1. Economic geography – Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. It represents a traditional subfield of the discipline of geography, however, many economists have also approached the field in ways more typical of the discipline of economics. The subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researchers methodological approach, neoclassical location theorists, following in the tradition of Alfred Weber, tend to focus on industrial location and use quantitative methods. Economists such as Paul Krugman and Jeffrey Sachs have also analyzed many traits related to economic geography, the name geographical economics has been suggested as an alternative. Some of the first traces of the study of aspects of economic activities can be found in seven Chinese maps of the State of Qin dating to the 4th century BC. Ancient writings can be attributed to the Greek geographer Strabos Geographika compiled almost 2000 years ago, the earliest travel journals included descriptions of the native peoples, the climate, the landscape, and the productivity of various locations. These early accounts encouraged the development of trade patterns and ushered in the era of mercantilism. World War II contributed to the popularization of geographical knowledge generally, during environmental determinisms time of popularity, Ellsworth Huntington and his theory of climatic determinism, while later greatly criticized, notably influenced the field. Valuable contributions also came from location theorists such as Johann Heinrich von Thünen or Alfred Weber, other influential theories include Walter Christallers Central place theory, the theory of core and periphery. Fred K. Well-known economic geographers of this period include William Garrison, Brian Berry, Waldo Tobler, Peter Haggett, regional economic geography examines the economic conditions of particular regions or countries of the world. It deals with economic regionalization as well as economic development. Historical economic geography examines the history and development of economic structure. Critical economic geography is a taken from the point of view of contemporary critical geography. Behavioral economic geography examines the processes underlying spatial reasoning, locational decision making. Economic geography is sometimes approached as a branch of anthropogeography that focuses on systems of human economic activity. Spatiotemporal systems of analysis include economic activities of region, mixed social spaces, alternatively, analysis may focus on production, exchange, distribution and consumption of items of economic activity. It thus focuses on structures of agricultural landscapes and asks for the processes that lead to spatial patterns. While most research in this area concentrates rather on production than on consumption, the latter approach of agricultural geography is often applied within regional geographyEconomic geography – The coffee trade is a worldwide industry
2. Geography – Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, health, climate, plants and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they also exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, view, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, climate, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, pedosphere, and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, including, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, political, cultural, social, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, sustainability, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topographyGeography – Map of the Earth
3. Science – Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied scienceScience – Maize, known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.
4. Earth – Earth, otherwise known as the World, or the Globe, is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets, according to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago. Earths gravity interacts with objects in space, especially the Sun. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its axis over 365 times, thus, Earths axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planets surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earths orientation on its axis, Earths lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earths surface is covered with water, mostly by its oceans, the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. The majority of Earths polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet, Earths interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earths magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earths history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earths atmosphere and surface, some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earths distance from the Sun, physical properties, in the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely, over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures, politically, the world has about 200 sovereign states, the modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe. It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō, originally, earth was written in lowercase, and from early Middle English, its definite sense as the globe was expressed as the earth. By early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, and the became the Earth. More recently, the name is simply given as Earth. House styles now vary, Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, another convention capitalizes Earth when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the. It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as what on earth are you doing, the oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. 5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4. 54±0.04 Gya the primordial Earth had formed, the formation and evolution of Solar System bodies occurred along with the SunEarth – " The Blue Marble " photograph of Earth, taken during the Apollo 17 lunar mission in 1972
5. Eratosthenes – Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. He was a man of learning, becoming the librarian at the Library of Alexandria. He invented the discipline of geography, including the terminology used today and he is best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth, which he did by applying a measuring system using stadia, a standard unit of measure during that time period. He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earths axis, additionally, he may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day. He created the first map of the world, incorporating parallels, Eratosthenes was the founder of scientific chronology, he endeavored to revise the dates of the chief literary and political events from the conquest of Troy. In number theory, he introduced the sieve of Eratosthenes, an efficient method of identifying prime numbers and he was a figure of influence in many fields. According to an entry in the Suda, his critics scorned him, nonetheless, his devotees nicknamed him Pentathlos after the Olympians who were well rounded competitors, for he had proven himself to be knowledgeable in every area of learning. Eratosthenes yearned to understand the complexities of the entire world, the son of Aglaos, Eratosthenes was born in 276 BC in Cyrene. Alexander the Great conquered Cyrene in 332 BC, and following his death in 323 BC, its rule was given to one of his generals, Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Under Ptolemaic rule the economy prospered, based largely on the export of horses and silphium, Cyrene became a place of cultivation, where knowledge blossomed. Eratosthenes went to Athens to further his studies, there he was taught Stoicism by its founder, Zeno of Citium, in philosophical lectures on living a virtuous life. He then studied under Ariston of Chios, who led a more cynical school of philosophy and he also studied under the head of the Platonic Academy, who was Arcesilaus of Pitane. His interest in Plato led him to write his very first work at a level, Platonikos. Eratosthenes was a man of many perspectives and investigated the art of poetry under Callimachus and he was a talented and imaginative poet. He wrote poems, one in hexameters called Hermes, illustrating the life history. He wrote Chronographies, a text that scientifically depicted dates of importance and this work was highly esteemed for its accuracy. George Syncellus was later able to preserve from Chronographies a list of 38 kings of the Egyptian Thebes, Eratosthenes also wrote Olympic Victors, a chronology of the winners of the Olympic Games. It is not known when he wrote his works, but they highlighted his abilities and these works and his great poetic abilities led the pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes to seek to place him as a librarian at the Library of Alexandria in the year 245 BCEratosthenes – 19th-century reconstruction of Eratosthenes' map of the known world, c. 194 BC
6. Spatial analysis – Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. In a more restricted sense, spatial analysis is the applied to structures at the human scale. Complex issues arise in spatial analysis, many of which are clearly defined nor completely resolved. The most fundamental of these is the problem of defining the location of the entities being studied. Spatial analysis can perhaps be considered to have arisen with early attempts at cartography and surveying, Statistics has contributed greatly through work in spatial statistics. Economics has contributed notably through spatial econometrics, Geographic information system is currently a major contributor due to the importance of geographic software in the modern analytic toolbox. Remote sensing has contributed extensively in morphometric and clustering analysis, computer science has contributed extensively through the study of algorithms, notably in computational geometry. Mathematics continues to provide the tools for analysis and to reveal the complexity of the spatial realm, for example, with recent work on fractals. Scientific modelling provides a framework for new approaches. Many of these issues are subjects of modern research. Common errors often arise in spatial analysis, some due to the mathematics of space, some due to the particular data are presented spatially. Census data, because it protects individual privacy by aggregating data into local units, the fractal nature of coastline makes precise measurements of its length difficult if not impossible. A computer software fitting straight lines to the curve of a coastline, however these straight lines may have no inherent meaning in the real world, as was shown for the coastline of Britain. These problems represent a challenge in spatial analysis because of the power of maps as media of presentation, the definition of the spatial presence of an entity constrains the possible analysis which can be applied to that entity and influences the final conclusions that can be reached. Statistical techniques favor the spatial definition of objects as points because there are very few statistical techniques which operate directly on line, area, Spatial dependency is the co-variation of properties within geographic space, characteristics at proximal locations appear to be correlated, either positively or negatively. For example, regression analyses that do not compensate for spatial dependency can have unstable parameter estimates, Spatial regression models capture these relationships and do not suffer from these weaknesses. It is also appropriate to view spatial dependency as a source of rather than something to be corrected. Locational effects also manifest as spatial heterogeneity, or the apparent variation in a process with respect to location in geographic space, unless a space is uniform and boundless, every location will have some degree of uniqueness relative to the other locationsSpatial analysis – Map by Dr. John Snow of London, showing clusters of cholera cases in the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak. This was one of the first uses of map-based spatial analysis.
