Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Charlotte Perkins Stetson, was a prominent American feminist, novelist, writer of short stories and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform. She was a utopian feminist and served as a model for future generations of feminists because of her unorthodox concepts. Her best remembered today is her semi-autobiographical short story The Yellow Wallpaper which she wrote after a severe bout of postpartum psychosis. Gilman was born on July 3,1860 in Hartford, Connecticut, to Mary Perkins and she had only one brother, Thomas Adie, who was fourteen months older, because a physician advised Mary Perkins that she might die if she bore other children. During Charlottes infancy, her moved out and abandoned his wife and children. Her schooling was erratic, she attended seven different schools, for a total of just four years. Her mother was not affectionate with her children, to keep them from getting hurt as she had been, she forbade her children to make strong friendships or read fiction.
In her autobiography, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Gilman wrote that her mother showed affection only when she thought her daughter was asleep. Additionally, her fathers love for literature influenced her, and years he contacted her with a list of books he felt would be worthwhile for her to read, much of Gilmans youth was spent in Providence, Rhode Island. What friends she had were mainly male, and she was unashamed, for her time and her natural intelligence and breadth of knowledge always impressed her teachers, who were nonetheless disappointed in her because she was a poor student. Her favorite subject was natural philosophy, especially what would become known as physics, in 1878, the eighteen-year-old enrolled in classes at the Rhode Island School of Design with the monetary help of her absent father, and subsequently supported herself as an artist of trade cards. She was a tutor, and encouraged others to expand their artistic creativity, in 1884, she married the artist Charles Walter Stetson after initially declining his proposal because a gut feeling told her it was not the right thing for her.
Their only child, Katharine Beecher Stetson, was born the following year, Charlotte Perkins Gilman suffered a very serious bout of post-partum depression in the months after Katharines birth. This was an age in women were seen as hysterical and nervous beings, thus. In 1888, Charlotte separated from her husband – a rare occurrence in the nineteenth century. The two legally divorced in 1894, in 1894, Gilman sent her daughter east to live with her former husband and his second wife, Grace Ellery Channing, who was a close friend of Gilmans. Gilman reported in her memoir that she was happy for the couple, since Katharines second mother was fully as good as the first, better in some ways. Gilman held views about paternal rights and acknowledged that her ex-husband had a right to some of society
Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotles Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on such as repetition, verse form and rhyme. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism and other elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived.
Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, in todays increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. The oldest surviving poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe, other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in poetics—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.
Some ancient societies, such as Chinas through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance, Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Later aestheticians identified three major genres, epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry, Aristotles work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic Negative Capability and this romantic approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic
Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal, to define and advance political, economic and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish opportunities for women in education. Feminists have worked to promote autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints, some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word féminisme in 1837, depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians assert that all working to obtain womens rights should be considered feminist movements.
Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and those historians use the label protofeminist to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three waves, each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised womens suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the womens liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women, the third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, beginning in the 1990s. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th century, in the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902, in 1928 this was extended to all women over 21.
In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing womens right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, in the United States, first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote in all states. During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days Reform, Chinese feminists called for womens liberation from traditional roles, the Chinese Communist Party created projects aimed at integrating women into the workforce, and claimed that the revolution had successfully achieved womens liberation. According to Nawar al-Hassan Golley, Arab feminism was closely connected with Arab nationalism, in 1899, Qasim Amin, considered the father of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women.
He drew links between womens position in Egyptian society and nationalism, leading to the development of Cairo University, in 1923 Hoda Shaarawi founded the Egyptian Feminist Union, became its president and a symbol of the Arab womens rights movement
The Estates-General had been called on Dec 4,1789 to deal with Frances financial crisis, but promptly fell to squabbling over its own structure. Its members had elected to represent the estates of the realm, the 1st Estate, the 2nd Estate. They refused this and proceeded to meet separately, on June 13, this group began to call itself the National Assembly. This newly created assembly immediately attached itself onto the capitalists — the sources of the credit needed to fund the national debt — and to the common people. They consolidated the public debt and declared all existing taxes to have been illegally imposed and this restored the confidence of the capitalists and gave them a strong interest in keeping the Assembly in session. As for the people, the Assembly established a committee of subsistence to deal with food shortages. Jacques Necker, finance minister to Louis XVI, had proposed that the king hold a Séance Royale in an attempt to reconcile the divided Estates. The king agreed, but none of the three orders were formally notified of the decision to hold a Royal Session, all debates were to be put on hold until the séance royale took place.
