1. Elvis Presley – Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relativesElvis Presley – Presley in a publicity photograph for the 1957 film Jailhouse Rock
2. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
3. Singer – Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist, Singers perform music that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists, Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised and it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education, or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication, instruction, and regular practice, if practice is done on a regular basis then the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific genre, such as classical or rock. They typically take voice training provided by teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort, exhalation may be aided by the abdominal, internal intercostal and lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals, scalenes and sternocleidomastoid muscles, the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming, humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, volume, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound also resonates within different parts of the body and an individuals size, Singers can also learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract. This is known as vocal resonation, another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds. These different kinds of function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singers Formant and it has also been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa. The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds, Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal foldsSinger – American jazz singer and songwriter Billie Holiday in New York City in 1947
4. Musician – A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music may also be referred to as a musician, Musicians can specialize in any musical style, and some musicians play in a variety of different styles. Examples of a musicians possible skills include performing, conducting, singing, composing, arranging, in the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, providing arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure, vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and typically were Church-polyphonic or made up of several simultaneous melodies. Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint, vocal and instrumental “color” became more important compared to the Renaissance style of music, and emphasized much of the volume, texture and pace of each piece. George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies, because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared to the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution, a revolutionary energy was also at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world. Some major Romantic Period precepts survive, and still affect modern culture, in 20th-century music, composers and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, and strove to represent the world the way they perceived it. Musicians wrote to be. objective, while objects existed on their own terms, while past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete. The advent of recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—popular music, rock music, electronic music, folk music. Singer Composer Music artist Tour Manager Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia CommonsMusician – Guy Pratt, a professional session musician, playing bass guitar.
5. Actor – Anyone who meets the eligibility requirements may apply for aid, which could vary from medical assistance, paying rent, or finding employment. Heros benefits are not meant to be a permanent crutch for needy creators, any granted aid is kept confidential. The Hero Initiative has two boards of directors, the Executive Board and the Fund Disbursement Board, former board members include founders Pat McCallum, editor-in-chief of Wizard Magazine, and Mike Richardson, publisher and founder of Dark Horse Comics. They are George Pérez, Roy Thomas, Charlie Novinskie, Dennis ONeil, John Romita Sr. the charity is currently supported by Dark Horse Comics, Dynamic Forces, Image Comics, Marvel Entertainment, Top Cow Productions, and Wizard Entertainment. The Hero Initiative utilizes many methods of fundraising, foremost is their annual art auction, auctioning donated original comics art-work at fan conventions. Year-long, they sell donated art and special edition comics at conventions, artists, writers, and publishers are invited to donate work, and fans are invited to donate money directly to the fund. ACTOR also sells a green Excelsior, wrist-band similar in design to the Livestrong wristband. The Hero Initiative was formerly known as A Commitment to Our Roots, or ACTOR, while the original name of the organization reflected the charitys goal, the acronym that resulted, ACTOR, more often confused people unfamiliar with the organization. 2006, George Pérez, John Romita, Sr.2007, Joe Kubert 2008, Nick Cardy 2009, Neal Adams 2010, Walt Simonson 2011, Stan Lee 2012, John Romita, Jr. The award recognizes one person in each year who demonstrates particular generosity and integrity in support of the overall comic book community. It debuted at the 2010 Harvey Awards ceremony held at the Baltimore Comic-ConActor – The Hero Initiative
6. Cultural icon – A cultural icon is an artifact that is recognised by members of a culture or sub-culture as representing some aspect of cultural identity. Icons are judged by their ability to be an authentic proxy, when individuals perceives a cultural icon, they compare it with their perceptions of the culture identity it attempts to mimic. Cultural Icons can also be identified as a representation of the practices of one culture by another. In the media, many items of culture have been called iconic despite their lack of durability. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused, a subset of cultural icons are national icons. Some examples are, Big Ben, Cup of tea, Red telephone box, Red AEC Routemaster London double decker bus, Spitfire, matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia. Thus an apple pie is an icon of the United States. Religious icons can become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined. Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some, a writer in Liverpool Daily Post calls iconic a word that makes my flesh creep, category, Lists of cultural icons Pop icon Popular culture Biedermann, Hans. Dictionary of Symbolism, Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them, batman Unmasked, Analysing a Cultural Icon. Edwards, Peter, Karl Enenkel, and Elspeth Graham, the Horse as Cultural Icon, The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Foudy, Julie, Leslie Heywood, built to Win, The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. Titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon, titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles, the DNA Mystique, The Gene as a Cultural Icon. Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J. Platos Timaeus as Cultural Icon and our New Icons by The Daily Telegraph Nothing and no one are Off Limits in an Age of Iconomania by The Age British Postal Museum & Archive, Icons of England Culture24, Icons of EnglandCultural icon – Apple pie, baseball, and the flag grouped together are a cliché of American cultural icons
7. Rockabilly – Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating back to the early 1950s in the United States, especially the South. As a genre it blends the sound of Western musical styles such as country with that of rhythm and blues, leading to what is considered classic rock, some have also described it as a blend of bluegrass with rock and roll. The term rockabilly itself is a portmanteau of rock and hillbilly, other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie woogie, jump blues, and electric blues. An interest in the genre endures even in the 21st century, Rockabilly has left a legacy, spawning a variety of sub-styles and influencing other genres such as punk rock. There was a relationship between blues and country music from the very earliest country recordings in the 1920s. The first nationwide country hit was Wreck of the Old 97, backed with Lonesome Road Blues, during the 1930s and 1940s, two new sounds emerged. Recordings of Willss from the mid 1940s to the early 1950s include two beat jazz rhythms, jazz choruses, and guitar work that preceded early rockabilly recordings, wills is quoted as saying Rock and Roll. Why, man, thats the kind of music weve been playin since 1928. But its just basic rhythm and has gone by a lot of different names in my time and its the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments. The Maddox Brothers and Rose were at the edge of rockabilly with the slapped bass that Fred Maddox had developed. Maddox said, Youve got to have somethin they can tap their foot, or dance to, after World War II the band shifted into higher gear leaning more toward a whimsical honky-tonk feel, with a heavy, manic bottom end - the slap bass of Fred Maddox. They played hillbilly music but it sounded real hot and they played real loud for that time, too. The Maddoxes were also known for their antics and stuff. I mean it just wasnt us up there pickin and singing, there was something going on all the time. The demonstrative Maddoxes, helped release white bodies from traditional motions of decorum, more and more younger white artists began to behave on stage like the lively Maddoxes. Others believe that they were not only at the leading edge, Bill Monroe is known as the Father of Bluegrass, a specific style of country music. Many of his songs were in form, while others took the form of folk ballads, parlor songs. Bluegrass was a staple of music in the early 1950sRockabilly – Carl Perkins pictured around 1955
8. Country music – Country music is a genre of United States popular music that originated in the southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from the genre of United States, such as folk music. Blues modes have been used throughout its recorded history. The term country music is used today to many styles and subgenres. In 2009 country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, immigrants to the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of Europe and Africa along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon, Bristol, Tennessee, has been formally recognized by the U. S. Congress as the Birthplace of Country Music, based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum, historians have also noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, and the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. Prior to these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a musical heritage. The first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlantas music scene playing a role in launching countrys earliest recording artists. Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, many hillbilly musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville, during the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a hot string band. His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had played at Carnegie Hall. Gospel music remained a component of country music. It became known as honky tonk, and had its roots in Western swing and the music of Mexico. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genresCountry music – Jimmie Rodgers
9. Rhythm and blues – Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B or RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy. Lyrics focus heavily on the themes of triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, freedom, economics, aspirations, the term rhythm and blues has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s it was applied to blues records. This tangent of RnB is now known as British rhythm and blues, by the 1970s, the term rhythm and blues changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a style of R&B developed, becoming known as Contemporary R&B. It combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, funk, pop, hip hop, popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston, and Mariah Carey. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term rhythm and blues as a term in the United States in 1948. It replaced the term race music, which came from within the black community. The term rhythm and blues was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, before the Rhythm and Blues name was instated, various record companies had already begun replacing the term race music with sepia series. In 2010 LaMont Robinson founded the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame Museum, writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as a catchall term referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans. He has used the term R&B as a synonym for jump blues, however, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of its stronger, gospel-esque backbeat. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that rhythm, according to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to music made by black musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow, lilting, while singers are emotionally engaged with the lyrics, often intensely so, they remain cool, relaxed, and in control. The bands dressed in suits, and even uniforms, an associated with the modern popular music that rhythm. Lyrics often seemed fatalistic, and the music typically followed predictable patterns of chords, there was also increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophoneRhythm and blues – T-Bone Walker, American Folk Blues Festival 1972 (Heinrich Klaffs Collection 46)