7. Human – Modern humans are the only extant members of Hominina tribe, a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia and they began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. In several waves of migration, anatomically modern humans ventured out of Africa, the spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. Humans are uniquely adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression and the exchange of ideas. Humans create complex structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families. Social interactions between humans have established a wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals. These human societies subsequently expanded in size, establishing various forms of government, religion, today the global human population is estimated by the United Nations to be near 7.5 billion. In common usage, the word generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of hominid and hominin have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery, there is also a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. The English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the words use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species generally, the species binomial Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō man, the species-name sapiens means wise or sapient. Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates. The closest living relatives of humans are chimpanzees and gorillas, with the sequencing of both the human and chimpanzee genome, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. The gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the leading to the humans. The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4–8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch, during this split, chromosome 2 was formed from two other chromosomes, leaving humans with only 23 pairs of chromosomes, compared to 24 for the other apes. There is little evidence for the divergence of the gorilla, chimpanzee. Each of these species has been argued to be an ancestor of later homininsHuman
8. Earth science – Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to the planet Earth. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, there are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the structure of the Earths interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, Geology describes the rocky parts of the Earths crust and its historic development. Major subdisciplines are mineralogy and petrology, geochemistry, geomorphology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structural geology, engineering geology, geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the Earths core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere, geophysics is commonly used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. Soil science covers the outermost layer of the Earths crust that is subject to soil formation processes, major subdisciplines include edaphology and pedology. Ecology covers the interactions between the biota, with their natural environment and this field of study differentiates the study of the Earth, from the study of other planets in the Solar System, the Earth being the only planet teeming with life. Hydrology is a study revolved around the movement, distribution, and quality of the water and involves all the components of the cycle on the earth. Sub-disciplines of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, watershed science, forest hydrology. Glaciology covers the icy parts of the Earth, atmospheric sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth between the surface and the exosphere. Major subdisciplines include meteorology, climatology, atmospheric chemistry, and atmospheric physics, plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the Earths crust. Beneath the Earths crust lies the mantle which is heated by the decay of heavy elements. The mantle is not quite solid and consists of magma which is in a state of semi-perpetual convection and this convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly. The resulting process is known as plate tectonics, plate tectonics might be thought of as the process by which the Earth is resurfaced. As the result of spreading, new crust and lithosphere is created by the flow of magma from the mantle to the near surface, through fissures. Through subduction, oceanic crust and lithosphere returns to the convecting mantle, volcanoes result primarily from the melting of subducted crust material. Crust material that is forced into the asthenosphere melts, and some portion of the material becomes light enough to rise to the surface—giving birth to volcanoesEarth science – A volcanic eruption is the release of stored energy from below the surface of Earth, originating from radioactive decay and gravitational sorting in the Earth's core and mantle, and residual energy gained during the Earth's formation
9. Physical science – Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a physical science, in natural science, hypotheses must be verified scientifically to be regarded as scientific theory. Validity, accuracy, and social mechanisms ensuring quality control, such as review and repeatability of findings, are amongst the criteria. Natural science can be broken into two branches, life science, for example biology and physical science. Each of these branches, and all of their sub-branches, are referred to as natural sciences, physics – natural and physical science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves. Branches of astronomy Chemistry – studies the composition, structure, properties, branches of chemistry Earth science – all-embracing term referring to the fields of science dealing with planet Earth. Earth science is the study of how the natural environment works and it includes the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Branches of Earth science History of physical science – history of the branch of science that studies non-living systems. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a physical science, however, the term physical creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena. History of astrodynamics – history of the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the problems concerning the motion of rockets. History of astrometry – history of the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars, History of cosmology – history of the discipline that deals with the nature of the Universe as a whole. History of physical cosmology – history of the study of the largest-scale structures, History of planetary science – history of the scientific study of planets, moons, and planetary systems, in particular those of the Solar System and the processes that form them. History of neurophysics – history of the branch of biophysics dealing with the nervous system, History of chemical physics – history of the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics. History of computational physics – history of the study and implementation of algorithms to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. History of condensed matter physics – history of the study of the properties of condensed phases of matter. History of cryogenics – history of the cryogenics is the study of the production of low temperature. History of biomechanics – history of the study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, History of fluid mechanics – history of the study of fluids and the forces on themPhysical science – Chemistry, the central science, partial ordering of the sciences proposed by Balaban and Klein.
10. Human geography – Human geography attends to human patterns of social interaction, as well as spacial level interdependencies, and how they influence or affect the earths environment. Geography was not recognized as an academic discipline until the 18th century, although many scholars had undertaken geographical scholarship for much longer. The Royal Geographical Society was founded in England in 1830, although the United Kingdom did not get its first full Chair of geography until 1917, the first real geographical intellect to emerge in United Kingdoms geographical minds was Halford John Mackinder, appointed reader at Oxford University in 1887. The society has long supported geographic research and education on geographical topics, though a physician and a pioneer of epidemiology, the map is probably one of the earliest examples of health geography. The now fairly distinct differences between the subfields of physical and human geography have developed at a later date, environmental determinism is the theory, that peoples physical, mental and moral habits are directly due to the influence of their natural environment. However, by the century, environmental determinism was under attack for lacking methodological rigor associated with modern science. A similar concern with human and physical aspects is apparent during the later 19th and first half of the 20th centuries focused on regional geography. With links to possibilism and cultural ecology, some of the notions of causal effect of the environment on society. By the 1960s, however, the revolution led to strong criticism of regional geography. Well-known geographers from this period are Fred K. Schaefer, Waldo Tobler, William Garrison, Peter Haggett, Richard J. Chorley, William Bunge, from the 1970s, a number of critiques of the positivism now associated with geography emerged. Known under the term critical geography, these critiques signaled another turning point in the discipline, behavioral geography emerged for some time as a means to understand how people made perceived spaces and places, and made locational decisions. The more influential radical geography emerged in the 1970s and 1980s and it draws heavily on Marxists theory and techniques, and is associated with geographers such as David Harvey and Richard Peet. Radical geography and the links to Marxism and related theories remain an important part of human geography. Critical geography also saw the introduction of geography, associated with the work of Yi-Fu Tuan. Subfields include, Social geography, Animal geographies, Language geography, Sexuality and Space, Childrens geographies, the subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researchers methodological approach. Economic geography examines relationships between economic systems, states, and other factors, and the biophysical environment. Health geography deals with the relations and patterns between people and the environment. This is a sub-discipline of human geography, researching how and why diseases are spread, historical geography is the study of the human, physical, fictional, theoretical, and real geographies of the pastHuman geography – History of geography
11. Physical geography – Physical geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Geomorphology seeks to understand landform history and dynamics, and predict future changes through a combination of observation, physical experiment. Thus the field encompasses water in rivers, lakes, aquifers and to an extent glaciers, in which the field examines the process and dynamics involved in these bodies of water. Similar to most fields of physical geography it has sub-fields that examine the bodies of water or their interaction with other spheres e. g. limnology and ecohydrology. Glaciology is the study of glaciers and ice sheets, or more commonly the cryosphere or ice, glaciology groups the latter as continental glaciers and the former as alpine glaciers. Glaciology also has a vast array of sub-fields examining the factors and processes involved in ice sheets and glaciers e. g. snow hydrology, Biogeography is the science which deals with geographic patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in these patterns. The main stimulus for the field since its founding has been that of evolution, plate tectonics, climatology examines both the nature of micro and macro climates and the natural and anthropogenic influences on them. The field is also sub-divided largely into the climates of various regions, meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting. Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the eighteenth century, meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which illuminate and are explained by the science of meteorology. Pedology is the study of soils in their natural environment and it is one of two main branches of soil science, the other being edaphology. Pedology mainly deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, soil classification, palaeogeography is a cross-disciplinary study that examines the preserved material in the stratigraphic record to determine the distribution of the continents through geologic time. Almost all the evidence for the positions of the continents comes from geology in the form of fossils or paleomagnetism, the use of this data has resulted in evidence for continental drift, plate tectonics, and supercontinents. This, in turn, has supported palaeogeographic theories such as the Wilson cycle, coastal geography is the study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography and the human geography of the coast. It involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weathering, coastal geography, although predominantly geomorphological in its research, is not just concerned with coastal landforms, but also the causes and influences of sea level change. Oceanography is the branch of geography that studies the Earths oceans. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean, Quaternary science is an inter-disciplinary field of study focusing on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years. The field was founded by the German geographer Carl Troll. Landscape ecology typically deals with problems in an applied and holistic context, geomatics is the field of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information, or spatially referenced informationPhysical geography – True-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center image.
