1. Film – A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens. The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, much terminology later used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slidesFilm – A vintage Fox movietone motion picture camera
2. Film industry – The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i. e. Though the expense involved in making movies almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve. Hollywood is the oldest film industry of the world and the largest in terms of box office gross, other centers include Hong Kong and in Europe the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Germany are the countries that lead movie production. The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.3 billion in 2015. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were, Asia-Pacific with US$14.1 billion, North America with US$11.1 billion and Europe, distinct from the centers are the locations where movies are filmed. Because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U. S. movies are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian movies are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian movies are filmed in the Americas, Europe, Singapore etc. The cinema of the United States, often referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The United States cinema is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and also the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the nexus of the U. S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film Institute, LA Film School. However, four of the six film studios are owned by East Coast companies. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is fully based in Southern California. And while Sony Pictures Entertainment is headquartered in Culver City, California, its parent company, most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina. Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, between 2009-2015, Hollywood consistently grossed $10 billion annually. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family, friends, the film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895, the Phantoscope was later sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edisons Vitascope. Nestor Studios was Hollywoods first movie studio, founded on October 27,1911 It was built by David Horsley for Nestor Motion Picture Company and it was then owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley. The first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern, other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestors move westFilm industry – A scene from Raja Harishchandra (1913) – credited as the second full-length Indian motion picture, after Pundalik (1912).
3. Video recording – Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary greatly in the resolution of the display and refresh rate, video can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, tapes, DVDs, computer files etc. Video was originally exclusively a live technology, charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the electrical impulses. Video recorders were sold for $50,000 in 1956, however, prices gradually dropped over the years, in 1971, Sony began selling videocassette recorder decks and tapes into the consumer market. The use of techniques in video created digital video, which allowed higher quality and, eventually. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape, the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC standards specify 29.97 frames, film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which slightly complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video. The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of an image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be interlaced or progressive, analog display devices reproduce each frame in the same way, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats, abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence, when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material, aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height, the screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4,3, or about 1.33,1. High definition televisions use a ratio of 16,9. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375,1. Therefore, a 720 by 480 pixel NTSC DV image displayes with the 4,3 aspect ratio if the pixels are thin, the popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical videoVideo recording – Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television (green) aspect ratios
4. Camera – Thumb|A2016 Nikon D810 A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies, the camera is a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without physical contact. The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means dark chamber and is the Latin name of the device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura, the functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. A camera may work with the light of the spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera is a device which creates a single image of an object or scene. All cameras use the basic design, light enters an enclosed box through a converging lens/convex lens. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time that light can enter the camera, a display, often a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed, exposure, and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates similarly to a camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession. When the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved, the forerunner to the photographic camera was the camera obscura. The oldest known record of this principle is a description by Han Chinese philosopher Mozi, Mozi correctly asserted that the camera obscura image is inverted because light travels in straight lines from its source. In the 11th century Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham s wrote very influential essays about experiments with light through an opening in a darkened room. The use of a lens in the opening of a wall or closed window shutter of a room to project images used as a drawing aid has been traced back to circa 1550. Since the late 17th century portable camera obscura devices in tents, before the development of the photographic camera, it had been known for hundreds of years that some substances, such as silver salts, darkened when exposed to sunlight. The first person to use this chemistry to create images was Thomas Wedgwood, to create images, Wedgwood placed items, such as leaves and insect wings, on ceramic pots coated with silver nitrate, and exposed the set-up to light. These images werent permanent, however, as Wedgwood didnt employ a fixing mechanism and he ultimately failed at his goal of using the process to create fixed images created by a camera obscura. The first permanent photograph of an image was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles. Niépce had been experimenting with ways to fix the images of a camera obscura since 1816, the photograph Niépce succeeded in creating shows the view from his windowCamera – Canon EOS 5D Mark III, a digital single-lens reflex camera
5. Animation – Animation is the process of making the illusion of motion and the illusion of change by means of the rapid display of a sequence of images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon, animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation. Animation can be recorded with either analogue media, a book, motion picture film, video tape, digital media, including formats with animated GIF, Flash animation. To display animation, a camera, computer, or projector are used along with new technologies that are produced. Animation creation methods include the traditional animation creation method and those involving stop motion animation of two and three-dimensional objects, paper cutouts, puppets and clay figures, Images are displayed in a rapid succession, usually 24,25,30, or 60 frames per second. Computer animation processes generating animated images with the general term computer-generated imagery, 3D animation uses computer graphics, while 2D animation is used for stylistic, low bandwidth and faster real-time renderings. An earthen goblet discovered at the site of the 5, 200-year-old Shahr-e Sūkhté in southeastern Iran, the artifact bears five sequential images depicting a Persian Desert Ibex jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree. They may, of course, refer to Chinese shadow puppets, in the 19th century, the phenakistoscope, zoetrope and praxinoscope were introduced. A thaumatrope is a toy with a small disk with different pictures on each side. The phenakistoscope was invented simultaneously by Belgian Joseph Plateau and Austrian Simon von Stampfer in 1831, the phenakistoscope consists of a disk with a series of images, drawn on radi evenly space around the center of the disk. John Barnes Linnett patented the first flip book in 1868 as the kineograph, the first animated projection was created in France, by Charles-Émile Reynaud, who was a French science teacher. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888, on 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris. This film is notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. His films were not photographed, they were drawn directly onto the transparent strip, in 1900, more than 500,000 people had attended these screenings. Stuart Blackton, who, because of that, is considered the father of American animation, in Europe, the French artist, Émile Cohl, created the first animated film using what came to be known as traditional animation creation methods - the 1908 Fantasmagorie. The film largely consisted of a figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects. There were also sections of live action in which the hands would enter the scene. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film, the author of the first puppet-animated film was the Russian-born director Wladyslaw Starewicz, known as Ladislas StarevichAnimation – A phenakistoscope disc by Eadweard Muybridge (1893)
6. Special effect – Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game, and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special effects are divided into the categories of optical effects. Mechanical effects are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting and this includes the use of mechanized props, scenery, scale models, animatronics, pyrotechnics and atmospheric effects, creating physical wind, rain, fog, snow, clouds, etc. Making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building are examples of mechanical effects, mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with doors or walls to enhance a fight scene. An optical effect might be used to place actors or sets against a different background, since the 1990s, computer generated imagery has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. It gives filmmakers greater control, and allows many effects to be accomplished safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs. As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI, in 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the worlds first special effects movie by combining different sections of 30 negatives into a single image. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, as the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, and had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the place, restarted filming. Techniques like these would dominate the production of special effects for a century and it wasnt only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was also the first type of photographic trickery only possible in a motion picture, i. e. the stop trick. Georges Méliès accidentally discovered the same stop trick, according to Méliès, his camera jammed while filming a street scene in Paris. When he screened the film, he found that the trick had caused a truck to turn into a hearse, pedestrians to change direction. Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality with the cinematograph. From 1910 to 1920, the innovations in special effects were the improvements on the matte shot by Norman Dawn. With the original matte shot, pieces of cardboard were placed to block the exposure of the film, Dawn combined this technique with the glass shot. Rather than using cardboard to block certain areas of the film exposure, from the partially exposed film, a single frame is then projected onto an easel, where the matte is then drawnSpecial effect – Bluescreens are commonly used in chroma key special effects.
