1. Dorset – Dorset /ˈdɔːrsᵻt/ is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the county, which is governed by Dorset County Council. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres, Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, the county town is Dorchester which is in the south. After the reorganisation of government in 1974 the countys border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth. Around half of the lives in the South East Dorset conurbation. The county has a history of human settlement stretching back to the Neolithic era. The Romans conquered Dorsets indigenous Celtic tribe, and during the early Middle Ages, the first recorded Viking raid on the British Isles occurred in Dorset during the eighth century, and the Black Death entered England at Melcombe Regis in 1348. During the Second World War, Dorset was heavily involved in the preparations for the invasion of Normandy, the former was the sailing venue in the 2012 Summer Olympics, and both have clubs or hire venues for sailing, Cornish pilot gig rowing, sea kayaking and powerboating. Dorset has a varied landscape featuring broad elevated chalk downs, steep limestone ridges, over half the county is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Three-quarters of its coastline is part of the Jurassic Coast Natural World Heritage Site due to its geological and it features notable landforms such as Lulworth Cove, the Isle of Portland, Chesil Beach and Durdle Door. Agriculture was traditionally the major industry of Dorset but is now in decline, there are no motorways in Dorset but a network of A roads cross the county and two railway main lines connect to London. Dorset has ports at Poole, Weymouth and Portland, and an international airport, the county has a variety of museums, theatres and festivals, and is host to one of Europes largest outdoor shows. It is the birthplace of Thomas Hardy, who used the county as the setting of his novels. Dorset derives its name from the county town of Dorchester, the Romans established the settlement in the 1st century and named it Durnovaria which was a Latinised version of a Common Brittonic word possibly meaning place with fist-sized pebbles. It is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in AD845 and in the 10th century the countys archaic name, the first human visitors to Dorset were Mesolithic hunters, from around 8000 BC. The first permanent Neolithic settlers appeared around 3000 BC and were responsible for the creation of the Dorset Cursus, from 2800 BC onwards Bronze Age farmers cleared Dorsets woodlands for agricultural use and Dorsets high chalk hills provided a location for numerous round barrows. During the Iron Age, the British tribe known as the Durotriges established a series of forts across the county—most notably Maiden Castle which is one of the largest in Europe. The Romans arrived in Dorset during their conquest of Britain in AD43, Maiden Castle was captured by a Roman legion under the command of Vespasian, and the Roman settlement of Durnovaria was established nearbyDorset
2. Counties of England – Counties of England are areas used for the purposes of administrative, geographical, cultural or political demarcation. For administrative purposes, England outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and these counties may consist of a single district or be divided into several districts. As of April 2009,27 of these counties are divided into districts and have a county council, all of England is also divided into 48 ceremonial counties, which are also known as geographic counties. Most ceremonial counties correspond to a metropolitan or non-metropolitan county of the same name, the current arrangement is the result of incremental reform. Many of the counties have their origins in the Middle Ages, although the larger counties of Yorkshire, the geographic counties which existed before the local government reforms of 1965 and 1974 are referred to as ancient counties or historic counties. From 1889 to 1974 areas with county councils were known as administrative counties, from 1974 to 1996 the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties, some of which were established only in 1974, corresponded directly with the ceremonial counties. For the purpose of sorting and delivering mail, England was divided into 48 postal counties until 1996, in these counties most services are provided by the county council and the district councils have a more limited role. Their areas each correspond exactly to ceremonial counties and they are Greater Manchester, Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands and West Yorkshire. In these counties the district councils provide the majority of services, similarly, Berkshire is a non-metropolitan county with no county council and multiple districts and maps directly to a ceremonial county. Bristol, Herefordshire, Isle of Wight, Northumberland and Rutland are ceremonial counties consisting of a county of a single district. In total, there are 39 unitary authorities that do not share the names of any of the ceremonial counties, bedfordshire and Cheshire are counties that consist of a number of unitary authorities, none of which has the same name as the ceremonial county. The City of London and Greater London are anomalous as ceremonial counties that do not correspond to any metropolitan or non-metropolitan counties, large ceremonial counties often correspond to a single police force. For example, the four unitary authorities which make up Cheshire correspond to the area as the Cheshire Constabulary. Some counties are grouped together for this purpose, such as Northumberland with Tyne, in other areas a group of unitary authorities in several counties are grouped together to form police force areas, such as the Cleveland Police and Humberside Police. Greater London and the City of London each have their own forces, the Metropolitan Police Service. The fire service is operated on a basis, and the ambulance service is organised by the regions of England. Most ceremonial counties form part of a region, although Lincolnshire. Economic development is delivered using the regions, as is strategic planning, as of 2009, the largest county by area is North Yorkshire and the smallest is the City of LondonCounties of England – Ceremonial counties
3. South West England – South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, five million people live in South West England. The region includes the West Country and much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex, other major urban centres include Plymouth, Swindon, Gloucester, Cheltenham, Exeter, Bath, Torbay, and the South East Dorset conurbation. There are eight cities, Salisbury, Bath, Wells, Bristol, Gloucester, Exeter, Plymouth and it includes two entire national parks, Dartmoor and Exmoor, and four World Heritage Sites, including Stonehenge and the Jurassic Coast. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall, the region has by far the longest coastline in England and many seaside fishing towns. The region is at the first-level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes, key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, the region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language, Cornish, and some regard it as a Celtic nation, the South West of England is known for Cheddar cheese, which originated in the Somerset village of Cheddar, Devon cream teas, crabs, Cornish pasties, and cider. It is also home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel. It has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles, much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region’s attractiveness to tourists and residents. Geologically the region is divided into the largely igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, Cornwall and West Devons landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor. These are due to the granite and slate that underlie the area, the highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park, the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the countys name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by wide, flat clay vales and chalk, the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the regions dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardys Vale of the Little Dairies, another and these downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is also found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, all of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east. The climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification, the oceanic climate typically experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres and up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground, summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-westSouth West England – High Willhays on Dartmoor, Devon, the region's highest point.
4. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
5. English Channel – The English Channel, also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the Channel is of geologically recent origins, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. The first flood would have lasted for months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, the flow eroded the retaining ridge, causing the rock dam to fail and releasing lake water into the English Channel. The erosion of the Lobourg Channel was probably the final opening of the Strait, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance. It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, strangely, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or EnglishEnglish Channel – English Channel
6. Devon – Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the northeast, combined as a ceremonial county, Devons area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia, which, during the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936, Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England thereafter. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, and the bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns. The inland terrain is rural, generally hilly, and has a low density in comparison to many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England at 954 km2, to the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart. As well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is linked with tourism, in the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh, Dyfnaint, Breton, Devnent and Cornish, Dewnens, each meaning deep valleys. One erroneous theory is that the suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire. However, there are references to Defenascire in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced human remains from 30–40,000 years ago, Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC. The Romans held the area under occupation for around 350 years. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, and it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD, the arrival of William of Orange to launch the Glorious Revolution of 1688 took place at Brixham. Devon has produced tin, copper and other metals from ancient times, Devons tin miners enjoyed a substantial degree of independence through Devons Stannary Parliament, which dates back to the 12th century. The last recorded sitting was in 1748, agriculture has been an important industry in Devon since the 19th centuryDevon – Menhir at Drizzlecombe
7. Somerset – Somerset is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west. It is bounded to the north and west by the Severn Estuary and its traditional border with Gloucestershire is the River Avon. Somerset is a county of rolling hills such as the Blackdown Hills, Mendip Hills, Quantock Hills and Exmoor National Park. There is evidence of occupation from Paleolithic times, and of subsequent settlement in the Roman. The county played a significant part in the consolidation of power and rise of King Alfred the Great, and later in the English Civil War, the city of Bath is famous for its substantial Georgian architecture and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Somersets name derives from Old English Sumorsǣte, short for Sumortūnsǣte, an alternative suggestion is the name derives from Seo-mere-saetan meaning settlers by the sea lakes. The Old English name is used in the motto of the county, Sumorsǣte ealle, adopted as the motto in 1911, the phrase is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Somerset settlement names are mostly Anglo-Saxon in origin, but some hill names include Brittonic Celtic elements, for example, an Anglo-Saxon charter of 682 refers to Creechborough Hill as the hill the British call Cructan and we call Crychbeorh. Some modern names are Brythonic in origin, such as Tarnock, the caves of the Mendip Hills were settled during the Palaeolithic period, and contain extensive archaeological sites such as those at Cheddar Gorge. Bones from Goughs Cave have been dated to 12,000 BC, examples of cave art have been found in Avelines Hole. Some caves continued to be occupied until modern times, including Wookey Hole, the Somerset Levels—specifically dry points at Glastonbury and Brent Knoll— also have a long history of settlement, and are known to have been settled by Mesolithic hunters. Travel in the area was facilitated by the construction of one of the worlds oldest known engineered roadways, the Sweet Track, the exact age of the henge monument at Stanton Drew stone circles is unknown, but it is believed to be Neolithic. There are numerous Iron Age hill forts, some of which, like Cadbury Castle, on the authority of the future emperor Vespasian, as part of the ongoing expansion of the Roman presence in Britain, the Second Legion Augusta invaded Somerset from the south-east in AD47. The county remained part of the Roman Empire until around AD409, a variety of Roman remains have been found, including Pagans Hill Roman temple in Chew Stoke, Low Ham Roman Villa and the Roman Baths that gave their name to the city of Bath. After the Romans left, Britain was invaded by Anglo-Saxon peoples, by AD600 they had established control over much of what is now England, but Somerset was still in native British hands. The Saxon royal palace in Cheddar was used several times in the 10th century to host the Witenagemot. After the Norman Conquest, the county was divided into 700 fiefs, Somerset contains HM Prison Shepton Mallet, which was Englands oldest prison still in use prior to its closure in 2013, having opened in 1610. In the English Civil War Somerset was largely Parliamentarian, with key engagements being the Sieges of Taunton, in 1685 the Monmouth Rebellion was played out in Somerset and neighbouring DorsetSomerset – A map of the county in 1646, author unknown.