10. Back beat – In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse, of the mensural level. In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts including, tempo, meter, specific rhythms, Rhythm in music is characterized by a repeating sequence of stressed and unstressed beats and divided into bars organized by time signature and tempo indications. Metric levels faster than the level are division levels. Beat has always been an important part of music, some music genres such as disco will in general de-emphasize the beat, while other such as funk emphasize the beat to accompany dance. The downbeat is the first beat of the bar, i. e. number 1, the upbeat is the last beat in the previous bar which immediately precedes, and hence anticipates, the downbeat. Both terms correspond to the direction taken by the hand of a conductor, an anticipatory note or succession of notes occurring before the first barline of a piece is sometimes referred to as an upbeat figure, section or phrase. Alternative expressions include pickup and anacrusis, the latter term was borrowed from the field of poetry, in which it refers to one or more unstressed extrametrical syllables at the beginning of a line. In music that progresses regularly in 44 time, counted as 1234,1234. The first beat of the bar is usually the strongest accent in the melody and the likeliest place for a change, the third is the next strongest. The second and fourth are weaker—the off-beats, subdivisions that fall between the pulse beats are even weaker and these, if used frequently in a rhythm, can also make it off-beat. The effect can be simulated by evenly and repeatedly counting to four. This is a technique of African polyrhythm that transferred to popular western music. According to Grove Music, the Offbeat is where the downbeat is replaced by a rest or is tied over from the preceding bar, the downbeat can never be the off-beat because it is the strongest beat in 44 time. Certain genres tend to emphasize the off-beat, where this is a characteristic of rocknroll. A back beat, or backbeat, is a syncopated accentuation on the off beat, in a simple 44 rhythm these are beats 2 and 4. A big part of R&Bs attraction had to do with the stompin backbeats that make it so eminently danceable, an early record with an emphasised back beat throughout was Good Rockin Tonight by Wynonie Harris in 1948. There is a back beat on Roll Em Pete by Pete Johnson and Big Joe Turner. A distinctive back beat can be heard on Back Beat Boogie by Harry James And His Orchestra, outside U. S. popular music, there are early recordings of music with a distinctive backbeat, such as the 1949 recording of Mangaratiba by Luiz Gonzaga in BrazilBack beat – It's got a backbeat, you can't lose it - Chuck Berry
11. Black people – As such, the meaning of the expression varies widely both between and within societies, and depends significantly on context. For many other individuals, communities and countries, black is also perceived as a derogatory, outdated, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, different societies apply differing criteria regarding who is classified as black, and these social constructs have also changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, in the United Kingdom, black was historically equivalent with person of color, a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as black. In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term black or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds. The Romans interacted with and later conquered parts of Mauretania, a state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard and he claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother who was a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman, in response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, I am not white but I am not exactly black either. My blackness is tending to reddish, due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men. They used more black female slaves in domestic service and agriculture than males, the men interpreted the Quran to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children. When an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab masters child, she was considered as umm walad or mother of a child, the child was given rights of inheritance to the fathers property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father. Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers social status at birth and were born free, some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608. He was not technically considered as a child of a slave, his mother was Fulani. Such tolerance for black persons, even when technically free, was not so common in Morocco, the long association of sub-Saharan peoples as slaves is shown in the term abd, it is still frequently used in the Arabic-speaking world as a term for black people. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were widely referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudans non-Arab citizens. The government was accused of deftly manipulat Arab solidarity to carry out policies of apartheid, American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. The Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid, many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheidBlack people – Soldiers of the Free Arabian Legion in Greece, September 1943
12. White (people) – White people is a racial classification specifier, used for people of Europid ancestry, with the exact implications dependent on context. The contemporary usage of people or a white race as a large group of populations contrasting with black, American Indian. It is today used as a racial classifier in multiracial societies, such as North Africa, United States. The term white race or white people entered the major European languages in the later 17th century, in the context of racialized slavery, description of populations as white in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient sources. Scholarship on race generally distinguishes the concept from pre-modern descriptions of collective difference. In the literature of the Ancient Near East and Classical Antiquity and we know that Egyptians were not oblivious to skin color, however, because artists paid attention to it in works of art, to the extent the pigments at the time permitted. Classicist James Dee states the Greeks do not describe themselves as white people—or as anything else because they had no word in their color vocabulary for themselves. Peoples skin color did not carry meaning, what mattered is where they lived. Religious conversion was sometimes described figuratively as a change in skin color, similarly, the Rigveda uses krsna tvac black skin as a metaphor for irreligiosity. The Ancient Egyptian funerary text known as the Book of Gates distinguishes four groups in a procession and these are the Egyptians, the Levantine/Canaanite peoples or Asiatics, the Nubians and the fair-skinned Libyans. The Egyptians are depicted as a reddish brown, the Nubians as black skinned, the Semites from the Levant and Canaan as light skinned. Herodotus described the Scythian Budini as having blue eyes and bright red hair. And the Egyptians – quite like the Colchians – as melánchroes and he also gives the possibly first reference to the common Greek name of the tribes living south of Egypt, otherwise known as Nubians, which was Aithíopes. Later Xenophon described the Aethiopians as black and the Persian troops as white compared to the skin of Greek troops. These color adjectives are found in contrast to the standard set by the own group. According to historian Irene Silverblatt, Race thinking … made social categories into racial truths, Alastair Bonnett argues that white identity, as it is presently conceived, is an American project, reflecting American interpretations of race and history. According to Gregory Jay, a professor of English at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Before the age of exploration, group differences were based on language, religion. … the European had always reacted a bit hysterically to the differences of skin color, in the 16th and 17th centuries, East Asian peoples were almost uniformly described as white, never as yellowWhite (people) – Macedonian mother Teresa of Calcutta
13. Rock and roll – While elements of rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until the 1950s. For the purpose of differentiation, this deals with the first definition. The beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Beyond simply a style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes. In addition, rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teens enjoyed the music and it went on to spawn various genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply rock music or rock. The term rock and roll now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage, the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s. In 1934, the song Rock and Roll by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round, in 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term rock-and-roll to describe upbeat recordings such as Rock Me by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the Rock and Roll Inn in South Merchantville, in 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it. The origins of rock and roll have been debated by commentators. The migration of former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called race music, particularly significant influences were jazz, blues, gospel, country, and folk. The 1940s saw the use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics. In the same period, particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest, similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll. Rock and roll arrived at a time of technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar, amplifier and microphone. It was the realization that relatively affluent white teenagers were listening to music that led to the development of what was to be defined as rock. Because the development of rock and roll was a process, no single record can be identified as unambiguously the first rock. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee LewisRock and roll – Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio in the origins of rock and roll
14. Hound Dog (song) – Hound Dog is a twelve-bar blues song written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller. Thorntons recording of Hound Dog is listed as one of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fames 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll, Hound Dog has been recorded more than 250 times. Presleys version, which sold about 10 million copies globally, was his best-selling song and an emblem of the rock n roll revolution. It was simultaneously No.1 on the US pop, country, and R&B charts in 1956, and it topped the pop chart for 11 weeks — a record that stood for 36 years. Presleys 1956 RCA recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1988, on August 12,1952, R&B bandleader Johnny Otis asked 19-year-old songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller to his home to meet blues singer Willie Mae Big Mama Thornton. Thornton had been signed by Diamond Don Robeys Houston-based Peacock Records the year before, after hearing Thornton rehearse several songs, Leiber and Stoller forged a tune to suit her personality—brusque and badass. In an interview in Rolling Stone in April 1990, Stoller said, She was a blues singer. But it was as much her appearance as her blues style influenced the writing of Hound Dog. Leiber recalled, We saw Big Mama and she knocked me cold and she looked like the biggest, baddest, saltiest chick you would ever see. And she was mean, a bear, as they used to call em. She must have been 350 pounds, and she had all these all over her face conveying words which could not be sung. But how to do it without saying it. And how to do it telling a story, I couldnt just have a song full of expletives. In 1999, Leiber said, I was trying to get something like the Furry Lewis phrase Dirty Mother Furya. I was looking for something closer to that but I couldnt find it, because everything I went for was too coarse, R&B expert George A. Moonoogian concurs, calling it a biting and scathing satire in the double-entendre genre of 1950s rhythm and blues. Said Leiber, Hound Dog took like twelve minutes, thats not a complicated piece of work. But the rhyme scheme was difficult, also the metric structure of the music was not easy. According to Leiber, as soon as they reached the parking lot and Stollers 1937 Plymouth and we got to Johnny Otiss house and Mike went right to the piano…didnt even bother to sit downHound Dog (song) – "Hound Dog"