7. Art – In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature, until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, communication of emotion, during the Romantic period, art came to be seen as a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science. Though the definition of what art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency. The nature of art, and related such as creativity. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning. English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, medical arts, however, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art, Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homers great poetic art, in Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, the forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is an imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankinds advantages over animals. The second, and more recent, sense of the art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. The creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a drive and convey a message, mood. Art is something that stimulates an individuals thoughts, emotions, beliefs, works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand, crafts and design are considered applied artArt – Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.
8. Translation – Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. While interpreting—the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages—antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature, there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation, on the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated, because of the laboriousness of translation, since the 1940s engineers have sought to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. The rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for services and has facilitated language localization. Translation studies systematically study the theory and practice of translation, the English word translation derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, across + ferre, to carry or to bring. Thus translatio is a carrying across or a bringing across, in this case, the Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of translation on translatio. The Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of translation from an alternative Latin word, traductio, the Ancient Greek term for translation, μετάφρασις, has supplied English with metaphrase — as contrasted with paraphrase. Metaphrase corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to formal equivalence, nevertheless, metaphrase and paraphrase may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity, the ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase and paraphrase. Literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed, Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of imitation, i. e. of adapted translation, When a painter copies from the life. He has no privilege to alter features and lineaments, despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. The grammatical differences between languages and free-word-order languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language. When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a language, translators have borrowed those terms. However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, an etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. For example, the English actual should not be confused with the cognate French actuel, the Polish aktualny, the Swedish aktuell, the translators role as a bridge for carrying across values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, the 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. The translators role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, the main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as CiceroTranslation – Rosetta Stone
9. Culture – Culture can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E. B, Tylor, it is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is the way of life, especially the customs and beliefs. As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a concept in anthropology. The word is used in a sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols. The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of culture that emerged in the 20th century. When used as a count noun, a culture is the set of customs, traditions, in this sense, multiculturalism is a concept that values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes culture is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a context, meaning something similar. His use, and that of many writers after him, refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human. To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, thus a contrast between culture and civilization is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. Cultural invention has come to any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior. Humanity is in a global accelerating culture change period, driven by the expansion of commerce, the mass media, and above all. Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change, Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action. These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change, for example, the U. S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors, Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practicesCulture – Human symbolic expression developed as prehistoric humans reached behavioral modernity
10. Persistence of vision – The illusion has also been described as retinal persistence, persistence of impressions or simply persistence and other variations. This has been believed to be the explanation for motion perception in cinema and animated films and it is assumed that the illusion that film historians often refer to as persistence of vision is the same as what is known as positive afterimages by psychologists. Early descriptions of the illusion often attributed the effect purely to imperfections of the eye, nerves and parts of the brain later became part of explanations. Sensory memory has been cited as a cause, the fact that a glowing coal appears as a line of light when it is moved around quickly has been used to illustrate the idea of persistence of vision. It is known as the sparklers trail effect, named after the trail that appears when a sparkler is moved around quickly, the effect has been applied in the arts by writing or drawing with a light source recorded by a camera with a long exposure time. A pencil or another rigid straight line can appear as bending and becoming rubbery when it is wiggled fast enough between fingers, or otherwise undergoing rigid motion, Persistence of vision has been discarded as sole cause of the illusion. It is thought that the eye movements of the observer fail to track the motions of features of the object, the effect is known as a magic trick for children. In April 1825 the first Thaumatrope was published by W. Phillips, in 1824 the theory was used to explain the illusion of still spokes seen in a rotating wheel. Further research into this phenomenon resulted in the invention of animated moving images in 1832, the optical illusion of motion appearing as a still image led to an optical illusion of still images appearing as motion. Aristotle noted that the image of the sun remained in his vision after he stopped looking at it, the discovery of persistence of vision is sometimes attributed to the Roman poet Lucretius, although he only mentions it in connection with images seen in a dream. Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton were also curious about the phenomenon, in 1820 a letter to Quarterly Journal of Science noted that the spokes of a rotating wheel seen through fence slats appeared with peculiar curvatures. Writer J. M. asked readers for an explanation, four years later Peter Mark Roget addressed this observation in a paper, “However rapidly the wheel revolves, each individual spoke, during the moment it is viewed, appears to be at rest. Roget claimed that the illusion is due to the fact “that an impression made by a pencil of rays on the retina, if sufficiently vivid and he later read Peter Mark Rogets 1824 article and decided to investigate the phenomenon further. He published his findings in Correspondance Mathématique et Physique in 1828 and 1830 and he referred to Rogets paper and described his associated new findings. Much was similar to what Plateau had published and Faraday later acknowledged this, Faradays experiments of turning wheels in front of the mirror inspired Plateau with the idea for new illusions. In July 1832 Plateau sent a letter to Faraday and added a circle that produced a “completely immobile image of a little. After several attempts and many difficulties Plateau constructed a model of the phénakisticope in November or December 1832. Plateau published his invention in a January 21,1833 letter to Correspondance Mathématique et Physique, simon Stampfer simultaneously and independently invented his very similar Stroboscopischen Scheiben oder optischen Zauberscheiben soon after he read about Faradays findings in December 1832Persistence of vision – Persistence of Vision as a visual art form, using an array of lights, waved back and forth in space, with the lights controlled by wearable computer
11. Photographic film – This article is mainly concerned with still photography film. For motion picture film, please see film stock, photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, the emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be developed into a visible photograph. In addition to light, all films are sensitive to ultraviolet, X-rays. Unmodified silver halide crystals are only to the blue part of the visible spectrum. This problem was overcome with the discovery that certain dyes, called sensitizing dyes, first orthochromatic and finally panchromatic films were developed. Panchromatic film renders all colors in shades of gray approximately matching their subjective brightness, by similar techniques special-purpose films can be made sensitive to the infrared region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film there is one layer of silver halide crystals. When the exposed silver halide grains are developed, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, color film has at least three sensitive layers, incorporating different combinations of sensitizing dyes. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a filter layer to stop any remaining blue light from affecting the layers below. Next come a green-and-blue sensitive layer, and a sensitive layer. During development, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, following development, the silver is converted back to silver halide crystals in the bleach step. It is removed from the film during the process of fixing the image on the film with a solution of ammonium thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate, fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, the earliest practical photographic process, the daguerreotype, introduced in 1839, did not use film. The light-sensitive chemicals were formed on the surface of a copper sheetPhotographic film – 135 Film Cartridge with DX barcode (top) and DX CAS code on the black and white grid below the barcode. The CAS code shows the ISO, number of exposures, exposure latitude (+3/−1 for print film).
12. Film stock – Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation. It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with an emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, the emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be developed into a visible photograph. In addition to light, all films are sensitive to X-rays. Most are at least slightly sensitive to ultraviolet light. Some special-purpose films are sensitive into the region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film there is one layer of silver salts. When the exposed grains are developed, the salts are converted to metallic silver. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, dyes, which adsorb to the surface of the silver salts, make the crystals sensitive to different colors. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by the green, during development, the exposed silver salts are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, following development, the silver is converted back to silver salts in the bleach step. It is removed from the film in the fix step, fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, early motion picture experiments in the 1880s were performed using a fragile paper roll film, with which it was difficult to view a single, continuously moving image without a complex apparatus. The first transparent and flexible film base material was celluloid, which was discovered and refined for use by John Carbutt, Hannibal Goodwin. Eastman Kodak made celluloid film commercially available in 1889, Thomas Henry Blair, the stock had a frosted base to facilitate easier viewing by transmitted light. By November 1891 William Dickson, at Edisons laboratory, was using Blairs stock for Kinetoscope experiments, Blairs company supplied film to Edison for five yearsFilm stock – A film strip
13. Recording medium – A data storage device is a device for recording information. A storage device may hold information, process information, or both, a device that only holds information is a recording medium. Devices that process information may either access a separate portable recording medium or a permanent component to store, Electronic data storage requires electrical power to store and retrieve that data. Most storage devices that do not require vision and a brain to read data fall into this category, electromagnetic data may be stored in either an analog data or digital data format on a variety of media. Most electronically processed data storage media are considered permanent storage, that is, in contrast, most electronically stored information within most types of semiconductor microcircuits are volatile memory, for it vanishes if power is removed. JISC/NPO Studies on the Preservation of Electronic Materials, A Framework of Data Types and Formats, british Library Research and Innovation Report 50Recording medium – Many different consumer electronic devices can store data.