8. Wiltshire – Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, the county town was originally Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the new county town of Trowbridge. Wiltshire is characterised by its high downland and wide valleys, Salisbury Plain is noted for being the location of the Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles and other ancient landmarks, and as a training area for the British Army. The city of Salisbury is notable for its mediaeval cathedral, important country houses open to the public include Longleat, near Warminster, and the National Trusts Stourhead, near Mere. The county, in the 9th century written as Wiltunscir, later Wiltonshire, is named after the county town of Wilton. Wiltshire is notable for its pre-Roman archaeology, the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age people that occupied southern Britain built settlements on the hills and downland that cover Wiltshire. Stonehenge and Avebury are perhaps the most famous Neolithic sites in the UK, in the 6th and 7th centuries Wiltshire was at the western edge of Saxon Britain, as Cranborne Chase and the Somerset Levels prevented the advance to the west. The Battle of Bedwyn was fought in 675 between Escuin, a West Saxon nobleman who had seized the throne of Queen Saxburga, in 878 the Danes invaded the county. Following the Norman Conquest, large areas of the country came into the possession of the crown, at the time of the Domesday Survey the industry of Wiltshire was largely agricultural,390 mills are mentioned, and vineyards at Tollard and Lacock. In the 17th century English Civil War Wiltshire was largely Parliamentarian, the Battle of Roundway Down, a Royalist victory, was fought near Devizes. The Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry currently lives on as Y Squadron, based in Swindon, around 1800 the Kennet and Avon Canal was built through Wiltshire, providing a route for transporting cargoes from Bristol to London until the development of the Great Western Railway. Information on the 261 civil parishes of Wiltshire is available on the Wiltshire Community History website, run by the Libraries and this site includes maps, demographic data, historic and modern pictures and short histories. The local nickname for Wiltshire natives is moonrakers and this originated from a story of smugglers who managed to foil the local Excise men by hiding their alcohol, possibly French brandy in barrels or kegs, in a village pond. The officials took them for simple yokels or mad and left them alone, many villages claim the tale for their own village pond, but the story is most commonly linked with The Crammer in Devizes. Two-thirds of Wiltshire, a rural county, lies on chalk. This chalk is part of a system of chalk downlands throughout eastern and southern England formed by the rocks of the Chalk Group, the largest area of chalk in Wiltshire is Salisbury Plain, which is used mainly for arable agriculture and by the British Army as training ranges. The highest point in the county is the Tan Hill–Milk Hill ridge in the Pewsey Vale, just to the north of Salisbury Plain, the chalk uplands run northeast into West Berkshire in the Marlborough Downs ridge, and southwest into Dorset as Cranborne Chase. Cranborne Chase, which straddles the border, has, like Salisbury Plain, yielded much Stone Age, the Marlborough Downs are part of the North Wessex Downs AONB, a 1,730 km2 conservation areaWiltshire
9. Hampshire – Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, the capital city of England. The larger South Hampshire metropolitan area has a population of 1,547,000, Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force. It is bordered by Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, Surrey to the north-east, the southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight. At its greatest size in 1890, Hampshire was the fifth largest county in England and it now has an overall area of 3,700 square kilometres, and measures about 86 kilometres east–west and 76 kilometres north–south. Hampshires tourist attractions include many seaside resorts and two parks, the New Forest and the South Downs. Hampshire has a maritime history and two of Europes largest ports, Portsmouth and Southampton, lie on its coast. The county is famed as home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, Hampshire takes its name from the settlement that is now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun, roughly meaning village-town, the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, and it is from this spelling that the modern abbreviation Hants derives. From 1889 until 1959, the county was named the County of Southampton and has also been known as Southamptonshire. The region is believed to have continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time Britain was still attached to the European continent and was covered with deciduous woodland. The first inhabitants came overland from Europe, these were anatomically and behaviourally modern humans, notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, and with it a neolithic culture, some deforestation took place at that time, although it was during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, that this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 BCE and 2200 BCE. It is maintained that by this period the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, hillforts largely declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England briefly in 55 and again in 54 BCE, notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, which was a major port. There is a Museum of the Iron Age in Andover, the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, and Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia very quicklyHampshire – Southampton from Netley Hospital
10. Jurassic Coast – The Jurassic Coast is a World Heritage Site on the English Channel coast of southern England. It stretches from Exmouth in East Devon to Studland Bay in Dorset, a distance of about 96 mi, the site spans 185 million years of geological history, coastal erosion having exposed an almost continuous sequence of rock formation covering the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. At different times, this area has been desert, shallow sea and marsh. Natural features seen on this stretch of coast include arches, pinnacles, in some places the sea has broken through resistant rocks to produce coves with restricted entrances, and in one place, the Isle of Portland is connected to the land by a narrow spit. In some parts of the coast, landslides are common and these have exposed a wide range of fossils, the different rock types each having its own typical fauna and flora, thus providing evidence of how animals and plants evolved in this region. The area around Lulworth Cove contains a fossil forest, and 71 different rock strata have been identified at Lyme Regis, each with its own species of ammonite. The fossil collector Mary Anning lived here and her discoveries of marine reptiles. The Charmouth Heritage Coast Centre provides information on the heritage coast, the Jurassic Coast stretches from Orcombe Point near Exmouth in East Devon to Old Harry Rocks near Swanage in East Dorset, a distance of 96 mi. Inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2001, the Jurassic Coast was the first wholly natural World Heritage Site to be designated in the United Kingdom. At Orcombe Point, the Geoneedle, an acute pyramidal sculpture, marks the end of the heritage site. The cliffs on part of the coast are being eroded as sections crumble away. The fossils found in the area and the coastal features of this dynamic coast, have advanced the study of earth sciences for more than two hundred years. The area covered by the designation comprises the land between the low water mark and the top of the cliffs or the back of the beach. The fossils found in abundance along this coastline provide evidence of how animals, during the Triassic this area was a desert, while in the Jurassic it was part of a tropical sea, and in the Cretaceous it was covered by swamps. Fossil groups found here include crustaceans, insects, molluscs, echinoderms, fish, amphibians, reptiles, at Lulworth Cove there is a fossil forest of conifers, tree-ferns and cycads. The Jurassic Coast consists of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous cliffs, spanning the Mesozoic, documenting 185 million years of geological history. The site can be best viewed from the sea, when the nature of the rock strata becomes apparent. Further east at Ladram Bay. Around Lyme Regis and Charmouth the cliffs are of Jurassic clays and shale, chesil Beach is a good example of a barrier beach and stretches for 18 mi from Burton Bradstock to the Isle of PortlandJurassic Coast – UNESCO World Heritage Site
11. Lulworth Cove – Lulworth Cove is a cove near the village of West Lulworth, on the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site in Dorset, southern England. The cove is one of the worlds finest examples of such a landform and it is close to the rock arch of Durdle Door and other Jurassic Coast sites. Lulworth Cove featured on the TV programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of southern England, the cove has formed as a result of bands of rock of alternating resistance running parallel to the shore. On the seaward side the clays and sands have been eroded away, a narrow band of Portland limestone rocks forms the shoreline. Behind this is a band of slightly less resistant Purbeck limestone. Behind this are 300–350 metres of much less resistant clays and greensands, forming the back of the cove is a 250-metre-wide band of chalk, which is considerably more resistant than the clays and sands, but less resistant than the limestones. The entrance to the cove is a gap in the limestone bands, formed by wave action. The wide part of the cove is where the weak clays, at the back of the cove, the sea has been unable to erode the chalk as fast because chalk does not dissolve in the sea acids. The unique shape of the cove is a result of wave diffraction, the narrow entrance to the cove causes waves to bend into an arced shape, as is visible in the photograph below. Stair Hole, less than half a mile away, is an infant cove which suggests what Lulworth Cove would have looked like a few hundred years ago. The sea has made a gap in the Portland and Purbeck limestone here, the sea has made its way through to the Wealdon clays and begun eroding them. The clay shows obvious signs of slumping, and is eroding very rapidly, stair Hole shows one of the best examples of limestone folding in the world, caused by movements in the Earths crust millions of years ago. Folding can also be seen at nearby Durdle Door and at Lulworth cove itself, Lulworth acts as a gateway to this part of the Jurassic Coast. As well as the cove, across Hambury Tout is Durdle Door, to the east there is a fossilised forest. Lulworth is also close to Kimmeridge, famous for its rocky shore, oil-bearing sands beneath the sea bed form the largest British oil field outside the North Sea area, and contain the highest quality oil in Europe. Geologists and geographers have been interested in the area since the beginning of the 19th century, since then the area has drawn Geology students from all over the world. Purbeck suffers from trampling because of its visitors and erosion from the sea. Management has been put in place to stop the coastline from being ruined, such as wooden steps and these will keep people to a certain path and steps will reinforce the groundLulworth Cove – Lulworth Cove, viewed from the north
12. Isle of Portland – The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island,6 kilometres long by 2.7 kilometres wide, in the English Channel. Portland is 8 kilometres south of the resort of Weymouth, forming the southernmost point of the county of Dorset, a barrier beach called the Chesil Beach joins it to the mainland. The A354 road passes down the Portland end of the beach, Portland and Weymouth together form the borough of Weymouth and Portland. The population of Portland is 12,400, Portland is a central part of the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site on the Dorset and east Devon coast, important for its geology and landforms. Portland stone, famous for its use in British and world architecture, including St Pauls Cathedral, Portland Harbour, in between Portland and Weymouth, is one of the largest man-made harbours in the world. The harbour was made by the building of stone breakwaters between 1848 and 1905, the harbour is now a civilian port and popular recreation area, and was used for the 2012 Olympic Games. The name Portland is used for one of the British Sea Areas, the Romans occupied Portland, reputedly calling it Vindelis. The Vikings first raid on England occurred in Portland in 787 AD, three lost Viking ships from Hordaland landed at Portland Bill. The kings reeve tried to collect taxes from them, but they killed him, in 1539 King Henry VIII ordered the construction of Portland Castle for defence against attacks by the French, the castle cost £4,964. It is one of the best preserved castles from this period, well-known buildings in the capital, including St Pauls Cathedral and the eastern front of Buckingham Palace feature the stone. Portland cement has nothing to do with Portland, it was so named due to its colour to Portland stone when mixed with lime. There have been railways in Portland since the early 19th century, the Merchants Railway was the earliest—it opened in 1826 and ran from the quarries at the north of Tophill to a pier at Castletown, from where the Portland stone was shipped around the country. The line closed to passengers in 1952, and the goods train ran in April 1965. The Royal National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck stationed a lifeboat at Portland in 1826, coastal flooding has affected Portlands residents and transport for centuries—the only way off the island by land is along the causeway in the lee of Chesil Beach. At times of extreme floods this road link is cut by floods, the low-lying village of Chiswell used to flood on average every 5 years. Chesil Beach occasionally faces severe storms and massive waves, which have a fetch across the Atlantic Ocean, in the 1980s it was agreed that a scheme to protect against a one-in-five-year storm would be practicable, it would reduce flood depth and duration in more severe storms. At the start of the First World War, HMS Hood was sunk in the passage between the southern breakwaters to protect the harbour from torpedo and submarine attack. Portland Harbour was formed by the construction of breakwaters, but before that the anchorage had hosted ships of the Royal Navy for more than 500 yearsIsle of Portland – Portland Castle was built to defend Portland in the 16th century.