15. Jailhouse Rock (song) – Jailhouse Rock is a song written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller that first became a hit for Elvis Presley. The song was released as an RCA Victor 45rpm single on September 24,1957, to coincide with the release of Presleys motion picture, Jailhouse Rock. The song as recorded by Presley is #67 on Rolling Stones list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time and was named one of The Rock and Roll Hall of Fames 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. In 2004, it finished at #21 on AFIs 100 Years.100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema, on 27 November 2016, the Grammy Hall of Fame announced its induction, along with that of another 24 songs. The film version differs from the version of the song, featuring backing instrumentation. Some of the named in the song are real people. Shifty Henry was a well-known LA musician, not a criminal, the Purple Gang was a real mob. Sad Sack was a U. S. Army nickname in World War II for a loser, according to Rolling Stone, Leiber and Stollers theme song for Presleys third movie was decidedly silly, the kind of tongue-in-cheek goof they had come up with for The Coasters. The King, however, sang it as straight rock & roll, overlooking the jokes in the lyrics and then introducing Scotty Moores guitar solo with a cry so intense that the take almost collapses. Gender studies scholars cite the song for its famous reference to homoerotics behind bars, while music critic Garry Mulholland writes, Jailhouse Rock was always a queer lyric, douglas Brode writes of the filmed production number that its amazing that the sequence passed by the censors. The single, with its B-side Treat Me Nice was a US #1 hit for seven weeks in the fall of 1957, and it was the first record to enter the UK charts at No.1. In addition, Jailhouse Rock spent one week at the top of the US country charts, and reached the No.2 position on the R&B chart. Also in 1957, Jailhouse Rock was the song in an EP, together with other songs from the film, namely Young and Beautiful, I Want to be Free, Dont Leave Me Now. It topped the Billboard EP charts, eventually selling two million copies and earning a double-platinum RIAA certification. In 2005, the song was re-released in the UK and reached No.1 for a week, when it became the lowest-selling number 1 in UK history. The Beatles regularly performed Jailhouse Rock starting in 1958 and continuing all the way through 1960 with John Lennon on lead vocal, quarryman Len Garry states that the group actually started performing the song in 1957. It is the last song in the motion picture The Blues Brothers, the song is featured in the 1995 film Casper and the 2006 animated television film Leroy & Stitch. American Idol Season 5 contestant Taylor Hicks performed it on May 9,2006, in an episode of Full House, Jesse and Becky sing this song at their wedding receptionJailhouse Rock (song) – "Jailhouse Rock"
16. Hall of Fame – A hall, wall, or walk of fame is a list of individuals, achievements, or animals, usually chosen by a group of electors, to mark their fame in their field. Sometimes, the plaques may instead be posted on a wall or inscribed on a sidewalk. In other cases, the hall of fame is more figurative, the lists are maintained by an organization or community, and may be national, state, local, or private. The English-language term was popularised in the United States by the Hall of Fame for Great Americans at Bronx Community College, in New York City and its inspiration is the Ruhmeshalle in Munich, Germany. The Walhalla memorial in Bavaria, Germany, is an earlier hall of fame, conceived in 1807. The meaning of fame has changed over the years, originally meaning renown as opposed to more common meaning of celebrityHall of Fame – Walhalla hall of fame temple, Germany
17. Las Vegas, Nevada – The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city known primarily for its gambling, shopping, fine dining, entertainment and it is the leading financial, commercial, and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World and it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the worlds most visited tourist destinations. The citys tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, and has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, films, television programs, Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and officially incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century, population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, and between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85. 2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, and according to a 2013 estimate, perhaps the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago, a young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829. Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, the area was named Las Vegas, which is Spanish for the meadows, as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as desert spring waters for westward travelers. The year 1844 marked the arrival of John C, frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas Fremont Street is named after him, eleven years later members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies. The fort was abandoned several years afterward, the remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city,1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas. At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks and this year also witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam. The influx of workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935, in 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Currently known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the team called the ThunderbirdsLas Vegas, Nevada – In order from top left, clockwise: 1. World Market Center Las Vegas; 2. Fremont East; 3. Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health; 4. Smith Center for the Performing Arts; 5. Downtown Las Vegas with the Las Vegas Valley in the background; 6. Grand Central Parkway Interchange; 7. Symphony Park; 8. Downtown Arts District; 9. Las Vegas industrial district looking North away from the Las Vegas Strip during First Friday
18. Bill Black – William Patton Bill Black, Jr. was an American musician and bandleader who is noted as one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. Black was the bassist in Elvis Presleys early trio after which he formed Bill Blacks Combo, Black was born in Memphis, Tennessee, to a motorman for the Memphis Street Railway. He was the oldest of nine children and his father played popular songs on the banjo and fiddle to entertain the family. Black learned to play music at the age of 14 on an instrument made by his cigar box with a board nailed to it. At the age of sixteen, Black was performing music on acoustic guitar in local bars. During World War II, Black was stationed with the U. S. Army at Fort Lee in Virginia, while in the Army, he met Evelyn, who played guitar as the member of a musical family. They married in 1946 and returned to Memphis, Black worked at the Firestone plant. He began playing the bass fiddle, modeling his slap bass technique after one of his idols, Fred Maddox of Maddox Brothers. Black also developed a stage clown persona in the way that Maddox entertained audiences. Black performed as a hillbilly with blacked-out teeth, straw hat. According to his son, Black said his goal was always to give his audience a few moments of entertainment, in 1952, Black began playing club and radio shows with guitarist Scotty Moore. Along with two guitarists and a fiddler, they performed country music tunes by Hank Williams and Red Foley in Doug Poindexters band. Black and Moore also played in a band with Paul Burlison, Johnny Burnette, Dorsey Burnette on steel guitar, in July 1954, Sam Phillips of Sun Records asked Black and Moore to play back-up for the as-yet-unknown Elvis Presley. Black played slap bass with guitarist Scotty Moore, while Elvis Presley played rhythm guitar, neither musician was overly impressed with Presley, but they agreed a studio session would be useful to explore his potential. On July 5,1954, the trio met at Sun studios to rehearse, according to Moore, the first song they recorded was I Love You Because, but after a few country music songs that werent impressive they decided to take a break. During the break, Presley began acting the fool with Arthur Crudups Thats All Right, when the other two musicians joined in, Phillips taped the song. Get that on the radio and theyll run us out of town, the next day, the group recorded four more songs, including bluegrass musician Bill Monroes Blue Moon of Kentucky, which he had written and recorded as a slow waltz. Sources credit Bill Black with initiating the song, with Presley, Moore said, Bill is the one who came up with Blue Moon of KentuckyBill Black – Bill Black hams it up on the deck of the USS Hancock during the first appearance on Milton Berle 's Texaco Star Theater
19. Bass guitar – The bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum, often known as a pick. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to a guitar, but with a longer neck and scale length. The four-string bass, by far the most common, is tuned the same as the double bass. The bass guitar is an instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds to avoid excessive ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the guitar has pickups and it is plugged into an amplifier and speaker on stage, or into a larger PA system using a DI unit. Since the 1960s, the guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary widely from one style of music to another, many styles of music utilise the bass guitar, including rock, heavy metal, pop, punk rock, country, reggae, gospel, blues, symphonic rock, and jazz. It is often a solo instrument in jazz, jazz fusion, Latin, funk, progressive rock and other rock, the adoption of a guitar form made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments. The addition of frets enabled bassists to play in more easily than on acoustic or electric upright basses. Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period, around 1947, Tutmarcs son, Bud, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948, however, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender, with the help of his employee George Fullerton and his Fender Precision Bass, which began production in October 1951, became a widely copied industry standard. This split pickup, introduced in 1957, appears to have been two mandolin pickups, the pole pieces and leads of the coils were reversed with respect to each other, producing a humbucking effect. Humbucking is a design that electrically cancels the effect of any AC hum, the Fender Bass was a revolutionary new instrument, which could be easily transported, and which was less prone to feedback when amplified than acoustic bass instruments. Monk Montgomery was the first bass player to tour with the Fender bass guitar, roy Johnson, and Shifty Henry with Louis Jordan & His Tympany Five, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957. The bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, following Fenders lead, in 1953, Gibson released the first short scale violin-shaped electric bass with extendable end pin, allowing it to be played upright or horizontally. In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass, the EB-0 was very similar to a Gibson SG in appearanceBass guitar – A Music Man StingRay bass