14. Hoodwinked! – Hoodwinked. is a 2005 American computer-animated family comedy film. It retells the folktale Little Red Riding Hood as a police investigation, Lovegren, Sue Bea Montgomery, and Preston Stutzman. The film was released by The Weinstein Company in Los Angeles, California, the cast features Anne Hathaway, Glenn Close, Jim Belushi, Patrick Warburton, Anthony Anderson, David Ogden Stiers, Xzibit, Chazz Palminteri and Andy Dick. Hoodwinked. was among the earliest computer-animated films to be independently funded. Working apart from a studio allowed the filmmakers greater creative control. Due to the small budget, its animation was produced in the Philippines. The Weinstein Company did not sign on as the films distributor until near the end of production, structurally, the film was inspired by non-linear crime dramas, such as Rashomon and Pulp Fiction. It was released shortly after the first two installments in the successful Shrek series, which accentuated the fairy tale parody genre of which it is a part, the film however, intentionally deviated from that series in its style of humor and in certain plot elements. This was in part based on Cory Edwards concerns over exposing children to the level of cynicism often found in the genre. Critical reception to the film was varied, although its script and cast were praised by many reviews, the film was a commercial success, earning over thirteen times its less than-$8 million budget. Hood vs. Evil, directed by Mike Disa, and written by the Edwards brothers and Leech, was released in 2011 to negative reviews, Little Red Riding Hood discovers that the Big Bad Wolf has disguised himself as Granny. Reds grandma jumps out of the tied up just as the axe-wielding woodsman bursts through the window. The police quickly arrive, and Red, Wolf, Granny, Red explains that she was delivering goodies for her grandmother when she discovered a threat from the mysterious Goodie Bandit. Hoping to save her Grannys recipes, she embarked upon a journey to take them to the top of a mountain where her Granny lives. On her way, she encountered the Wolf, who asked her a series of suspicious questions and she managed to escape and eventually reached her Grannys house, however, she found the Wolf already waiting in ambush. What at first seems to be a case becomes confused though. He reveals that he was searching for a lead on the identity of the Goody Bandit and had reason to believe that Red, locating Red, he questioned her, hoping to get to the bottom of the mystery. When Red escaped, he headed for her Grannys house and arriving first, went undercover, when questioned, the Woodsman reveals that he is in fact an aspiring actor who was only trying out for the part of a woodsman in a commercialHoodwinked! – Theatrical release poster
15. Little Red Riding Hood – Little Red Riding Hood, or Little Red Ridinghood, also known as Little Red Cap or simply Red Riding Hood, is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf. The story has changed considerably in various retellings and subjected to numerous modern adaptations. It is number 333 in the Aarne-Thompson classification system for folktales, variations of the story have developed, incorporating various cultural beliefs and regional dialects into the story. An example of this is Kawonis Journey Across the Mountain, A Cherokee Little Red Riding Hood, another such example is Petite Rouge Riding Hood, which approaches the story from a Cajun perspective. The story revolves around a girl called Little Red Riding Hood, in Grimms and Perraults versions of the tale, she is named after the red hooded cape/cloak that she wears. The girl walks through the woods to deliver food to her sickly grandmother, in the Grimms version, her mother had ordered her to stay strictly on the path. A Big Bad Wolf wants to eat the girl and the food in the basket and he secretly stalks her behind trees, bushes, shrubs, and patches of little and tall grass. He approaches Little Red Riding Hood, and she tells him where she is going. He suggests that the girl pick some flowers, which she does, in the meantime, he goes to the grandmothers house and gains entry by pretending to be the girl. He swallows the whole and waits for the girl, disguised as the grandma. When the girl arrives, she notices that her grandmother looks very strange, Little Red then says, What a deep voice you have. Goodness, what big eyes you have, and what big hands you have. And lastly, What a big mouth you have, at point the wolf jumps out of bed. In Charles Perraults version of the story, the tale ends here, Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother emerge unharmed. They then fill the body with heavy stones. The wolf awakens and tries to flee, but the stones cause him to collapse and it also warns about the dangers of not obeying ones mother. A very similar story also belongs to the North African tradition, namely in Kabylia, where a number of versions are attested. The theme also appears in the story of the life of Saint Margaret, wherein the saint emerges unharmed from the belly of a dragon and they were eventually set free, unharmed, by Zeus, when he gave Cronus an emeticLittle Red Riding Hood – Little Red Riding Hood (1881) by Carl Larsson
16. Cory Edwards – Cory Edwards is an American film director, screenwriter, and stand-up comedian. He is probably best known for co-directing, co-writing, and voice acting in Hoodwinked and he is the older brother of screenwriter/director, Todd Edwards, and film producer Katie Hooten. Cory Edwards was born on August 21,1968 in Anderson, Indiana to James L. Edwards and his father grew up as the son of a minister in Kettering, Ohio and graduated from Anderson University with a Bachelor of Arts in 1965. Deanna grew up in Springfield, Ohio, where she worked in a law office while attending classes part-time at Wittenberg University and she enrolled at Anderson University during the same semester as James and they married in 1964 after their junior year. Throughout college, James worked at a J. C. Penney, held various jobs on campus, upon graduation, he took on a job as the universitys Director of Student Recruitment, which he held until earning a Master of Divinity from Anderson School of Theology in 1970. Deanna also continued her studies, following a degree in Elementary Education with a degree from Ball State University. They then moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, where James served as a pastor at Pasadena Park Church of God, Corys younger brother Todd was born there in 1971. A year later, the returned to Anderson and James resumed work at the university. He directed church and alumni relations until 1975, at which point they all moved to Columbus Ohio, Cory, Todd, and their younger sister Katie showed an interest in the arts from an early age. They would put on shows and plays and used a tape recorder to create their own radio shows. Cory was around seven or eight years old when they first started experimenting with their familys Super 8 video camera. Their first film, succinctly titled Movie Stuff, did not have a plot and was simply a chance for them to learn how to use the camera, as they grew older, their films became more elaborate, often taking them months to complete. Starting with storyboarding the shots, they would go on to create their own sets, miniatures, neighborhood kids joined in as extras, and sound and special effects were added after filming. In school, Cory usually turned in films for class projects, as he was growing up, Corys mother worked as a teacher in both public and private schools. In addition to his work as a pastor and at Anderson University, James also held the positions of president and CEO at Warner Press and he and Deanna have known gospel music singers Bill and Gloria Gaither since early on in their music career. The Gaithers son Benjy was a friend of Cory and his siblings. While attending Anderson University, Cory and Todd served as directors for the comedy show Cheap Thrills. Cory interned at a studio in Ohio during his summers and graduated in 1990 with a major in BroadcastingCory Edwards – Cory Edwards
