Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
The Finger Plan is an urban plan from 1947 which provides a strategy for the development of the Copenhagen metropolitan area, Denmark. According to the plan, Copenhagen is to develop along five fingers, centred on S-train commuter rail lines, which extend from the palm, in between the fingers, green wedges are supposed to provide land for agriculture and recreational purposes. By the definition in the Finger Plan the metropolitan area has a population of 2,016,285, the northern suburbs form the little finger of the plan and are traditionally the wealthiest. In popular language, the area is known as The Whiskey Belt, the area has a population of around 270,000 inhabitants. The north-northwestern part of the forms the ring finger. The area is to a large extent formed by detached middle-class dwellings, the area has a population of around 100,000 inhabitants. Gladsaxe Municipality, Bagsværd, Buddinge, Høje-Gladsaxe, Mørkhøj, Søborg Furesø Municipality, Værløse, Farum and it consists of a mixed area of both detached middle-class dwellings, widespread garden cities and large, low-rise public housing projects.
The area has a part of the industrial areas of metropolitan Copenhagen. The area has a population of around 110,000 inhabitants, the suburbs vary from the petit bourgeois area of Glostrup to the widespread low housing projects of Albertslund and Taastrup. Of the total of 145,000 inhabitants, some 20% are immigrants of first or second generation, while the central parts of these suburbs are dominated by high-rise housing projects and low-income inhabitants, the distant part is dominated by detached middle-class houses. These suburbs have a population of some 215,000 inhabitants and it has since been improved and the suburbs on the island hold some 53,000 inhabitants. Amager is now one of the most modern suburbs of Copenhagen with increasing wealth, with the opening of the bridge to Sweden this finger has been extended all the way to Malmö. These new urbanization rapidly attracted residents who came from Copenhagen city looking for affordable housing options. As a consequence of this displacement of residents out of the city, the two projects in Ørestad were linked in order to achieve the strategic vision of becoming a major economic pole in the Scandinavia region.
At the same time it would accommodate urban growth in area along the new metro rail in a strategic position. Its location is probably the most important characteristic and strength of this project because of its proximity to Copenhagen historic city centre, the idea of this model was established when the Ørestad development corporation was created under the Ørestad Act in 1992. The ODC was conceived as a formed by the municipality. The master plan for Ørestad was defined in 1995 through an international competition, as well as the finger plan, has a TOD project as its backbone -the Metro line- which acts as corridor of development through all the area
Frederiksberg Kommune is a municipality on the island of Zealand in Denmark. Part of Copenhagen, it is surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and its mayor is Jørgen Glenthøj from the Conservative Peoples Party. The city of Frederiksberg is the town in the municipality. Frederiksberg is located as an enclave within the municipality of Copenhagen, the municipality was originally situated west of Copenhagen, but after a number of smaller municipalities were merged with Copenhagen in 1901, it became completely surrounded by Copenhagen. Frederiksberg was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a County—the others being Copenhagen and Bornholm, on 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden. Frederiksberg municipality was not merged with other municipalities as the result of nationwide Kommunalreformen
Their combined population stands at 763,908. The Municipality of Copenhagen is the most populous in the country with a population of 602,481 inhabitants, the municipal seat of government is the Copenhagen City Hall. The Lord Mayor of Copenhagen is Frank Jensen, since 2010, the relationship between Copenhagen Municipality and the wider city of Copenhagen is one of an administrative unit within a significantly larger city, cf. the City of London or the City of Brussels. In the Middle Ages, Copenhagen was defined as the area enclosed within the city walls, the city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring and kept as a partial green band around it. In 1856 the ramparts were pulled down allowing for growth and expansion, in 1901 the city expanded to include Amager and Valby, while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the municipality. The Finger Plan in the half of the 20th century led to expansion outside of the municipal boundary.
Copenhagen Municipality was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county, the others being Frederiksberg Municipality and Bornholm, on 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden. Copenhagen Municipality is a division covering the central city and certain additional areas. It encloses Frederiksberg Municipality and stretches east to the waterfront, neighboring municipalities are Gentofte and Herlev to the north, Rødovre and Hvidovre to the west, and Tårnby to the south. The City Hall Square is the old centre of the city, from which an old shopping street leads northeast to Kongens Nytorv, christiansborg Palace, which houses the Danish parliament, is located on the islet of Slotsholmen. The municipality is divided into ten administrative and tax districts, the suffix -bro in the names Østerbro, Nørrebro and Amagerbro should not be confused with the Danish word for bridge, which is bro. The term is thought to be an abbreviation or short form of the Danish word brolagt meaning paved, the two figures for 1 February 1901 are before and after the municipality annexed some nearby parishes.
The apparent decline since the mid-1900s are due to the figures not including the suburban and urban areas - notably Frederiksberg - outside Copenhagen municipality, Copenhagen Municipality is distinct from the wider Copenhagen urban area. The seat of Copenhagens municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall, the council is chaired by the Lord Mayor—currently Frank Jensen—who oversees the civic duties of the fifty-five representatives of the council. The council usually meets every week at 17,30 on a Thursday. All members of the council are elected every four years, in the municipal elections in November 2013, the Social Democrats remained in first place with 27. 8% of the vote, while the Red-Green Alliance was in second place with 19. 5%. The Social Democrats have claimed the office of mayor for the past 110 years and it has six political committees and a finance committee. The annual budget for the city is proposed in August and finalized in October, the accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for auditing the City of Copenhagens accounts
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
The Copenhagen metropolitan area is a large commuter belt surrounding Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It is known to include Copenhagen Municipality and surrounding municipalities stretching westward across Zealand and it has densely-populated core surrounded by suburban settlements. The metropolitan area several current definitions and historical, now defunct. The most widely accepted is the area which is managed by the Finger Plan. The modern post 2007 version includes the four provinces Københavns by, Københavns omegn, Nordsjælland and Østsjælland, with a land area of 2.778 km². It should not be confused with the Øresund Region, the area has been planned according to the Finger Plan, which has given it six fingers of S-trains and a western connection S-line. Urbanization stretching out from central Copenhagen, one railroad and two metro lines over Amager been formed. The Amager railroad continues to Sweden by bridge, Copenhagen metropolitan area is the largest of the commonly used definitions for the Copenhagen area.
Until 2007 the area consisted of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg Municipalities, Copenhagen County, Frederiksborg County, by this definition, the metropolitan area has a population of 2,016,285 covering an area of 3,030 square kilometres over 34 municipalities with a density of 665/km². The administrative entity responsible for the Capital Region of Denmark defines their administrative area as the area of Copenhagen. As such the population is 1,713,624 on an area of 2,561 km² with a density of 669. 1/km². It should however be noted that the Capital Region does not contain all of the Roskilde, furthermore, it does contain the remote island of Bornholm. While actually a transnational region of co-operation, rather than a metropolitan area and this goes back to the Initiativgruppen, who was tasked with creating the metropole of the north. As of 1 October 2011 the Øresund Region is populated by 3,783,158 inhabitants with a density of 181. 3/km², according to OECD, this region includes vast areas which are not recognized as part of the functional metropolitan area.
Copenhagen is by far the largest city, and the core of the region. However the Øresund Region covers large areas that are located remotely from both Copenhagen and the Øresund sea and this is an illustration of the population and population density around the Øresund sea rather than a formal area. But as such the population around Øresund constitutes by far the largest population centre of Scandinavia, Copenhagen metropolitan area is most commonly recognized, and before 2007 official, equal to the Danish part of this core. The four mentioned Danish provinces, with two million inhabitants at an area of 2.768,6 km2 and a population density of 722 people per square kilometre