20. Guitar – The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a fretted string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a wooden or plastic and wood box, or through electrical amplifier. It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, the guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. There are three types of modern acoustic guitar, the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of a guitar is produced by the strings vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar. The term finger-picking can also refer to a tradition of folk, blues, bluegrass. The acoustic bass guitar is an instrument that is one octave below a regular guitar. Early amplified guitars employed a body, but a solid wood body was eventually found more suitable during the 1960s and 1970s. As with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars. The electric guitar has had a influence on popular culture. The guitar is used in a variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as an instrument in genres such as blues, bluegrass, country, flamenco, folk, jazz, jota, mariachi, metal, punk, reggae, rock, soul. The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and, later, in the Americas. The modern word guitar, and its antecedents, has applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times. Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar, at least two instruments called guitars were in use in Spain by 1200, the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca. The guitarra morisca had a back, wide fingerboard. The guitarra Latina had a sound hole and a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers moresca or morisca and latina had been dropped, and it had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a sharply cut waistGuitar – Illustration in a Carolingian psalter from the 9th century showing an instrument of the chordophone family, most probably a lute
21. Drums – A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones most significantly cymbals but also including the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some also include electronic instruments and both hybrid and entirely electronic kits are used. If some or all of them are replaced by electronic drums, the drum kit is usually played while seated on a drum stool or throne. The drum kit differs from instruments that can be used to produce pitched melodies or chords, even though drums are often placed musically alongside others that do, such as the piano or guitar. The drum kit is part of the rhythm section used in many types of popular and traditional music styles ranging from rock and pop to blues. Other standard instruments used in the section include the electric bass, electric guitar. Many drummers extend their kits from this pattern, adding more drums, more cymbals. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, use small kits that omit elements from the basic setup, some drum kit players may have other roles in the band, such as providing backup vocals, or less commonly, lead vocals. Thus, in an early 1800s orchestra piece, if the called for bass drum, triangle and cymbals. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to them to play more than one instrument. In the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set, the bass drum, snare drum, cymbals, and other percussion instruments were all played using hand-held drum sticks. Double-drumming was developed to one person to play the bass and snare with sticks. With this approach, the drum was usually played on beats one. This resulted in a swing and dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a trap set. By the 1870s, drummers were using an overhang pedal, most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05, liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist. The bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would later revolve and it was the golden age of drum building for many famous drum companies, with Ludwig introducingDrums
22. Floyd Cramer – Floyd Cramer was an American Hall of Fame pianist who was one of the architects of the Nashville sound. He was known for his slip note style, in which an out-of-key note slides into the correct note. Cramer was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, and grew up in the town of Huttig. He taught himself to play the piano, after finishing high school, he returned to Shreveport, where he worked as a pianist for the radio show Louisiana Hayride. In 1953, he cut his first single, Dancin Diane, backed with Little Brown Jug, in 1955 he played dates with an emerging talent who would later figure significantly in his career, Elvis Presley. In 1955 Cramer moved to Nashville, where piano accompaniment in music was growing in popularity. By the next year he was, in his words, in day and it was Cramers piano playing, for instance, on Presleys first RCA Victor single, Heartbreak Hotel. However, Cramer remained strictly a player, a virtual unknown to anyone outside the music industry. Cramer had released records under his own name since the early 1950s and became known following the release of Last Date. The instrumental piece exhibited a new concept in piano playing known as the slip note style. The record went to two on the Billboard Hot 100 pop music chart, sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc. The song was out of the number 1 position by Elvis Presleys Are You Lonesome Tonight. Interestingly and perhaps ironically, the session pianist for Elviss recording of that #1 song, of the characteristic slip note style, Cramer commented, The style I use mainly is a whole-tone slur which gives more of a lonesome cowboy sound. You hit a note and slide almost simultaneously to another, the origin of the style is uncertain. Cramer also acknowledged the influence of Mother Maybelle Carters autoharp playing, in 1961, Cramer had a hit with On the Rebound, which went to number 4, and number 1 on the UK Singles Chart. Also in 1961, Cramer had a hit with San Antonio Rose, Cramer also performed with them as a member of the Million Dollar Band. Over the years, he continued to balance work with his own albums. Many of these featured standards or popular hits of the era, from 1965 to 1974 he annually recorded a disc of the years biggest hits, entitled Class ofFloyd Cramer – Floyd Cramer (1965)
23. Piano – The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had a sound and smaller dynamic range. An acoustic piano usually has a wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings. Pressing one or more keys on the keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings, and the continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air, when the key is released, a damper stops the strings vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained, even when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs and this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the accidentals, which are needed to play in all twelve keys, more rarely, some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass that graduates from one to two, the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, and silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. There are two types of piano, the grand piano and the upright piano. The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music and art song and it is used in jazz. The upright piano, which is compact, is the most popular type, as they are a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play. The piano is widely employed in classical, jazz, traditional and popular music for solo and ensemble performances, accompaniment, with technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, and digital pianos have also been developed. The electric piano became an instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music. The piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments, pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, and as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitchesPiano – A grand piano (left) and an upright piano (right)
24. Music – Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch, rhythm, dynamics, different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. The word derives from Greek μουσική, Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as the harmony of the spheres and it is music to my ears point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, There is no noise, the creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. There are many types of music, including music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal, within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, the word derives from Greek μουσική. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the music is derived from mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica the art of music and this is derived from the. Greek mousike of the Muses, from fem. of mousikos pertaining to the Muses, from Mousa Muse. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. With the advent of recording, records of popular songs. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their songs, which serve as a self-portrait. An environment consisting solely of what is most ardently loved, amateur musicians can compose or perform music for their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings, There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians, in community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles such as community concert bands and community orchestras. However, there are many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is also recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music loversMusic – A painting on an Ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (c. 510 BC).
25. Single (music) – In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify also following in this trend. Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about 1910, however, the 10-inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format, songwriters and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, other, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc. Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970sSingle (music) – 45 rpm single record
26. Heartbreak Hotel – Heartbreak Hotel is a song recorded by American singer Elvis Presley. It was released as a single on January 27,1956 and it was written by Tommy Durden, Mae Boren Axton, and Elvis Presley. A newspaper article about the suicide of a man who jumped from a hotel window inspired the lyrics. Axton presented the song to Presley in November 1955 at a music convention in Nashville. Presley agreed to record it, and did so on January 10,1956, in a session with his band, the Blue Moon Boys, the guitarist Chet Atkins, and the pianist Floyd Cramer. Heartbreak Hotel comprises an eight-bar blues progression, with heavy reverberation throughout the track, Heartbreak Hotel achieved unheard of feats as it reached the top 5 of Country and Western, pop, and Rhythm n Blues charts simultaneously. It would eventually be certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. It became a staple of Presleys repertoire in live appearances, last performed by him on May 29,1977, at the Civic Center in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1995 Heartbreak Hotel was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame and that year it was also included in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fames 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. The song was written in 1955, by Mae Boren Axton, a school teacher with a background in musical promotion. Kroliks story was published in media, and received further publicity after he was shot and killed in an attempted robbery in El Paso. On August 25,1955, the El Paso Times reported Kroliks death under the headline Story Of Person Who Walked Lonely Street, Axton and Durden give different accounts of how the song was written. Durdens account is that he had written the song and performed it with his band the Swing Billys before he presented it to Axton. Axtons account is that Durden had only written a few lines of the song and she says that the report of the suicide stunned her, and she told Durden, Everybody in the world has someone who cares. Lets put a Heartbreak Hotel at the end of this lonely street and they were interrupted by the arrival of Glenn Reeves, a local performer who had previously worked with Axton. The duo asked Reeves to help with the song, but after hearing the title he remarked that it was the silliest thing Ive ever heard, the song was written within an hour, and Durden recorded it onto Axtons tape recorder. Reeves returned, and after hearing the song he was asked to provide a demo for Axton in the style of Elvis Presley. Reeves obliged, but once again turned down the offer of a credit for his inputHeartbreak Hotel – "Heartbreak Hotel"
