1. Racism – Racism is discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Today, the use of the term racism does not easily fall under a single definition, the Holocaust is the classic example of institutionalized racism which led to the death of millions of people based on their race. Ethnicity is often used in a close to one traditionally attributed to race. Therefore, racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, according to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms racial and ethnic discrimination. Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life, Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices. Associated social actions may include nativism, xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, in the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races. The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, the origin of the root word race is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, a recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ras, which means head, beginning, origin or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists generally held that some races were inferior to others and these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions, the collective endeavors to adequately define and form hypotheses about racial differences are generally termed scientific racism. To date, there is evidence in human genome research indicating that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism simply as An earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it. The revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term racism in a quote from the year,1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as he theory that human characteristics and abilities are determined by race. Additionally, the Oxford English Dictionary records racism as a synonym of racialism, as its history indicates, popular use of the word racism is relatively recent. The word came into usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism. It is commonly agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups, second, a set of ideas about racial differences, and, third, the UDHR was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. They are born equal in dignity and rights and all form a part of humanityRacism – A rally against school integration in 1959.
2. Ageism – Ageism is stereotyping and discriminating against individuals or groups on the basis of their age. This may be casual or systematic, the term was coined in 1969 by Robert Neil Butler to describe discrimination against seniors, and patterned on sexism and racism. Butler defined ageism as a combination of three connected elements, moreover, it has been pointed out that stigmatization does not only occur outside of the cohesively imagined group of the elderly but likewise takes place within the stigmatized group itself. It can also be passive and covert to drive the notion that the place is young, Ageism in common parlance and age studies usually refers to negative discriminatory practices against old people, people in their middle years, teenagers and children. There are several forms of age-related bias, adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which is seen as biased against children, youth, and all young people who are not addressed or viewed as adults. Jeunism is the discrimination against older people in favor of younger ones, adultcentricism is the exaggerated egocentrism of adults. Adultocracy is the convention which defines maturity and immaturity, placing adults in a dominant position over young people. Gerontocracy is a form of rule in which an entity is ruled by leaders who are significantly older than most of the adult population. Chronocentrism is primarily the belief that a state of humanity is superior to all previous and/or future times. Based on an analysis of ageism, a new definition of ageism was introduced by Iversen, Larsen. Ageism can be implicit or explicit and can be expressed on a micro-, meso- or macro-level, implicit ageism is the term used to refer to the implicit or subconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors one has about older or younger people. These may be a mixture of positive and negative thoughts and feelings, ageist stereotyping is a tool of cognition which involves categorizing into groups and attributing characteristics to these groups. Stereotypes are necessary for processing huge volumes of information which would otherwise overload a person, for example, age-based stereotypes prime one to draw very different conclusions when one sees an older and a younger adult with, say, back pain or a limp. One might well assume that the persons condition is temporary and treatable, following an accident, while the older persons condition is chronic. On average, this might be true, but plenty of people have accidents and recover quickly. Another example is when people are rude to children because of their high pitched voice, even if they are kind, a review of the research literature related to age stereotypes in the workplace was recently published in the Journal of Management. Contrary to common and more obvious forms of stereotyping, such as racism and sexism, ageism is more resistant to change. For instance, if a child believes in an ageist idea against the elderly, fewer people correct them, in other words, ageism can become a self-fulfilling prophecyAgeism
3. Speciesism – Speciesism involves the assignment of different values, rights, or special consideration to individuals solely on the basis of their species membership. Their claim is that species membership has no moral significance, the term is not used consistently, but broadly embraces two ideas. It usually refers to human speciesism, the exclusion of all animals from the rights, freedoms. Activities such as these, that were standard human behaviors across the millennia, the term speciesism, and the argument that it is simply a prejudice, first appeared in 1970 in a privately printed pamphlet written by British psychologist Richard D. Ryder. Ryder was a member of a group of intellectuals in Oxford, England, one of the groups activities was distributing pamphlets about areas of concern, the pamphlet titled Speciesism was written to protest against animal experimentation. Ryder argued in the pamphlet that ince Darwin, scientists have agreed that there is no essential difference between humans and other animals, biologically-speaking. Why then do we make an almost total distinction morally, if all organisms are on one physical continuum, then we should also be on the same moral continuum. Ryder wrote, In as much as race and species are vague terms used in the classification of living creatures according, largely, to physical appearance. Discrimination on grounds of race, although most universally condoned two centuries ago, is now widely condemned, similarly, it may come to pass that enlightened minds may one day abhor speciesism as much as they now detest racism. The illogicality in both forms of prejudice is of an identical sort, the time has come to act upon this logic. Those who claim that speciesism is unfair to non-human species have often argued their case by invoking mammals, the term was popularized by the Australian philosopher Peter Singer in his book Animal Liberation. Singer had known Ryder from his own time as a philosophy student at Oxford. He credited Ryder with having coined the term and used it in the title of his books fifth chapter, sexists violate the principle of equality by favouring the interests of their own sex. Similarly, speciesists allow the interests of their own species to override the interests of members of other species. The pattern is identical in each case, Singer argued that, although there may be differences between humans and nonhumans, they share the capacity to suffer, and we must give equal consideration to that suffering. Any position that allows similar cases to be treated in a dissimilar fashion fails to qualify as a moral theory. The term caught on, Singer wrote that it was an awkward word and it became an entry in the Oxford English Dictionary in 1985, defined as discrimination against or exploitation of animal species by human beings, based on an assumption of mankinds superiority. Paola Cavalieri writes that the current humanist paradigm is that human beings are members of the moral communitySpeciesism – Richard D. Ryder coined the term "speciesism" in 1970.
