic dementia early in his sentence, on January 25,1947, Capone died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke. Al Capone was born in Brooklyn in New York City on January 17,1899 and his parents were Italian immigrants Gabriele Capone and Teresa Capone. His father was a barber and his mother was a seamstress, ralph and Frank worked with him in his criminal empire. Frank did so until his death on April 1,1924, ralph ran the bottling companies early on, and was also the front man for the Chicago Outfit for some time until he was imprisoned for tax evasion in 1932. Gabriele Capone worked at a barber shop at 29 Park Avenue. When Al was 11, the Capone family moved to 38 Garfield Place in Park Slope, Capone showed promise as a student, but had trouble with the rules at his strict parochial Catholic school. His schooling ended at the age of 14, after he was expelled for hitting a teacher in the face. He worked at odd jobs around Brooklyn, including a candy store, during this time, Capone was influenced by gangster Johnny Torrio, whom he came to regard as a mentor. Capone initially became involved with gangs that included the Junior Forty Thieves. He then joined the Brooklyn Rippers, and then the powerful Five Points Gang based in Lower Manhattan, during this time, he was employed and mentored by fellow racketeer Frankie Yale, a bartender in a Coney Island dance hall and saloon called the Harvard InnAl Capone – Al Capone in 1930
41. Cook County Democratic Party – The Cook County Democratic Party is a political party which represents voters in 50 wards in the city of Chicago and 30 suburban townships of Cook County. The organization has dominated Chicago politics since the 1930s and it relies on a tight organizational structure of ward and township committeemen to elect candidates. At the height of its influence under Richard J. Daley in the 1960s, Party members have been convicted of public corruption. By the beginning of the 21st century the party had ceased to function as a machine due to the decline of political patronage following the issuing of the Shakman Decrees. The current Chairman is Joseph Berrios. and take a role in county, state. The party has been chaired by 31st ward committeeman Joseph Berrios since 2007, the Executive Committee has eight other officers, two Executive Vice-Chairmen, First Vice-Chairman, City Vice-Chairman, Suburban Vice-Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer, and Sergeant-At-Arms. Each of the 50 wards of Chicago and the 30 suburban townships has its own committee and is represented in the Central Committee by an elected committeeman. In suburban Cook County, regional groups, such as the Southland Democrats, co-ordinate activities with their local Democratic township organizations, Cook County was created on 15 January 1831 and it was named after Daniel Cook. Cook had been one of the earliest and youngest statesmen in Illinois history, by 1837, local Democrats were winning electoral victories under the leadership of William B. Ogden recruited Irish immigrants into the party and their loyalty to native Democrats was established in return for petty political favors and an occasional elected office. The careers of Irish Democrats from this period, such as John Comiskey from the Blue Island area, were limited by anti-Irish discrimination. Prior to the American Civil War, the city of Chicago, the local Democratic Party grew stronger in the decades that followed the Great Chicago Fire due in part to an influx of new immigrants from eastern and southern Europe. By 1890, Roger Charles Sullivan had accumulated major influence within the tumultuous Cook County Democratic Party and he would come to dominate the organization for two decades and he was a national figure during the age when urban political bosses reached the height of their power and prestige. After his death, he was followed as chairman by George Brennan in 1920, under the leadership of Anton Cermak, a Czech American, the party combined its ethnic bases into one large organization. With the organization behind him, Cermak was able to win election as mayor of Chicago in 1931, after Cermaks death, Patrick Nash and Edward J. Kelly consolidated the Cook County Democratic Party into a political machine. Nash and Kelly were able to bring African-Americans, who had been predominantly Republicans since the Civil War, Nash died in 1943 and Kelly took over as Chairman of the Cook County Democratic Party. The extensive corruption that took place during Kellys tenure caused him to become unelectable, jacob Arvey assumed the position of Chairman of the organization after Kellys ouster in 1947. Arvey put reformers on the slate, such as Martin H. Kennelly for mayor, Paul Douglas for United States Senate, during the early years of the 1950s, Joseph L. Gill - George Brennans brother-in-law - replaced Arvey as Chairman of the partyCook County Democratic Party – Chairman Roger C. Sullivan, circa 1913