27. The Sun Sessions – The Sun Sessions is a compilation of Elvis Presley recordings at Sun Studios in 1954 and 1955. It was issued by RCA Records in 1976, and had issued and charted as The Sun Collection in the UK the previous year. It features liner notes by Roy Carr of the New Musical Express, the album features most of the tracks Elvis recorded at Sun studio and were produced by Sam Phillips, the head of Sun Studios. Elvis began his career with Sun Records label in Memphis. Phillips signed Presley after hearing a song that he had recorded for his mother on his birthday and it includes Thats All Right one of the few recordings regarded as the first rock and roll record. Phillips said that Presley was rehearsing with his band, Scotty Moore and Bill Black, when Presley started singing the song, Phillips said that the version of the song was what he was looking for when he signed Presley, and turned the tape recorder on. Elvis recorded more than 20 songs at Sun, including some private recordings, of these,15 appear on this album. The Sun Sessions was released in March 1976 and reached #76 on the pop, the single Baby, Lets Play House combined with Im Left, Youre Right, Shes Gone reached #5 on the country charts in 1955. Also, RCA Victor saw that Elvis was rapidly building a reputation for his live performances and they offered Sun Records $35,000 to buy out Presleys contract. The single Thats All Right did not chart in the US when released in 1954, in 2004, the song became the focus of attention when it was the subject of a great deal of publicity because of the 50-year anniversary. There was a ceremony on July 6,2004 featuring Isaac Hayes, Justin Timberlake. The song went top five in the UK and Canada and also charted in Australia, the Sun Sessions was also re-released in 2004 to celebrate the anniversary. In 2003, the album was ranked #11 on Rolling Stone magazines list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, in 2001, the TV channel VH1 named it the 21st greatest album of all time. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fames 500 Songs that Shaped Rock, in 2002, The Sun Sessions were chosen by the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress to be included in its archives given their importance to the development of American popular music. This album is the very first Elvis album to feature I Dont Care If The Sun Dont Shine, after more than 20 years, The Sun Sessions marked the songs official debut on LP. Note The last six tracks are original Sun recordings, but were not issued until 1956 on Presleys first album from RCA Victor and they were never released on SunThe Sun Sessions – The Sun Sessions
28. Sam Phillips – He was a producer, label owner, and talent scout throughout the 1940s and 1950s. He was the founder of both Sun Studio and Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee, through Sun, Phillips discovered such recording talent as Howlin Wolf, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash. The height of his success culminated in his launching of Elvis Presleys career in 1954 and he is also associated with several other noteworthy rhythm and blues, country, and rock and roll musicians of the period. Phillips sold Sun in 1969 to Shelby Singleton and he was an early investor in the Holiday Inn chain of hotels. He also advocated racial equality and helped break down barriers in the music industry. Phillips was the youngest of eight children, born on a farm near Florence, Alabama, to tenant farmers, Madge Ella. As a child, he picked cotton in the fields with his parents alongside black laborers, the experience of hearing workers singing in the fields left a big impression on the young Phillips. Traveling through Memphis with his family in 1939 on the way to see a preacher in Dallas, he slipped off to look at Beale Street, I just fell totally in love, he later recalled. Phillips attended the former Coffee High School in Florence and he conducted the school band and had ambitions to be a criminal defense attorney. However, his father was bankrupted by the Great Depression and died in 1941, forcing Phillips to leave school to look after his mother. To support the family Phillips worked in a store and then a funeral parlor. In the 1940s, Phillips worked as a DJ and radio engineer for Muscle Shoals radio station WLAY, according to Phillips, this radio stations open format would later inspire his work in Memphis. Beginning in 1945, he worked for four years as an announcer, on January 3,1950, Phillips opened the Memphis Recording Service at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee. The Memphis Recording Service let amateurs perform, which drew performers such as B. B. King, Junior Parker, Phillips then would sell their performances to larger record labels. In addition to performances, Phillips recorded events such as weddings and funerals. The Memphis Recording Service also served as the studio for Phillipss own label, Phillips combined different styles of music. He was interested in the blues and said, The blues, it got people—black and white—to think about life, how difficult and they would sing about it, they would pray about it, they would preach about it. This is how they relieved the burden of what existed day in, the recording was released on the Chess/Checker record label in Chicago, in 1951Sam Phillips – Sam Phillips
29. Cryolophosaurus – Cryolophosaurus is a genus of large theropods known from only a single species Cryolophosaurus ellioti, known from the early Jurassic period of Antarctica. It was about 6.5 metres long and 465 kilograms in weight, individuals of this species may have grown even larger, because the only known specimen probably represents a sub-adult. Cryolophosaurus is known from a skull, a femur and other material, since its original description, the consensus is that Cryolophosaurus is either a primitive member of the Tetanurae or a close relative of that group. Cryolophosaurus possessed a distinctive crest on its head that spanned the head side to side. Based on evidence from related species and studies of bone texture, the brain of Cryolophosaurus was also more primitive than those of other theropods. It was the first carnivorous dinosaur to be discovered in Antarctica, the sediments in which its fossils were found have been dated at ~194 to 188 million years ago, representing the Early Jurassic Period. The holotype FMNH PR1821 is the only fully described specimen of Cryolophosaurus, in 2013, new material of Cryolophosaurus was unearthed in Antarctica. The description of material has not yet been published in a non-abstract form. Cryolophosaurus was a large, well-built theropod, one of the largest of its time, the genus has been described by Roger Benson and colleagues as a top predator in Antarctica. Cryolophosaurus was estimated as being 6 to 7 m in length by William R. Hammer & William J. Hickerson, a 2007 study by Nathan Smith et al. revised the length to 6.5 m. Its weight estimated at 465 kilograms, based on these length and weight estimates, Cryolophosaurus is currently the largest known Early Jurassic theropod. Smith et al. and Benson et al. noted that the holotype individual probably represents a sub-adult, the holotype of Cryolophosaurus consists of a high, narrow skull, which was discovered articulated with the rest of the skeleton. The skull is an estimated 65 centimetres long and it has a peculiar nasal crest that runs just over the eyes, where it rises up perpendicular to the skull and fans out. It is thin and highly furrowed, giving it a Spanish comb-like appearance, the crest is an extension of the skull bones, near the tear ducts, fused on either side to orbital horns which rise from the eye sockets. While other theropods like the Monolophosaurus have crests, they run along the skull instead of across it. An unpublished study conducted by Vernon Meidlinger-Chin in 2013 suggested that previous studies lacked focus on endocranial details, the study found that the Cryolophosaurus fossil has a nearly complete, undistorted cranial cavity which is complete enough to give an approximate shape and size of the living brain. The endocast features clarified the dissimilarity of the skull with those of Allosauroids, classification of Cryolophosaurus is difficult because it has a mix of primitive and advanced characteristics. The femur has traits of early theropods, while the skull resembles much later species of the clade Tetanurae, like Chinas Sinraptor and this led Paul Sereno et al. to place Cryolophosaurus in the taxon AllosauridaeCryolophosaurus
30. Pompadour haircut – Pompadour is a hairstyle which is named for Madame de Pompadour, mistress of King Louis XV. After its initial popularity among women in the 18th century. The style was in vogue for women once again in the 1940s, the mens version, as worn by early country and rock and roll stars such as Elvis Presley, was popular in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and has enjoyed a renaissance in the mid 2010s. Variations of the style continue to be worn by men and women in the 21st century. Among women, the hairstyle has become popular again in the first few years of the 21st century. It can be created by backcombing or ratting at the roots of the hair on the sides of the pompadour towards the top of the head. Then the hair is combed up and over the hair, off the forehead, the front up in a curl straight back. There are Latin variants of the style more associated with European and Argentine tango fashion trends and occasionally with late 20th century musical genres such as rockabilly. This style has become popular among Italian Americans and the goombah or Guido subculture, the style is often parodied in shows like The Sopranos, which portray negatively stereotyped characters—especially Silvio Dante. The punch perm combines elements of the hairstyle and the traditional pompadour. This hairstyle is stereotypically worn by less reputable members of society, including the yakuza, bōsōzoku, in the psychobilly subculture, the pompadour is slightly modified to form the quiff. The quiff is a worn by Psychobilly fans and musicians. A quiff is a sort of mix between a mohawk hairstyle and the pompadour, where the hair along the side of the head is shaved, Big hair Bouffant Ducktail Definition Merriam-Webster definition. Rockabilly connection Lord Carretts Pompadour Page, hidden for Years at Graceland, His Clothes Have Left the Building. Hinke, Christina M. Brian Setzer Puts the Swing Into the Holidays, associated Press, reprinted on Hoodoo Voodoo Lounge fan site. Hinke, Christina M. Brian Setzer Rocks and Doo-wops his Way Through New Album, townsend Records Shop description of Brian Setzer. Examples of non-rockabilly male musicians with pompadours Nick Cave Kinder and Gentler, joe Henry, Too Big Too Fit. Tango and Latin connection Foley, Dylan, tango, Looking for Love in All the Wrong PlacesPompadour haircut
31. Amru Sani – Amru Sani was a singer and actress who experienced short-lived fame in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. A tall, exotic creature with a powerful, bluesy voice, she identified herself during her American heyday as hailing from India, a 1954 edition of the Kingston, Jamaica, The Gleaner called her a Jamaican enchantress of song. Whether some of this information is merely show-business hype is unknown, however, the Kingston Gleaner did note in 1943 that Sani — who was already known in Jamaica as a singer — was going to England shortly. Sani once named Dinah Shore as an influence, citing in particular as a favorite tune Shores Mad About Him, Sad About Him. She sang in four languages, English, French, Italian, in 1942 she appeared with the highly popular Milton McPherson dance band of Jamaica at the Carib Theatre in Cross Roads, St. Andrew. In 1947 she appeared at the Morgans Cove nightclub in Kingston, Jamaica, around 1950 she appeared at the Sherry Netherland Hotel in New York City, and shortly thereafter went to Rome, where she appeared in a French musical revue. That French musical review may have been Plain Feu, in which she co-starred with Maurice Chevalier, between 1956 and 1958 she made several appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show, including the episode on which Elvis Presley made his first Sullivan appearance. Time magazine reviewed the track in July 1956, observing, Sani begins this oldie with a series of racking, echoing groans. She also recorded Once Upon A Winter Time for Parlophone Records, between June and December 1956 she appeared in the Broadway musical revue New Faces of 1956. The Broadway producer of New Faces, Leonard Sillman, claimed to have discovered Sani in a restaurant and she was so chic looking and beautiful, Sillman recalled, I called the restaurant owner over and told him, If she sings, Ill sign her for a show. One of Sanis performances from this Broadway show appears on the LP New Faces of 1956, RCA also released a single of Sanis Hurry from the New Faces performances. As an actress, Sani appeared in the spaghetti western Maracatumba. Ma non è una rumba, The Naked Maja, and John Hustons The Bible, Internet Broadway Database Amru Sani at the Internet Movie Database TIME. com TV. comAmru Sani – Sheet music booklet cover from Italy showing Sani, 1950s.