4. Discrimination – This includes treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated. Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices, and laws exist in countries and institutions in every part of the world. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination, the term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- distinguished between, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen distinction, from the verb discernere, Discrimination derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction. Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration, an individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason, in addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression. It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as different so much that they are treated inhumanly, social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable, the United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement, Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection. International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world, important UN documents addressing discrimination include, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is a United Nations convention, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination. The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as a bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a human rights instrument treaty of the United Nations. Parties to the Convention are required to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities, the text was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006, and opened for signature on 30 March 2007. Following ratification by the 20th party, it came into force on 3 May 2008, ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someones age. It is a set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a persons age. Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents, Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, interestingly, they found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational yearsDiscrimination – Ethiopian Jews protest in Israel over non-employment of Ethiopian academics.
5. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion – The Protocols of the Elders of Zion or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination. The forgery was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, Henry Ford funded printing of 500,000 copies that were distributed throughout the U. S. in the 1920s. It is still available today in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet. The Protocols is a document purporting to be factual. Textual evidence shows that it could not have been produced prior to 1901, many of the people whom De Michelis suspects of involvement in the forgery were directly responsible for inciting the pogroms. A major source for the Protocols was Der Judenstaat by Theodor Herzl, paradoxically, early Russian editions of the Protocols assert that they did not come from a Zionist organization. The text, which advocates for Zionism, resembles a parody of Herzls ideas. The Protocols is one of the best-known and most-discussed examples of literary forgery, with analysis, the forgery is an early example of conspiracy theory literature. Joly, a monarchist and legitimist, was imprisoned in France for 15 months as a result of his books publication. Scholars have noted the irony that Dialogue in Hell was itself a plagiarism, at least in part, of a novel by Eugène Sue, Les Mystères du Peuple. Identifiable phrases from Joly constitute 4% of the first half of the first edition, the Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of Maurice Jolys Dialogues 1–17. For example, Philip Graves brought this plagiarism to light in a series of articles in The Times in 1921, Goedsche was a postal clerk and a spy for the Prussian Secret Police. He had been forced to leave the work due to his part in forging evidence in the prosecution against the Democratic leader Benedict Waldeck in 1849. Following his dismissal, Goedsche began a career as a conservative columnist and his 1868 novel Biarritz contains a chapter called The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. In it, Goedsche depicts a clandestine meeting of members of a mysterious rabbinical cabal that is planning a diabolical Jewish conspiracy. At midnight, the Devil appears to contribute his opinions and insight, the chapter closely resembles a scene in Alexandre Dumas Giuseppe Balsamo, in which Joseph Balsamo a. k. a. Alessandro Cagliostro and company plot the Affair of the Diamond Necklace, in 1872 a Russian translation of The Jewish Cemetery in Prague appeared in Saint Petersburg as a separate pamphlet of purported non-fiction. Perpetuation of the myth of the authenticity of Goedsches story, in particular the Rabbis speech, Goedsches chapter may have been an outright plagiarism of Joly, Dumas père, or bothThe Protocols of the Elders of Zion – Cover of first book edition, The Great within the Minuscule and Antichrist
6. 1903 – As of the start of 1903, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Edward VII is proclaimed Emperor of India, January 19 – The first west–east transatlantic radio broadcast is made from the United States to England. February 11 – The Oxnard strike of 1903 becomes the first time in U. S. history that a union is formed from members of different races. February 15 – Morris and Rose Michtom introduce the first teddy bear in the United States, february 17 – El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico becomes part of the United States National Forest System as the Luquillo Forest Reserve. February 23 – Cuba leases Guantánamo Bay to the United States in perpetuity, march 2 – In New York City, the Martha Washington Hotel, the first hotel exclusively for women, opens. March 3 – The British Admiralty announces plans to build a base at Rosyth. March 4 – Beşiktaş J. K. founded, march 5 – The Ottoman Empire and the German Empire sign an agreement to build the Constantinople–Baghdad Railway. March 12 – The University of Puerto Rico is founded, march 14 – The Hay–Herrán Treaty, granting the United States the right to build the Panama Canal, is ratified by the United States Senate. The Colombian Senate later rejects the treaty, april 26 – Atletico Madrid, as well known for professional football club in Spain, officially founded. April 29 – A 30-million-m3 landslide kills 70-90 in Frank, Alberta, april 29 – The 7.0 Ms Manzikert earthquake affects eastern Turkey, leaving 3,500 dead. May 4 – The leading Macedonian Bulgarian revolutionary Gotse Delchev is killed in a skirmish with the Turkish army, may 18 – The port of Burgas, Bulgaria opens. May 24 – The Paris–Madrid race for automobiles begins, during which at least eight people are killed, june 11 – Serbian King Alexander Obrenović and Queen Draga are assassinated in Belgrade by the Black Hand organization. June 14 – The town of Heppner, Oregon, is destroyed by a cloud burst that resulted in a flash flood that kills an estimated 238 people. July 1–July 19 – First Tour de France bicycle race, won by Maurice Garin, july 7 – The British take over the Fulani Empire. July 23 – Dr. Ernst Pfenning of Chicago becomes the first owner of a Ford Model A, july 29 – Explosion of a United States Cartridge Company magazine destroys 70 homes killing 22 residents of Tewksbury, Massachusetts. July 30–August 23 – Second Congress of the All-Russian Social Democratic Labour Party held in exile in Brussels, august 2 – The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, organized by the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization, breaks out in the Ottoman provinces of Macedonia and Adrianople. August 4 – Pope Pius X succeeds Pope Leo XIII as the 257th pope, august 10 – Paris Métro train fire takes place. August 25 – The Judiciary Act is passed in the Australian parliament, september – Texas State University in San Marcos, TX opens its doors as Southwest Texas Normal School1903 – January 1: Edward VII becomes Emperor of India.