12. Belarus – Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested and its strongest economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian Peoples Republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, during WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years, in 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR. The parliament of the declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the president since 1994. Belarus has been labeled Europes last dictatorship by some Western journalists, Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. Though not directly espousing communism like the five remaining communist countries of China, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam and North Korea, in 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70% of Belaruss population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas, more than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages, Belarusian and Russian, the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only European country to retain capital punishment in both law and practice, the name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus, i. e. White Rus. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus, an alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population. A third theory suggests that the old Rus lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as white, other sources claim that, before 1267, the land not conquered by the Mongols was considered White Rus. The name Rus is often conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, in some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is generally called White Russia to this day. The Latin term Alba Russia was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo, approbo. The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used White Rus to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of LithuaniaBelarus – Stamp with the Cross of St. Euphrosyne from 1992
13. Landlocked country – A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are currently 49 such countries, including five partially recognised states, only two, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America, lie outside Afro-Eurasia. As a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids, for this reason, states large and small across history have striven to gain access to open waters, even at great expense in wealth, bloodshed, and political capital. The economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, some historically landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Austria, all of which frequently employ neutrality to their political advantage. The majority, however, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries,9 of the 12 countries with the lowest Human Development Indices are landlocked. Historically, being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a countrys development and it cuts a nation off from such important sea resources as fishing, and impedes or prevents direct access to seaborne trade, a crucial component of economic and social advance. As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more populated than inland ones. Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in a poor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development traps by which a country can be held back. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, for landlocked countries, the effect is particularly strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world. He states, If you are coastal, you serve the world, if you are landlocked, others have argued that being landlocked may actually be a blessing as it creates a natural tariff barrier which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems, Landlocked developing countries have significantly higher costs of international cargo transportation compared to coastal developing countries. Since Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new country, railways and ports have not been built for its need, there is no freight port along its short coastline at Neum, making it effectively landlocked, although there are plans to change this. Instead the port of Ploče in Croatia is used, after World War I, in the Treaty of Versailles, a part of Germany designated the Polish corridor was given to the new Second Polish Republic, for access to the Baltic Sea. This gave Poland a short coastline, but without a large harbour and this was also the pretext for making Danzig with its harbour the Free City of Danzig, to which Poland was given free access. However, the Germans placed obstacles to free access, especially when it came to military material. In response, the fishing harbour of Gdynia was soon greatly enlarged. Stettin was annexed by Poland after World War II, but Hamburg continued the contract so that part of the port may still be used for sea trade by a successor of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic. The Danube is a waterway, and thus landlocked Austria, Hungary, Moldova, SerbiaLandlocked country – Bolivia 's loss of its coast in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue
14. Eastern Europe – Eastern Europe, also known as East Europe, is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural. There are almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region, a related United Nations paper adds that every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct. One definition describes Eastern Europe as an entity, the region lying in Europe with main characteristics consisting in Byzantine, Orthodox. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc, a similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Historians and social scientists generally view such definitions as outdated or relegating, several definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but they often lack precision or are extremely general. These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts, even scientists, recently becoming more and more imprecise. The Ural Mountains, Ural River, and the Caucasus Mountains are the land border of the eastern edge of Europe. Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, provides entries for 23 EU languages, of these, those in italics are classified as Eastern Europe in this source. Other official web-pages of the European Union classify some of the countries as strictly Central European. The East–West Schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches which began in the 11th century and lasts until this very day and it divided Christianity in Europe, and consequently the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east, due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are often associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however, often problematic, for example, Greece is overwhelmingly Orthodox, the fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the East–West division in Europe, but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media. The Baltic states have seats in the Nordic Council as observer states and they also are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight whereas Eastern European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group. Estonia Latvia Lithuania The Caucasus nations may be included in the definitions of Eastern Europe, the extent of their geographic or political affiliation with Europe varies by country and source. All three states are members of the European Unions Eastern Partnership program and the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, on 12 January 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia and Georgia may enter the EU in the future. Georgia — in modern geography, Georgia has been classified as part of Eastern Europe. Under the European Union’s geographic criteria, Georgia is viewed as part of Eastern Europe and is the only Caucasus country to be actively seeking EU membership and it is a member of Council of Europe and EurocontrolEastern Europe – Division between the Eastern and Western Churches
15. Minsk – Minsk (Belarusian, Мінск pronounced, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Nyamiha rivers. It is the centre of the Commonwealth of Independent States. As the national capital, Minsk has an administrative status in Belarus and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region. In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600, the earliest historical references to Minsk date to the 11th century, when it was noted as a provincial city within the principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers, in 1242, Minsk became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It received town privileges in 1499, from 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodeship in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was part of a region annexed by the Russian Empire in 1793, from 1919 to 1991, after the Russian Revolution, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. Minsk will host the 2019 European Games, Minsk is located on the southeastern slope of the Minsk Hills, a region of rolling hills running from the southwest to the northeast – that is, to Lukomskaye Lake in northwestern Belarus. The average altitude above sea level is 220 metres, the physical geography of Minsk was shaped over the two most recent ice ages. There are six smaller rivers within the city limits, all part of the Black Sea basin, Minsk is in the area of mixed forests typical of most of Belarus. Pinewood and mixed forests border the edge of the city, especially in the north, some of the forests were preserved as parks as the city grew. The city was built on the hills, which allowed for defensive fortifications. Minsk has a warm summer humid continental climate, owing to its location between the strong influence of the moist air of the Atlantic Ocean and the dry air of the Eurasian landmass. Its weather is unstable and tends to change often, the average January temperature is −4.5 °C, while the average July temperature is 18.5 °C. The lowest temperature was recorded on 17 January 1940, at −40 °C and the warmest on 29 July 1936 at 35 °C and this results in frequent fogs, common in the autumn and spring. Minsk receives annual precipitation of 690 millimetres, of one third falls during the cold period. Throughout the year, most winds are westerly and northwesterly, bringing cool, similar climatic regimes are found in Stockholm, Sweden and in Halifax, Canada. The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Centre of Radioactive and Environmental Control, during 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tonsMinsk – Victors' Avenue in Minsk