42. Chicago Mayor – The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive of Chicago, Illinois, the third-largest city in the United States. During meetings of the City Council, the Mayor serves as the officer of the City Council. The Mayor submits proposals and recommendations to the City Council of his own accord, the mayor appoints the Commissioner of the Chicago Fire Department and Superintendent of the Chicago Police Department. He or she appoints the heads of city departments, the largest of which are the Water Management Department. The Chicago City Clerk and City Treasurer are elected separately, as are the 50 aldermen who form the City Council, the mayor is empowered, however, to fill vacancies in any of these 52 elected offices by appointment. In turn, the City Council elects one of its own to fill a mayoral vacancy, the Mayor of Chicago is elected by popular vote every four years, on the last Tuesday in February. A run-off election, in the event that no candidate more than fifty percent of the vote, is held on the first Tuesday in April. The election is held on a non-partisan basis, Chicago is the largest city in the United States not to limit the term of service for its mayor. In the absence of the Mayor during meetings of the City Council, the President Pro Tempore of the City Council, unlike the Mayor, the President Pro Tempore can vote on all legislative matters. The first mayor was William Butler Ogden, two sets of father and son have been elected Mayor of Chicago, Carter Harrison, Sr. and Carter Harrison, Jr. as well as Richard J. Daley and Richard M. Daley. Carter Harrison, Jr. was the first mayor to have been born within city limits, the first and only woman to hold the office was Jane Byrne. The first black mayor was Harold Washington, as an interim mayor, David Duvall Orr had the shortest mayoral term. Richard M. Daley was originally elected in 1989 and re-elected for the time in 2007. In September 2010, Daley announced that he would not seek reelection for a term as mayor. On December 26,2010, Daley became Chicagos longest-serving mayor, Rahm Emanuel is the current mayor, having won the 2011 election with 55% of the vote to 25% for his closest opponent, Gery Chico. Emanuel was sworn in on May 16,2011, in an April 7,2015 run-off election Emanuel won re-election with 55.7 percent to challenger Jesus Chuy Garcias 44.3 percent. By charter, Chicago has a system, in which most of the power is vested in the city council. In practice, however, the mayor of Chicago has long been one of the most powerful municipal chief executives in the nation, unlike mayors in most other weak-mayor systems, he or she has the power to draw up the budgetChicago Mayor – Incumbent Rahm Emanuel since May 16, 2011
43. Richard J. Daley – Richard Joseph Daley was an American politician who served as the 38th Mayor of Chicago for a total of twenty one years beginning on April 20,1955 until his death on December 20,1976. Daley was the chairman of the Cook County Democratic Central Committee for 23 years, Daley was Chicagos third consecutive mayor from the working-class, heavily Irish American Bridgeport neighborhood on Chicagos South Side, where he lived his entire life. Daley is remembered for doing much to avoid the declines that some other rust belt cities like Cleveland, Buffalo, Daley played a major role in the history of the Democratic Party, especially with his support of John F. Kennedy in 1960 and of Hubert Humphrey in 1968. While many members of Daleys administration were charged with corruption and convicted, Richard J. Daley was born in Bridgeport, a working-class neighborhood of Chicago. He was the child of Michael and Lillian Daley, whose families had both arrived from the Old Parish area, near Dungarvan, County Waterford, Ireland during the Great Famine. Daley would later state that his wellsprings were his religion, his family, his neighborhood, the Democratic Party and his father was a sheet metal worker with a reserved demeanor. Michaels father, James E. Daley, was a born in New York, while his mother. Richards mother was outgoing and outspoken, before women obtained the right to vote in 1920, Lillian Daley was an active Suffragette, participating in marches. Mrs. Daley often brought her son to them and she hoped her sons life would be more professionally successful than that of his parents. Prior to his mothers death, Daley had won the Democratic nomination for Cook County sheriff, Lillian Daley wanted more than this for her son, telling a friend, I didnt raise my son to be a policeman. Daley attended the school of his parish, Nativity of Our Lord. As a young man, his jobs included selling newspapers and making deliveries for a door to door peddler and he spent his free time at the Hamburg Athletic Club, an athletic, social and political organization near his home. Hamburg and similar clubs were funded, at least in part, Daley made his mark there, not in sports, but in organization as the club manager. At age 22, he was elected president of the club, although he practiced law with partner William J. Lynch, he dedicated the majority of his time to his political career. After his election, Daley quickly moved back to the Democratic side of the aisle in 1938, in 1939, Illinois State Senator William Botchy Connors remarked You couldnt give that guy a nickel, thats how honest he is. Daley was appointed by Governor Adlai Stevenson as head of the Illinois Department of Finance, Daley suffered his only political defeat in 1946, when he lost a bid to become Cook County sheriff. Daley then made a run for Cook County Clerk and held that position prior to being elected Chicagos mayor. In the late 1940s, Daley became Democratic Ward Committeeman of the 11th Ward, Daley became chairman of the Central Committee of the Cook County Democratic Party, i. e. boss of the political machine in 1953Richard J. Daley – Daley at the Illinois Democratic National Convention in Chicago, 1976.
