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Communism is a political ideology that seeks to establish a future without social class or formalized state structure, and with social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal. Early forms of human social organization have been described as "primitive communism". However, communism as a political goal generally is a conjectured form of future social organization which has never been implemented. Marxism is a form of socioeconomic analysis that analyses class relations and societal conflict using dialectical materialism. There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists, including Bolshevism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, Maoism, council communism, Luxemburgism, Western Marxism and various currents of left communism, which are in addition to more widespread varieties. However, various offshoots of the Soviet and Maoist forms of Marxism–Leninism comprise a particular branch of communism that had been the primary driving force for communism in world politics during most of the 20th century.

The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital, which lasted from 1922 to 1991. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government. There was a succession of Soviet secret police agencies over time: Cheka, GPU, OGPU, NKVD, NKGB, MGB and KGB. The activities of these agencies include: suppression of dissent and political opposition, persecution and deportation of deserters, religious people, Jews, invasions, fabrication of crimes, espionage and disinformation. Joseph Stalin's cult of personality became a prominent part of Soviet culture in December 1929, after a lavish celebration for Stalin's 50th birthday. The Soviet Union has been described as totalitarian police state, the Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947 and 1991.

Mass killings occurred under some Communist regimes during the twentieth century: the Red Terror occurred during the Russian Civil War, Decossackization aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks, the Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a man-made famine that affected the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, leading to millions of deaths, Dekulakization included the murder of peasants, purges of the Communist Party in the Union were a key ritual in which periodic reviews of members of the Communist Party were conducted to get rid of the "undesirables", NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has also conducted several acts described as war crimes. Concentration camps came to be know as Gulags, established officially in 1930. Racism in the Soviet Union targeted Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europeans, Jews and Asians. There was systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, based on the interpretation of political opposition or dissent as a psychiatric problem. Homosexuality was criminalized from 1933 to 1993.

Selected article

Iraqi Partisans
Al-Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار‎‎, 'the Partisans') was a guerrilla force attached to the Iraqi Communist Party, active between 1979 and 1988. When the alliance between the Communist Party and the Baath Party ended, a wave of harsh repression against the Communist Party followed; in 1977 the regime launched a crackdown against the communists. A number of communist cadres fled to the Kurdish areas in northern Iraq to escape arrest. By January 1979, the exiled communists had established ansar (partisan) fighting units. By April 1979 the ansar movement was operational. Headquarters of the partisan units were established in Kirkuk and as-Sulemaniyah, and bases were established in Irbil. Later, bases were also set up in Dohuk and Nineveh, the build-up of the ansar movement did however occur without the full consent of the politburo of the party.

In South Yemen, a number of Iraqi Communist Party cadres began military training before joining the guerrillas in northern Iraq, the training was administered by the South Yemeni government.

Selected biography

Todor Zhivkov
Todor Khristov Zhivkov (Bulgarian: То̀дор Хрѝстов Жѝвков, tr. Todor Christov Živkov; IPA: [ˈtɔdɔr ˈxristɔf ˈʒifkɔf]; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998), was the communist head of state of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989.

He became First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1954 and remained on this position for 35 years, until 1989, thus becoming the longest-serving leader of any Eastern Bloc nation, and one of the longest ruling non-royal leaders in history. His rule marked a period of unprecedented political and economic stability for Bulgaria, marked both by complete submission of Bulgaria to Soviet rule and a desire for expanding ties with the West, his rule remained unchallenged until the deterioration of East-West relations in the 1980s, when a stagnating economic situation, a worsening international image and growing careerism and corruption in the BCP weakened his positions. He resigned on 10 November 1989, under pressure by senior BCP members due to his refusal to recognize problems and deal with public protests. Within a month of Zhivkov's ouster, Communist rule in Bulgaria had effectively ended, and within another month the People's Republic of Bulgaria had formally ceased to exist.

Selected quote

               Worlds I would destroy for ever,
               Since I can create no world,
               Since my call they notice never,
               Coursing dumb in magic whirl.

               Dead and dumb, they stare away
               At our deeds with scorn up yonder;
               We and all our works decay --
               Heedless on their ways they wander.

               Yet their lot I would share never --
               Swept on by the flooding tide,
               On through nothing rushing ever,
               Fretful in their Pomp and Pride.

               Swiftly fall and are destroyed
               Halls and bastions in their turn;
               As they fly into the Void,
               Yet another Empire's born.

               So it rolls from year to year,
               From the Nothing to the All,
               From the Cradle to the Bier,
               Endless Rise and endless Fall.

               So the spirits go their way
               Till they are consumed outright,
               Till their Lords and Masters they
               Totally annihilate.

— Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Feelings , 1836

Selected picture

Tjen folket (01).JPG
Norwegian Maoists demonstrate at May Day 2013.

Photo credit: Ezzex

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