7. Russia – Russia, also officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as RussiansRussia – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
8. Free mason – The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, and Master Mason. These are the degrees offered by Craft Freemasonry, members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are usually supervised and governed at the level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient. There is no international, worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry, each Grand Lodge is independent, modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Continental Freemasonry is now the term for the liberal jurisdictions who have removed some, or all. The Masonic Lodge is the organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets regularly to conduct the formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, at the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song. The bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies, candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice. Some time later, in a ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft. In all of ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords, signs. Another ceremony is the installation of the Master and officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, in other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, and no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of calendar, allowing Masons. Often coupled with events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity. This occurs at both Lodge and Grand Lodge level, Masonic charities contribute to many fields from education to disaster relief. These private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, and a Freemason will necessarily have been initiated into one of these, there also exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate anything from sport to Masonic researchFree mason – Lodge in Palazzo Roffia, Florence set out for French (Moderns) ritual
9. Hegemony – Hegemony is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece, hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states, the dominant state is known as the hegemon. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy, later, it could be used to mean a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society. In contrast to authoritarian rule, cultural hegemony is hegemonic only if those affected by it also consent to and struggle over its common sense. From the post-classical Latin word hegemonia, from 1513 or earlier, or the Greek word ἡγεμονία, meaning authority, rule, political supremacy, likewise, the role of Athens within the short-lived Delian League was that of a hegemon. Ancient historians such as Xenophon and Ephorus were the first who used the term in its modern sense. In Ancient East Asia, Chinese hegemony existed during the Spring and Autumn period and they were appointed by feudal lord conferences, and thus were nominally obliged to uphold the imperium of the Zhou Dynasty over the subordinate states. 1st and 2nd century Europe was dominated by the peace of the Pax Romana. It was instituted by the emperor Augustus, and was accompanied by a series of military campaigns. From the 7th century to the 12th century, the Umayyad Caliphate and later Abbasid Caliphate dominated the vast territories they governed, with other states like the Byzantine Empire paying tribute. In 7th century India, Harsha, ruler of an empire in northern India from 606 to 647 AD. He preferred not to rule as a government, but left conquered kings on their thrones and contenting himself with tribute. From the late 9th to the early 11th century, the empire developed by Charlemagne achieved hegemony in Europe, with dominance over France, Italy and he lists several contenders for historical hegemony. Based on Portugals dominance in navigation, based on Dutch control of credit and money. Based on British textiles and command of the high seas, based on British industrial supremacy and railroads. To this list could be added the hegemony of Habsburg Spain in 16th century Europe, however, after an attempt by Phillip IV to restore it, by the middle of the 17th century Spains pretensions to hegemony had definitely and irremediably failed. This, in turn, made possible the Amsterdam stock market, in France, King Louis XIV and Napoleon I attempted French hegemony via economic, cultural and military domination of most of Continental Europe. However, Jeremy Black writes that, because of Britain, France was unable to enjoy the benefits of this hegemony, Britain also controlled the Indian subcontinent and large portions of AfricaHegemony – Ancient Greece under the hegemony of Thebes, 371–362 BCE
10. Maurice Joly – Available English translations include, Dialogues in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu by Herman Bernstein, and The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu by John S. Waggoner. Joly was born in the town of Lons-le-Saunier, in the department of Jura, to a French father. He studied law in Dijon, but stopped in 1849 in order to go to Paris and he successfully completed his legal studies and was finally admitted to the Paris bar in 1859. Politically, Joly was a conservative, a monarchist, and a legitimist, then Joly concocted a lampoon César, where he attacked the political regime of Napoleon III, a. k. a. The books were printed by Martin-Beaupré brothers and swiftly destroyed by the publishers, in 1864, Joly wrote his best-known book, The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu. The piece uses the device of a dialogue of the dead, invented by ancient Roman writer Lucian. Shadows of the characters of Niccolo Machiavelli and Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu meet in Hell in the year 1864. In this way, Joly tried to conceal a direct, and then illegal, the noble baron Montesquieu would make the case for liberalism, the Florentine politician Machiavelli would present the case for despotism. Wouldnt even need twenty years to transform utterly the most indomitable European character and render it as a docile under tyranny as the people of Asia. Montesquieu insists that the spirit of the peoples is invincible. In the curtain-line Montesquieu exclaims Eternal God, what have you permitted, the book was published anonymously in Brussels in 1864 and smuggled into France for distribution, but the print run was seized by the police immediately upon crossing the border. The police swiftly tracked down its author, and Joly was arrested, on 25 April 1865, he was sentenced to 18 months at the Sainte-Pélagie Prison in Paris. The second edition of The Dialogues was issued in 1868 under Jolys name and this time, it reached the readers. But its author remained in obscurity and he established a new journal, Le Palais, that ended after a confrontation with the principal collaborator in the enterprise. After the fall of the Empire in 1870, Joly sought a position from Jules Grévy. Campaigning against Napoleon III at the French constitutional referendum,1870 and it was published in Le Gaulois and La Cloche magazines. In 1871, he was a member of the Paris Commune and in his last years. Though Joly gained laurels of a scandalous and bully barrator, he sued 10 newspapers, Jolys name was completely forgotten, and in life, he did not attain the glory he so obsessively cravedMaurice Joly – Maurice Joly
11. Conspiracy theory – Conspiracy theories often produce hypotheses that contradict the prevailing understanding of history or simple facts. The term is a derogatory one, people formulate conspiracy theories to explain, for example, power relations in social groups and the perceived existence of evil forces. Conspiracy theories have chiefly psychological or socio-political origins, some people prefer socio-political explanations over the insecurity of encountering random, unpredictable, or otherwise inexplicable events. Some philosophers have argued that belief in conspiracy theories can be rational, the Oxford English Dictionary defines conspiracy theory as the theory that an event or phenomenon occurs as a result of a conspiracy between interested parties, spec. A belief that some covert but influential agency is responsible for an unexplained event, as a neutral term, conspiracy is derived from Latin con- and spirare. In many respects, they have a right to be angry, the phrase conspiracy theory is not neutral. It is value-laden and carries with it condemnation, ridicule, and it is a lot like the word cult, which we use to describe religions we do not like. Clare Birchall at Kings College London describes conspiracy theory as a form of knowledge or interpretation. By acquiring the knowledge, conspiracy theory is considered alongside more legitimate modes of knowing. The relationship between legitimate and illegitimate knowledge, Birchall claims, is far closer than common dismissals of conspiracy theory would have us believe, other popular knowledge might include alien abduction narratives, gossip, some new age philosophies, religious beliefs, and astrology. Harry G. West discusses conspiracy theories as a part of American popular culture, comparing them to hypernationalism, some theories have dealt with censorship and excoriation from the law such as the Holocaust denial. Currently, conspiracy theories are present on the Web in the form of blogs and YouTube videos. Whether the Web has increased the prevalence of conspiracy theories or not is a research question. By contrast, the term Watergate conspiracy theory is used to refer to a variety of hypotheses in which those convicted in the conspiracy were in fact the victims of a deeper conspiracy. In criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future, as one basic American police academy text defines it, When a crime requires a large number of people, a conspiracy is formed. Conspiracy theory examines the actions of secretive coalitions of individuals. S, sociologist Türkay Salim Nefes underlines the political nature of conspiracy theories. He suggests that one of the most important characteristics of these accounts is their attempt to unveil the real, according to Barkun, the appeal of conspiracism is threefold, First, conspiracy theories claim to explain what institutional analysis cannot. They appear to sense out of a world that is otherwise confusingConspiracy theory – The Eye of Providence, or the all-seeing eye of God, seen here on the US $1 bill, has been taken by some to be evidence of a conspiracy involving the founders of the United States.