44. Richard M. Daley – Richard Michael Daley is an American politician, who served as the 43rd Mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1989 to 2011. Daley was elected mayor in 1989 and was re-elected five times until declining to run for a seventh term, at 22 years, he was the longest-serving Chicago mayor, surpassing the tenure of his father, Richard J. Daley. He also expanded employee benefits to partners of city workers. Daley was a leader in privatization and the lease and sale of public assets to private corporations. Daley received criticism when family, personal friends, and political allies seemed to benefit from city contracting. He took office in a city with regular annual budget surpluses and his budgets ran up the largest deficits in Chicago history. Prior to serving as mayor, Daley served in the Illinois Senate, Police use of force was an issue in Daleys tenures as states attorney and mayor. Richard M. Daley is the fourth of seven children and eldest son of Richard J. and Eleanor Daley, Daley was raised in Bridgeport, a historically Irish-American neighborhood located on Chicagos South Side. They have four children, Nora, Patrick, Elizabeth and Kevin and their second son, Kevin, died at age two of complications from spina bifida in 1981. Daley graduated from De La Salle Institute high school in Chicago and obtained his bachelors degree from Providence College in Providence, sources conflict on Daleys military record. The only book-length biography of Daley makes no mention of military service, a 1995 profile in the Chicago Sun-Times stated that Daley served in the United States Marine Corps Reserve from 1961 to 1967, while a 1996 profile in People Magazine cited 1960 to 1964. A civilian website for Marines and their families found no record for Daley. Daley earned a Juris Doctor degree from DePaul University and he passed the Illinois Bar Examination on his third try. Daley later reflected, I flunked the bar exam twice, I had to keep studying harder and harder and harder. I passed it the third time, Daley was elected to his first party office as a delegate to the 1969 Illinois Constitutional Convention. The action was unsuccessful and the reformers slate replaced the Daley slate at the Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida. After his father died in 1976, Daley succeeded his father as the 11th Ward Democratic committeeman, with John P. Daley holding the post from 1980 to the present, a Daley has held the post of 11th Ward Committeeman for 60 years. With the support of the Democratic political organization, Daley was elected to the Illinois Senate, state Senator Daley rarely spoke to reporters and didnt hold a news conference for six yearsRichard M. Daley – Richard M. Daley
45. African-American – African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may also be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American, Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions, more and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain. An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John CasorAfrican-American
46. Harold Washington – Harold Lee Washington was an American lawyer and politician who was elected as the 41st Mayor of Chicago. Washington was noted as the first African–American to be elected as mayor of Chicago in February 1983, Washington served as mayor from April 29,1983 until his death on November 25,1987. Washington was also a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from January 1981 until beginning his tenure as Chicago mayor in April 1983, representing the Illinois first district. Prior to his time as a member of the House of Representatives, Washington previously served in the Illinois State Senate, Harold Lee Washington was born on April 15,1922 at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, to Roy and Bertha Washington. His father had one of the first precinct captains in the city, a lawyer. His mother, Bertha, left a farm near Centralia, Illinois. Washington grew up in Bronzeville, a Chicago neighborhood that was the center of culture for the entire Midwest in the early. Washington attended DuSable High School, then a newly established racially segregated high school. In a 1939 citywide track meet, Washington placed first in the 110 meter high hurdles event, between his junior and senior year of high school, Washington dropped out, claiming that he no longer felt challenged by the coursework. He worked at a plant for a time before his father helped him get a job at the U. S. Treasury branch in the city. There he met Dorothy Finch, whom he married soon after, Washington was 19 years old, seven months later, the U. S. was drawn into World War II with the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese on Sunday, December 7,1941. Eventually, Washington rose to the rank of First Sergeant in the Army Air Corps, in the summer of 1946, Washington, aged 24 and a war veteran, enrolled at Roosevelt College. Washington joined other groups of students