32. The Ed Sullivan Show – The Ed Sullivan Show is an American TV variety show that ran on CBS from Sunday June 20,1948, to Sunday June 6,1971, and was hosted by New York entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. It was replaced in September 1971 by the CBS Sunday Night Movie, in 2002, The Ed Sullivan Show was ranked #15 on TV Guides 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, the series finished No.31 in TV Guide Magazines 60 Best Series of All Time, the format was essentially the same as vaudeville, and although vaudeville had died a generation earlier, Sullivan presented many ex-vaudevillians on his show. The last original Sullivan show telecast was on March 28,1971, with guests Melanie, Joanna Simon, Danny Davis and the Nashville Brass, repeats were scheduled through June 6,1971. While most of the episodes aired live from New York City, the show aired live on occasion from other nations, such as the United Kingdom, Australia. For many years, Ed Sullivan was an event each Sunday evening. In those days, we had six acts. Then, each of our acts would do a leisurely ten minutes or so, Now they do two or three minutes. And in those early days I talked too much, I look up at me talking away and I say You fool. But I just keep on talking, Ive learned how to keep my mouth shut. The show enjoyed phenomenal popularity in the 1950s and early 1960s and he was regarded as a kingmaker, and performers considered an appearance on his program as a guarantee of stardom, although this sometimes did not turn out to be the case. The shows iconic status is illustrated by the song Hymn for a Sunday Evening from the 1960 musical Bye Bye Birdie, in the song, a family of viewers expresses their regard for the program in worshipful tones. In September 1965, CBS started televising the program in compatible color, CBS had once backed its own color system, developed by Peter Goldmark, and resisted using RCAs compatible process until 1954. At that time, it built its first New York City color TV studio, Studio 72, in a former RKO movie theater at 2248 Broadway. One Ed Sullivan Show was broadcast on August 22,1954, from the new studio, CBS Studio 72 was demolished in 1986 and replaced by an apartment house. CBS Studio 50 was finally colorized in 1965, the 1965–66 season premiere starred the Beatles in an episode airing on September 12, which was the last episode to air in black and white. In the late 1960s, Sullivan remarked that his program was waning as the decade went on and he realized that to keep viewers, the best and brightest in entertainment had to be seen, or else the viewers were going to keep on changing the channel. Along with declining viewership, Ed Sullivan attracted a higher age for the average viewer as the seasons went onThe Ed Sullivan Show – Ed Sullivan
33. David Bowie – David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer, songwriter and actor. He was a figure in music for over five decades, regarded by critics and musicians as an innovator. His career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, his music, during his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million worldwide, made him one of the worlds best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded nine platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, in the US, he received five platinum and seven gold certifications. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child, eventually studying art, music and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. Space Oddity became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969, after a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single Starman and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, in 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth and released Station to Station. Heroes and Lodger followed, each reached the UK top five. He then reached his peak in 1983 with Lets Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with styles, including industrial. He stopped concert touring after 2004, and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006, in 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with the release of The Next Day. He remained musically active until he died of cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. David Robert Jones was born on 8 January 1947, in Brixton, south London and his mother, Margaret Mary Peggy, was born in Kent, and had Irish ancestry, she worked as a waitress. His father, Haywood Stenton John Jones, from Yorkshire, was an officer for the childrens charity Barnardos. The family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, near the border of the south London areas of Brixton, Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to the suburb of Bromley and his voice was considered adequate by the school choir, and he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. Upon listening to Little Richards song Tutti Frutti, Bowie would later say, presleys impact on him was likewise emphatic, I saw a cousin of mine dance to. Hound Dog and I had never seen her get up and be moved so much by anything and it really impressed me, the power of the musicDavid Bowie – Bowie during the Heathen Tour in 2002
34. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer – Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California and it is one of the worlds oldest film studios. In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, over the next thirty-nine years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3,2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol MGM, is not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would later buy Universal Studios, the studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, however, commit to increased production and a film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up production, as well as keeping production going at UA. It also incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production, the studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt, MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the major creditor. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australias Seven Network in 1996, the debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGMs ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem and he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loews Theatres chain. With Loews lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality, however, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17,1924, Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production. MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years, in 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loews passed to Nicholas Schenck, in 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew familys holdings with Schencks assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision, Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust groundsMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer – MGM Tower, former company headquarters highlighted by the famous Leo the Lion logo at the top
35. Jailhouse Rock (movie) – Jailhouse Rock is a 1957 American musical drama film directed by Richard Thorpe and starring Elvis Presley, Judy Tyler, and Mickey Shaughnessy. After his release from jail, while looking for a job as a club singer, as he develops his musical abilities and becomes a star, his self-centered personality begins to affect his relationships. The wife of producer Pandro S. Berman convinced him to create a film with Presley in the last role, Berman delegated the casting to Benny Thau, head of the studio and Abraham Lastfogel, the then president of William Morris Agency. Berman hired Richard Thorpe, who was known for shooting productions quickly, the production of Jailhouse Rock began on May 13,1957, and concluded on June 17 of that year. The dance sequence to the title song Jailhouse Rock is often cited as Presleys greatest moment on screen. Before pre-production began, songwriters Mike Stoller and Jerry Leiber were commissioned to integrate the films soundtrack, in April, Leiber and Stoller were called for a meeting in New York City to show the progress of the repertoire. Presley recorded the soundtrack at Radio Recorders in Hollywood on April 30 and May 3, during post-production, the songs were dubbed into the films scenes, in which Presley mimed the lyrics. Jailhouse Rock premiered on October 17,1957 in Memphis, Tennessee and was released nationwide on November 8,1957 and it peaked at number 3 on the Variety box office chart, and reached number 14 in the years box office totals, grossing $4 million. Jailhouse Rock earned mixed reviews, with most of the negative reception directed towards Presleys persona, in 2004, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. Construction worker Vince Everett accidentally kills a drunken and belligerent man in a barroom brawl and he is sentenced to two years in the state penitentiary for manslaughter. His cellmate, washed-up country singer Hunk Houghton who was jailed for robbery, starts teaching Vince to play the guitar after hearing Vince sing. Hunk then convinces Vince to participate in an upcoming inmate show, Vince receives numerous fan letters as a result, but out of apparent jealousy, Hunk ensures they are not delivered to Vince. Hunk then convinces Vince to sign a contract to become partners in his act. Meanwhile, during a riot in the mess hall, a guard shoves Vince. As a result, the warden orders Vince to be lashed with a whip, afterwards, it was discovered that Hunk attempted to bribe the guards to drop the punishment, but to no avail. Upon Vinces release 20 months later, the warden gives Vince his fan mail, Hunk then promises Vince a singing job at a nightclub owned by a friend, where Vince meets Peggy Van Alden, a promoter for pop singer Mickey Alba. Vince is surprised when the club owner denies him a job as a singer, undeterred, Vince takes the stage when the house band takes a break and starts singing Young and Beautiful. But one of the customers laughs obnoxiously throughout the performance, enraging Vince, Peggy follows Vince and persuades him to record a demo so that he can listen to himself singJailhouse Rock (movie) – Theatrical release poster
36. Motion picture – A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens. The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, much terminology later used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slidesMotion picture – A vintage Fox movietone motion picture camera
37. MGM – Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California and it is one of the worlds oldest film studios. In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, over the next thirty-nine years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3,2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol MGM, is not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would later buy Universal Studios, the studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, however, commit to increased production and a film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up production, as well as keeping production going at UA. It also incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production, the studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt, MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the major creditor. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australias Seven Network in 1996, the debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGMs ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem and he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loews Theatres chain. With Loews lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality, however, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17,1924, Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production. MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years, in 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loews passed to Nicholas Schenck, in 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew familys holdings with Schencks assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision, Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust groundsMGM – MGM Tower, former company headquarters highlighted by the famous Leo the Lion logo at the top
38. Judy Tyler – Judy Tyler was an American actress. Born Judith Mae Hess in Milwaukee, she came from a business family and was encouraged to study dance. Her acting career began as a teenager with regular appearances on Howdy Doody as Princess Summerfall Winterspring from 1950 to 1953, like her mother, she became a chorus girl, but then went on to land a starring role in the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical Pipe Dream. Life did a story on rising Broadway talent with Tyler on the cover as one of the up-and-coming stars. She lived with her parents in Teaneck, New Jersey when appearing on Howdy Doody, offered an opportunity in Hollywood, Tyler appeared in the film Bop Girl Goes Calypso, then starred opposite Elvis Presley in Jailhouse Rock. She made a guest appearance on Perry Mason as Irene Kilby in The Case of the Fan Dancers Horse, after completing filming of the Presley movie, she and her second husband, Greg Lafayette, left Hollywood to return to their home in New York. While driving through Wyoming on July 3,1957, they were involved in an accident on U. S. Route 287. Tyler was killed instantly, and her husband had a broken back, a passenger in the other car was killed as well. Police said Lafayette swerved to avoid hitting a car that was towing a trailer, tylers cremated remains are in the private family room of her husband in the mausoleum in Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Judy Tyler at the Internet Movie Database Judy Tyler at Find a GraveJudy Tyler – As Peggy Van Alden in Jailhouse Rock (1957)