12. Antisemitism – Antisemitism is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination directed against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite, Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. The root word Semite gives the impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. However, the compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in 1879 as a term for Judenhass Jew-hatred. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, the origin of antisemitic terminologies is found in the responses of Moritz Steinschneider to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes, The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, avner Falk similarly writes, The German word antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile. Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renans false ideas about how Semitic races were inferior to Aryan races and he coined the phrase the Jews are our misfortune which would later be widely used by Nazis. According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was used by its authors to stress the radical difference between their own antisemitism and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews and Judaism. In 1879 German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum, vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both Jewry and jewishness. The pamphlet became very popular, and in the year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga. The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks of Anti-Semitism as a designation which recently came into use, on 19 July 1882, the editor says, This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old. The related term philosemitism was coined around 1885, from the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special racial connotations and meant specifically prejudice against Jews. The term is confusing, for in modern usage Semitic designates a language group, though antisemitism has been used to describe bigotry against people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such usage has been questioned. The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen, for example, Emil Fackenheim supported the unhyphenated spelling, in order to the notion that there is an entity Semitism which anti-Semitism opposes. Objections to the usage of the term, such as the nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, have been raised since at least the 1930s. Because of this bad nature, Jews have to be not as individuals. Jews remain essentially alien in the surrounding societies, Jews bring disaster on their host societies or on the whole world, they are doing it secretly, therefore the anti-Semites feel obliged to unmask the conspiratorial, bad Jewish character. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist, bernard Lewis defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the restAntisemitism – Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism, 1880 edition
13. Zionist – Zionism is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel. Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in Central and Eastern Europe as a revival movement, in reaction to anti-Semitic. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the state in Palestine. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues primarily to advocate on behalf of Israel and to threats to its continued existence. A variety of Zionism, called cultural Zionism, founded and represented most prominently by Ahad Haam, unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ahad Haam strived for Israel to be a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews. Advocates of Zionism view it as a liberation movement for the repatriation of a persecuted people residing as minorities in a variety of nations to their ancestral homeland. The term Zionism is derived from the word Zion, referring to Jerusalem and these groups were collectively called the Lovers of Zion and were seen to encounter a growing Jewish movement toward assimilation. The first use of the term is attributed to the Austrian Nathan Birnbaum, founder of a nationalist Jewish students movement Kadimah, the common denominator among all Zionists is the claim to Eretz Israel as the national homeland of the Jews and as the legitimate focus for Jewish national self-determination. It is based on ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel. Zionism does not have an ideology, but has evolved in a dialogue among a plethora of ideologies, General Zionism, Religious Zionism, Labor Zionism, Revisionist Zionism, Green Zionism. The political movement was established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in 1897 following the publication of his book Der Judenstaat. At that time, the movement sought to encourage Jewish migration to Ottoman Palestine, although initially one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to assimilation and antisemitism, Zionism expanded rapidly. In its early stages, supporters considered setting up a Jewish state in the territory of Palestine. After World War II and the destruction of Jewish life in Central and Eastern Europe where these alternative movements were rooted, the alliance with Britain was strained as the latter realized the implications of the Jewish movement for Arabs in Palestine but the Zionists persisted. The movement was successful in establishing Israel on May 14,1948. The proportion of the worlds Jews living in Israel has steadily grown since the movement emerged, by the early 21st century, more than 40% of the worlds Jews live in Israel, more than in any other country. These two outcomes represent the success of Zionism, and are unmatched by any other Jewish political movement in the past 2,000 years. In some academic studies, Zionism has been analyzed both within the context of diaspora politics and as an example of modern national liberation movementsZionist – Theodor Herzl is considered the founder of the Zionist movement. In his 1896 book Der Judenstaat, he envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century.