16. Brest, Belarus – Brest formerly also Brześć nad Bugiem Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the city of the Brest voblast. The city of Brest is a site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest, the Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941. During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and it became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795, after World War I, the city returned to Second Polish Republic. In 1941 it was again by the Nazis during Operation Barbarossa. After the war, once the new boundaries between the USSR and Poland were ratified, the city part of the Soviet BSSR until the breakup of the country in 1991. It is part of sovereign Belarus of today, several theories attempt to account for the origin of the citys name. It might have come from the Slavic root beresta meaning birch, the name of the city could also originate from the Slavic root berest meaning elm. And finally, the name of the city could have come from the Lithuanian word brasta meaning ford, once a center of Jewish scholarship, the city has the Yiddish name בריסק, hence the term Brisker used to describe followers of the influential Soloveitchik family of rabbis. The traditional Belarusian name for the city is Берасце, Brest became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1319. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in 1569 the town was known in Polish as Brześć, after World War I, and the rebirth of Poland, the government of the Second Polish Republic renamed the city as Brześć nad Bugiem on March 20,1923. After World War II the city part of Soviet Belarus with the name simplified as Brest. Brests coat of arms features an arrow pointed upwards and a bow on a sky-blue shield and it was adopted on January 26,1991. An alternative coat of arms has a red shield, Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, first granted Brest a coat of arms in 1554. The city was founded by the Slavs, as a town, Brest – Berestye in Kievan Rus – was first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in 1019 when the Kievan Rus took the stronghold from the Poles. It is one of the oldest cities in Belarus and it was hotly contested between the Polish rulers and Kievan Rus princes, laid waste by the Mongols in 1241, and was not rebuilt until 1275Brest, Belarus – Commercial center
17. Hrodna – Grodno or Hrodna is a city in western Belarus. It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland and it is the capital of Grodno Region and Grodno District. In Belarusian, the city is referred to as Го́радня or Гаро́дня. In Latin it was known as Grodna, in Polish as Grodno, the Lithuanian name of the city is Gardinas. The modern city of Grodno originated as a fortress and a fortified trading outpost maintained by the Rurikid princes on the border with the lands of the Baltic tribal union of the Yotvingians. The first reference to Grodno dates to 1005, the official foundation year is 1127. Along with Navahrudak, Grodno was regarded as the city on the western borderlands of Black Ruthenia. The border region neighboured the original Lithuania and it was often attacked by various invaders, especially the Teutonic Knights. In the 1240–1250s the Grodno area, as well as the most of Black Ruthenia, was controlled by princes of Lithuanian origin to form the Baltic state—Grand Duchy of Lithuania—on these territories, after the Prussian uprisings a large population of Old Prussians moved to the region. The famous Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas was the prince of Grodno from 1376 to 1392, since 1413, Grodno had been the administrative center of a powiat in Trakai Voivodeship. To aid the reconstruction of trade and commerce, the grand dukes allowed the creation of a Jewish commune in 1389 and it was one of the first Jewish communities in the grand duchy. In 1441 the city received its charter, based on the Magdeburg Law, the city was the site of two battles, Battle of Grodno and Battle of Grodno during the Great Northern War. After the First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Grodno became the capital of the short-lived Grodno Voivodeship in 1793, as an important centre of trade, commerce, and culture, Grodno remained one of the places where the Sejms were held. Also, the Old and New Castles were often visited by the Commonwealth monarchs including famous Stephen Báthory of Poland who made a royal residence here, in 1793 the last Sejm in the history of the Commonwealth occurred at Grodno. Two years afterwards, in 1795, Russia obtained the city in the Third Partition of Poland and it was in the New Castle on November 25 of that year that the last Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke Stanisław August Poniatowski abdicated. In the Russian Empire, the city continued to serve its role as a seat of Grodno Governorate since 1801, the industrial activities, started in the late 18th century by Antoni Tyzenhaus, continued to develop. Count Aleksander Bisping was arrested and imprisoned here during the January Uprising before his exile to Ufa, after the outbreak of World War I, Grodno was occupied by Germany and ceded by Bolshevist Russia under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. After the war the German government permitted a state to be set up thereHrodna – Hrodna Grodno
18. Gomel – Gomel is the administrative centre of Gomel Voblast and with 526,872 inhabitants the second-most populous city of Belarus. There are at least six narratives of the origin of the city’s Belarusian name, one of the more plausible is that the name is derived from the name of the stream Homeyuk, which flowed into river Sozh near the foot of the hill where the first settlement was founded. Names of other Belarusian cities are formed along these lines, for example, the name Minsk is derived from the river Menka, Polatsk from the river Palata, and Vitsebsk from the river Vitsba. In historical sources from 1142 to the 16th century, the city is mentioned as Hom, Homye, Homiy, Homey and these forms are tentatively explained as derivatives of an unattested *gomŭ of uncertain meaning. The modern name for the city has been in use only since the 16th–17th centuries, during the Soviet period, another story about the citys name was popular, raftsmen on the river Sozh supposedly warned each other about the danger of running into sandy shallows by shouting «Ho. A more recent narrative, propagated by some researchers, is that the name is derived from an ancient Belarusian greeting, «Dats u homel». Gomel was founded at the end of the 1st millennium AD on the lands of the Eastern Slavic tribal union of Radimichs and it lays on the banks of the Sozh river and the Homeyuk stream. Sozhs high right bank, cut through by canyons, provided a natural fortification, for some time, Gomel was the capital of the Gomel Principality, before it became part of the Principality of Chernigov. Gomel is first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex under the year of 1142 as being territory of the princes of Chernigov, under Oleg, Gomel went to the Principality of Novhorod-Siverskyi. The next ruler was Igor Svyatoslavich – the hero of The Tale of Igors Campaign, during this period, the town was a fortified point and the centre of a volost. In the 12th–13th centuries the area was not less than 40 ha. Archeological data have shown that the city was damaged during the Mongol-Tatar assault in the first half of the 13th century. In 1335, the Gomel region was joined to the Great Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas, during the Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War of 1500–1503 Lithuania tried to regain Gomel and other lands transferred to Moscow, but suffered defeat and lost one-third of its territory. In 1535, Lithuanian and Polish forces under Jerzy Radziwiłł, Jan Tarnowski and Andrzej Niemirowicz re-captured the city after the surrender of Moscows deputy, in the same year, the Great Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Kęstutaitis founded the Gomel Starostwo. According to the agreement of 1537, Gomel together with its volost remained a Lithuanian possession. In 1535–1565 Gomel is the centre of starostwo, and from 1565 onwards Gomel is in the Rechytsa Powiat of the Minsk Voivodeship, in 1560, the citys first coat of arms was introduced. In 1569, Gomel became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from this moment on, the city became the arena of numerous attacks and battles between Cossaks, Russia and the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth. In 1572, Gomel Starostwo was given to B, at the beginning of the 1570s, Gomel was captured by the forces of Ivan the Terrible, but in 1576 it was re-captured by J. RadziwiłłGomel – Gomel Гомель