17. Stop motion – Stop motion is an animation technique that physically manipulates an object so that it appears to move on its own. The object is moved in increments between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of frames is played as a fast sequence. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning. Stop motion animation using plasticine is called clay animation or clay-mation, not all stop motion requires figures or models, many stop motion films can involve using humans, household appliances and other things for comedic effect. Stop motion using objects is sometimes referred to as object animation, the term stop motion, related to the animation technique, is often spelled with a hyphen, stop-motion. Stop motion is often confused with the time lapse technique, where photographs of a live surrounding are taken at regular intervals. Time lapse is a technique whereby the frequency at which frames are captured is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at speed, time appears to be moving faster. Stop motion animation has a history in film. It was often used to show objects moving as if by magic, in 1902, the film Fun in a Bakery Shop used the stop trick technique in the lightning sculpting sequence. In 1907, The Haunted Hotel is a new stop motion film by J. Stuart Blackton, segundo de Chomón, from Spain, released El Hotel Eléctrico later that same year, and used similar techniques as the Blackton film. In 1908, A Sculptors Welsh Rarebit Nightmare was released, as was The Sculptors Nightmare, italian animator Roméo Bossetti impressed audiences with his object animation tour-de-force, The Automatic Moving Company in 1912. The great European stop motion pioneer was Wladyslaw Starewicz, who animated The Beautiful Lukanida, The Battle of the Stag Beetles, The Ant, one of the earliest clay animation films was Modelling Extraordinary, which impressed audiences in 1912. December 1916 brought the first of Willie Hopkins 54 episodes of Miracles in Mud to the big screen, also in December 1916, the first woman animator, Helena Smith Dayton, began experimenting with clay stop motion. She would release her first film in 1917, an adaptation of William Shakespeares Romeo, in the turn of the century, there was another well known animator known as Willis O Brien. His work on The Lost World is well known, but he is most admired for his work on King Kong, oBriens protege and eventual successor in Hollywood was Ray Harryhausen. After learning under OBrien on the film Mighty Joe Young, Harryhausen would go on to create the effects for a string of successful and memorable films over the next three decades. These included The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, It Came from Beneath the Sea, Jason, in a 1940 promotional film, Autolite, an automotive parts supplier, featured stop motion animation of its products marching past Autolite factories to the tune of Franz Schuberts Military MarchStop motion – A clay model of a chicken, designed to be used in a stop motion animation.
18. Rashomon (film) – Rashomon is a 1950 Japanese jidaigeki film directed by Akira Kurosawa, working in close collaboration with cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa. It stars Toshiro Mifune, Machiko Kyō, Masayuki Mori, while the film borrows the title and setting from Ryūnosuke Akutagawas short story Rashōmon, it is actually based on Akutagawas short story In a Grove, which provides the characters and plot. The film is known for a device that involves various characters providing alternative, self-serving. The film opens on a woodcutter and a priest sitting beneath the Rajōmon city gate to stay dry in a downpour, a commoner joins them and they tell him that they have witnessed a disturbing story, which they then begin recounting to him. The priest says that he saw the samurai with his wife traveling the same day the murder happened, both men were then summoned to testify in court, where they met the captured bandit Tajōmaru, who claimed responsibility for killing the samurai and raping his wife. Tajōmaru, a brigand, claims that he tricked the samurai to step off the mountain trail with him. In the grove he tied the samurai to a tree, then brought the samurais wife there and she initially tried to defend herself with a dagger, but was eventually seduced by the bandit. The woman, filled with shame, then begged him to duel to the death with her husband, to save her from the guilt, Tajōmaru honorably set the samurai free and dueled with him. In Tajōmarus recollection they fought skillfully and fiercely, but in the end Tajōmaru was the victor, the samurais wife tells a different story to the court. She says that Tajōmaru left after raping her and she begged her husband to forgive her, but he simply looked at her coldly. She then freed him and begged him to kill her so that she would be at peace and he continued to stare at her with a look of loathing. His expression disturbed her so much that she fainted with dagger in hand and she awoke to find her husband dead with the dagger in his chest. She attempted to kill herself, but failed in all her efforts, the court then hears the story of the deceased samurai, told through a medium. The samurai claims that Tajōmaru, after raping his wife, asked her to travel with him and she accepted and asked Tajōmaru to kill her husband so that she would not feel the guilt of belonging to two men. Tajōmaru, shocked by this request, grabbed her, and gave the samurai a choice of letting the woman go or killing her, for these words alone, the dead samurai recounted, I was ready to pardon his crime. The woman fled, and Tajōmaru, after attempting to recapture her, gave up, the samurai then killed himself with his wifes dagger. Later, somebody removed the dagger from his chest, back at Rashōmon gate, the woodcutter explains to the commoner that all three stories were falsehoods. The woodcutter had actually witnessed the rape and murder, he says, according to the woodcutters new story, Tajōmaru begged the samurais wife to marry him, but the woman instead freed her husbandRashomon (film) – Japanese original poster
19. Shrek – Shrek is a 2001 American computer-animated fantasy-comedy film directed by Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson in their directorial debut. It features the voices of Mike Myers, Eddie Murphy, Cameron Diaz and it is loosely based on William Steigs 1990 fairy tale picture book Shrek. and somewhat serves as a parody film, targeting other films adapted from numerous childrens fantasies. The films soundtrack music by Smash Mouth, Eels, Joan Jett, The Proclaimers, Jason Wade, Baha Men. The rights to Steigs book were bought by Steven Spielberg in 1991, before the founding of DreamWorks. However, John H. Shrek originally cast Chris Farley to do the voice for the title character, recording about 80%–90% of his dialogue. After Farley died in 1997 before he could finish, Mike Myers was brought in to work for the character, who after his first recording decided to record his voice in a Scottish accent. The film was originally planned to be motion-captured, but after poor results. The film grossed $484.4 million at the box office. Shrek also received promotion from food chains such as Baskin-Robbins and Burger King and it was acclaimed as an animated film worthy of adult interest, with many adult-oriented jokes and themes but a simple enough plot and humour to appeal to children. Shrek won the first ever Academy Award for Best Animated Feature and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, the films main character was awarded his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in May 2010. Shrek established DreamWorks Animation as a competitor to Pixar in feature film animation. A fifth film, planned as the last of the series, was cancelled in 2009 with the announcement that the film would conclude the series. However, the film was revived in 2016, with a planned release for 2019/2020. The films success inspired other merchandise, such as video games, a stage musical. Shrek, an ogre who loves the solitude in his swamp. Shrek tells them that he will go ask Farquaad to send them back and he brings along a talking Donkey, who is the only fairytale creature who knows the way to Duloc. Meanwhile, Farquaad tortures the Gingerbread Man into giving the location of the fairytale creatures until his guards rush in with something he has been searching for. He asks The Mirror if his kingdom is the fairest of all but is told that he is not even a kingShrek – Theatrical release poster