39. United States National Film Registry – The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Boards selection of films for preservation in the Library of Congress. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992,1996,2005, and again in October 2008. The NFPBs mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival, conservation, the 1996 law also created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector. To be eligible for inclusion, a film must be at least ten years old, for the first selection in 1989, the public nominated almost 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB then developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion, the ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films which was then modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB, the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been released in the traditional sense. As of the 2016 listing, there are 700 films preserved in the Registry, currently, the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, and the most recent is 13 Lakes. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the years with the most films selected are 1928,1939, the time between a films debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 119 years, Newark Athlete was originally released in 1891, the shortest span is the minimum 10 years, this distinction is shared by Raging Bull, Do the Right Thing, Goodfellas, Toy Story, Fargo and 13 Lakes. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted once by year of completionUnited States National Film Registry – Logo for the National Film Registry
40. Jailhouse Rock (film) – Jailhouse Rock is a 1957 American musical drama film directed by Richard Thorpe and starring Elvis Presley, Judy Tyler, and Mickey Shaughnessy. After his release from jail, while looking for a job as a club singer, as he develops his musical abilities and becomes a star, his self-centered personality begins to affect his relationships. The wife of producer Pandro S. Berman convinced him to create a film with Presley in the last role, Berman delegated the casting to Benny Thau, head of the studio and Abraham Lastfogel, the then president of William Morris Agency. Berman hired Richard Thorpe, who was known for shooting productions quickly, the production of Jailhouse Rock began on May 13,1957, and concluded on June 17 of that year. The dance sequence to the title song Jailhouse Rock is often cited as Presleys greatest moment on screen. Before pre-production began, songwriters Mike Stoller and Jerry Leiber were commissioned to integrate the films soundtrack, in April, Leiber and Stoller were called for a meeting in New York City to show the progress of the repertoire. Presley recorded the soundtrack at Radio Recorders in Hollywood on April 30 and May 3, during post-production, the songs were dubbed into the films scenes, in which Presley mimed the lyrics. Jailhouse Rock premiered on October 17,1957 in Memphis, Tennessee and was released nationwide on November 8,1957 and it peaked at number 3 on the Variety box office chart, and reached number 14 in the years box office totals, grossing $4 million. Jailhouse Rock earned mixed reviews, with most of the negative reception directed towards Presleys persona, in 2004, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. Construction worker Vince Everett accidentally kills a drunken and belligerent man in a barroom brawl and he is sentenced to two years in the state penitentiary for manslaughter. His cellmate, washed-up country singer Hunk Houghton who was jailed for robbery, starts teaching Vince to play the guitar after hearing Vince sing. Hunk then convinces Vince to participate in an upcoming inmate show, Vince receives numerous fan letters as a result, but out of apparent jealousy, Hunk ensures they are not delivered to Vince. Hunk then convinces Vince to sign a contract to become partners in his act. Meanwhile, during a riot in the mess hall, a guard shoves Vince. As a result, the warden orders Vince to be lashed with a whip, afterwards, it was discovered that Hunk attempted to bribe the guards to drop the punishment, but to no avail. Upon Vinces release 20 months later, the warden gives Vince his fan mail, Hunk then promises Vince a singing job at a nightclub owned by a friend, where Vince meets Peggy Van Alden, a promoter for pop singer Mickey Alba. Vince is surprised when the club owner denies him a job as a singer, undeterred, Vince takes the stage when the house band takes a break and starts singing Young and Beautiful. But one of the customers laughs obnoxiously throughout the performance, enraging Vince, Peggy follows Vince and persuades him to record a demo so that he can listen to himself singJailhouse Rock (film) – Theatrical release poster
41. Elvis Presley discography – Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relativesElvis Presley discography – Presley in a publicity photograph for the 1957 film Jailhouse Rock
42. Elvis Presley (album) – Elvis Presley is the debut studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley. It was released on RCA Victor, in mono, catalogue number LPM1254, in March 1956. The recording sessions took place on January 10 and January 11 at the RCA Victor recording studios in Nashville, Tennessee, and on January 30 and January 31 at the RCA Victor studios in New York. Additional material originated from sessions at Sun Studio in Memphis, Tennessee, on July 5, August 19 and September 10 of 1954, in 2003, it was ranked number 56 on Rolling Stone magazines list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. Elvis Presley was also one of three Presley albums to receive accolades in the reference book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die and it was certified Gold on November 1,1966 and Platinum on August 8,2011 by the Recording Industry Association of America. The original 1956 UK release called Rock n Roll on HMV Catalogue Number, at the urging of Parker, on November 21,1955, Sholes bought Presleys contract from Sam Phillips, the head of Sun Records and Studio, for the unprecedented sum of $35,000. Presley made appearances in four weeks on the Dorsey Brothers television program Stage Show in early 1956, on January 28, February 4, February 11. At the same time, there had only two series of Presley recording sessions for RCA Victor by the end of the Dorsey stint, after which Presley. Those two sessions yielded an additional eleven tracks, almost enough to fill an entire LP, although some tracks had singles potential. Phillips produced the sessions at Sun, and no producer was officially listed for the RCA Victor sessions, as the Sun tracks were mostly country-styled, Elvis and RCA leavened the selections with covers of recent rhythm and blues songs. Two of these, Money Honey by Jesse Stone, known to Elvis from a version by Clyde McPhatter, a third was the frenetic announcement to the world of the existence of Little Richard in 1955, Tutti Frutti. Instead, it was diverted into being the track on the album. RCA first issued the original 12 track album in reprocessed stereo on compact disc in 1984 and this issue was quickly withdrawn and the album was reissued in original monophonic sound. In 1999, it was reissued with a running order, adding on six bonus tracks from three non-album singles, including the chart-toppers Heartbreak Hotel and I Want You, I Need You. In 2005, the album was reissued again, remastered using DSD technology with the six bonus tracks appended in standard fashion, a two-disc set was released on the Follow That Dream collectors label on August 15,2006, with bonus tracks and numerous alternate takes. The cover is ranked number 40 on Rolling Stones list of the 100 greatest album covers, the photograph was taken at the Fort Homer Hesterly Armory in Tampa, Florida, on July 31,1955. Initially it was thought that Popsie Randolph took the iconic image featured on the front cover, however, in August,2002, Joseph A. Tunzi documented that the actual photographer was William V. Red Robertson of Robertson & Fresch, Tunzi was quoted in the Tampa Tribune as saying, Forget about PopsieElvis Presley (album) – Elvis Presley
43. Elvis (1956 album) – Elvis / Elvis Presley No.2 is the second studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released by RCA Victor in October 1956 in mono. It spent four weeks at #1 on the Billboard Top Pop Albums chart that year and it was certified Gold on February 17,1960, and Platinum on August 10,2011, by the Recording Industry Association of America. It was originally released in UK in 1957 as Elvis Presley No.2 with a different front cover and it was also catalogued as Rock n Roll No.2. The latter two, contracted to Hill and Range, the company of Presleys manager, Colonel Tom Parker. Also included was the song with which Presley won second prize at a fair in Tupelo when he was ten years old, Red Foleys 1941 country song, Old Shep. With all but one track on the album recorded at a set of sessions over three days in September, Presley and his touring band of Scotty Moore, Bill Black. Fontana, along with The Jordanaires, managed to recreate the loose feel from Sun Studio days, mixing rhythm and blues and country and western repertoire items as they had on all of his Sun singles. The piano player on this album is not registered in the official RCA archives, except for the song So Glad Youre Mine, which was cut at a previous session in New York. In a 1984 interview conducted by Jan-Erik Kjeseth, Gordon Stoker of the Jordanaires stated that he was the player on most of the songs on the album. In an article written by Kjeseth for the Flaming Star magazine, it was argued that the player on Love Me, Old Shep. Ernst Jørgensen, writer of Elvis Presley - A Study in Music, Kjeseth also claims that Elvis played the piano on the single from this session, Playing for Keeps. Again, Jørgensen seems to be of the same opinion, Gordon Stoker played the piano on Rip it Up and Anyplace is Paradise. RCA first reissued the original 12-track album on Compact Disc in 1984 and this issue, in reprocessed stereo sound, was quickly withdrawn and the disc was reissued in original monophonic. RCA reissued an expanded edition of the album in 1999, for the 1999 reissue, six bonus tracks were added that were both sides of three singles, altering the running order. Four of the tracks were chart-toppers, Love Me Tender, Too Much, and the double-sided classic Hound Dog and Dont Be Cruel. Bonus tracks recorded on July 2 at RCA Studios in New York City, in September at Radio Recorders and these rock-nroll tapes are believed to have been among those ignobly dumped into the Delaware River near RCA Victors Camden, New Jersey plant in the late 1950s. J. Fontana – drums The Jordanaires - backing vocals Chart positions for LPM1382 from Billboard Top Pop Albums chart, the album tracks are presented in the same order as on the original LP, followed by the six bonus tracks that were included on the 1999 reissue. Elvis Presley, A Life In Music - The Complete Recording Sessions,1998, the Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll, revised first edition,1980Elvis (1956 album) – Elvis
44. Elvis Is Back! – Elvis Is Back. is the tenth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley. It was released on RCA Victor Records in mono and stereo in April 1960, recorded over two sessions in March and April, the album marked Presleys return to recording after his discharge from the U. S. Army. In 1957, as Presleys fame was soaring, he received a notice from the Memphis Draft Board. During Presleys two-year military service in Germany, RCA Victor and Paramount Pictures progressively released material he had completed prior to enlistment, during his last months in the Army, Presley experimented with new sounds and worked on further improving his performance. He also prepared material for his first session in Nashville, which was scheduled to take place upon his return, Presley returned to the United States on March 2,1960. The singer reunited with his original band The Blue Moon Boys, the first session was held on March 20–21 and the second session was held on April 3–4, completing the album. Topped the UK Albums Chart and reached two in Billboards Top LPs. Initially, the release received mixed reviews, but over subsequent years its critical reception became more positive. The album was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1999, following his third and last appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, Presley received a notice from the Memphis draft board on January 8,1957. The board announced his 1A classification and his draft before the end of the year. During the first half of 1957, Presley had three number one hits with Too Much, All Shook Up, and Teddy Bear and his second film, Loving You, opened on July 30 to box office success. His Christmas album was released on October 15 and his film, Jailhouse Rock. On December 20, Presley received his draft notice and he was granted a deferment so he could finish the forthcoming film King Creole, which had already received an investment of $350,000 from Paramount Pictures and producer Hal Wallis. At the beginning of 1958, Presleys single Dont topped the charts, Presley was inducted into the Army on March 24,1958. Soon after starting basic training at Fort Hood, Texas, he received a visit from Eddie Fadal, according to Fadal, Presley firmly believed his career was finished. After completing training, he joined the 3rd Armored Division in Friedberg, Germany, media reports echoed Presleys concerns about his career, but RCA producer Steve Sholes and Freddy Bienstock of Hill and Range had carefully prepared for his two-year absence. Prepared with unreleased material, they kept up a stream of regular, RCA also released four albums compiling old material during this period, most successfully Elvis Golden Records and 50,000,000 Elvis Fans Cant Be Wrong. During his final months in the Army, Presley started to experiment with new material and thinking ahead to his anticipated return to recordingElvis Is Back! – Elvis Is Back!