19. Mogilev – Mogilev is a city in eastern Belarus, about 76 kilometres from the border with Russias Smolensk Oblast and 105 km from the border with Russias Bryansk Oblast. As of 2011, its population was 360,918, up from an estimated 106,000 in 1956 and it is the administrative centre of Mogilev Region and the third largest city in Belarus. The city is mentioned in sources since 1267. From the 14th century it was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, since the Union of Lublin, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in 16th-17th century the city flourished as one of the main nodes of the east-west and north-south trading routes. In 1577 Polish King Stefan Batory granted it city rights under Magdeburg law, in 1654, the townsmen negotiated a treaty of surrender to the Russians peacefully, if the Jews were to be expelled and their property divided up among Mogilevs inhabitants. However, instead of expelling the Jews, the Russian troops massacred them after they had led them to the outskirts of the town, after the First Partition of Poland Mogilev became part of the Russian Empire and became the centre of the Mogilev Governorate. In the years 1915–1917, during World War I, the Stavka, the headquarters of the Russian Imperial Army was based in the city, following the Russian Revolution, in 1918, the city was briefly occupied by Germany and placed under their short-lived Belarusian Peoples Republic. Then, in 1919 it was captured by the forces of Soviet Russia, during the Operation Barbarossa, the city was conquered by Wehrmacht forces on 26 July 1941 and remained under German occupation until 28 June 1944. Mogilev became the residence of High SS and police leader Erich von dem Bach. During that period, the Jews of Mogilev were ghettoized and systematically murdered by Ordnungspolizei, heinrich Himmler personally witnessed the executions of 279 Jews on 23 October 1941. Later that month a number of mentally disabled patients were poisoned with car exhaust fumes as an experiment, initial plans for establishing a death camp in Mogilev were abandoned in favour of Maly Trostenets. In 1944, the devastated city was reconquered by the Red Army. Mogilev then was the site of a camp for German POW soldiers. Since Belarus gained its independence in 1991 Mogilev has remained one of its principal cities, Mohilev was the episcopal see of the Latin Catholic Archdiocese of Mohilev until its 1991 merger into the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Minsk-Mohilev. It remains the see of the Eparchy of Mogilev and Mstsislaw in the Belarusian Exarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church, after World War II a huge metallurgy centre with several major steel mills was built. Also, several factories of cranes, cars, tractors. Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the establishment of Belarus as an independent country, Mogilev has become one of that countrys main economic, the towns most notable landmark is the late 17th-century town hall built during the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The grand tower of the town hall sustained serious damage during the Great Northern War and it was eventually demolished in 1957 and rebuilt in its pre-war form in 2008Mogilev – Old City in winter
20. Vitebsk – Vitebsk or Vitsebsk, is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Vitebsk Region, in 2004 it had 342,381 inhabitants and it is served by Vitebsk Vostochny Airport and Vitebsk air base. Vitebsk developed from a harbor where the Vitba River flows into the larger Western Dvina. Archaeological research indicates that at the mouth of Vitba there were settlements by Baltic tribes, according to the Chronicle of Michael Brigandine, Vitebsk was founded by Princess Olga of Kiev in 974. Other versions give 947 or 914, academician Boris Rybakov and historian Leonid Alekseyev, based on the chronicles, have come to the conclusion that Princess Olga of Kiev could have established Vitebsk in 947. Leonid Alekseyev suggested that the chroniclers, moving the date from the account of the Byzantine era to a new era, got the year 947, but later mistakenly written in copying manuscripts 974. In the 12th and 13th centuries Vitebsk was the capital of the Principality of Vitebsk, in 1320 the city was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as a dowry of the Princess Maria, the first wife of Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas. By 1351 the city had erected a stone Upper and Lower Castle, in 1410 Vitebsk participated in the Battle of Grunwald. In 1597, the townsfolk of Vitebsk were privileged with Magdeburg rights, however, the rights were taken away in 1623 after the citizens revolted against the imposed Union of Brest and killed Archbishop Josaphat Kuntsevych. During the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Vitebsk was annexed by the Russian Empire, under the Russian Empire the historic centre of Vitebsk was rebuilt with Neoclassical architecture. By World War II, Vitebsk had a significant Jewish population, according to Russian census of 1897, out of the population of 65,900. The most famous of its Jewish natives was the painter Marc Chagall, in 1924, it was returned to the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. During World War II, the city was under Nazi Germany occupation, much of the old city was destroyed in the ensuing battles between the Germans and the Red Army soldiers. Most of the local Jews perished in the Vitebsk Ghetto massacre, in the first postwar five-year period the city was rebuilt. In the structure of its industrial complex stands machinery and light industry, in 1959, a TV tower was commissioned and started broadcasting the 1st Central Television program. In the same year during excavations on the Liberation Square, a scroll was found dating from the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries. It read, From Stpana to Nezhilovi, also, if hast sold trousers, buy me rye for 6 hryvnia. And if some didst not sold, send to my person, and if thou hast sold, do good to buy rye for me In January 1991, Vitebsk celebrated the first Marc Chagall FestivalVitebsk – Top left:View of International Art Festival of Slavyansky Bazaar in Mayakovsky Street, Top right:Marc Chagall Museum in Pakrouskaja, Middle left:Vitebsk Annunciation Church in Castle Street, Middle right:Vitebsk Assumption Cathedral, Bottom upper left:A monument of soldiers victim of Second World War at Vitebsk Victory Square, Bottom lower left:Church of Resurrection Christ, Bottom right:Vitebsk City Hall (Ratusha)
21. Agriculture – Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, oils, meats, fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are also produced by plants, such as resins, dyes, drugs, perfumes, biofuels and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants. The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, field, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is also observed in certain species of ant, termite and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung, soy and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, coca, llamas, alpacas, sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown timeAgriculture – Agriculture
22. Manufacturing – Manufacturing is the value added to production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product, the manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems, in a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation, modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required the production and integration of a products components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead, the manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, Pfizer, examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Sony, Huawei, Lenovo, Toyota, Samsung, in its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. In much of the world, the guild system protected the privileges. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm, manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs, the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks and these costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally, developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a role in the negotiation of worker rights. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world, tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturingManufacturing – Textile factory (Germany, circa 1975).
23. Sovereignty – Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a term designating supreme authority over some polity. It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation, derived from Latin through French souveraineté, its attainment and retention, in both Chinese and Western culture, has traditionally been associated with certain moral imperatives upon any claimant. The concept of sovereignty has been discussed throughout history, and is still actively debated and it has changed in its definition, concept, and application throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment. The current notion of state sovereignty contains four aspects consisting of territory, population, authority, Sovereignty is a hypothetical trade, in which two potentially conflicting sides, respecting de facto realities of power, exchange such recognitions as their least costly strategy. The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that, The imperium of the people is transferred to the Emperor, the Emperor is not bound by the law. Emperor is the law making and abiding force, Ulpian was expressing the idea that the Emperor exercised a rather absolute form of sovereignty, although he did not use the term expressly. Classical Ulpians statements were known in medieval Europe, but sovereignty was an important concept in medieval times, Medieval monarchs were not sovereign, at least not strongly so, because they were constrained by, and shared power with, their feudal aristocracy. Furthermore, both were strongly constrained by custom, Sovereignty existed during the Medieval Period as the de jure rights of nobility and royalty, and in the de facto capability of individuals to make their own choices in life. 1380–1400, the issue of sovereignty was addressed in Geoffrey Chaucers Middle English collection of Canterbury Tales. The story revolves around the knight Sir Gawain granting to Dame Ragnell, his new bride, what is purported to be wanted most by women and we desire most from men, From men both lund and poor, To have sovereignty without lies. For where we have sovereignty, all is ours, Though a knight be ever so fierce and it is our desire to have master Over such a sir. Jean Bodin, partly in reaction to the chaos of the French wars of religion, in his 1576 treatise Les Six Livres de la République Bodin argued that it is inherent in the nature of the state that the sovereign must have both great and perpetual authority. Bodin rejected the notion of transference of sovereignty from people to the ruler, however, although he is often connected with absolutism, Bodin held some moderate opinions on how government should in practice be carried out. Thus, Bodin’s sovereign was restricted by the law of the state. Bodin believed that “the most divine, most excellent, and the form most proper to royalty is governed partly aristocratically and partly democratically”. With his doctrine that sovereignty is conferred by law, Bodin predefined the scope of the divine right of kings. During the Age of Enlightenment, the idea of sovereignty gained both legal and moral force as the main Western description of the meaning and power of a StateSovereignty – The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes ' Leviathan, depicting the Sovereign as a massive body wielding a sword and crozier and composed of many individual people.