13. Chesil Beach – Chesil Beach /ˈtʃɛzᵻl/, sometimes called Chesil Bank, in Dorset, southern England is one of three major shingle structures in Britain. Its toponym is derived from the Old English ceosel or cisel, the shingle beach is 29 kilometres long,200 metres wide and 15 metres high. The beach and the Fleet are part of the Jurassic Coast, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, at the eastern end of the beach at the village of Chiswell, against the cliffs of the Isle of Portland, the beach curves round sharply to form Chesil Cove. This part of the beach protects the village from flooding. The beach has been the scene of many shipwrecks, and as such was named by Thomas Hardy as Dead Mans Bay, westwards the shingle forms a straight line along the coast, enclosing the Fleet, a shallow tidal lagoon. The beach provides shelter from the winds and waves for the town of Weymouth. It is said that smugglers who landed on the beach in the middle of the night could judge exactly where they were by the size of the shingle, there are three owners of the beach. The Crown Estates own the beach from Portland to its boundary stone at Littlesea, finally from West Bexington to West Bay it is owned by the National Trust. The whole of Chesil Beach south from the Portland Bound Stone is registered common land over which there is a right of access on foot. The origin of Chesil Beach has been argued over for some time, originally it was believed that beach material was from the Budleigh Salterton pebble beds to the west and later from Portland to the south east. Normally, tombolos are created due to the effects of the island on waves and to sediment transport, fossils occur all along the landward shore of the Fleet and along the landward side of Chesil Beach from Abbotsbury to West Bay. The main site is at Burton Bradstock, there have been many shipwrecks on Chesil Beach, particularly during the age of sail. The beach was particularly dangerous within the English Channel, as it forms an extended lee shore during south-westerly gales, a ship coming up the Channel had to clear Portland Bill to be safe, but the wind and tide would be pushing it northwards into Lyme Bay. At present there are no manned stations along the beach, as coverage is provided when required from Portland Coastguard, the local fishermen, particularly at Portland, developed a purpose-built vessel to withstand the sea actions of Chesil Beach. The boat, known as a Lerret, is an open fishing boat - 16–17 feet long - used for seine net fishing. It is usually rowed by four people with a fifth to steer, much of the villages Fleet and Chiswell were destroyed in the Great Storm of 1824. Over the centuries Chiswell had battled with the sea and was flooded during rough winter storms. In the storms the sea would pour through the part of the bankChesil Beach – Satellite view of Chesil Beach (linear feature in blue running diagonally NW-SE) from Abbotsbury to the Isle of Portland
14. Durdle Door – Durdle Door is a natural limestone arch on the Jurassic Coast near Lulworth in Dorset, England. It is privately owned by the Welds, a family who owns 12,000 acres in Dorset in the name of the Lulworth Estate and it is open to the public. The name Durdle is derived from the Old English thirl meaning bore or drill, the form of the coastline around Durdle Door is controlled by its geology—both by the contrasting hardnesses of the rocks, and by the local patterns of faults and folds. The arch has formed on a concordant coastline where bands of rock run parallel to the shoreline, the rock strata are almost vertical, and the bands of rock are quite narrow. Originally a band of resistant Portland limestone ran along the shore, behind this is a 120-metre band of weaker, easily eroded rocks, and behind this is a stronger and much thicker band of chalk, which forms the Purbeck Hills. These steeply dipping rocks are part of the structure known as the Lulworth crumple. The limestone and chalk are in proximity at Durdle Door than at Swanage,10 miles to the east. Around this part of the coast nearly all of the limestone has been removed by sea erosion, erosion at the western end of the limestone band has resulted in the arch formation. UNESCO teams monitor the condition of both the arch and adjacent beach. In Man O War Bay, the bay immediately east of Durdle Door, the band of Portland and Purbeck limestone has not been entirely eroded away. Similarly, offshore to the west, the limestone outcrop forms a line of small rocky islets called The Bull, The Blind Cow, The Cow. There is a dearth of written records about the arch. In the late eighteenth century there is a description of the magnificent arch of Durdle-rock Door, in 1811 the first Ordnance Survey map of the area named it as Dirdale Door. Durdle is derived from the Old English thirl, meaning to pierce, bore or drill, the Geology of the Country around Weymouth, Swanage, Corfe and Lulworth, 4th pr. London, Geological Survey of Great Britain, HMSO, a Geological Guide to the Dorset Coast, 2nd ed. London, Adam & Charles BlackDurdle Door – Durdle Door, Dorset
15. Bournemouth – Bournemouth /ˈbɔːrnməθ/ is a large coastal resort town on the south coast of England directly to the east of the Jurassic Coast, a 96-mile World Heritage Site. According to the 2011 census, the town has a population of 183,491 making it the largest settlement in Dorset. With Poole to the west and Christchurch in the east, Bournemouth forms the South East Dorset conurbation, before it was founded in 1810 by Lewis Tregonwell, the area was a deserted heathland occasionally visited by fishermen and smugglers. Initially marketed as a resort, the town received a boost when it appeared in Dr Granvilles book. Bournemouths growth really accelerated with the arrival of the railway and it became a town in 1870. Historically part of Hampshire, it joined Dorset with the reorganisation of government in 1974. Since 1997, the town has been administered by a unitary authority, the local council is Bournemouth Borough Council. The town centre has notable Victorian architecture and the 202-foot spire of St Peters Church, Bournemouths location has made it a popular destination for tourists, attracting over five million visitors annually with its beaches and popular nightlife. The town is also a centre of business, home of the Bournemouth International Centre or BIC. The word bourne, meaning a stream, is a derivative of burna. A travel guide published in 1831 calls the place Bourne Cliffe or Tregonwells Bourne after its founder, the Spas of England, published ten years later, calls it simply Bourne as does an 1838 edition of the Hampshire Advertiser. In the late 19th century Bournemouth became predominant, although its two-word form appears to have remained in use up until at least the early 20th century, in the 12th century the region around the mouth of the River Bourne was part of the Hundred of Holdenhurst. Although the Dorset and Hampshire region surrounding it had been the site of settlement for thousands of years, Westover was largely a remote. In 1574 the Earl of Southampton noted that the area was Devoid of all habitation, on this barren and uncultivated heath there was not a human to direct us. Bronze Age burials near Moordown, and the discovery of Iron Age pottery on the East Cliff in 1969, Hengistbury Head, added to the borough in 1932, was the site of a much older Palaeolithic encampment. No-one lived at the mouth of the Bourne river and the regular visitors to the area before the 19th century were a few fishermen, turf cutters. Prior to the Christchurch Inclosures Act 1802, more than 70% of the Westover area was common land, in 1809 the Tapps Arms public house appeared on the heath. A few years later, in 1812, the first official residents, retired army officer Lewis Tregonwell and his wife, the area was well known to Tregonwell who, during the Napoleonic wars, spent much of his time searching the heath and coastline for French invaders and smugglersBournemouth – The Square, Bournemouth
16. Poole – Poole /puːl/ is a large coastal town and seaport in the county of Dorset, on the south coast of England. The town is 33 kilometres east of Dorchester, and adjoins Bournemouth to the east, the local council is Borough of Poole and was made a unitary authority in 1997, gaining administrative independence from Dorset County Council. The borough had a population of 147,645 at the 2011 census, together with Bournemouth and Christchurch, the town forms the South East Dorset conurbation with a total population of over 465,000. Human settlement in the dates back to before the Iron Age. The earliest recorded use of the name was in the 12th century when the town began to emerge as an important port. Later, the town had important trade links with North America and, at its peak during the 18th century, in the Second World War, Poole was one of the main departing points for the Normandy landings. Poole is a tourist resort, attracting visitors with its natural harbour, history. The town has a port with cross-Channel freight and passenger ferry services. The headquarters of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution are in Poole, despite their names, Poole is the home of The Arts University Bournemouth, the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra and a significant part of Bournemouth University. The towns name derives from a corruption of the Celtic word bol, variants include Pool, Pole, Poles, Poll, Polle, Polman, and Poolman. The area around modern Poole has been inhabited for the past 2,500 years, during the 3rd century BC, Celts known as the Durotriges moved from hilltop settlements at Maiden Castle and Badbury Rings to heathland around the River Frome and Poole Harbour. The Romans landed at Poole during their conquest of Britain in the 1st century and took over an Iron Age settlement at Hamworthy, in Anglo-Saxon times, Poole was included in the Kingdom of Wessex. The settlement was used as a base for fishing and the harbour a place for ships to anchor on their way to the River Frome, following the Norman conquest of England, Poole rapidly grew into a busy port as the importance of Wareham declined. The town was part of the manor of Canford, but does not exist as an entry in the Domesday Book. The earliest written mention of Poole occurred on a document from 1196 describing the newly built St Jamess Chapel in La Pole. The Lord of the Manor, Sir William Longspée, sold a charter of liberties to the burgesses of Poole in 1248 to raise funds for his participation in the Seventh Crusade. Consequently, Poole gained a measure of freedom from feudal rule and acquired the right to appoint a mayor. In 1568, Poole gained further autonomy when it was granted independence from DorsetPoole – Poole Quay
17. Weymouth, Dorset – Weymouth /ˈweɪməθ/ is a seaside town in Dorset, England, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. The town is 11 kilometres south of Dorchester and 8 kilometres north of the Isle of Portland, the town is the third largest settlement in Dorset after the unitary authorities of Bournemouth and Poole. The A354 road bridge connects Weymouth to Portland, which form the borough of Weymouth. Weymouth originated as a settlement on a site to the south and west of Weymouth Harbour. The town developed from the mid 12th century onwards, but was not noted until the 13th century, by 1252 it was established as a seaport and became a chartered borough. Melcombe Regis developed separately on the peninsula to the north of the harbour, French raiders found the port so accessible that in 1433 the staple was transferred to Poole. Melcombe Regis is thought to be the first port at which the Black Death came into England in June 1348, possibly either aboard a spice ship or an army ship. In their early history Weymouth and Melcombe Regis were rivals for trade and industry, both towns have become known as Weymouth, despite Melcombe Regis being the main centre. The villages of Upwey, Broadwey, Preston, Wyke Regis, Chickerell, Southill, Radipole, King Henry VIII had two Device Forts built to protect the south Dorset coast from invasion in the 1530s, Sandsfoot Castle in Wyke Regis and Portland Castle in Castletown. Parts of Sandsfoot have fallen into the sea due to coastal erosion, during the English Civil War, around 250 people were killed in the local Crabchurch Conspiracy in February 1645. In 1635, on board the ship Charity, around 100 emigrants from the crossed the Atlantic Ocean and settled in Weymouth. More townspeople emigrated to the Americas to bolster the population of Weymouth, Nova Scotia and Salem, Massachusetts, there are memorials to this on the side of Weymouth Harbour and near to Weymouth Pavilion and Weymouth Sea Life Tower. The architect Sir Christopher Wren was the Member of Parliament for Weymouth in 1702, when he designed St Pauls Cathedral, Wren had it built out of Portland Stone, the famous stone of Portlands quarries. Sir James Thornhill was born in the White Hart public house in Melcombe Regis, Thornhill became an artist, and coincidentally decorated the interior of St Pauls Cathedral. A mounted white horse representing the King is carved into the hills of Osmington. Weymouths esplanade is composed of Georgian terraces, which have been converted into apartments, shops, hotels, statues of Victoria, George III and Sir Henry Edwards, Member of Parliament for the borough from 1867 to 1885, and two war memorials stand along the Esplanade. In the centre of the town lies Weymouth Harbour, although it was the reason for the towns foundation, since the 18th century they have been linked by successive bridges over the narrowest part of the harbour. The present Town Bridge, built in 1930, is a bascule bridge allowing boats to access the inner harbourWeymouth, Dorset – Weymouth, Wyke Regis and Portland Harbour from the Isle of Portland