14. Middle East – The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians and other Arameans, Baloch, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, in the Middle East, there is also a Romani community. European ethnic groups form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Bengalis as well as other Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Indonesians, Pakistanis, the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Most of the countries border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil. The term Middle East may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office, however, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to designate the area between Arabia and India. During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article The Persian Gulf and International Relations, published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar, it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, mahans article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled The Middle Eastern Question, written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term, in the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term Middle East gained broader usage in Europe, the description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, Near East was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while Middle East referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Turkestan. The first official use of the term Middle East by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, the Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymousMiddle East – The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
15. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
16. Etching – Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material, as a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology. In traditional pure etching, a plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. The artist then scratches off the ground with an etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece. The échoppe, a tool with an oval section, is also used for swelling lines. The plate is dipped in a bath of acid, technically called the mordant or etchant. The acid bites into the metal where it is exposed, leaving behind lines sunk into the plate, the remaining ground is then cleaned off the plate. The plate is inked all over, and then the ink wiped off the surface, the plate is then put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper. The paper picks up the ink from the lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times, typically several hundred impressions could be printed before the shows much sign of wear. The work on the plate can also be added to by repeating the whole process, Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving or aquatint. The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, Hopfer was a craftsman who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking, using iron plates. Apart from his prints, there are two examples of his work on armour, a shield from 1536 now in the Real Armeria of Madrid. The switch to copper plates was made in Italy. On the other hand, the handling of the ground and acid need skill and experience, prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs. Jacques Callot from Nancy in Lorraine made important technical advances in etching technique and he developed the échoppe, a type of etching-needle with a slanting oval section at the end, which enabled etchers to create a swelling line, as engravers were able to do. Callot also appears to have responsible for an improved, harder, recipe for the etching groundEtching – The Soldier and his Wife. Etching by Daniel Hopfer, who is believed to have been the first to apply the technique to printmaking
17. Feminist – Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal, to define and advance political, economic, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish opportunities for women in education. Feminists have also worked to promote autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints, some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word féminisme in 1837, depending on the historical moment, culture and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians assert that all working to obtain womens rights should be considered feminist movements. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and those historians use the label protofeminist to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three waves, each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised womens suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the womens liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women, the third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, beginning in the 1990s. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th century, in the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902, in 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing womens right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, in the United States, first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote in all states. During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days Reform, Chinese feminists called for womens liberation from traditional roles, later, the Chinese Communist Party created projects aimed at integrating women into the workforce, and claimed that the revolution had successfully achieved womens liberation. According to Nawar al-Hassan Golley, Arab feminism was closely connected with Arab nationalism, in 1899, Qasim Amin, considered the father of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women. He drew links between womens position in Egyptian society and nationalism, leading to the development of Cairo University, in 1923 Hoda Shaarawi founded the Egyptian Feminist Union, became its president and a symbol of the Arab womens rights movementFeminist – International Women's Day rally in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on 8 March 2005, organized by the National Women Workers Trade Union Centre
18. Emily Wilding Davison – Emily Wilding Davison was a suffragette who fought for womens suffrage in Britain in the early 20th century. She was known for extreme tactics that resulted in her arrest on nine occasions and she protested by means of hunger strikes, and was force-fed 49 times while incarcerated. The hunger strike was a common tactic among suffragettes as was force-feeding by British penal authorities in response. In her most famous moment of protest, Davison stepped in front of King George Vs horse Anmer at the Epsom Derby on 4 June 1913 and her funeral on 14 June 1913 was organised by the Womens Social and Political Union. Thousands of suffragettes accompanied the coffin and tens of thousands of people lined the streets of London, after a service in Bloomsbury, her coffin was taken by train to the family plot in Morpeth, Northumberland. Davison was born in Blackheath, South East London, to Charles Davison and she had two sisters and a brother, as well as several step-siblings from her fathers first marriage. She later attended Kensington High School and won a bursary to Royal Holloway College in 1891 to study literature, however, she was forced to drop out in January 1892 because her father died and her mother could not afford the fees of £20 a term. Later, she was able to enroll at St. Hughs College and she obtained first-class honours in her final exams at St. Hughs, but women were not allowed to graduate from Oxford at that time. After her time at university, Davison found positions teaching the children of families in Berkshire and Spratton, in 1906, Davison joined the Womens Social and Political Union. Formed in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst, the WSPU brought together those who thought that militant, in 1908, Davison left her teaching post to dedicate herself completely to the movement. The same year, she entered the University of London examinations as a candidate for a degree in Modern Foreign Languages. Davison soon gained a reputation as a militant and violent campaigner, on her own initiative and without the approval of the WSPU, she went from disrupting meetings to stone throwing and arson. On 2 April 1911, the night of the 1911 census, Davison hid in a cupboard in St Mary Undercroft and she remained in the cupboard during the census so that she could legitimately list her place of residence as the House of Commons on the census form. Census documents from the year 1911 state that Emily Wilding Davison was found hiding in the crypt in the Houses of Parliament, in 1990, British politician Tony Benn placed a plaque in the very cupboard that she had hid in to commemorate the event. Though this incident has been cited as an indication of suicidal tendencies in Davison. As a result, she suffered severe head and spinal damage, on 4 June 1913, Davison attended the Epsom Derby. While the race was underway and the horses passed the stretch of track where she was located, Davison ducked under the railing, after several other horses passed her, she stood with hands raised in the path of the horse owned by King George V, Anmer. The Kings horse hit her at speed, she was thrown violently through the airEmily Wilding Davison – Emily Davison