24. Independence – Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory, Independence does not necessarily mean freedom. Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, nation-states have been granted independence without any revolutionary acts. The Russian October Revolution, for example, was not intended to seek national independence, however, the American Revolutionary War was intended to achieve independence from the beginning. Causes for a country or province wishing to seek independence are many, the means can extend from peaceful demonstrations, like in the case of the Indian independence movement, to a violent civil war. Autonomy refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by an authority that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory. A protectorate refers to a region that depends upon a larger government for its protection as an autonomous region. Declaring independence and attaining it however, are quite different, a well-known successful example is the U. S. Declaration of Independence issued in 1776, the dates of established independence, are typically celebrated as a national holiday known as an independence dayIndependence – John Trumbull 's Declaration of Independence in 1776
25. Alexander Lukashenko – Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko is the President of Belarus, in office since 20 July 1994. Before his career as a politician, Lukashenko worked as director of an agricultural farm and spent time with the Soviet Border Troops. He was the deputy to vote against the independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union. Lukashenko opposed Western-backed shock therapy during the post-Soviet transition and he has retained Soviet-era policies, such as continued state ownership of key industries, despite objections from Western governments. Observers also contend that Lukashenko presides over a regime steeped in Soviet nostalgia, Belarus has been labeled Europes last dictatorship by some Western journalists, on account of Lukashenkos self-described authoritarian style of government. Lukashenko and other Belarusian officials are also the subject of sanctions imposed by the European Union, Lukashenko was born on 30 August 1954, in the settlement of Kopys in the Vitebsk Oblast of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. His grandfather, Trokhym Lukashenko, had born in the Sumy Oblast of Ukraine near Shostka. Lukashenko grew up without a father in his childhood, leading him to be taunted by his schoolmates for having an unmarried mother, Lukashenko graduated from the Mogilev Pedagogical Institute in 1975 and the Belarusian Agricultural Academy in 1985. He served in the Border Guard from 1975 to 1977 and in the Soviet Army from 1980 to 1982, in addition, he led an All-Union Leninist Young Communist League chapter in Mogilev from 1977 to 1978. While in the Soviet Army, Lukashenko was an officer of the 120th Guards Motor Rifle Division, after leaving the military, he became the deputy chairman of a collective farm in 1982 and in 1985. He was promoted to the post of director of the Gorodets state farm, in 1990, Lukashenko was elected Deputy to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus. He was the deputy of the Belarusian parliament who voted against ratification of the December 1991 agreement that dissolved the Soviet Union. Having acquired a reputation as an eloquent opponent of corruption, Lukashenko was elected in 1993 to serve as the chairman of the committee of the Belarusian parliament. While the charges were never fully proven against him, Shushkevich resigned his chairmanship due to the embarrassment of the series of events, a new Belarusian constitution enacted in early 1994 paved the way for the first--and to date, only--democratic presidential election on 23 June and 10 July. Six candidates stood in the first round, including Lukashenko, who campaigned as an independent on a populist platform of defeat the mafia against the Conspiracy of New World Order, Shushkevich and Kebich also ran, with the latter regarded as the clear favorite. Lukashenko won 45. 1% of the vote while Kebich received 17. 4%, Zyanon Paznyak received 12. 9% and Shushkevich, Lukashenko won the second round of the election on 10 July with 80. 1% of the vote. Shortly after his election, he addressed the State Duma of the Russian Federation in Moscow proposing a new Union of Slavic states, which would culminate in the creation of the Union State in 1999. In May 1995, Belarus held a referendum on changing its national symbols, the referendum made the Russian language equal to BelarusianAlexander Lukashenko – Lukashenko in July 2015
26. Administrative divisions of Belarus – At the top level of administration, Belarus is divided into six regions and the city of Minsk, which has a special status being the capital of Belarus. Minsk is also the capital of Minsk Region, at the second level, the regions are divided into raions. The layout and extent of the regions were set in 1960 when Belarus was a part of the Soviet Union, at the start of the 20th century, the boundaries of the Belarusian lands within the Russian Empire were still being defined. Basically in 1900 it contained the entire Minsk Governorate and Mogilev Governorate, the majority of Grodno Governorate, parts of Vitebsk Governorate, World War I, the independence of Poland, as well as the 1920-1921 Polish–Soviet War affected the boundaries. In 1921, Belarus had what is now all of Minsk Governorate except for the fringe, the western part of Gomel Region, a western slice of Mahilyow. In 1926 the eastern part of Gomel region was added, in Soviet Belarus, new administrative units, called voblast were introduced in 1938. And again, during World War II, the boundaries fluctuated, in 1939 they were reset with Belarus gaining territory to the west, Baranavichy, Belastok, Brest, Pinsk, and Vileyka oblasts. In 1944 Belastok was eliminated and the new oblasts of Babruysk, Grodno, at that same time, Vileika Voblast was renamed Molodechno Voblast. Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names of BelarusAdministrative divisions of Belarus – Regions and the Special administrative district of Belarus Рэгіёны і Спецыяльны aministrative раён Беларусі (Belarussian) Регионы и Специальный aministrative район Беларуси (Russian)
27. Belarusians – Belarusians, or Byelorussians, are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, Belarusians are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Belarus. Belarusian minority populations live in countries neighboring Belarus, in Ukraine, in Poland, in the Russian Federation, at the beginning of the 20th century Belarusians constituted a minority in the regions around the city of Smolensk in Russia. Significant numbers of Belarusians emigrated to the United States, Brazil, during Soviet times, many Belarusians were deported or migrated to various regions of the USSR, including Siberia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. Since the breakup of the USSR in 1991 several hundred thousand have emigrated to the Baltic states, the United States, Canada, Russia, the two official languages in Belarus are Belarusian and Russian. Russian is the most spoken language, principally by 72% of the population, Belarusian is a language of the East Slavic group. The name Belarus can be translated as White Ruthenia that is a historical region in the east of modern Republic of Belarus. This name was in use in the West for some time in history, together with White Ruthenes, White Russians, Belarusians trace their name back to the people of Rus. The term Belarusians was promoted mostly during the 19th century by the Russian Empire, the Belarusian people trace their distinct culture to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, earlier Kievan Rus and the Principality of Polatsk. Most Belarusians are descendants of the East Slav tribes Dregovichs, Krivichs and Radimichs, Belarusians began to emerge as a people during the thirteenth through fourteenth centuries in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Mostly on the lands of the basins of Neman River, Dnieper River. Casimirs Code of 1468 and all three editions of Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were written in the Ruthenian language, from the 1630s it was replaced by Polish, as a result of Polish high culture acquiring increasing prestige in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Belarus gained full independence with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Belarusian cuisine shares the same roots with cuisines of other Eastern and Northern European countries, basing predominantly on meat and various vegetables typical for the region. List of Belarusians Demographics of Belarus Dregovichs Krivichs Litvins Radimichs History of Belarus Арсеньев, Беларусы, у10 т. / Рэдкал. Бандарчык, Інстытут мастацтвазнаўства, этнаграфіі і фальклору імя Кандрата Крапівы НАН Беларусі,3, Гісторыя этналагічнага вывучэння / В. Беларусы, у10 т. / Рэдкал, Бандарчык, Інстытут мастацтвазнаўства, этнаграфіі і фальклору імя Кандрата Крапівы НАН Беларусі. 4, Вытокі і этнічнае развіццё / В, Беларусы, у10 т. / Рэдкал. Бандарчык, Інстытут мастацтвазнаўства, этнаграфіі і фальклору імя Кандрата Крапівы НАН Беларусі, Белоруссия // Географическо-статистический словарь Российской империи / состBelarusians – According to Y. Karskiy (1903)