18. Swanage – Swanage is a coastal town and civil parish in the south east of Dorset, England. It is situated at the end of the Isle of Purbeck. In the 2011 census the parish and two electoral wards had a population of 9,601. Nearby are Ballard Down and Old Harry Rocks, with Studland Bay, within the parish are Durlston Bay and Durlston Country Park to the south of the town. The parish also includes the areas of Herston, just to the west of the town, and Durlston, just to the south. The town, originally a port and fishing village, flourished in the Victorian era. During its history the bay was listed variously as Swanawic, Swanwich and Sandwich, the town is located at the eastern end of the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site. The town contains many listed buildings and two conservation areas – Swanage Conservation Area and Herston Conservation Area, while fishing is likely the towns oldest industry, quarrying has been important to the town and the local area since at least the 1st century AD. During the time of the Roman occupation this industry grew, with the distinctive Purbeck marble being used for purposes in buildings as far away as London. When the Romans left Britain, quarrying largely ceased until the 12th century, the town is first mentioned in historical texts in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 877. A hundred Danish ships which had survived the battle were driven by a storm onto Peveril Point, a monument topped by cannonballs was built in 1882 by John Mowlem to celebrate this event and is situated at the southern end of the seafront promenade. In the 12th century demand for Purbeck Marble grew once again, while Purbeck marble is not suited to external use, as it does not weather well, it is however strong and suitably decorative for use as internal columns. As such the stone was used in the construction of large churches. In contrast to the decorative Purbeck marble, Purbeck limestone, or more commonly Purbeck stone, has used in construction locally since the early days of quarrying on Purbeck. Its use is well documented as it was taken for granted as the default construction materials in the area. However, the arrival of modern quarrying techniques in the 17th century resulted in an increase in production. The Great Fire of London in 1666 led to a period of reconstruction in the city. It was in time that stone first started being loaded upon ships directly from the Swanage seafrontSwanage – Swanage
19. Lyme Regis – Lyme Regis /ˌlaɪmˈriːdʒɪs/ is a coastal town in West Dorset, England, situated 25 miles west of Dorchester and 25 miles east of Exeter. The town lies in Lyme Bay, on the English Channel coast at the Dorset–Devon border and it is nicknamed The Pearl of Dorset. The town is noted for the found in the cliffs and beaches. The town was home to Admiral Sir George Somers, its one-time mayor and he founded the English colonial settlement of the Somers Isles, better known as Bermuda. Lyme Regis is twinned with St. Georges, Bermuda, in July 2015 Lyme Regis was also tripled with Jamestown, Virginia to form the Historic Atlantic Triangle between Lyme, St Georges and Jamestown. In the 2011 Census the towns parish and the ward had a population of 3,671. In Saxon times, the abbots of Sherborne Abbey had salt-boiling rights on land adjacent to the River Lym, Lyme is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086. In the 13th century, it developed as one of the major British ports, a Royal Charter was granted by King Edward I in 1284 when Regis was added to the towns name. The charter was confirmed by Queen Elizabeth I in 1591, John Leland visited the town in the 16th century and described it as a praty market town set in the rootes of an high rokky hille down to the hard shore. There cummith a shalow broke from the hilles about a three miles by north, and cummith fleting on great stones through a bridge in the botom. In 1644, during the English Civil War, Parliamentarians withstood a siege of the town by Royalist forces under Prince Maurice. The Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme Regis at start of the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685, on New Years Day,1915, the H. M. S. Formidable was torpedoed, the first major U-boat loss of World War I, a local lifeboat delivered bodies to the Pilot Boat Inn on Bridge Street. Lassie, the dog of the Inns owner, licked the face of Seaman Cowan, believed dead, the namesake of the cross-breed became a legend of books, radio, film and television. In 1965, the railway station was closed, in the Beeching Axe. The station was dismantled and rebuilt at Alresford, on the Mid Hants Watercress Railway in Hampshire, the route to Lyme Regis was notable for being operated by aged Victorian locomotives. One of these Adams Radial Tank engines is now preserved on the Bluebell Railway in Sussex, West Country Class steam locomotive No.34009 was named Lyme Regis after the town. In 2005, as part of the bicentenary of Admiral Nelsons victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, the actor playing the part of Trafalgar messenger Lieutenant Lapenotiere was welcomed at Lyme RegisLyme Regis – Lyme Regis from the Cobb
20. Thomas Hardy – Thomas Hardy, OM was an English novelist and poet. A Victorian realist in the tradition of George Eliot, he was influenced both in his novels and in his poetry by Romanticism, especially William Wordsworth. He was highly critical of much in Victorian society, especially on the status of rural people in Britain. While Hardy wrote poetry throughout his life and regarded himself primarily as a poet, initially, therefore, he gained fame as the author of such novels as Far from the Madding Crowd, The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the dUrbervilles, and Jude the Obscure. During his lifetime, Hardys poetry was acclaimed by poets who viewed him as a mentor. After his death his poems were lauded by Ezra Pound, W. H. Auden, Two of his novels, Tess of the dUrbervilles and Far from the Madding Crowd, were listed in the top 50 on the BBCs survey The Big Read. Jemima was well-read, and she educated Thomas until he went to his first school at Bockhampton at the age of eight, for several years he attended Mr. Lasts Academy for Young Gentlemen in Dorchester, where he learned Latin and demonstrated academic potential. Because Hardys family lacked the means for a university education, his formal education ended at the age of sixteen, when he apprenticed to James Hicks. Hardy trained as an architect in Dorchester before moving to London in 1862 and he won prizes from the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Architectural Association. He joined Arthur Blomfields practice as assistant architect in April 1862 and worked with Blomfield on All Saints parish church in Windsor, a reredos, possibly designed by Hardy, was discovered behind panelling at All Saints in August 2016. Hardy never felt at home in London, because he was conscious of class divisions. During this time he became interested in reform and the works of John Stuart Mill. He was also introduced by his Dorset friend Horace Moule to the works of Charles Fourier, after five years, concerned about his health, he returned to Dorset, settling in Weymouth, and decided to dedicate himself to writing. In 1870, while on a mission to restore the parish church of St Juliot in Cornwall, Hardy met and fell in love with Emma Gifford. In 1885 Thomas and his wife moved into Max Gate, a designed by Hardy. In 1914, Hardy married his secretary Florence Emily Dugdale, who was 39 years his junior, however, he remained preoccupied with his first wifes death and tried to overcome his remorse by writing poetry. In 1910, Hardy had been awarded the Order of Merit and was also for the first time nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature and he would be nominated for the prize eleven years later. His funeral was on 16 January at Westminster Abbey, and it proved a controversial occasion because Hardy had wished for his body to be interred at Stinsford in the grave as his first wifeThomas Hardy – Hardy between about 1910 and 1915
21. Hill fort – A hillfort or hill fort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages, some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC, the terms hill fort, hill-fort and hillfort are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to a site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood. Many small early hill forts were abandoned, with the ones being redeveloped at a later date. Similar but smaller and less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills and these are known as hill-slope enclosures and may have been animal pens. It has been estimated that in about 5000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million lived in Europe, in the Late Iron Age it had an population of around 15 to 30 million. Outside Greece and Italy, which were densely populated, the vast majority of settlements in the Iron Age were small. Hill forts were the exception, and were the home of up to 1,000 people, with the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants. As the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies, around 1100 BC hill forts emerged and in the following centuries spread through Europe. They served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, during the Hallstatt C period, hill forts became the dominant settlement type in the west of Hungary. Julius Caesar described the large late Iron Age hill forts he encountered during his campaigns in Gaul as oppida, by this time the larger ones had become more like cities than fortresses and many were assimilated as Roman towns. Hill forts were occupied by conquering armies, but on other occasions the forts were destroyed, the local people forcibly evicted. For example, Solsbury Hill was sacked and deserted during the Belgic invasions of southern Britain in the 1st century BC. Excavations at hill forts in the first half of the 20th century focussed on the defenses, the exception to this trend began in the 1930s with a series of excavations undertaken by Mortimer Wheeler at Maiden Castle, Dorset. From 1960 onwards, archaeologists shifted their attention to the interior of hill forts, currently, post-processual archaeologists regard hill forts as symbols of wealth and power. Michael Avery has stated the view of hill forts by sayingHill fort – Maiden Castle in England is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
22. Maiden Castle, Dorset – Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort 2.5 kilometres south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset. Hill forts were fortified hill-top settlements constructed across Britain during the Iron Age, the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the site consists of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure and bank barrow. In about 1800 BC, during the Bronze Age, the site was used for growing crops before being abandoned. Maiden Castle itself was built in about 600 BC, the phase was a simple and unremarkable site, similar to many other hill forts in Britain. At the same time, Maiden Castles defences were more complex with the addition of further ramparts. Around 100 BC habitation at the fort went into decline. It was occupied until at least the Roman period, by time it was in the territory of the Durotriges. After the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century AD, Maiden Castle appears to have been abandoned, in the late 4th century AD, a temple and ancillary buildings were constructed. In the 6th century AD the hill top was entirely abandoned and was used only for agriculture during the medieval period, Maiden Castle has provided inspiration for composer John Ireland and authors Thomas Hardy and John Cowper Powys. The study of hill forts was popularised in the 19th century by archaeologist Augustus Pitt Rivers, in the 1930s, archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler and Tessa Verney Wheeler undertook the first archaeological excavations at Maiden Castle, raising its profile among the public. Further excavations were carried out under Niall Sharples, which added to an understanding of the site, today the site is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and is maintained by English Heritage. Before the hill fort was built, a Neolithic causewayed enclosure was constructed on the site. Dating from around 4000 BC, it was an area enclosed by two ditches, It is called a causewayed enclosure because the way the ditches were dug meant that there would originally have been gaps. These gaps, and the bank being only 17 centimetres high, instead the ditches may have been symbolic, separating the interior of the enclosure and its activities from the outside. Archaeologist Niall Sharples, who was involved in excavating the fort in the 1980s, has identified the hilltop views of the surrounding landscape as a likely factor for the enclosures position. The interior of the enclosure has been disturbed by later habitation, the site does not appear to have been inhabited, although a grave containing the remains of two children, aged 6–7, has been discovered. The enclosure is the earliest evidence of activity on the site. The purpose of Neolithic causewayed enclosures is unclear, and they probably had a variety of functions, radiocarbon dating indicates that the enclosure was abandoned around 3,400 BCMaiden Castle, Dorset – Maiden Castle in 1934
23. Hod Hill – Hod Hill is a large hill fort in the Blackmore Vale,3 miles north-west of Blandford Forum, Dorset, England. The fort sits on a 143 m chalk hill of the name that lies between the adjacent Dorset Downs and Cranborne Chase. The hill fort at Hambledon Hill is just to the north, the fort is roughly rectangular, with an enclosed area of 22 ha. There is a natural slope down to the River Stour to the west. The main entrance is at the south-east corner, with openings at the south-west and north-east corners. The hillfort was inhabited by the Durotriges in the late Iron Age, there is extensive evidence of settlement within the fort, including platforms for roundhouses. Hod Hill is the second in a series of Iron Age earthworks, starting from Hambledon Hill, the Iron Age port at Hengistbury Head forms a final Iron Age monument in this small chain of sites. The hill was captured in AD43 by the Roman Second Legion, led by Vespasian, the Romans built a camp in the north-west corner of the original fort, occupied by a mixed force of 720 legionaries and auxiliaries. The site was excavated in the 1950s by Sir Ian Richmond, today the hill is an important calcareous grassland habitat, home to spectacular wild flowers and butterflies. Castles from the air, Roly Smith, in The Guardian, the Making Of The Dorset Landscape, Christopher Taylor, Hodder & Stoughton. Dorset and the Second Legion, Norman Field, ISBN 1-871164-11-7, contains a hand-drawn, plan-view illustration of the site on page 67. Media related to Hod Hill at Wikimedia CommonsHod Hill – A view of the northern side of Hod Hill with the inner rampart on the left, the ditch in the middle and the outer rampart on the right.