not permitted to enroll in local colleges. Local estimates placed the student population of Roosevelt College at about 1/8 black, a full 75% of the students had enrolled because of the nondiscriminatory progressive principles. In 1948, after the college had moved to the Auditorium Building, under his leadership, the student council successfully petitioned the college to have student representation on Roosevelts faculty committees. The next year, Washington went to the capital at Springfield to protest Illinois legislators coming probe of subversives. The probe of investigation would outlaw the Communist Party and require loyalty oaths for teachers and he led students opposition to the bills, although they would pass later in 1949. During his Roosevelt College years, Washington came to be known for his stability and his friends said that he had a remarkable ability to keep cool, reason carefully and walk a middle lineHarold Washington – Washington during his time as a member of Illinois's first district in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1982.
47. United States Senator – The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was also a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other. They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, therefore, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislaturesUnited States Senator – United States Senate
48. Carol Moseley Braun – Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun, also sometimes Moseley-Braun, is an American politician and lawyer who represented Illinois in the United States Senate from 1993 to 1999. She was the first female African-American Senator, the first African-American U. S, Senator for the Democratic Party, the first woman to defeat an incumbent U. S. Senator in an election, and the first female Senator from Illinois and she was the only female U. S. Senator from Illinois until Tammy Duckworth who became the U. S, Senator from Illinois in January 2017. From 1999 until 2001, she was the United States Ambassador to New Zealand and she was a candidate for the Democratic nomination during the 2004 U. S. presidential election. Following the public announcement by Richard M. Daley that he would not seek re-election, in November 2010, the former Senator placed fourth in a field of six candidates, losing the February 22,2011, election to Rahm Emanuel. Carol Elizabeth Moseley was born in Chicago, Illinois and she attended public and parochial schools. She attended Ruggles School for elementary school, and she attended Parker High School in Chicago and her father, Joseph J. Moseley, was a Chicago police officer and apple guard and her mother, Edna A. was a medical technician in a hospital. The family lived in a segregated middle-class neighborhood in the South Side of Chicago and her parents divorced when she was in her teens, and she lived with her grandmother. She began her studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. She then majored in science at the University of Illinois at Chicago, graduating in 1969. As an attorney, Moseley Braun was a prosecutor in the United States Attorneys office in Chicago from 1973 to 1977, an Assistant United States Attorney, she worked primarily in the civil and appellate law areas. Her work in housing, health policy, and environmental law won her the Attorney Generals Special Achievement Award, Moseley Braun was first elected to public office in 1978, as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives. There, she rose to the post of assistant majority leader, as a State Representative, she became recognized as a champion for liberal social causes. As early as 1984, she proposed a moratorium on the application in Illinois of the death penalty, when she left the state legislature in 1987, her colleagues recognized her in a resolution as the conscience of the House. That same year, she was elected as Cook County, Illinois, Recorder of Deeds, in 1991, angered by incumbent Democratic senator Alan Dixons vote to confirm Clarence Thomas, Moseley Braun challenged him in the primary election. Candidate Albert Hofelds campaign ran many ads, and Moseley Braun won the Democratic primary. On November 3,1992, she became the first African-American woman to be elected to the United States Senate and her election marked the first time Illinois had elected a woman and the first time a black person was elected as a Democrat to the United States SenateCarol Moseley Braun – Carol Moseley Braun
49. United States President – The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislationUnited States President – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
50. Barack Obama – Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but also spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009. Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama also advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating. He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a yearBarack Obama – Barack Obama