28. Poles – The Poles are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of a population of 38,538,000. Polands population inhabits several historic regions, including Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Mazovia, Silesia, Pomerania, Kuyavia, Warmia, Masuria, a wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe, the Americas and in Australasia. Today the largest urban concentration of Poles is the Katowice urban agglomeration of 2.7 million inhabitants, Poland was also for centuries a refuge for many Jews from all over Europe, a large number emigrated in the twentieth century to Israel. Several prominent Israeli statesmen were born in Poland, including Israels founder David Ben-Gurion, former President of Israel Shimon Peres, the Slavic people have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state, Poland, one of the West Slavic nations. After 1945 the so-called autochthonous or aboriginal school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland, Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a number of around 60 million people worldwide. There are almost 38 million Poles in Poland alone, there are also Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including Germany, and indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova, the term Polonia is usually used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders, officially estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States, Brazil, France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a relatively large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century, in the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France, mostly during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or later Soviet rule. In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Ohio, Detroit, New York City, Orlando, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II, the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, and again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989. In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State, smaller, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and São Paulo. The city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world and Polish music, dishes and it is estimated that over half a million Polish people have come to work in the United Kingdom from Poland. Since 2011, Poles have been able to work throughout the EU and not just in the United Kingdom, Ireland. The Polish community in Norway has increased substantially and has grown to a number of 120,000Poles – Stańczyk at a Ball at Queen Bona's Court, by Matejko, 1862
29. Ukrainians – Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term Ukrainians to all its citizens, also among historical names of the people of Ukraine Rusyns, Cossacks, etc. can be found. According to some definitions, a descriptive name for the inhabitants of Ukraine is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people. Belarusians and Russians are considered among the bloodline of Ukrainians, while Rusyns are another closely related group, the ethnonym Ukrainians became widely accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917. People of these territories were usually called Rus or Rusyns, the Ukrainian language appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries, but at that time, it was mostly known as Ruthenian, like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich, however, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the linguonym Ukrainian were used only occasionally, and the people of Ukraine usually continued to call themselves and their language Ruthenian. This official name did not spread widely among the peasantry constituted the majority of the population. Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine and to themselves, in areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century, Ukrainians were known by their pre-existing names for much longer. The modern name derives from Ukrayina, a name first documented in 1187. Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term, according to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term u-kraine as in-land, home-land or our-country. The name in this context derives from the word u-kraina in the sense of domestic region, in the last few centuries the population of Ukraine experienced periods of Polonization and Russification, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity. Most ethnic Ukrainians live in Ukraine, where make up over three-quarters of the population. The inhabitants of the Kuban, for example, have vacillated among three identities, Ukrainian, Russian, and Cossack, approximately 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East in an area known historically as Green Ukraine. According to some assumptions, an estimated number of almost 2.1 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America. Large numbers of Ukrainians live in Brazil, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Poland, Argentina, Belarus, Portugal, there are also Ukrainian diasporas in the UK, Australia, Germany, Latvia, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Ireland, Sweden and the former Yugoslavia. Today, large ethnic Ukrainian minorities reside in Russia, Canada, Ukrainians have one of the largest diasporas in the world. The East Slavs emerged from the undifferentiated early Slavs with the Slavic migrations in the 6th and 7th centuries CE, the East Slavs were united in the Kievan Rus during the 9th to 13th centuries. East Slavic tribes cited as proto-Ukrainian include the Volhynians, Derevlianians, Polianians, and Siverianians and the less significant Ulychians, Tivertsians, the Gothic historian Jordanes and 6th-century Byzantine authors named two groups that lived in the south-east of Europe, Sclavins and AntesUkrainians – "Ethnographical Map of Ukraine" printed just after World War II. Land inhabited by a plurality of ethnic Ukrainians is colored rose.
30. Belarusian referendum, 1995 – A four-question referendum was held in Belarus on 14 May 1995, alongside parliamentary elections. According to official results, all four were approved by at least three-quarters of voters, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly stated that the referendum violated international standards. President Alexander Lukashenko had tried to hold a referendum on state symbols in 1993. Two months before the May 1995 referendum, Lukashenko proposed a design that consisted of two small bars of green and one wide bar of red. While it is not known what became of this suggestion, new designs were suggested a few days later, on 11 April 1995 Parliament considered the questions for the referendum, approved the date, but approved only the question regarding economic integration with Russia. They were beaten and forcibly removed by OMON, the parliamentarians sued the special forces for battery but were unsuccessful. A conciliatory commission was called upon to resolve the conflict between the President and Parliament, which was decided in favour of the President. Do you agree with assigning the Russian language the status equal to that of the Belarusian language, do you support the actions of President aimed at economic integration with Russia. Do you support the suggestion about the introduction of the new State flag, the opposition questions the validity of the 1995 referendum itself. Some claim that failure to win a majority is a violation of the Constitution. The Russian State Duma issued a statement supporting the official results of the referendum that promoted the status of Russian language in Belarus, the US Department of State also criticized the Belarusian government for this referendum. The decrees about the new flag and new coat of arms were signed by President on 7 July 1995Belarusian referendum, 1995
31. Russian language – Russian is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages and it is also the largest native language in Europe, with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers, the language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English, Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. This distinction is found between pairs of almost all consonants and is one of the most distinguishing features of the language, another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Russian is a Slavic language of the Indo-European family and it is a lineal descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus. From the point of view of the language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. In the 19th century, the language was often called Great Russian to distinguish it from Belarusian, then called White Russian and Ukrainian, however, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language and it is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a hard target language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in American world policy. The standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language, mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in 1755, in 1783 the Russian Academys first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. By the mid-20th century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the education system that was established by the Soviet government. Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features are observed in colloquial speech. Thus, the Russian language is the 6th largest in the world by number of speakers, after English, Mandarin, Hindi/Urdu, Spanish, Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a choice for both Russian as a second language and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics. Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics, samuel P. Huntington wrote in the Clash of Civilizations, During the heyday of the Soviet Union, Russian was the lingua franca from Prague to HanoiRussian language – Russian language street sign in Russia.