24. Dorchester, Dorset – Dorchester is the county town of Dorset, England. It is situated between Poole and Bridport on the A35 trunk route, the area around the town was first settled in prehistoric times. After the departure of the Romans, the town diminished in significance and it was the site of the Bloody Assizes presided over by Judge Jeffreys after the Monmouth Rebellion, and later the trial of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. In the 2011 census, the population of Dorchester was 19,060, the Brewery Square redevelopment project is taking place in phases, with other development projects planned. The town has a college, Kingston Maurward College, the Thomas Hardye Upper School. The Dorset County Hospital offers an accident and emergency service, through vehicular traffic is routed round the town by means of a bypass. The town has a club and a rugby union club, several museums. It is twinned with three towns in Europe, as well as having many listed buildings, a number of notable people have been associated with the town. It was for years the home and inspiration of the author Thomas Hardy. Dorchesters roots stem back to prehistoric times, different tribes lived there from 4000 BC. The Durotriges were likely to have been there when the Romans arrived in Britain in 43 AD and it appears to have taken part of its name from the local Durotriges tribe who inhabited the area. The remains of the Roman walls that surrounded the town can still be seen, the majority have been replaced by pathways that form a square inside modern Dorchester known as The Walks. A small segment of the wall remains near the Top o Town roundabout. Other Roman remains include part of the walls and the foundations of a town house near the county hall. Modern building works within the walls have unearthed Roman finds, in 1936 a cache of 22,000 3rd-century Roman coins was discovered in South Street. Other Roman finds include silver and copper known as Dorn pennies, a gold ring. The County Museum contains many Roman artefacts, the Romans built an aqueduct to supply the town with water. It was rediscovered in 1900 as the remains of a cut into the chalkDorchester, Dorset – Town Pump and Corn Exchange
25. A354 road – The A354 is a primary route in England which runs from Salisbury in Wiltshire to Easton on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, a total distance of 51 miles. From Salisbury the road crosses Cranborne Chase and briefly merges with the A350 at the Blandford Forum bypass before crossing the Dorset Downs,7 miles to the west it splits from the Dorchester bypass and runs south. The road now bypasses Upwey and Broadwey on a new section of road which has some 2 lane sections going north and 1 lane continuously going south towards Weymouth, after the old and new sections meet at Manor Roundabout the road follows down Weymouth Way alongside Radipole Lake. The final stretch runs across a bridge over Chesil beach onto Portland. The project was to build a 3. 75-mile single carriageway road, with crawler lane along part, the main carriageway of the Weymouth Relief Road opened on Thursday 17 March 2011. The 2012 Olympics at Portland played a factor in making £89m funding for the road available. 1983 - The Dorset Structure Plan proposed to construct the A354 Weymouth, december 1987 to April 1988 - a public inquiry was held into proposals for development in the Lorton area which included a new single carriagewayroute running from Mount Pleasant to Littlemoor. These proposals were refused consent by the Secretary of State, between 1989 and 1992 - various studies and consultation exercises undertaken into alternative route options and alignments for a dual carriageway road between the Ridgeway and north Weymouth. 1992 - work on an application and Environmental Statement for this scheme began. July 1994 - a dual carriageway road along the alignment was granted planning permission,1996 - A public inquiry into the Compulsory Purchase and Side Road Orders was held. The Secretary of State approved these orders, however, work on the scheme was never started as, following a Government review of road construction, the funding for the scheme was not forthcoming. The planning permission lapsed after 5 years, following the lapse of permission Dorset County Council undertook a review of the previously consented scheme. September 2005 - a planning application and Environmental Statement for a road along the route was submitted by Dorset County Council. As a result of the councils re-assessment, changes were made to the September 2005 proposals, March 2011 - Relief Road was opened Dorset for you - Weymouth Relief RoadA354 road – A354 road
26. Weymouth and Portland – Weymouth and Portland is a local government district and borough in Dorset, England. In Portland Harbour is the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy, the main reason that the resort was chosen to be an Olympic venue was that the Sailing Academy had only recently been built, so no new venue would need to be provided. Weymouth and Portlands waters have also credited by the Royal Yachting Association as the best in Northern Europe. The district of Weymouth and Portland was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, which merged the borough of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis, the district is divided into 15 wards for elections—12 of them are in Weymouth, and three are in Portland. Currently the District Council is under the control of the Conservatives, Weymouth and Portland and Purbeck districts are in the South Dorset parliamentary constituency, created in 1885. The constituency elects one Member of Parliament, the current MP for South Dorset is Richard Drax, a member of the Conservative Party, who was voted in during the 2010 General Election, beating the incumbent Labour MP Jim Knight. Weymouth and Portland, the rest of the south west, Weymouth and Portland Borough Council electionsWeymouth and Portland – Weymouth and Portland shown within Dorset
27. British colonisation of the Americas – British colonization of the Americas began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas. The British were among the most important colonizers of the Americas, three types of colonies existed in the British Empire in America during the height of its power in the 18th Century. These were charter colonies, proprietary colonies and royal colonies, a group of 13 British American colonies collectively broke from the British Empire in the 1770s through a successful revolution, establishing the modern United States. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, British territories in the Americas were slowly granted more responsible government, in 1838 the Durham Report recommended full responsible government for Canada, but this was not fully implemented for another decade. Eventually, with the Confederation of Canada, the Canadian colonies were granted significant autonomy, other colonies in the Americas followed at a much slower pace. In this way, two countries in North America, ten in the Caribbean, and one in South America have received their independence from the United Kingdom, all of these are members of the Commonwealth of Nations and nine are Commonwealth realms. The eight current British overseas territories in the Americas have varying degrees of self-government, a number of English colonies were established under a system of Proprietary Governors, who were appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements. In 1607, Jamestown, Virginia was founded by the London Company, in Newfoundland, a chartered company known as the Society of Merchant Venturers established a permanent settlement at Cupers Cove, from 1610. St. Georges, Bermuda was founded by the Virginia Company, in 1664, England took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland which England renamed the Province of New York. With New Netherland, the English also came to control the former New Sweden and this later became part of Pennsylvania after that was established in 1680. The Kingdom of Scotland tried unsuccessfully to establish a colony at Darién, thousands of Scotsmen also participated in English colonization before the two countries were united in 1707. The Kingdom of Great Britain acquired the French colony of Acadia in 1713 and then Canada, in the north, the Hudsons Bay Company actively traded for fur with the indigenous peoples, and had competed with French, Aboriginal, and Metis fur traders. The company came to control the entire basin of Hudson Bay. The small part of the Hudson Bay drainage south of the 49th parallel went to the United States in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. Great Britain also colonised the west coast of North America, indirectly via the Hudsons Bay Company licenses west of the Rocky Mountains, the Columbia District and New Caledonia fur district. British Columbia was expanded with the inclusion of the Stikine Territory in 1863, in 1867, the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada combined to form a self-governing dominion, named Canada, within the British Empire. Quebec and Nova Scotia had been ceded to Britain by the French, the colonies of Prince Edward Island and British Columbia joined over the next six years, and Newfoundland joined in 1949. Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory were ceded to Canada in 1870 and this area now consists of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, as well as the Northwest Territories, the Yukon Territory, and NunavutBritish colonisation of the Americas – Plaque in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, commemorating Gilbert's founding of the British overseas Empire
28. Georgian era – The era covers the period from 1714 to 1830, with the sub-period of the Regency defined by the Regency of George IV as Prince of Wales during the illness of his father George III. The definition of the Georgian era is often extended to include the reign of William IV. The term Georgian is typically used in the contexts of social history and their work ushered in a new era of poetry, characterised by vivid and colourful language, evocative of elevating ideas and themes. Fine examples of distinctive Georgian architecture are Edinburghs New Town, Georgian Dublin, Grainger Town in Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Georgian Quarter of Liverpool and much of Bristol, the evangelical movement inside and outside the Church of England gained strength in the late 18th and early 19th century. Wesley himself preached 52,000 times, calling on men and women to redeem the time, wesley always operated inside the Church of England, but at his death, it set up outside institutions that became the Methodist Church. It stood alongside the traditional nonconformist churches, Presbyterians, Congregationalist, Baptists, Unitarians, the nonconformist churches, however, were less influenced by revivalism. The Church of England remained dominant, but it had a growing evangelical and its leaders included William Wilberforce and Hannah More. It reached the class through the Clapham Sect. All souls were equal in Gods view, but not all bodies, mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies. Mercantilism meant that the government and the merchants became partners with the goal of increasing power and private wealth. The government protected its merchants—and kept others out—by trade barriers, regulations, the government had to fight smuggling, which became a favourite American technique in the 18th century to circumvent the restrictions on trading with the French, Spanish or Dutch. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses, so that gold, the government took its share through duties and taxes, with the remainder going to merchants in Britain. The government spent much of its revenue on a large and powerful Royal Navy, which not only protected the British colonies but threatened the colonies of the other empires, the colonies were captive markets for British industry, and the goal was to enrich the mother country. In Europe, the wars with France dragged on for nearly a quarter of a century, victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Waterloo under Admiral Lord Nelson and the Duke of Wellington brought a sense of triumphalism and political reaction. With the ending of the War with France, Great Britain entered a period of economic depression and political uncertainty, characterised by social discontent. The Radical political party published a leaflet called The Political Register, the so-called March of the Blanketeers saw 400 spinners and weavers march from Manchester to London in March 1817 to hand the Government a petition. The Luddites destroyed and damaged machinery in the industrial north-west of England, the Cato Street Conspiracy of 1820 sought to blow up the Cabinet and then move on to storm the Tower of London and overthrow the government. This too was thwarted, with the conspirators executed or transported to Australia and this is the beginning of the House of Hanovers reign over the British CrownGeorgian era – The Georgian architecture of The Circus, Bath, built between 1754 and 1768
29. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of JapanWorld War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
30. Seaside resort – A seaside resort is a resort town or resort hotel, located on the coast. Sometimes it is also an officially accredited title, that is awarded to a town when the requirements are met. Where a beach is the focus for tourists, it may be called a beach resort. The coast has always been a recreational environment, although until the mid-nineteenth century, even in Roman times, the town of Baiae, by the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy, was a resort for those who were sufficiently prosperous. Mersea Island, in Essex, England was a holiday destination for wealthy Romans living in Colchester. The development of the beach as a leisure resort from the mid-19th century was the first manifestation of what is now the global tourist industry. The first seaside resorts were opened in the 18th century for the aristocracy, the first rolling bathing machines were introduced by 1735. In 1793, Heiligendamm in Mecklenburg, Germany was founded as the first seaside resort of the European continent and this trend was praised and artistically elevated by the new romantic ideal of the picturesque landscape, Jane Austens unfinished novel Sanditon is an example of that. The extension of this form of leisure to the middle and working class began with the development of the railways in the 1840s, in particular, the completion of a branch line to the small seaside town Blackpool from Poulton led to a sustained economic and demographic boom. The growth was intensified by the practice among the Lancashire cotton mill owners of closing the factories for an every year to service. These became known as wakes weeks, each towns mills would close for a different week, allowing Blackpool to manage a steady and reliable stream of visitors over a prolonged period in the summer. A prominent feature of the resort was the promenade and the pleasure piers, in 1863, the North Pier in Blackpool was completed, rapidly becoming a centre of attraction for elite visitors. Central Pier was completed in 1868, with a theatre and a large dance floor. Many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines because even the all-covering beachwear of the period was considered immodest, by the end of the century the English coastline had over 100 large resort towns, some with populations exceeding 50,000. The development of the seaside resort abroad was stimulated by the well developed English love of the beach, the French Riviera alongside the Mediterranean had already become a popular destination for the British upper class by the end of the 18th century. In 1864, the first railway to Nice was completed, making the Riviera accessible to visitors all over Europe. By 1874, residents of foreign enclaves in Nice, most of whom were British, the coastline became renowned for attracting the royalty of Europe, including Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. Continental European attitudes towards gambling and nudity tended to be more lax than in Britain, the place was renamed Monte CarloSeaside resort – Heiligendamm in Mecklenburg (Germany), established in 1793, is the oldest seaside resort in continental Europe.
31. World Heritage Site – A World Heritage Site is a landmark which has been officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some form of significance. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the interests of humanity. The programme catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture, under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The program was founded with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the Worlds Cultural and Natural Heritage, since then,192 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most adhered to international instruments. As of July 2016,1052 sites are listed,814 cultural,203 natural, in 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites. In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the Member States for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia, the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. The project cost $80 million, about $40 million of which was collected from 50 countries, the projects success led to other safeguarding campaigns, saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, and the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia. UNESCO then initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, the United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation. The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, the Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of June 2016, it has been ratified by 192 states, including 188 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See, Niue, a country must first list its significant cultural and natural sites, the result is called the Tentative List. A country may not nominate sites that have not been first included on the Tentative List, next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File. The Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and these bodies then make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list, up to 2004, there were six criteria for cultural heritage and four criteria for natural heritage. In 2005, this was modified so there is now only one set of ten criteria. Nominated sites must be of outstanding value and meet at least one of the ten criteria. Thus, the Geneva Convention treaty promulgates, Article 53, PROTECTION OF CULTURAL OBJECTS AND OF PLACES OF WORSHIP. There are 1,052 World Heritage Sites located in 165 States Party, of these,814 are cultural,203 are natural and 35 are mixed propertiesWorld Heritage Site – Site #252: Taj Mahal, an example of cultural heritage site
32. Portland Harbour – Portland Harbour is located beside the Isle of Portland, Dorset, on the south coast of England. It is naturally protected by Portland to the south, Chesil Beach to the west and it consists of four breakwaters — two southern and two northern. These have a length of 4.57 km and enclose approximately 520 hectares of water. The initial southern breakwaters were built between 1849 and 1872, and Portland Harbour was a Royal Navy base until 1995, historically the original harbour was formed by the protection offered by the south coast of England, Chesil Beach and the Isle of Portland. This gave protection from the weather to ships from all directions except the east, the natural shelter was used by ships for centuries, and Romans valued the areas strategic importance. In the 16th century, King Henry VIII built Portland Castle, a refuge harbour had been suggested in 1794, however parliamentary approval was not granted until 1844. Construction of the harbour began in 1845 when the Royal Navy established a base at Portland for replenishment of the fleet. The new base at Portland was to be the first naval anchorage specifically designed for the new steam navy, the construction of the initial two breakwaters - the southern pair - began in 1849, after HRH Prince Albert laid the foundation stone on 25 July 1849. They were designed by engineer James Meadows Rendel, and the carried out under civil engineer John Towlerton Leather, with Rendel as engineer in chief. The two southern breakwaters were declared complete by HRH Edward the Prince of Wales on 10 August 1872, the construction work had become Dorsets greatest tourist attraction, and the countrys most expensive public project. During 1848, HM Prison Portland was opened to provide convict labour, to quarry the stone needed to construct the breakwaters and these were known as the Admiralty Quarries, and provided 10,000 tons of stone per week for use on the breakwaters. The Admiralty Railway was created to transport the stone down to the harbour, a set of various defences were created to defend the harbour. The Verne Citadel, was designed by Captain Crosman R. E. the 56 acre fortress was designed for 1000 troops, and gun emplacements were built facing seawards on three sides. Located on the highest point of Portland, Verne Hill, it sits in a position overlooking Portland Harbour. Below the eastern side of the citadel, East Weare Battery was built during the 1860s, the detention barracks of East Weare Camp were built above the battery circa 1880. On the end of the breakwater the Inner Pierhead Fort was built. In Weymouth, across the side of the harbour, Nothe Fort was built at the end of the Nothe Peninsula. In 1892 the Verne High Angle Battery was built in a disused Portland Stone quarry near the Verne Citadel, the harbour became a Royal Navy base with dockyard, refuelling and training facilitiesPortland Harbour – Southern and eastern entrances of Portland Harbour looking northeast from the Isle of Portland across Balaclava Bay. The dark colour of the water between the two breakwaters in the foreground indicates the position of the scuttled battleship HMS Hood.
33. Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy – Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy is a centre for the sport of sailing on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, on the south coast of England. The academy building is located in Osprey Quay on the tip of the island. The academy was formed as a company in 1999 and officially opened on 1 April 2000. It occupied converted naval premises until a clubhouse was built, which was opened in June 2005 by the Princess Royal. The academys aims are to promote the sport of sailing at all levels of competence and ability, through courses, training and events, since opening it has created a demand in service and marine industries worth around £10 million. WPNSA continues to promote sailing to local schools, offering such as free boat hoist. Use of the facilities and access to training is open to anyone in return for a membership fee. On 6 July 2005, London was chosen to host the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, Portland Harbour and Weymouth Bay are the main areas used for sailing. The outside of the complex has a 40-metre slipway and two deep water slipways,30 pontoons with disabled access, cranage and boat hoists, boat storage. WPNSA also operates Boscawen House, formerly a residence, which offers accommodation for a maximum of 47 people. The clubhouse generates 15–20% of its electricity from solar cells, the £30 million scheme, called Castle Court, includes a hotel, apartments, public areas, a restaurant, shops and other employment space, and is expected to create 300 jobs. A permanent base for the Royal Yachting Associations senior, youth, junior, local events are also held at the academy, nearby schools have extra-curricular sailing lessons, and in October each year WPNSA hosts Weymouth Speed Week. The British Olympic Sailing Team train at WPNSA, in 2005, the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy was chosen as the venue for the sailing competition at the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games. WPNSA was chosen to host these events due to its existing World class facilities, in addition, the Academy provides direct access to Portland Harbour and Weymouth Bay which have been credited as some of the best sailing waters in the World. Olympic sailing events took place between 28 July and 11 August 2012, and Paralympic events between 31 August and 5 September, one course was in Portland Harbour and four in Weymouth Bay. Sailors from all over the world competed for 30 medals in the Olympic Games and 18 medals in the Paralympic Games, a cruise liner berthed at Portland Port was used as accommodation. The academy is around 190 kilometres from the Olympic Zone in central London, there was concern about the logistics of transporting athletes from London to the academy, as there is no motorway in Dorset, and transport links are already often congested in summer. Services to London Waterloo began running every 30 minutes from December 2007, work on the road commenced in 2008, and as anticipated it was completed in three years, in time for the 2012 Olympic sailing eventsWeymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy – Portland Harbour, seen from The Verne. The academy's clubhouse is on the far left.
34. 2012 Olympic Games – It took place in London and to a lesser extent across the United Kingdom from 25 July to 12 August 2012. The first event, the stage in womens football began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated, London is the first and only city thus far to host the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability, the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid, the Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Womens boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors and these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China, several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a technical evaluation. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February, throughout the process, Paris was widely seen as the favourite, particularly as this was its third bid in recent years. London was initially seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin and its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between London and Paris, on 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities. They did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive, London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid also received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, on 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York, the final two contenders were London and Paris2012 Olympic Games – Lord Coe – the head of the London 2012 bid
35. Limestone – Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids, intraclasts and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may also form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, clastic, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, quartz, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marbleLimestone – Limestone outcrop in the Torcal de Antequera nature reserve of Málaga, Spain
36. Natural arch – A natural arch, natural bridge or, less commonly, a rock arch is a natural rock formation where an arch has formed with an opening underneath. Natural arches commonly form where inland cliffs, coastal cliffs, fins or stacks are subject to erosion from the sea, most natural arches are formed from narrow fins and sea stacks composed of sandstone or limestone with steep, often vertical, cliff faces. The formations become narrower due to erosion over time scales. The softer rock stratum erodes away creating rock shelters, or alcoves, on sides of the formation beneath the relatively harder stratum, or caprock. The alcoves erode further into the formation eventually meeting underneath the harder caprock layer, the choice between bridge and arch is somewhat arbitrary. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society identifies a bridge as a subtype of arch that is primarily water-formed, by contrast, the Dictionary of Geological Terms defines a natural bridge as a natural arch that spans a valley of erosion. The largest natural arch, by a significant margin, is the Xianren Bridge in China, on coasts two different types of arches can form depending on the geology. On discordant coastlines rock types run at 90° to the coast, wave refraction concentrates the wave energy on the headland, and an arch forms when caves break through the headland. Two examples of type of arch are London Arch—previously known as London Bridge—in Victoria, Australia. When these arches eventually collapse, they form stacks and stumps, on concordant coastlines rock types run parallel to the coastline, with weak rock such as shale protected by stronger rock such as limestone. The wave action along concordant coastlines breaks through the strong rock, good examples of this type of arch are the Durdle Door and Stair Hole near Lulworth Cove on Dorsets Jurassic Coast in south England. When Stair Hole eventually collapses it will form a cove, weather-eroded arches begin their formation as deep cracks which penetrate into a sandstone layer. Erosion occurring within the cracks wears away exposed rock layers and enlarges the surface cracks isolating narrow sandstone walls which are called fins, alternating frosts and thawing cause crumbling and flaking of the porous sandstone and eventually cut through some of the fins. The resulting holes become enlarged to arch proportions by rockfalls and weathering, the arches eventually collapse leaving only buttresses that in time will erode. Many weather-eroded arches are found in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, some natural bridges may look like arches, but they form in the path of streams that wear away and penetrate the rock. Pothole arches form by chemical weathering as water collects in natural depressions, Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah protects the area surrounding three large natural bridges all of which were formed by streams running through canyons. The largest of which is named Sipapu Bridge with a span of 225 feet, Natural bridges can form from natural limestone caves, where paired sinkholes collapse and a ridge of stone is left standing in between, with the cave passageway connecting from sinkhole to sinkhole. Like all rock formations, natural bridges are subject to continued erosion, one example of this was the double-arched Victorian coastal rock formation, London Bridge, which lost an arch after storms increased erosionNatural arch – The Delicate Arch in Arches National Park in Utah, United States.
37. West Lulworth – West Lulworth is a village and civil parish in the Purbeck district of Dorset, England, situated on the English Channel beside Lulworth Cove. In the 2011 census the civil parish—which includes most of Lulworth Camp army base—had 291 households, the village is a gateway to the Jurassic Coast world heritage site and is a popular tourist destination, especially for day trips. In 1086 in the Domesday Book West Lulworth was not distinguished from neighbouring East Lulworth and it had 38.3 households, was in Winfrith Hundred and the lord and tenant-in-chief was Aiulf the chamberlain. Despite this, East and West Lulworth may have been separate settlements at this time, the Castle Inn is one of the oldest pubs in Dorset, dating from the 16th century. Holy Trinity parish church was originally in the centre, but was demolished in 1869 although the old churchyard still remains. The present church, built of stone taken from the cove. It was largely financed by the then incumbent Rev. William Gildea, from the late seventeenth to the mid nineteenth century smugglers used Lulworth Cove and other bays and beaches nearby. The building of cottages, which housed the customs officers still stand above the cove. Lulworth at one point had a mill, powered by water from a nearby spring and it was burnt down during the 19th century and all that remains of its existence is the millpond. West Lulworth civil parish covers 2,593 acres, the underlying geology is mostly chalk, with a strip of Portland limestone along the coast. At Lulworth Cove the sea has breached the limestone and eroded the soft Wealden Beds behind, West Lulworth village is dominated by two hills, to the east is Bindon Hill, a 170m high ridge, which has extensive remains of Iron Age earthworks. To the west is Hambury Tout, which has a barrow on its rounded top, West Lulworth village is about half a mile north of Lulworth Cove, a picturesque, sheltered bay enclosed almost in a circle. The natural limestone arch of Durdle Door is half a mile west along the coast from Lulworth Cove, West Lulworth village has a first school, several small hotels, pubs and a general store. Commercial fishing is based at the cove, together with scallop diving, West Lulworth is part of West Purbeck electoral ward. This ward extends northwards from the Cove to East Stoke and the intermediate area, the total population of the ward at the 2011 Census was 1,464. West Purbeck ward is part of the UK Parliamentary Constituency for South DorsetWest Lulworth – Parish church of the Holy Trinity
38. History of Dorset – Dorset is a rural county in south west England. Its archaeology documents much of the history of southern England, the first known settlement of Dorset was by Mesolithic hunters, who returned to Britain at a time when it was still attached to Europe by a land-bridge, around 12,500 BC. These populations used stone tools and fire to some of the native oak forest for herding prey. Neolithic and Bronze Age burial mounds are numerous throughout much of the county. The chalk downs were largely deforested during these times, making way for field, by the Late Iron Age, the inhabitants of Dorset were minting their own coinage and thriving on trade with Northern Gaul. However, after Armorica was conquered by Julius Caesar in 56 BC, the dried up, the Romans re-arranged trade with Britain to the profit of their allies. The next century or so until the Roman conquest saw a long period of economic retrenchment in Dorset, in parallel with a rising population. The Romans record the name of the native British tribe that lived in Dorset as the Durotriges, who were also the tribe of much of Somerset and possibly the New Forest. Sometimes translated as water dwellers, this name could mean that they were seafarers, however, this etymology is unsound, based on the Welsh word dwr meaning water, however the earlier form of the word was dwfr, which suggests an Ancient British ancestor-word *dubro-, not *duro-. The etymology of the first element is thus far from certain, the Romans landed in Dorset at Poole Harbour and the Fleet and moved inland, while other groups travelled west from Old Sarum and Winchester. At Abbotsbury on the Fleet the Romans quickly took the fort, Abbotsbury Castle. There is some evidence of a struggle at Maiden Castle and Badbury Rings but current opinion amongst archaeologists is that these, there is, however, a find of 130 skeletons at Spetisbury which show that the invasion was not entirely peaceful. Dorset has many notable Roman artefacts, particularly around the Roman town Dorchester, in the Roman era settlements moved from the hill tops to the valleys, with Roman finds, such as the famous Hinton St Mary mosaic, being found in the vales. By the 4th century the hilltops had been abandoned, in the post Roman period from about 400 AD to 650 AD, the future Dorset was an independent British kingdom. Although there were Jutish and later Saxon people in the Southampton area from the 5th century, one of the key battles between the Britons and Saxons may have been fought at Badbury Rings, though this is disputed. The only historical record of the period, Gildass De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, there may have been a Saxon raid at Bindon in 614, though the location is not certain. There is a group of Romano-British inscriptions at Wareham, the inhospitable coastline prevented an invasion from the sea. When the Roman road across Cranborne Chase was rebuilt in the 6th century the Saxons advanced into Dorset, the Romano-British retreated, constructing another defence, Combs Ditch, which also fell within a centuryHistory of Dorset – Maiden Castle is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