19. Epsom Derby – The Derby Stakes, popularly known as The Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in England open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey over a distance of one mile, four furlongs and 10 yards and it is Britains richest horse race, and the most prestigious of the five Classics. It is sometimes referred to as the Blue Riband of the turf, the race serves as the middle leg of the Triple Crown, preceded by the 2000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger, although the feat of winning all three is now rarely attempted. The name Derby has become synonymous with great races all over the world, however, the Epsom Derby is the original. It is one of Britains great national sporting events and has a large worldwide TV audience, in Great Britain the name Derby is pronounced /ˈdɑːrbi/, while in the United States it is /ˈdɜːrbi/, a case of spelling pronunciation. The Derby originated at a following the first running of the Oaks Stakes in 1779. A new race was planned, and it was decided that it should be named either the host of the party. According to legend the decision was made by the toss of a coin, but it is probable that Bunbury, the inaugural running of the Derby was held on Thursday 4 May 1780. It was won by Diomed, a colt owned by Sir Charles Bunbury, the first four runnings were contested over 1 mile, but this was amended to the current distance of 1½ miles in 1784. Lord Derby achieved his first success in the event in 1787, the starting point of the race was moved twice during the 19th century. The first move, suggested by Lord George Bentinck, was in 1848, and it was discovered in 1991 that the exact length of the race was one mile, four furlongs and 10 yards. Initially, the Derby was run on a Thursday in late May or early June depending on when Easter occurred, in 1838 the race was moved to a Wednesday to fit in with the railways timetables but was still run on different dates depending on Easter. In 1995 the day was changed from the first Wednesday in June to the first Saturday, the Derby has been run at Epsom in all years except during the world wars. From 1915 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1945 the Derby was run at Newmarket and these races are known as the New Derby. The Derby has inspired similar events around the world. European variations include the Derby Italiano, the Deutsches Derby, the Irish Derby, other national equivalents include the Australian Derby, the New Zealand Derby and the Tokyo Yūshun. Several races in the United States include the Derby name, including the Kentucky Derby, investec became the sponsor of the Derby in 2009, and the current sponsorship deal runs until 2022. The race was backed by Ever Ready and VodafoneEpsom Derby – The Derby at Epsom, 1821 by Théodore Géricault (1791–1824)
20. Christabel Pankhurst – Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, DBE, was a British suffragette born in Manchester, England. A co-founder of the Womens Social and Political Union, she directed its militant actions from exile in France from 1912 to 1913, in 1914 she supported the war against Germany. After the war she moved to the United States, where she worked as an evangelist for the Second Adventist movement, Christabel Pankhurst was the daughter of womens suffrage movement leader Emmeline Pankhurst and radical socialist Richard Pankhurst and sister to Sylvia and Adela Pankhurst. Her father was a lawyer and her mother owned a small shop, Christabel assisted her mother, who worked as the Registrar of Births and Deaths in Manchester. Despite financial struggles, her family had always encouraged by their firm belief in their devotion to causes rather than comforts. Nancy Ellen Rupprecht wrote, She was almost a textbook illustration of the first child born to a middle-class family, in childhood as well as adulthood, she was beautiful, intelligent, graceful, confident, charming, and charismatic. Christabel enjoyed a relationship with both her mother and father, who had named her after Christabel, the poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Her mothers death in 1928 had a impact on Christabel. Pankhurst learned to read at her home on her own before she went to school and she and her two sisters attended Manchester High School for Girls. She obtained a law degree from the University of Manchester, exam but, as a woman, was not allowed to practice law. Later Pankhurst moved to Geneva to live with a friend, but returned home to help her mother raise the rest of the children. In 1905 Christabel Pankhurst interrupted a Liberal Party meeting by shouting demands for voting rights for women and she was arrested and, along with fellow suffragist Annie Kenney, went to prison rather than pay a fine as punishment for their outburst. Their case gained media interest and the ranks of the WSPU swelled following their trial. Emmeline Pankhurst began to more militant action for the womens suffrage cause after her daughters arrest and was herself imprisoned on many occasions for her principles. After obtaining her law degree in 1906, Christabel moved to the London headquarters of the WSPU, nicknamed Queen of the Mob, she was jailed again in 1907 in Parliament Square and in 1909 after the Rush Trial at Bow Street. Between 1913 and 1914 she lived in Paris, France, to imprisonment under the terms of the Prisoners Act, better known as the Cat. The start of World War I compelled her to return to England in 1914, Pankhurst engaged in a hunger strike, ultimately serving only 30 days of a three-year sentence. She was influential in the WSPUs anti-male phase after the failure of the Conciliation Bills and she wrote a book called The Great Scourge and How to End It on the subject of sexually transmitted diseases and how sexual equality would help the fight against these diseasesChristabel Pankhurst – Christabel Pankhurst
21. 1912 – As of the start of 1912, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The Republic of China is proclaimed, January 4 – The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Commonwealth by Royal Charter. January 5 – Moscow Art Theatre production of Hamlet opens, January 6 – New Mexico becomes the 47th state of the United States. January 6 – German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift, January 14 – Raymond Poincaré forms a coalition government in France, beginning his first term of office as Prime Minister on 21 January. January 17 – British polar explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott and a team of four become the second group to reach the South Pole. January 18 – Prague Party Conference, Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party break away from the rest of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. January 22 – The Overseas Railroad opens and the first train arrives in Key West, Florida at 10,43 AM, with Henry M. Flagler, January 23 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague. February 12 – The Manchu Qing dynasty of China comes to an end after 268 years with the abdication of Emperor Puyi in favour of the Republic of China. February 14 – Arizona becomes the 48th U. S. state, february 29 – Serbia and Bulgaria secretly sign a treaty of alliance for a term of eight years, with each pledging to come to the defense of the other during war. March 1 – Albert Berry is reported to have made the first parachute jump from a flying airplane. March 6 – Italian forces became the first to use airships in war, march 7 – Roald Amundsen in Hobart, Tasmania, announces his success in reaching the South Pole the previous December. March 12 – The Girl Scouts is founded by Juliette Gordon Low in Savannah, march 16 – Lawrence Oates, dying member of Scotts South Pole expedition, leaves the tent saying, I am just going outside and may be some time. March 22 – State of Bihar is formed out of the ertswhile State of Bengal in British India, march 27 – Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo gives 3,000 cherry trees to be planted in Washington, D. C. to symbolize the friendship between the two countries. March 29 – The remaining members of Robert Falcon Scotts South Pole expedition die, march 30 – The French Third Republic establishes the French protectorate in Morocco. April 10 – White Star liner RMS Titanic departs from Southampton with 2225 passengers, april 11 – RMS Titanic makes her last call, at Queenstown in Ireland. April 14–15 – Sinking of the RMS Titanic, RMS Titanic strikes an iceberg in the northern Atlantic Ocean, the wreck will not be discovered until 1985. April 16 – Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly across the English Channel, april 17 –500 striking gold miners in Siberia are killed or wounded by troops in the Lena massacre. April 18 – Cunard Line vessel RMS Carpathia arrives in New York with the 708 RMS Titanic survivors, april 20 – Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts, opens1912 – March 27: Cherry trees for Washington, D.C.