20. The Weinstein Company – The Weinstein Company is a mini-major film studio, founded in New York City by Bob and Harvey Weinstein in 2005. The studio originated after the Weinsteins had left Miramax Films, which they had co-founded in 1979 and they retained ownership of Dimension Films. TWC is one of the largest mini-major film studios in North America, in February 2006, TWC announced a distribution pact with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. MGM distributed the product domestically in theatres, while TWC will retain ownership of their product. On July 13,2006, the Weinsteins and Robert L. Johnson announced the creation of a joint venture studio titled Our Stories Films, in late August 2006, it was announced that TWC and co-investors Hubbard Media Group purchased Ovation TV, an arts-focused cable channel. In November 2006, TWC announced a deal with Blockbuster Video to give the video renting company exclusive rights for rentals starting on January 1,2007. However, under the First Sale Doctrine of United States copyright law, the company is the co-producer, along with Miramax, of the Lifetime reality series Project Runway, which for its first five seasons aired on Bravo. The series won a Peabody Award in 2007, on May 23,2007, the Weinstein Company announced the launch of three new direct-to-video labels, The Miriam Collection, Kaleidoscope TWC, and Dimension Extreme. On February 8,2008, TWC launched a distributor called Third Rail Releasing that released films aimed mainly at the video market. On September 25,2008, TWC ended its three-year distribution pact with MGM three months before the December 31 end date and this happened in part because TWC had struck a television output deal with Showtime, though not through MGMs output deal with them. During the span of their pact, TWC paid for marketing and prints, in 2009, TWC might have lost the rights to the movie Sin City 2. The first film cost only 40 million dollars to make and brought in almost 159 million in box office alone, Weinstein Company lawyer Bert Fields quickly denied this report saying TWCs rights to produce sequels to Sin City remain intact as they always have been. Any suggestion to the contrary is complete hogwash, in June 2009, the Weinstein Company announced the hiring of a financial adviser to restructure the finances of the company. Since July 2009, many occurred at TWC, and the release dates of some films were pushed back. On September 14,2009, TWC sold its stake in Genius Products, Genius however, had announced to exit the home video distribution business and the DVD rights that were distributed by Genius were sold to Vivendi Entertainment. TWC also struck a deal with Vivendi, the same year, it won a Peabody Award for The No.1 Ladies Detective Agency. In January 2010, TWC announced more layoffs at the company after the box office failure of Nine, on February 21,2010, The Weinstein Company made a deal with Sony Pictures Home Entertainment releasing the DVDs through Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions Group. Bob and Harvey Weinstein attempted to buy back Miramax from Disney in 2010, an ownership interest in TWCs library at that point, consisting of 200 titles, was sold off to Goldman Sachs and Assured Guaranty in 2010The Weinstein Company – The Weinstein Company LLC
21. Hoodwinked Too! Hood vs. Evil – Hood vs. Evil is a 2011 American computer-animated 3D family action comedy film and the sequel to 2005s Hoodwinked. Directed by Mike Disa and released on April 29,2011 by The Weinstein Company, the film was written by Cory Edwards, Todd Edwards and Tony Leech, who wrote and directed the previous Hoodwinked. Most of the cast reprised their roles, with the exceptions of Anne Hathaway and Jim Belushi, who were replaced by Hayden Panettiere and Martin Short, respectively. In this film, Red is in training with a group called the Sisters of the Hood and must team with Wolf to rescue Hansel and Gretel and Granny from the evil witch. The film received reviews and was a box office bomb. Wolf, Granny, and Twitchy are on a mission to save Hansel and Gretel from an evil witch named Verushka. The plan goes wrong however and Granny is kidnapped as well, meanwhile, Red is in training with a mysterious group called the Sisters of the Hood where she learns that a secret all powerful truffle recipe has been stolen. She teams up with Wolf and Twitchy to find the recipe and save her grandma, but she and Wolf cant get along, meanwhile, Verushka, who stole the truffle recipe, tries to force Granny into making it for her. Granny escapes and finds Hansel and Gretel, but learns that they are actually the masterminds behind the plot. Granny is recaptured and learns that Verushka was an old classmate of hers when they were both in training with the Sisters of the Hood, Verushka was always second behind Grannys accomplishments, eventually Red, Wolf, and Twitchy team back together and infiltrate Hansel and Gretels base. Red accidentally reveals the final ingredient for the recipe and the truffles are made. Hansel and Gretel eat the truffles transforming into giants and go on a rampage through the city, Hansel and Gretel betray Verushka, whereupon Granny convinces her to join forces with her, Red, Wolf, and Twitchy. They trick Hansel and Gretel into eating more truffles which make them so obese that they can no longer move their arms and legs, before the two are arrested. The film was directed and written by Cory Edwards, Todd Edwards, and Tony Leech, and distributed by The Weinstein Company and it was released in December 2005 to mixed reviews, and financial success, earning over $110 million worldwide. In February 2006, Cory Edwards announced that he, Todd Edwards, Cory Edwards cited many reasons for not returning as a director for the sequel. He also questioned the integrity of the fractured fairytale genre of which Hoodwinked is a part, calling it, in March 2007 it was announced that Mike Disa, who had long worked in the animation industry, would make his directorial debut on the film. He wants to do the justice and he really gets what we’re trying to do. ”. You can see how a sequel to an animated film is not in her trajectory anymore. Regarding Belushis departure from the series, Edwards explained, he was never comfortable with the accent for the WoodsmanHoodwinked Too! Hood vs. Evil – Theatrical release poster