39. Geology of Dorset – Dorset /ˈdɔːrsᵻt/ is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres, it borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, and Hampshire to the east. The great variation in its landscape owes much to the geology which includes an almost unbroken sequence of rocks from 200 Ma to 40 Ma. In general the oldest rocks appear in the far west of the county, throughout Dorset there are a number of limestone ridges. Between the bands of limestone and chalk are wide clay vales with flood plains, south-east Dorset, around Poole, Bournemouth and the New Forest, lies on younger and less resistant beds, Eocene clays, sands and gravels. These rocks produce thin soils that historically have supported a heathland habitat, the chalk and limestone hills of the Purbecks lie atop Britains largest onshore oil field. The field, operated from Wytch Farm, produces a high-quality oil and has the worlds oldest continuously pumping well at Kimmeridge, the source of this oil is the organic-rich shales found in the lower lias. Landslides along the coast have been known to ignite these shales causing cliff fires, when these continents collided to form the single super-continent of Pangaea, the sediments on the ocean floor were pushed up and over while the molten rock below the surface was forced out. Today, these intrusions and the red sandstones, visible in the neighbouring county of Devon. Around 204 Ma Dorset, now 30 degrees north, was under water, formed somewhere between 185 Ma and 204 Ma, in what was then a shallow marine environment, the Lower Lias Lias is composed of Blue Lias, Black Ven Marls and Green Ammonite Beds. The sides of the vale are mainly made from the clays and sands of the upper and lower Lias while younger strata from the Cretaceous Period, crown the higher points. The Blue Lias is the lowest of the Liassic stratum and where it is visible on the coast near Lyme Regis is layered with hard limestone, the iron pyrites in the clay can heat up when exposed to the air and occasionally ignite the shales. Around Lyme Regis, during the 18th and 19th centuries, the collecting, landslides and the excavation of the clays, used in cement production, exposed not only an abundance of ammonites of varying size, but much larger specimens such as ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Although these rocks were formed underwater, the discovery of wood, land-dwelling animals. These sands are thought to have come from the islands now form part of Cornwall. Again, inland exposure is poor, although the middle Lias is visible along the line of the hills that surround the Marshwood Vale. The cliffs either side of Eype and the stretch between Thorncombe and Watton Cliff provide the best view. The base of the middle Lias is composed of three layers of calcareous sandstone beds separated by marlsGeology of Dorset – The blue lias cliffs at Lyme Regis
40. Flag of Dorset – The Flag of Dorset is the flag of the English county of Dorset. The Dorset Cross was chosen as the flag of Dorset on 16 September 2008 following a vote, open to all Dorset residents. The unitary authorities of Bournemouth and Poole declined an invitation to participate, the flag has subsequently been registered at the Flag Institute and added to their UK Flags Register. In 2005 Dorset expatriate Stephen Coombs conceived a Dorset flag using white and red from the arms of Dorset County Council, using a simple cross design on a golden background. Dorchester resident David White joined the discussion in 2006 and created the very first version of the flag, but no serious attempt to raise the profile of the flag occurred at that time. In 2007, a banner of the Dorset County Council coat of arms appeared for commercial sale which prompted David White to raise the question of a flag for Dorset in the press. The councils initial response was to reject these calls saying it had no authority to create a flag as its area was not the same as the county itself. In early 2008, following discussions with Flag Institute member Jason Saber, in order to produce flags for the campaign and spread awareness, local businesses were offered the opportunity to sponsor production of the first 100 flags. Designs were submitted until the end of June 2008, during this time, Chris Brown convinced the town of Wimborne Minster to adopt the Coombs/White flag regardless of the competition outcome. The Dorset Cross was announced as the winner on 16 September 2008 after receiving 54% of the vote, subsequent funding made from the campaign was given to local charities. In November 2010, the flag was flown above HQ of the Department for Communities, in an initiative by Eric Pickles MP, each of the nation’s county flags were flown for a week to show their importance to the nation’s heritage. The flag featured prominently in the 2013 Dorset set TV series Broadchurch. Dorset based brewery Sunny Republic created an ale named Dorset Cross after the flag, the Dorset flag is made of three colours - red, white and gold. These colours are found in the arms of Dorset County Council, Dorset was at the heart of Wessex, which allegedly used a golden dragon as its emblem. During spring, much of rural Dorset grows rapeseed, covering the county in fields of yellow, Dorset also grows wheat and barley. Dorsets sandy beaches, particularly Weymouth and Bournemouth, golden Cap, the highest point on the Jurassic Coast. Gold Hill, the famous street in Shaftesbury. The Dorset militia and regiment used the gold, redFlag of Dorset – Dorset
41. Brownsea Island Scout camp – Boys from different social backgrounds participated from 1 to 8 August 1907 in activities around camping, observation, woodcraft, chivalry, lifesaving and patriotism. Recognised as the worlds first Scout camp, the event is regarded as the origin of the worldwide Scout movement. Up to the early 1930s, camping by Boy Scouts continued on Brownsea Island, in 1963, a formal 50-acre Scout campsite was opened by Olave Baden-Powell, when the island became a nature conservation area owned by the National Trust. In 1973, a Scout Jamboree was held on the island with 600 Scouts, the worldwide centenary of Scouting took place at the Brownsea Island Scout camp, celebrated on 1 August 2007, the 100th anniversary of the start of the first encampment. Activities by The Scout Association at the campsite included four Scout camps, robert Baden-Powell had become a national hero during the Boer War as a result of his successful defence of the town of Mafeking, which was under siege from October 1899 to May 1900. The Mafeking Cadets, made up of boys aged 12 to 15, acted as messengers throughout the siege. Baden-Powell had also published a number of books on military scouting, including Aids to Scouting for NCOs and Men. Though written for non-commissioned officers, it became a best-seller and was used by teachers, to test his ideas while writing Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell conceived of an experimental camp, creating a program to take place on Brownsea Island during the summer of 1907. He invited his friend, Major Kenneth McLaren, to attend the camp as an assistant. Baden-Powell had visited Brownsea Island as a boy with his brothers and it covers 560 acres of woodland and open areas, and features two lakes. The island perfectly suited his needs for the camp as it was isolated from the mainland and hence from the press, yet was only a ferry trip from the town of Poole. Baden-Powell invited boys from different social backgrounds to the camp, an idea during the class-conscious Edwardian era. Eleven came from the private boarding schools of Eton and Harrow. Seven came from the Boys Brigade at Bournemouth, and three came from the Brigade at Poole & Hamworthy, Baden-Powells nine-year-old nephew Donald Baden-Powell also attended. The camp fee was dependent on means, one pound for the school boys. The boys were arranged into four patrols, designated as the Wolves, Ravens, Bulls and it is uncertain if 20 or 21 boys attended the camp. At least four authors list attendance at 20 boys, and that they were organised into five patrols with Baden-Powells nephew Donald as camp orderly. These sources included an article in The Scout, Sir Percy Everett in The First Ten Years and Rover Word, in 1964, William Hillcourt added the fourth Rodney brother, Simon, in Two Lives of a Hero, bringing the total to 21Brownsea Island Scout camp – Robert Baden-Powell at Brownsea Island, 1907
42. Scouting – During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls. It is one of worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance, in the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book. This camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are generally regarded as the start of the Scout movement. The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges, the year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, and member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting virtually started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell, at Charterhouse, one of Englands most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. Later, as an officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance. These skills eventually formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, three years later, in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafeking by a much larger Boer army. The Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, the Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defense of the town, and were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement. Each member received a badge that illustrated a combined compass point, the badges logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting later adopted as its international symbol. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powells struggle to hold Mafeking, and he was urged to rewrite this book for boys, especially during an inspection of the Boys Brigade, a large youth movement drilled with military precision. Baden-Powell thought this would not be attractive and suggested that the Boys Brigade could grow much larger were Scouting to be used and he studied other schemes, parts of which he used for Scouting. In July 1906, Ernest Thompson Seton sent Baden-Powell a copy of his 1902 book The Birchbark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians, Seton, a British-born Canadian-American living in the United States, met Baden-Powell in October 1906, and they shared ideas about youth training programs. In 1907 Baden-Powell wrote a draft called Boy Patrols, in the same year, to test his ideas, he gathered 21 boys of mixed social backgrounds and held a week-long camp in August on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England. His organizational method, now known as the Patrol System and a key part of Scouting training, in the autumn of 1907, Baden-Powell went on an extensive speaking tour arranged by his publisher, Arthur Pearson, to promote his forthcoming book, Scouting for Boys. He had not simply rewritten his Aids to Scouting, he omitted the military aspects and transferred the techniques to non-military heroes, backwoodsmen and he also added innovative educational principles by which he extended the attractive game to a personal mental education. At the beginning of 1908, Baden-Powell published Scouting for Boys in six fortnightly parts, the reaction was phenomenal, and quite unexpectedScouting – Leaders welcome a boy into Scouting, March 2010, Mexico City, Mexico
43. Brownsea Island – Brownsea Island is the largest of the islands in Poole Harbour in the county of Dorset, England. The island is owned by the National Trust, much of the island is open to the public and includes areas of woodland and heath with a wide variety of wildlife, together with cliff top views across Poole Harbour and the Isle of Purbeck. The island was the location of a camp in 1907 that led to the formation of the Scout movement in 1908. Access is by ferry or private boat, in 2002 the island received 105,938 visitors. The islands name comes from Anglo-Saxon Brūnoces īeg = Brūnocs island, Brownsea Island lies in Poole Harbour opposite the town of Poole in Dorset, England. It is the largest of eight islands in the harbour, the island can be reached by one of the public ferries or by private boat. There is a wharf and a dock near the main castle. The island is 1.5 miles long and 0.75 miles wide and consists of 500 acres of woodland, heathland, the entire island, except the church and a few other buildings which are leased or managed by third parties, is owned by the National Trust. Most of the buildings are situated near the landing stage. The northern portion of the island is a Nature Reserve managed by Dorset Wildlife Trust and an important habitat for birds, this part of the island has limited public access. A small portion to the south-east of the island, along with Brownsea Castle, is leased to the John Lewis Partnership for use as a hotel for staff. The island forms part of the Studland civil parish in the Purbeck local government district and it is within the South Dorset constituency of the House of Commons and the South West England constituency of the European Parliament. Brownsea Island has built up on a sand and mud bank deposited in the shallow harbour. Ecological succession has taken place on the island to create topsoil able to support ecosystems, the nature reserve on the island is leased from the National Trust by Dorset Wildlife Trust. This reserve includes a lagoon and area of woodland. Other ecosystems on the island include salt marsh, reedbed, two lakes, alder carr, coniferous woodland, deciduous woodland and arboretum. In the past invasive species such as rhododendrons, also non-native, were introduced to the island, the entire island is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The island is one of the few places in southern England where indigenous red squirrels survive, the Brownsea red squirrel population is the only population known in the UK to carry the human form of the bacteria stem Mycobacterium leprae that causes leprosy in humansBrownsea Island – The castle and piers on Brownsea Island
44. Poole Harbour – Poole Harbour is a large natural harbour in Dorset, southern England, with the town of Poole on its shores. The harbour is a valley formed at the end of the last ice age and is the estuary of several rivers. The harbour has a history of human settlement stretching to pre-Roman times. The harbour is shallow, with one main dredged channel through the harbour. Poole Harbour has an area of approximately 36 km2, other large natural harbours are, Frances 120 km2 Gulf of Morbihan, New Zealands 947 km2 Kaipara Harbour and San Francisco Bay in California with a conservative estimate of 1,040 km2 covered. In 1964 during harbour dredging, the remains of a 2000-year-old Iron Age logboat were found off Brownsea Island. Dated at about 295 BC, the 10 metres Poole Logboat is one of the largest vessels of its type from British waters, the low freeboard would have limited its use to within Poole Harbour. Poole was used by the Romans as a port for the conquest of southern England. A Roman Road ran north from Hamworthy to Badbury Rings, a Roman transport hub, at the time of the Norman Conquest, Poole was a small fishing village. The port grew, and in 1433 Poole was made Dorsets Port of the Staple for the export of wool, medieval Poole had trading links from the Baltics to Italy. In the 17th century the town began trading with North America, in particular Newfoundland, in the 18th century Poole was the principal British port trading with North America. With regular dredging of a channel through the harbour, it has regained some importance, the previous holder of that title was the 24, 534GRT,151 Metre, Bretagne, which arrived in the port for the first time on 27 February 2007. The entrance to Poole Harbour is from the east, via Poole Bay, entering the harbour, heading west, on either side are the shores of Studland beach and Sandbanks. Directly ahead are several islands, the largest of which is Brownsea Island, following the harbour anti-clockwise, heading north-east passes the built up residential settlements of Poole including Lilliput and Parkstone. About 4 miles north-west of the entrance of the harbour is the entrance to Poole Quay, directly west of the main part of Poole is Hamworthy. Continuing anti-clockwise, heading west around the Harbour are the settlements of Upton and Wareham and this area of water within the Harbour is known as Wareham Channel and includes other places such as Rockley Sands. Continuing anti-clockwise, now heading south are the majority of the islands within the Harbour as well as several small channels, to the west is Arne Bay and the Wych channel. The majority of land in area is heathland, and there are few settlementsPoole Harbour – Green Island, one of the islands within Poole Harbour