22. Universal suffrage – The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all except a small number of adult citizens. As minors are excluded, the concept is frequently described as universal adult suffrage. Many countries make an exception for small numbers of adults that are considered incapable of voting. Other countries also exclude people convicted of crimes or people in jail. In some countries, including the United States, it is very difficult, in any case, where universal suffrage exists, the right to vote is not restricted by race, sex, belief, wealth, or social status. The term active suffrage is sometimes used for the right to vote, passive suffrage for the right to run for office, the equivalent term when talking about both genders would then be universal full suffrage, or full universal suffrage. Greece recognized full male suffrage in 1830 and France and Switzerland have continuously done so since the 1848 Revolution, the German Empire implemented full male suffrage in 1871. In 1893, the self-governing colony New Zealand became the first country in the world to grant active universal suffrage by giving women the right to vote and it did not grant universal full suffrage until 1919. In 1902 Australia become the first country to grant full suffrage for women, however, universal suffrage was not implemented, as aboriginals didnt get the right to vote until 1962. It also elected the worlds first female members of parliament the following year, in most countries, universal suffrage followed about a generation after universal male suffrage. Notable exceptions in Europe were France, where women could not vote until 1944, Greece and it is worth noting that countries that took a long time to adopt womens suffrage had previously often been pioneers in granting universal male suffrage. In the first modern democracies, governments restricted the vote to those with property and wealth, in some jurisdictions, other restrictions existed, such as requiring voters to practice a given religion. In all modern democracies, the number of people who could vote has increased progressively with time, in the 19th century in Europe, Great Britain and North America, there were movements advocating universal suffrage. The democratic movement of the late 19th century, unifying liberals and social democrats, particularly in northern Europe, used the slogan Equal, the concept of universal suffrage requires the right to vote to be granted to all its residents. All countries, however, do not allow certain categories of citizens to vote, saudi Arabia was the last major country that did not allow women to vote, but admitted women both to voting and candidacy in the 2015 municipal elections. France, under the 1793 Jacobin constitution, was the first major country to enact suffrage for all adult males, the Second French Republic did institute adult male suffrage after the revolution of 1848. In 1867, Germany enacted suffrage for all adult males, in the United States following the American Civil War, slaves were freed and granted rights of citizens, including suffrage for adult males. Several European nations that had enacted universal suffrage had their legal process, or their status as an independent nation, interrupted duringUniversal suffrage – Voting is an important part of the formal democratic process.
23. 1925 – January 1 – Kristiania, the capital of Norway, reverted to its original name of Oslo. January 3 – Benito Mussolini made a speech in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. Historians now trace this speech to the beginning of Mussolinis dictatorship, january 5 – Nellie Tayloe Ross became the first female governor in the United States. Twelve days later, Ma Ferguson became first female governor of Texas, january 25 – Hjalmar Branting resigns as Prime Minister of Sweden because of ill health, and is replaced by the minister of trade, Rickard Sandler. January 27–February 1 – The 1925 serum run to Nome relayed diphtheria antitoxin by dog sled across the U. S. territory of Alaska, february 15 – The Alice Comedy Alice Solves the Puzzle was released by Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, introducing Bootleg Pete for the first time. February 21 – *This is the date of the very first issue of The New Yorker, though not necessarily the publication date. February 25 – Art Gillham recorded for Columbia Records the first Western Electric masters to be commercially released, february 28 – The 1925 Charlevoix–Kamouraska earthquake struck northeastern North America. March 4 İsmet İnönü was appointed as the minister in Turkey. Calvin Coolidge is sworn in for a term as President of the United States. It was the first inauguration to be broadcast on radio, march 6 – Pionerskaya Pravda, one of the oldest childrens newspapers in Europe, was founded in the Soviet Union. March 9–May 1 – Pinks War, The British Royal Air Force bombarded mountain strongholds of Mahsud tribesmen in South Waziristan, march 10 – Greece’s most successful football club, Olympiacos founded in Athens. March 15 – The Phi Lambda Chi fraternity was founded on the campus of Arkansas State Teachers College in Conway, Arkansas. March 18 – The Tri-State Tornado, the deadliest in U. S. history, rampaged through Missouri, Illinois and it hit the towns of Murphysboro, Illinois, Gorham, Illinois, Ellington, Missouri, and Griffin, Indiana. March 21 – Tennessee Governor Austin Peay signed the Butler Act, march 31 – Radio station WOWO in Fort Wayne, Indiana began broadcasting. April–October – The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes is held in Paris, april 1 Frank Heath and his horse Gypsy Queen left Washington, D. C. to begin a two-year journey to visit all 48 states. The Patent and Trademark Office was transferred to the Department of Commerce, april 10 – F. Scott Fitzgerald published The Great Gatsby. April 15 – Fritz Haarmann, a serial killer convicted of the murder of 24 boys, april 16 – The Communist assault on St. Nedelya Church claims roughly 150 lives in Sofia, Bulgaria. April 19 – Colo-colo, as known for football club of Chile, founded in Macul1925 – Locarno Treaties with Gustav Stresemann, Austen Chamberlain and Aristide Briand