Events soon overtook Neckers complex scheme of giving in to the Communes on some points while holding firm on others. On June 19, he ordered the Salle des États, the hall where the National Assembly met, when, on June 23, in accord with his plan, the king finally addressed the representatives of all three estates, he encountered a stony silence. He concluded by ordering all to disperse, the nobles and clergy obeyed, the deputies of the common people remained seated in a silence finally broken by Mirabeau, whose short speech culminated, A military force surrounds the assembly. Where are the enemies of the nation, I demand, investing yourselves with your dignity, with your legislative power, you inclose yourselves within the religion of your oath. It does not permit you to separate till you have formed a constitution, conspicuous by his absence from the royal party on that day, found himself in disgrace with Louis, but back in the good graces of the National Assembly. The French military began to arrive in numbers around Paris.
This move failed, soon part of the deputies of the nobles who still stood apart joined the National Assembly at the request of the king. Louis offered to move the assembly to Noyon or Soissons, that is to say, public outrage over this troop presence precipitated the Storming of the Bastille, beginning the Revolution. This article incorporates text from the public domain History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814, by François Mignet and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. French Revolution. Http, //www. assemblee-nationale. fr/english/8am. asp History of the National Assembly http, //www. saylor. org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/National-Assembly-French-Revolution. pdf National Assembly
In it, Wollstonecraft responds to those educational and political theorists of the 18th century who did not believe women should have an education. Instead of viewing women as ornaments to society or property to be traded in marriage, Wollstonecraft wrote the Rights of Woman hurriedly to respond directly to ongoing events, she intended to write a more thoughtful second volume but died before completing it. While Wollstonecraft does call for equality between the sexes in particular areas of life, such as morality, she does not explicitly state that men and women are equal, the Rights of Woman was actually well received when it was first published in 1792. One biographer has called it perhaps the most original book of century, a Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written against the tumultuous background of the French Revolution and the debates that it spawned in Britain. Wollstonecraft first entered this fray in 1790 with A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in his Reflections, Burke criticised the view of many British thinkers and writers who had welcomed the early stages of the French revolution.
He viewed the French revolution as the violent overthrow of a legitimate government, when Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord presented his Rapport sur linstruction publique to the National Assembly in France, Wollstonecraft was galvanised to respond. Men are destined to live on the stage of the world, a public education suits them, it early places before their eyes all the scenes of life, only the proportions are different. The paternal home is better for the education of women, they have less need to learn to deal with the interests of others, than to accustom themselves to a calm, the Rights of Woman is an extension of Wollstonecrafts arguments in the Rights of Men. In the Rights of Men, as the title suggests, she is concerned with the rights of men while in the Rights of Woman, she is concerned with the rights afforded to woman. She does not isolate her argument to 18th-century women or British women, the first chapter of the Rights of Woman addresses the issue of natural rights and asks who has those inalienable rights and on what grounds.
She answers that since natural rights are given by God, for one segment of society to deny them to another segment is a sin. The Rights of Woman thus engages not only specific events in France and in Britain but larger questions being raised by political philosophers such as John Locke, Wollstonecraft did not employ the formal argumentation or logical prose style common to 18th-century philosophical writing when composing her own works. The Rights of Woman is an essay that introduces all of its major topics in the opening chapters and repeatedly returns to them. It adopts a tone that combines rational argument with the fervent rhetoric of sensibility. In the 18th century, sensibility was a phenomenon that came to be attached to a specific set of moral beliefs. Physicians and anatomists believed that the more sensitive peoples nerves, the more emotionally affected they would be by their surroundings, since women were thought to have keener nerves than men, it was believed that women were more emotional than men.
The emotional excess associated with sensibility theoretically produced an ethic of compassion, thus historians have credited the discourse of sensibility and those who promoted it with the increased humanitarian efforts, such as the movement to abolish the slave trade. By the time Wollstonecraft was writing the Rights of Woman, sensibility had already been under sustained attack for a number of years
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns.
Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, cultural, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge.
It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general.
In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents
Nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a state. Nationality affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state, what these rights and duties are vary from state to state. By custom and international conventions, it is the right of state to determine who its nationals are. Such determinations are part of nationality law, in some cases, determinations of nationality are governed by public international law—for example, by treaties on statelessness and the European Convention on Nationality. Nationality differs technically and legally from citizenship, which is a different legal relationship between a person and a country, the noun national can include both citizens and non-citizens. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the life of the state. However, in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state, in English and some other languages, the word nationality is sometimes used to refer to an ethnic group.
This meaning of nationality is not defined by political borders or passport ownership, individuals may be considered nationals of groups with autonomous status which have ceded some power to a larger government. In international law, nationality is the status or relationship that gives a nation the right to protect a person from other nations and consular protection are dependent upon this relationship between the person and the state. A persons status as being the national of a country is used to resolve the conflict of laws, Nationality is the status that allows a nation to grant rights to the subject and to impose obligations upon the subject. In most cases, no rights or obligations are automatically attached to this status, although the status is a precondition for any rights. Within the broad limits imposed by few treaties and international law, since the Nottebohm case, other states are only required to respect their claim to protect an alleged national if the nationality is based on a true social bond.