45. The Thomas Hardye School – The Thomas Hardye School is a secondary academy school in Dorchester, Dorset, England. It is also part of the DASP group, the school is named after a distant collateral ancestor of the author Thomas Hardy and Admiral Thomas Hardy, Thomas Hardy of Melcombe Regis and Frampton. Hardy was a property owner who endowed the Dorchester free school in 1579 and his monument is on the south wall of St. Peters Church. The Tudor grammar school offered education to boys of the town and neighbourhood. It survived the doldrums of the 18th century, though at times having very few scholars and it was substantially rebuilt and re-opened in 1883. It was known as Dorchester Grammar School until 1952 or 1953, the Memorial Gates, dedicated in 1957, escaped demolition and were moved to the new Thomas Hardye School. Dorchester Grammar School for Girls was opened in around 1930, and these schools formed the basis of the Thomas Hardye School. Dorchester Grammar School for Girls became Castlefield School in 1980 on the site of the Dorchester Secondary Modern School, the boys school had boarding facilities until 1982. The current school is a merger of the former Hardyes School, the Hardyes School site was subsequently sold in 1995 and developed into housing. On Friday 12 December 2008, the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall visited the school to open the newly constructed library. On 1 August 2011, the Thomas Hardye School officially gained academy status under the UK Government scheme and it also has an integrated sixth form which sees many of its pupils later attending some of the UKs top universities every year. This takes pupils through A-Levels and AVCEs, IB courses are also available and many pupils have found that the course is becoming more popular among their prospective universities with some offers being recently lowered. Until the end of 2010, the headteacher was Dr. Iain Melvin O. B. E. The current headteacher is Michael Foley who started at the school in September 2011, the school is situated on the western edge of Dorchester, next to Thomas Hardye Leisure Centre. The school has the largest integrated sixth form in the United Kingdom which shares teachers, resources and facilities with the lower school and it offers a choice of more than 80 courses, which can be studied in a range of combinations. Since 2008 it has also offered pupils the opportunity to study for the International Baccalaureate, the IB is an internationally recognised qualification which offers access to the worlds leading universities. The school has a partnership with local land-based college Kingston Maurward, in June the Sixth Form votes for two new presidents to run the Student Union for the next year. The unions responsibilities vary, depending on direction the presidents want to take it, but generally they include charity, socials, promThe Thomas Hardye School – The Thomas Hardye School central building, known as "The Spine"
46. Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet – Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, 1st Baronet GCB was a Royal Navy officer. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797, the Battle of the Nile in August 1798 and he served as flag captain to Admiral Lord Nelson, and commanded HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars. Nelson was shot as he paced the decks with Hardy, and as he lay dying, Nelsons famous remark of Kiss me, Hardy was directed at him. Hardy went on to become First Naval Lord in November 1830 and in that capacity refused to become a Member of Parliament, during his time at school his name was carried on the books of the sixth-rate HMS Seaford and the third-rate HMS Carnatic. Hardy served off Marseilles and Toulon and was commissioned second lieutenant of the fifth-rate HMS Meleager under Captain Charles Tyler on 10 November 1793, horatio Nelson, then a commodore, moved his broad pennant to the Minerve in December 1796. While en route to Gibraltar, in the action of 19 December 1796, Minerve and her consort, lieutenants Hardy and Culverhouse were sent aboard the Santa Sabina with a prize crew, and the three ships continued on towards Gibraltar. Before the night was out, Nelson ran into the Spanish fleet and only managed to get away when Hardy drew the Spanish away from Minerve and fought until being dismasted and captured. Hardy and Culverhouse were almost immediately exchanged for the captain of the Santa Sabina, Don Jacobo Stuart, with two enemy ships pursuing him, Cockburn ordered more sail. During this operation, a topman fell overboard, the ship hove to and a boat with Hardy in it was lowered to search for the missing mariner. As the enemy ships were closing fast, Cockburn thought it prudent to withdraw and this confused the Spaniards who checked their own progress, allowing Hardy to return to his ship and make good his escape. Afterwards, Nelsons flag captain, Edward Berry was sent home with dispatches and Hardy was promoted to captain of Nelsons flagship, HMS Vanguard, Nelson transferred his flag to the third-rate HMS Foudroyant on 8 June 1799, taking Hardy with him. In June 1799, the fleet, led by Foudroyant. Hardy handed over command of Foudroyant to Sir Edward Berry on 13 October 1799, transferred to the fifth-rate HMS Princess Charlotte, after a year ashore, Hardy went to Plymouth Dock in December 1800 to take command of the first-rate HMS San Josef, which had just been refitted. He transferred to the second-rate HMS St George and became Nelsons flag captain once more in February 1801, Nelson was appointed second in command of the Baltic fleet, which had been sent to force the Danes to withdraw from the League of Armed Neutrality. On the night of 1 April 1801, Hardy was sent in a boat to take soundings around the anchored Danish fleet, Hardys ship drew too much water and so took no part in the Battle of Copenhagen the following day. Hardys work proved to be of great value, the only two ships that went aground, the third-rates HMS Agamemnon and HMS Bellona, were taken in by local pilots and did not follow Hardys recommended route. Hardy stayed on as captain to the new fleet commander, Vice-Admiral Charles Pole. In July 1802, Hardy was appointed to the fifth-rate HMS Amphion which after taking the new British ambassador to Lisbon, Nelson and Hardy finally transferred to Victory off Toulon on 31 July 1803Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet – Vice Admiral Sir Thomas Hardy
47. Hardy Monument – The Hardy Monument is a 72-foot high monument erected in 1844 by public subscription in memory of Vice Admiral Sir Thomas Hardy, a commander at the Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral Hardy lived in Portesham and his family owned the Portesham estate which stretched from the middle of Portesham to Black Down, the site for the monument was chosen because the Hardy family wanted a monument which could be used as a landmark for shipping. The monument has been shown on navigational charts since 1846 and is visible from a distance of 100 kilometres, the monument is situated on Black Down, a hill overlooking the English Channel near Portesham in Dorset, England. It was restored in 1900 by his descendants and bought in 1938 by the National Trust for the sum of £15.00. The monument was designed to look like a spyglass, as Admiral Hardy would have used on board ship and its eight corners are aligned with the compass points. Viewed from the ground the corner to the right of the lightning conductor points due south, the bench mark on the northwest face denotes the height of Black Down at 780 feet. The monument was closed to the public in 2009 when major work was required. This work was completed in January 2012, to date, the monument is regularly opened during the peak season, where visitors can climb the 120 steps to the viewpoint at the top. The area round the monument was in 1984 designated a site of scientific interest. Adjacent to the monument is a stone erected in memory of Lt Col William Digby Oswald who was killed on the Somme in 1916. Geologically, Black Down is the tip of the Bagshot gravel beds. The gravel beds extend to the east as far as London, the ground around the monument is pitted with various holes and craters. Many of these are dolines or swallow holes and these are formed when rain falls on the highly acidic topsoil. The water increases in acidity as it percolates through the topsoil then dissolves the underlying chalk, eventually there is nothing but topsoil above the caverns so formed and the familiar shape of a doline is created when the topsoil collapses into the cavern beneath. Dolines are usually shaped like a cut in half vertically. Within 1000 Metres of the monument there are three dolines which were formed by the chalk being dissolved in a fissure in its structure. These dolines are vertically sided and are shaped like wells, the two which opened up in 1956 are some 100 metres deep. The one which opened in 2006 is not quite vertical and its depth is unknown, the Hardy Monument was the origin of the 6 inch and 1,2500 Ordnance Survey maps for Somerset and DorsetHardy Monument – The Hardy Monument from the front.
48. Earthworks (archaeology) – In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks are often known as barrows in England, and mounds in North America, Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features, or they can show features beneath the surface. They are believed to have used as monuments for spiritual ritual ceremonies. Long barrows are oblong-shaped mounds that are used for burials, tumuli are mounds of earth created over a tomb, it has the same meaning as barrow. A cross dyke or cross-ridge dyke is a bank and ditch, found in Europe and often belonging to the later Bronze Age or Iron Age. Often marked on Ordnance Survey maps in the UK. Ridge and furrows are sets of parallel depressions, mottes are mound structures made of earth and stone that once held castles. A round barrow is a mound that is in a shape that was used during Neolithic times as a burial mound. Geoglyph, a design or motif Earthworks can vary in height from a few centimetres to the size of Silbury Hill at 40 metres. They can date from the Neolithic to the present, the structures can also stretch for many tens of kilometres. In area, they can cover many hectares, for example, Maiden Castle, shallow earthworks are often more visible as cropmarks or in aerial photographs if taken when the sun is low in the sky and shadows are more pronounced. Similarly, earthworks may be visible after a frost or a light dusting of snow. Earthworks can be detected and plotted using Light Detection and Ranging and this technique is particularly useful for mapping small variations in land height that would be difficult to detect by eye. It can be used to map features beneath forest canopy and for features hidden by other vegetation, LIDAR results can be input into a geographic information system to produce three-dimensional representations of the earthworks. An accurate survey of the earthworks can enable them to be interpreted without the need for excavation, for example, earthworks from deserted medieval villages can be used to determine the location, size, and layout of lost settlements. Often these earthworks can point to the purpose of such a settlement, Earthworks in North America include mounds built by Native Americans known as the Mound Builders. Ancient people who lived in the American Midwest commonly built effigy mounds, possibly the most famous of these effigy mounds is Serpent Mound. Located in the Ohio, this 411-meterlong earthen work is thought to memorialize alignments of the planets, cone-shaped or conical mounds are also numerous, with thousands of them scattered across the American Midwest, some over 80 feet tall. These conical mounds appear to be marking the graves of one person or even dozens of peopleEarthworks (archaeology) – Offa's Dyke, southern Britain
49. Hill forts – A hillfort or hill fort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages, some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC, the terms hill fort, hill-fort and hillfort are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to a site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood. Many small early hill forts were abandoned, with the ones being redeveloped at a later date. Similar but smaller and less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills and these are known as hill-slope enclosures and may have been animal pens. It has been estimated that in about 5000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million lived in Europe, in the Late Iron Age it had an population of around 15 to 30 million. Outside Greece and Italy, which were densely populated, the vast majority of settlements in the Iron Age were small. Hill forts were the exception, and were the home of up to 1,000 people, with the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants. As the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies, around 1100 BC hill forts emerged and in the following centuries spread through Europe. They served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, during the Hallstatt C period, hill forts became the dominant settlement type in the west of Hungary. Julius Caesar described the large late Iron Age hill forts he encountered during his campaigns in Gaul as oppida, by this time the larger ones had become more like cities than fortresses and many were assimilated as Roman towns. Hill forts were occupied by conquering armies, but on other occasions the forts were destroyed, the local people forcibly evicted. For example, Solsbury Hill was sacked and deserted during the Belgic invasions of southern Britain in the 1st century BC. Excavations at hill forts in the first half of the 20th century focussed on the defenses, the exception to this trend began in the 1930s with a series of excavations undertaken by Mortimer Wheeler at Maiden Castle, Dorset. From 1960 onwards, archaeologists shifted their attention to the interior of hill forts, currently, post-processual archaeologists regard hill forts as symbols of wealth and power. Michael Avery has stated the view of hill forts by sayingHill forts – Maiden Castle in England is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
50. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, wide, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. For the second part also the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is also a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or EvropaEurope – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map