22. Movie projector – A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination, the first movie projector was the Zoopraxiscope, invented by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion, the stop-motion images were initially painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. A second series of discs, made in 1892–94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically, a more sophisticated movie projector was invented by Frenchman Louis Le Prince while working in Leeds. In 1888 Le Prince took out a patent for a 16-lens device that combined a motion picture camera with a projector, in 1888, he used an updated version of his camera to film the first ever motion picture, the Roundhay Garden Scene. The pictures were exhibited in Hunslet. The Lumière brothers invented the first successful movie projector and they made their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, in 1894, which was publicly screened at LEden, La Ciotat a year later. The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened in Paris on 28 December 1895, the cinematograph was also exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. At the Exhibition, films made by the Lumière Brothers were projected onto a screen measuring 16 by 21 meters. In 1999, digital projectors were being tried out in some movie theatres. These early projectors played the movie stored on a server and played back through the projector, due to their relatively low resolution, the images at the time showed pixelization blocks in some scenes, much like images on early widescreen televisions. By 2006, the advent of much higher 4K resolution digital projection had removed any traces of pixelization, the systems became more compact than the larger machines of four years earlier. By 2009, movie theatres started replacing the film projectors with digital projectors, in 2013, it was estimated that 92% of movie theatres in the United States had converted to digital, with 8% still playing film. In 2015, numerous popular filmmakers—including Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan—lobbied large studios to commit to purchase an amount of 35 mm film from Kodak. The decision ensured that Kodaks 35mm film production would continue for several years, nowadays film projectors are considered obsolete as high-resolution digital projectors offer many advantages over traditional film units. For example, digital projectors contain no moving parts except fans, can be operated remotely and they also allow for much easier, less expensive, and more reliable storage and distribution of content, including the ability to display live broadcasts. According to the theory of the phi phenomenon, the brain constitutes an experience of apparent movement when presented with a sequence of near-identical still images. Persistence of vision should be compared with the phenomena of beta movementMovie projector – 35 mm movie projector in operation.
23. Optics – Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light, because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice, practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines, physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics. Historically, the model of light was developed first, followed by the wave model of light. Progress in electromagnetic theory in the 19th century led to the discovery that waves were in fact electromagnetic radiation. Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties, explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics. When considering lights particle-like properties, the light is modelled as a collection of particles called photons, quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems. Optical science is relevant to and studied in many related disciplines including astronomy, various engineering fields, photography, practical applications of optics are found in a variety of technologies and everyday objects, including mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and fibre optics. Optics began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, the earliest known lenses, made from polished crystal, often quartz, date from as early as 700 BC for Assyrian lenses such as the Layard/Nimrud lens. The ancient Romans and Greeks filled glass spheres with water to make lenses, the word optics comes from the ancient Greek word ὀπτική, meaning appearance, look. Greek philosophy on optics broke down into two opposing theories on how vision worked, the theory and the emission theory. The intro-mission approach saw vision as coming from objects casting off copies of themselves that were captured by the eye, plato first articulated the emission theory, the idea that visual perception is accomplished by rays emitted by the eyes. He also commented on the parity reversal of mirrors in Timaeus, some hundred years later, Euclid wrote a treatise entitled Optics where he linked vision to geometry, creating geometrical optics. Ptolemy, in his treatise Optics, held a theory of vision, the rays from the eye formed a cone, the vertex being within the eye. The rays were sensitive, and conveyed back to the observer’s intellect about the distance. He summarised much of Euclid and went on to describe a way to measure the angle of refraction, during the Middle Ages, Greek ideas about optics were resurrected and extended by writers in the Muslim worldOptics – Optics includes study of dispersion of light.
24. Mechanics – Mechanics is an area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. The scientific discipline has its origins in Ancient Greece with the writings of Aristotle, during the early modern period, scientists such as Khayaam, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics. It is a branch of physics that deals with particles that are either at rest or are moving with velocities significantly less than the speed of light. It can also be defined as a branch of science which deals with the motion of, historically, classical mechanics came first, while quantum mechanics is a comparatively recent invention. Classical mechanics originated with Isaac Newtons laws of motion in Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, both are commonly held to constitute the most certain knowledge that exists about physical nature. Classical mechanics has especially often been viewed as a model for other so-called exact sciences, essential in this respect is the relentless use of mathematics in theories, as well as the decisive role played by experiment in generating and testing them. Quantum mechanics is of a scope, as it encompasses classical mechanics as a sub-discipline which applies under certain restricted circumstances. According to the principle, there is no contradiction or conflict between the two subjects, each simply pertains to specific situations. The correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by quantum theories reproduces classical physics in the limit of quantum numbers. Quantum mechanics has superseded classical mechanics at the level and is indispensable for the explanation and prediction of processes at the molecular, atomic. However, for macroscopic processes classical mechanics is able to solve problems which are difficult in quantum mechanics and hence remains useful. Modern descriptions of such behavior begin with a definition of such quantities as displacement, time, velocity, acceleration, mass. Until about 400 years ago, however, motion was explained from a different point of view. He showed that the speed of falling objects increases steadily during the time of their fall and this acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones, provided air friction is discounted. The English mathematician and physicist Isaac Newton improved this analysis by defining force and mass, for objects traveling at speeds close to the speed of light, Newton’s laws were superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. For atomic and subatomic particles, Newton’s laws were superseded by quantum theory, for everyday phenomena, however, Newton’s three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics, which is the study of what causes motion. In analogy to the distinction between quantum and classical mechanics, Einsteins general and special theories of relativity have expanded the scope of Newton, the differences between relativistic and Newtonian mechanics become significant and even dominant as the velocity of a massive body approaches the speed of light. Relativistic corrections are also needed for quantum mechanics, although general relativity has not been integrated, the two theories remain incompatible, a hurdle which must be overcome in developing a theory of everythingMechanics – Arabic Machine Manuscript. Unknown date (at a guess: 16th to 19th centuries).