In the case of dual nationality, states may determine the most effective nationality for a person, there are limits on removing a persons status as a national. Nationals normally have the right to enter or return to the country belong to. Passports are issued to nationals of a state, rather only to citizens. However, nationals may not have the right of abode in the countries that grant them passports, Nationality is legally a distinct concept from citizenship. Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the political life of the state. In the modern era, the concept of full citizenship encompasses not only political rights
Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer and advocate of womens rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men and she suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecrafts life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships, after two ill-fated affairs, with Henry Fuseli and Gilbert Imlay, Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38, eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter and this daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, became an accomplished writer herself, as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. After Wollstonecrafts death, her widower published a Memoir of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, today Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers, and feminists often cite both her life and work as important influences.
Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759 in Spitalfields and she was the second of the seven children of Elizabeth Dixon and Edward John Wollstonecraft. Although her family had a comfortable income when she was a child, the family became financially unstable and they were frequently forced to move during Wollstonecrafts youth. The familys financial situation became so dire that Wollstonecrafts father compelled her to turn over money that she would have inherited at her maturity. Moreover, he was apparently a violent man who would beat his wife in drunken rages, as a teenager, Wollstonecraft used to lie outside the door of her mothers bedroom to protect her. Wollstonecraft played a similar role for her sisters and Eliza. The human costs, were severe, her sister suffered social condemnation and, because she could not remarry, was doomed to a life of poverty, two friendships shaped Wollstonecrafts early life. The first was with Jane Arden in Beverley, the two frequently read books together and attended lectures presented by Ardens father, a self-styled philosopher and scientist.
Wollstonecraft revelled in the atmosphere of the Arden household and valued her friendship with Arden greatly. Wollstonecraft wrote to her, I have formed romantic notions of friendship, I am a little singular in my thoughts of love and friendship, I must have the first place or none. In some of Wollstonecrafts letters to Arden, she reveals the volatile, unhappy with her home life, Wollstonecraft struck out on her own in 1778 and accepted a job as a ladys companion to Sarah Dawson, a widow living in Bath. However, Wollstonecraft had trouble getting along with the irascible woman, in 1780 she returned home, called back to care for her dying mother. Rather than return to Dawsons employ after the death of her mother and she realized during the two years she spent with the family that she had idealized Blood, who was more invested in traditional feminine values than was Wollstonecraft
10. United States
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
11. Social class
Class is an essential object of analysis for sociologists, political scientists and social historians. However, there is not a consensus on the best definition of the class, the precise measurements of what determines social class in society has varied over time. According to philosopher Karl Marx, class is determined entirely by ones relationship to the means of production, the term class is etymologically derived from the Latin classis, which was used by census takers to categorize citizens by wealth, in order to determine military service obligations. In the late 18th century, the class began to replace classifications such as estates, rank. Historically social class and behavior was sometimes laid down in law, definitions of social classes reflect a number of sociological perspectives, informed by anthropology, economics and sociology. The major perspectives historically have been Marxism and Structural functionalism, the common stratum model of class divides society into a simple hierarchy of working class, middle class and upper class.
For Marx, class is a combination of objective and subjective factors, objectively, a class shares a common relationship to the means of production. Subjectively, the members will necessarily have some perception of their similarity, Class consciousness is not simply an awareness of ones own class interest but is a set of shared views regarding how society should be organized legally, culturally and politically. These class relations are reproduced through time and this is the fundamental economic structure of work and property, a state of inequality that is normalized and reproduced through cultural ideology. Marxists explain the history of civilized societies in terms of a war of classes between those who control production and those who produce the goods or services in society, in the Marxist view of capitalism, this is a conflict between capitalists and wage-workers. Furthermore, in countries where modern civilisation has become fully developed, an industrial army of workmen, under the command of a capitalist, like a real army and sergeants who, while the work is being done, command in the name of the capitalist.
This would mark the beginning of a society in which human needs rather than profit would be motive for production. In a society with democratic control and production for use, there would be no class, no state and no need for financial and banking institutions and money. Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification, that saw social class as emerging from an interplay between class and power. Weber believed that class position was determined by a relationship to the means of production. Weber derived many of his key concepts on social stratification by examining the structure of many countries. He noted that contrary to Marxs theories, stratification was based on more than simply ownership of capital, Weber pointed out that some members of the aristocracy lack economic wealth yet might nevertheless have political power. Likewise in Europe, many wealthy Jewish families in lack prestige and honor, Class, A persons economic position in a society