24. American Nazi Party – The American Nazi Party was first an American political party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell. Its headquarters were in Arlington, Virginia, Rockwell founded the organization as the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists, but renamed it the American Nazi Party in 1960. The party was based largely upon the ideals and policies of Adolf Hitlers Nazi Party in Germany during the Nazi era, the Rockwell organization broke up shortly after he was assassinated in 1967. Since the late 1960s, there have been a number of groups that have used the name. The WUFENS headquarters was located in a residence on Williamsburg Boulevard in Arlington and this site was visible from busy Wilson Boulevard. Today, the Franklin Road address is often misidentified as Rockwells headquarters when in fact it was the organizations last physical address in Arlington. Under Rockwell, the party embraced Nazi uniforms and iconography, limiting public display of the swastika, and entering candidates in local elections. On January 1,1967, Rockwell renamed the ANP the National Socialist White Peoples Party, in 1966, it was renamed the National Socialist White People’s Party, a “conscious imitation” of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Rockwell wanted a more “ecumenical” approach and felt that the banner was impeding organizational growth. Matt Koehl, although a purist National Socialist, succeeded Rockwell as the new leader, Rockwell was assassinated by one of his own members. Thereafter, the members engaged in disputes, and they were either expelled by Koehl or they resigned. After the assassination of Rockwell, the party dissipated and ad hoc organizations usurped the American Nazi Party logo and those included James Burford in Chicago and John Bishop in Iowa. The years 1966 and 1967 were in many ways the apogee of Rockwells fame, famously, he was interviewed by Playboy magazine, an event that stirred controversy within the ranks. At the time Rockwell had about 500 followers, before he could fully implement party reforms, Rockwell was assassinated on August 25,1967 by a disgruntled follower, John Patler, who was part of a splinter group. An assassination attempt was made on Rockwell on June 28,1967, as Rockwell returned from shopping, he drove into the long driveway of the Stormtrooper barracks located in Arlingtons Dominion Hills subdivision and found it blocked by a felled tree and brush. Rockwell assumed that it was another prank by local teens, as a party member cleared the obstruction, two shots were fired at Rockwell from behind one of the swastika-embossed brick driveway pillars. One of the shots ricocheted off the car, right next to his head, leaping from the car, Rockwell pursued the gunman. On June 30, Rockwell petitioned the Arlington County Circuit Court for a gun permit, One missed, the other hit his chest and ruptured his heartAmerican Nazi Party – American Nazi Party
25. Nation of Islam – The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4,1930. Its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, critics have described the organization as being black supremacist and antisemitic. The Southern Poverty Law Center tracks the NOI as a hate group and its official newspaper is The Final Call. In 2007, the membership was estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000. The Nation has long been an advocate of African-American businesses. There were a number of splits and splinter groups during Elijah Muhammads leadership, in 1977, Louis Farrakhan rejected Warith Deen Mohammeds leadership and re-established the Nation of Islam on the original model. He took over the Nation of Islams headquarters Temple, Mosque Maryam in Chicago, since 2010, under Farrakhan, members have been strongly encouraged to study Dianetics, and the Nation claims it has trained 1055 auditors. The NOI was founded in Detroit on July 4,1930, by Wallace Fard Muhammad, the NOI teaches that W. Fard Muhammad was both the Messiah of Judaism and the Mahdi of Islam. Fard chose his assistant minister, Elijah Muhammad, in 1931 to succeed him as head of the movement, Fard trained Muhammad night and day for 3½ years before he took over NOI in 1934. Muhammad and the movement were widely rejected during his 44 years as the NOI leader, Muhammad established a newspaper, The Final Call to Islam, and attempted to create schools founded upon Muslim teachings. Muslim parents agreed with the foundation of new schools. Muslim teachers were charged with contributing to the delinquency of minors, Muhammad left for Chicago in September of that year. He was soon joined by W. D. Fard Muhammad, in 1942, during World War II, Elijah Muhammad was charged and convicted of violating the Selective Service Act and jailed. Many other Nation of Islam members were charged for the same thing, upon his release in 1946, Elijah Muhammad slowly built up the membership of his movement through recruitment in the postwar decades. His program called for the establishment of a nation for black Americans. During this time, the Nation of Islam attracted Malcolm Little, while in prison in Boston for burglary from 1946 to 1952, Little joined the Nation of Islam. He was influenced by his brother, Reginald, who had become a member in Detroit, Little quit smoking, gambling and eating pork, in keeping with the Nations practices and dietary restrictions. He spent long hours reading books in the prison library and he sharpened his oratory skills by participating in debating classesNation of Islam – Mosque Maryam, Chicago, Illinois, United States
26. 1962 – January 1 Western Samoa became independent from New Zealand. The United States Navy SEALs, elite special forces, are activated, SEAL Team One is commissioned in the Pacific Fleet and SEAL Team Two in the Atlantic Fleet. The Beatles audition for Decca Records but are rejected, NBC introduces the Laramie peacock before a midnight showing of the series Laramie in the United States. January 2 – NAACP Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins praises U. S. President John F. Kennedys personal role in advancing civil rights, january 3 – Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro. January 4 – New York City introduces a train that operates without a crew on board. January 5 – The first album on which The Beatles play, My Bonnie, credited to Tony Sheridan, january 8 – Harmelen train disaster,93 die in the worst Dutch rail disaster. January 9 – Cuba and the Soviet Union sign a trade pact, january 10 – An avalanche on Nevado Huascarán in Peru causes 4,000 deaths. January 12 – The Indonesian Army confirms that it has operations in West Irian. January 13 – Albania allies itself with the Peoples Republic of China, january 15 – Portugal abandons the U. N. General Assembly due to the debate over Angola. January 16 – A military coup occurs in the Dominican Republic, january 19 – A counter-coup occurs in the Dominican Republic, the old government returns except for the new president Rafael Filiberto Bonnelly. January 22 – The Organization of American States suspends Cubas membership, the suspension is lifted in 2009. January 24 The East German government readopts conscription, the Organisation armée secrète bombs the French Foreign Ministry. January 26 – Ranger 3 is launched to study the Moon, january 27 – The Soviet government changed all place names honoring Molotov, Kaganovich and Georgy Malenkov. January 30 – Two of the high-wire Flying Wallendas are killed, january – Stena Line established as a ferry operator by Sten A. Olsson in Gothenburg, Sweden. February 3 – The United States embargo against Cuba is announced, february 4 – The Sunday Times in the United Kingdom became the first paper to print a colour supplement. February 4–February 5 – During a new moon and solar eclipse, february 5 – French President Charles de Gaulle calls for Algeria to be granted independence. February 6 – Negotiations between U. S. Steel and the United States Department of Commerce begin, february 7 The United States embargo against Cuba comes into effect, prohibiting all U. S. -related Cuban imports and exports. Luisenthal Mine Disaster, A coal mine explosion in Saarland, West Germany kills 299, february 9 – The Taiwan Stock Exchange Corporation opens1962 – February 23: Friendship 7 inspected by President Kennedy and Astronaut John Glenn