25. Movie screen – A projection screen is an installation consisting of a surface and a support structure used for displaying a projected image for the view of an audience. Projection screens may be installed, as in a movie theater, painted on the wall. As in a room or other non-dedicated viewing space. Another popular type of portable screens are inflatable screens for movie screening. Flat or curved screens may be used depending on the used to project the image. Screens can be designed for front or back projection, the more common being front projection systems. In commercial movie theaters, the screen is a surface that may be either aluminized or a white surface with small glass beads. The screen also has hundreds of small, evenly spaced holes to allow air to and from the speakers and subwoofer, rigid wall-mounted screens maintain their geometry perfectly just like the big movie screens, which makes them suitable for applications that demand exact reproduction of image geometry. Such screens are used in home theaters, along with the pull-down screens. Pull-down screens are used in spaces where a permanently installed screen would require too much space. These commonly use painted fabric that is rolled in the case when not used. Fixed-frame screens provide the greatest level of tension on the screens surface. They are often used in theater and professional environments where the screen does not need to be recessed into the case. Electric screens can be mounted, ceiling mounted or ceiling recessed. These are often larger screens, though electric screens are available for theater use as well. Electric screens are similar to pull-down screens, but instead of the screen being pulled down manually, switchable projection screens can be switched between opaque and clear. In the opaque state, projected image on the screen can be viewed from both sides and it is very good for advertising on store windows. Mobile screens usually use either a pull-down screen on a free stand and these can be used when it is impossible or impractical to mount the screen to a wall or a ceilingMovie screen – Home theater projection screen displaying a high-definition television image
26. Movie camera – The movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an image sensor or on a film. In contrast to a camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time. This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism, the frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the frame rate. While viewing at a frame rate, a persons eyes. Since 2010s, film-based movie cameras have been replaced by digital movie cameras. An interesting forerunner to the camera was the machine invented by Francis Ronalds at the Kew Observatory in 1845. A photosensitive surface was drawn slowly past the diaphragm of the camera by a clockwork mechanism to enable continuous recording over a 12- or 24-hour period. Ronalds applied his cameras to trace the ongoing variations of scientific instruments, the very first patented film camera was the one devised by Wordsworth Donisthorpe in 1876. Another film camera was designed in England by Frenchman Louis Le Prince in 1888 and he built and patented an earlier 16 lens camera in 1887 at his workshop in Leeds. The first 8 lenses would be triggered in rapid succession by an electromagnetic shutter on the sensitive film, according to Adolphe Le Prince, who assisted his father at Leeds, Roundhay Garden was shot at 12 frame/s and Leeds Bridge at 20 frame/s. His camera still exists with the National Media Museum in Bradford and he shot the film on celluloid with 1¾ inch width. Another early pioneer was the British inventor William Friese-Greene and he began to experiment with the use of oiled paper as a medium for displaying motion pictures in 1885 and by 1887 he was experimenting with the use of celluloid. In 1889, Friese-Greene took out a patent for a chronophotographic camera and this was capable of taking up to ten photographs per second using perforated celluloid film. A report on the camera was published in the British Photographic News on February 28,1890 and he gave a public demonstration in 1890 of his device, but the low frame rate combined with the devices apparent unreliability made an unfavourable impression. William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, a Scottish inventor and employee of Thomas Edison, the camera was powered by an electric motor and was capable of shooting with the new sprocketed film. The Lumière Domitor camera was created by Charles Moisson, the mechanic at the Lumière works in Lyon in 1894. The camera used paper film of 35 millimeter width, but in 1895 the Lumière brothers shifted to celluloid film and this they covered with their own Etiquette-bleue emulsion, had it cut into strips and perforated. In 1894 the Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński constructed a projector and camera in one, due to the work of Le Prince, Friese-Greene, Edison and the Lumière brothers, the movie camera had become a practical reality by the mid 1890sMovie camera – Director Robert Tur with an Alexa-Plus digital movie camera on the set of SIS.
27. Computer – A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program, such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. The Internet is run on computers and it millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations, early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century, the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then, conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit, and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing, peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, and input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and this usage of the term referred to a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century, from the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations. The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of computer in the 1640s, one who calculates, the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean calculating machine is from 1897. The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the use of the term. 1945 under this name, theoretical from 1937, as Turing machine, devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick, later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers. The use of counting rods is one example, the abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was developed from used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price. It was designed to calculate astronomical positions and it was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to circa 100 BCComputer – Computer
28. Film director – A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. Generally, a film director controls a films artistic and dramatic aspects, the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film, the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions, there are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers, film editors or actors, other film directors have attended a film school. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors dialogue, while others control every aspect. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners, some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. Film directors create a vision through which a film eventually becomes realized/noticed. Realizing this vision includes overseeing the artistic and technical elements of production, as well as directing the shooting timetable. This entails organizing the crew in such a way as to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful. Moreover, it is necessary to have an eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, thus. Thus the director ensures that all involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as a jigsaw puzzle with egos. It adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when, omnipresent are the boundaries of the films budget. Additionally, the director may also have to ensure an intended age rating, thus, the position of film director is widely considered to be a highly stressful and demanding one. It has been said that 20-hour days are not unusual, under European Union law, the film director is considered the author or one of the authors of a film, largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a directors film reflects the directors personal creative visionFilm director – American director Steven Spielberg with Sri Lankan film maker Chandran Rutnam in Sri Lanka