45. His Hand in Mine – His Hand in Mine is the twelfth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released on RCA Victor Records in mono and stereo, LPM/LSP2328, in November 1960. It was the first of three music albums that Presley would issue during his lifetime. Recording sessions took place on October 30 and 31,1960, at RCA Studio B in Nashville and it peaked at #13 on the Top Pop Albums chart. It was certified Gold on April 9,1969 and Platinum on March 27,1992 by the Recording Industry Association of America. Presley had a lifelong, fundamental love of music, and often used it to rehearse and loosen up before concerts. Presley had earlier devoted an extended play single, Peace in the Valley, to his love for gospel songs, and was eager to record a full album of this music. This fit well with the plans of Presleys manager, Colonel Tom Parker, all the selections for His Hand In Mine were completed in one fourteen-hour session. The songs Surrender and Crying in the Chapel were recorded during the session, Surrender would be his first single of 1961 and top the chart, but Crying in the Chapel would wait until April 1965 to be issued, going to #3 on the chart. Presley later re-recorded Swing Down Sweet Chariot for the soundtrack of his 1969 film, in 1976, RCA reissued the album in its Pure Gold series, with new cover art under a new catalogue number ANL1-1319. It contains the tracks as the original release. The Presley fan-club label Follow That Dream issued an extended two-disc version the same year, the song In My Fathers House was arranged and adapted by Elvis Presley which was published by Elvis Presley Music. JHis Hand in Mine – His Hand in Mine
46. Something for Everybody – Something for Everybody is the thirteenth album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released on RCA Victor in mono and stereo, LPM/LSP2370, in June 1961. Recording sessions took place on November 8,1960, at Radio Recorders in Hollywood, in the United States, it peaked at number 1 on Billboards Top Pop LPs chart. It was certified Gold on July 15,1999 by the Recording Industry Association of America, after his military discharge from the army in March 1960, any doubts about Presleys ability to recapture the momentum of his career in the 1950s had been laid to rest. During that year his three singles had all topped the charts, and his first album, Elvis Is Back, had gone to number 2 on the albums chart. Blues had been successful, its soundtrack album also going to number 1. Pressing on, he entered the familiar Studio B in Nashville and recorded eleven of the tracks for this album in one twelve-hour session, in addition to the single I Feel So Bad. Another track that had appeared in the film but not released commercially on records, I Slipped, I Stumbled, I Fell, became the final track for the album. The July 13,1999, compact disc reissue included six tracks, four singles and two b-sides recorded over the span of a year and issued in 1961 and 1962. All of the made the Top 40 at a time when Billboard charted B-sides as well. Surrender had been recorded at the sessions for Presleys gospel album of 1960, His Hand in Mine, the entirety of the 1999 reissue appeared on the Legacy Edition reissue of Elvis Is Back. Bonus tracks were all recorded at Studio B in Nashville, in 2006 Something for Everybody was reissued on the Follow That Dream label as a special 2-disc CD collection containing the original tracks along with numerous alternate takesSomething for Everybody – Something for Everybody
47. Pot Luck (Elvis Presley album) – Pot Luck with Elvis is the fifteenth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released on RCA Victor in mono and stereo, LPM/LSP2523, in June 1962. Recording sessions took place on March 22,1961, at Radio Recorders in Hollywood, and on June 25 and October 15,1961 and it peaked at number 4 on the Billboard Top LPs chart. The album is dominated by the team of Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman, who had written the chart-topping Surrender. The tracks Kiss Me Quick and Suspicion would be pulled off for a Top 40 single almost two years later in April 1964, following a hit version of the latter song by Terry Stafford. Thats Someone You Never Forget, with concept and title by Presley, was written in conjunction with Red West and possibly in memory of Elvis deceased mother, Gladys Presley. The song would go to number 92 on the Billboard Hot 100 in May 1967 as the B-side to the single Long Legged Girl. Another song from sessions, Youll Be Gone, written by Presley and West. The song Steppin Out of Line is a track from the sessions for Blue Hawaii. Blues and Blue Hawaii, a pattern that would continue to hold for Presley through the mid-1960s, as a result, Presley would concentrate on his movie career, and not make another non-soundtrack, non-gospel studio album for another seven years, until From Elvis in Memphis. The three single sides had been recorded at the sessions that yielded the balance of the album on March 18 and 19,1962, one single had both sides written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, while Youll Be Gone had been issued as a b-side in 1965. The bonus tracks were all recorded at Studio B in Nashville, pot Luck was reissued on the Follow That Dream label in 2007 in a deluxe 2-disc CD collection containing the original album along with numerous alternate takes from the original recording sessionsPot Luck (Elvis Presley album) – Pot Luck with Elvis
48. How Great Thou Art (Elvis Presley album) – How Great Thou Art is the twenty-eighth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released by RCA Victor in mono and stereo in February 1967. Recording sessions took place at RCA Studio B in Nashville, Tennessee, on May 25,26,27 and it peaked at No.18 on the Top Pop Albums chart. It was certified Gold on February 16,1968, Platinum and 2x Platinum on March 27,1992, the title song won the 1967 Grammy Award for Best Sacred Performance. His previous gospel album His Hand in Mine had been a solid catalog seller for RCA, so, recording sessions were arranged with the purpose of producing a Christmas single and a follow-up LP to His Hand in Mine. It also introduced producer Felton Jarvis to Presley on the singers second non-soundtrack sessions since May 1963, Jarvis would continue to work with Presley for the remainder of his career. As the sessions progressed, Elvis rejected many of the songs for which Freddy Bienstock had obtained publishing deals, and began picking favorites of his own. The five songs in the domain were credited as arranged by Elvis Presley. Twelve tracks were completed for the album, including the standards In the Garden from 1912 popularized by Billy Sunday, the 13th track, Crying in the Chapel, had been recorded during the sessions for His Hand in Mine and released as a single in 1965. The sessions also produced the single Love Letters, two b-sides, and two songs that would be added to the Spinout album. The Christmas single would be completed, a composition by Memphis Mafia mainstay Red West If Every Day Was Like Christmas, the church and its steeple featured on the cover is that of the First Church of Christ, located in Sandwich, Massachusetts. In 2008, Sony Music reissued for compact disc a remastered version of the album with three bonus tracks, the album was re-released in 2010 on the Follow That Dream label as a two-disc set with outtakes. Crying in the Chapel was released as a single on April 6,1965, youll Never Walk Alone was released as a single in March 1968 and reached position 90. Its B-side is We Call On Him, carl Boberg, author of the Swedish poem O Store Gud LSP-3758 How Great Thou Art Guide part of The Elvis Presley Record Research Database Elvis Presley DiscographyHow Great Thou Art (Elvis Presley album) – How Great Thou Art
49. From Elvis in Memphis – From Elvis in Memphis is the fifteenth studio album by American rock and roll singer Elvis Presley, released on RCA Records. It was recorded at American Sound Studio in Memphis in January and February 1969 under the direction of producer Chips Moman and backed by its house band, informally known as The Memphis Boys. Presleys entourage convinced him to leave the RCA studios and record album at American Sound. The reason for going to Momans studio was for the sound of the house band. The predominance of country songs among those recorded in these sessions gives them the feel of the soul style. This impression is emphasized by the frequent use of the dobro in the arrangements, in any case, the Memphis Boys have a solidly southern soul sound. From Elvis in Memphis was released in June 1969 to favorable reviews. The album peaked at number 13 on the Billboard 200, number two on the charts and number one in the United Kingdom, and its single In the Ghetto reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100. The album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1970, in later years, it garnered further favorable reviews, while it was ranked number 190 on Rolling Stone magazines 2003 list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. After Presleys 1960 return from service, his manager, Colonel Tom Parker, shifted the focus of the singers career from live music and albums to films. In March 1961, he performed what would become his last live concert for the eight years. After 1964, Parker decided that Presley should only record soundtrack albums and he viewed the films and soundtracks as complementary, with each helping to promote the other. As it turned out, the success of Presleys films and soundtracks steadily diminished. From 1964 to 1968, Presley had just one hit, Crying in the Chapel. Only one LP of new material by Presley was issued, the gospel album How Great Thou Art, in 1968, Colonel Parker arranged a deal with NBC for a Christmas television special starring Presley in front of a live audience. Parker originally planned to have Presley sing Christmas carols only, the high ratings received by the special and the success of its attendant LP re-established Presleys popularity. During the making of the special, Presley said to Binder, Ill never sing another song that I dont believe in, as part of his decision to refocus on music rather than film, Presley decided to record a new album. Presley left his usual musicians and studios, recording new material in Memphis, after the special he approached Scotty Moore and D. J. Fontana, who had played with Presley during his early hit-making career, and who rejoined him on the television showFrom Elvis in Memphis – From Elvis in Memphis
50. From Memphis to Vegas/From Vegas to Memphis – From Memphis to Vegas / From Vegas to Memphis is the 36th studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released in October 1969 by RCA Records, catalogue LSP6020. Recording sessions took place at American Sound Studio in Memphis, on January 13–15 and 21–22, and February 17–18,1969 and it peaked at number 12 on the Billboard 200, and has been certified Gold on December 13,1969, by the Recording Industry Association of America. The musicians used on the second lp were assembled by Chips Moman dating back from early 1969 at the American Sound Studios sessions in Memphis, the first album consisted of recordings from those shows, Elvis first live performances since his March 1961 benefit concert in Hawaii. The second album consisted of ten recordings from the winter of 1969 sessions at American Sound not used for From Elvis in Memphis, although drawn from what were basically leftovers, still Stranger in My Hometown equaled the intensity of the already issued songs. Of these remainders, The Fairs Moving On and Youll Think of Me had previously appeared as b-sides respectively to Clean Up Your Own Backyard and they have been issued separately ever since. However, the double LP LSP6020 was also available concurrently through the 1970s, on July 28,2009, Sony Music Entertainment issued Back in Memphis on the second disc of its Legacy Edition of From Elvis In Memphis. A similar Legacy Edition of On Stage released on March 23,2010, the collectors label Follow That Dream has released several of the full performances from Presleys August 1969 season in Las Vegas. The full August 22 performance was included on a reissue of the live album, the full midnight show from August 23 was released under the title Elvis At The International, while the midnight show from August 26 was released as All Shook Up. The August 24 show is available on the first disc of the 2001 box set Live in Las Vegas, in 2013, FTD released the complete midnight show from August 25. Sides one and two shown as Elvis In Person at the International Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, sides three and four as Elvis Back In MemphisFrom Memphis to Vegas/From Vegas to Memphis – From Memphis to Vegas/From Vegas to Memphis (Elvis in Person at the International Hotel)