32. Belarusian language – Belarusian is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, and small parts in far-eastern Poland. Following independence, it became known as Belarusian. Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group, to some extent, Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian are mutually intelligible. Its predecessor stage is known as Ruthenian, in turn descended from Old East Slavic, at the 1999 Belarus Census, the Belarusian language was declared as a language spoken at home by about 3,686,000 Belarusian citizens. About 6,984,000 of Belarusians declared it their mother tongue, other sources put the population of the language as 6,715,000 in Belarus and 9,081,102 in all countries. According to a study done by the Belarusian government in 2009, 72% of Belarusians speak Russian at home,29. 4% of Belarusians can write, speak, and read Belarusian, while 52. 5% can only read and speak it. Although closely related to other East Slavic languages, especially Ukrainian, Belarusian phonology is distinct in a number of ways, the phoneme inventory of the modern Belarusian language consists of 45 to 54 phonemes,6 vowels and 39 to 48 consonants, depending on how they are counted. When the nine geminate consonants are excluded as mere variations, there are 39 consonants, the number 48 includes all consonant sounds, including variations and rare sounds, which may be semantically distinct in the modern Belarusian language. The Belarusian alphabet is a variant of the Cyrillic script, which was first used as an alphabet for the Old Church Slavonic language, the modern Belarusian form was defined in 1918, and consists of thirty-two letters. Before that, Belarusian had also written in the Belarusian Latin alphabet, the Belarusian Arabic alphabet. The Glagolitic script had been used, sporadically, until the 11th or 12th century, there are several systems of romanizing written Belarusian text in existence, see Romanization of Belarusian. Standardized Belarusian grammar in its form was adopted in 1959. It was developed from the form set down by Branislaw Tarashkyevich. Historically, there had existed several other alternative standardized forms of Belarusian grammar and it is mainly based on the Belarusian folk dialects of Minsk-Vilnius region. Belarusian grammar is mostly synthetic and partly analytic, and overall is similar to Russian grammar. The most significant instance of this is in the representation of vowel reduction, and in particular akannye, the merger of unstressed /a/ and /o/, Belarusian always spells this merged sound as ⟨a⟩, whereas Russian uses either ⟨a⟩ or ⟨o⟩, according to what the underlying phoneme is. This can significantly complicate the task of foreign speakers in learning these paradigms, besides the literary norm, there exist two main dialects of the Belarusian language, the North-Eastern and the South-Western. In addition, there exist the transitional Middle Belarusian dialect group, the North-Eastern dialect is chiefly characterized by the soft sounding R and strong akanye, and the South-Western dialect is chiefly characterized by the hard sounding R and moderate akanyeBelarusian language – The first Lithuanian statute of 1529, in Belarusian language
33. American Geographical Society – The American Geographical Society is an organization of professional geographers, founded in 1851 in New York City. Most fellows of the society are Americans, but among them have always been a significant number of fellows from around the world and it is the oldest nationwide geographical organization in the United States. Over the century and a half of its existence, the AGS has been interested in three regions, the Arctic, the Antarctic, and Latin America. A signature characteristic of the AGS-sponsored exploration was the requirement that its expeditions produce tangible scientific results, the AGS was founded by 31 New Yorkers, who were wealthy philanthropists, historians, publishers and editors. In September 1851, the committee formed to draft a constitution, on October 9, this committee undertook the constitution at a meeting held in the Geographical and Statistical Library in New York City. In 1871, the AGS amended its Charter and dropped and Statistical from its title, the Societys first and most ambitious attempt to influence governmental policy was made early in 1862. On January 7, a committee was appointed to devise a taxation system to correspond with the present state of public affairs. The committee prepared a report which was printed and distributed to members of the Society, members of Congress, the Society also began to integrate globally within the International Geographical Community, when the AGS sent a council member to attend the 1st International Geographical Congress. During World War I, the interdisciplinary, government-sponsored Inquiry in preparation for the Paris Peace Conference was led by the AGS, after the Armistice in 1918, President Woodrow Wilson and the American Delegation sailed for France. The AGS was instrumental in providing technical and professional support to the polar expeditions of Louise Arner Boyd during the 1930s. Her long-time friendship with geographer and photographer, Isaiah Bowman, helped inspire in Louise a lifelong interest in geography and photography, which proved invaluable on all her expeditions. The AGS published her book, The Fiord Region of East Greenland, the AGS published her second book, Rural Poland. After World War I, the Society undertook an effort to map Hispanic America as part of the international effort to map the entire world at 1,1,000,000. The venture lasted from 1920 to 1945 and eventually produced 107 map sheets at a total cost of more than one-half million dollars, during World War II, the Society assisted more than forty agencies of the U. S. government. Military Intelligence in the efforts to defuse Axis strongholds in Eastern Europe, the headquarters of the American Geographical Society were initially established at New York University in Washington Square. The University’s chapel was used for some of the Society’s lectures, later, two rooms located in Clinton Hall, formerly the Astor Opera House, became the Society’s next home in December 1858. In 1866, the American Geographical Society moved to Cooper Union at Cooper Square on Ninth Street, in 1911, the AGS moved to 3755 Broadway at 156th Street. This three story building was built on donated by Archer Milton Huntington’s mother and designed by Charles Pratt HuntingtonAmerican Geographical Society – History of geography
34. National Geographic Farsi – National Geographic Farsi was a free-to-air documentary channel that started broadcasting on October 15,2011 and was shut down on May 1,2013. It was the official Persian language edition of the National Geographic Channel, the channel broadcast via Eutelsat W3A. Whilst the channel was aimed to be broadcast for a Persian audience in Iran and other Persian speakers in the Middle East and it was co-owned by the National Geographic Society/Fox International Channels. Despite the channels shutdown, the Persian edition of the National Geographic magazine, the channel was shut down on May 1,2013 on a short notice in Persian that was published on the channels Facebook page. We hope that in the future we will be able to join you again, although the channel is shutdown, its official and social media sites remain online, albeit inactiveNational Geographic Farsi – People
35. Perth Amboy, New Jersey – Perth Amboy is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The City of Perth Amboy is part of the New York metropolitan area, Perth Amboy is known as the City by the Bay, referring to Raritan Bay. The Lenape Native Americans called the point on which the city is built Ompoge meaning level ground, when settled in 1684 the new city was dubbed New Perth in honor of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, one of the associates of a company of Scottish proprietaries. The Algonquian language name persisted, corrupted to Ambo, or Point Amboy, Perth Amboy Township was formed on October 31,1693, and was enlarged during the 1720s to encompass Perth Amboy city. Perth Amboy Township was incorporated as one of New Jerseys initial 104 townships through the Township Act of 1798 on February 21,1798, the township was replaced by Perth Amboy city on April 8,1844. Perth Amboy served as a capital of the Province of New Jersey from 1686 until 1776. In 1684, Perth Amboy became the capital of East Jersey and remained the capital until the union of East and West Jersey in 1702, a few of the buildings from this early period can still be seen today. Most notably, the Proprietary House, the home of William Franklin, St. Peters Church was founded in 1718 by the first Episcopal congregation in the state. Perth Amboy City Hall, first built as a courthouse in 1714, the Kearny Cottage, moved from its original location, is a remaining example of 18th Century vernacular architecture. This ferry became less important when the Outerbridge Crossing opened in 1928, in 1998, the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip was restored to its 1904 appearance. A replica of the office has been constructed and is used as a small museum. By the middle of the 19th century, immigration and industrialization transformed Perth Amboy, factories such as A. Hall and Sons Terra Cotta, Guggenheim and Sons and the Copper Works Smelting Company fueled a thriving downtown and employed many area residents. Growth was further stimulated by becoming the terminal for the Lehigh Valley Railroad. Perth Amboy developed tightly knit and insular ethnic neighborhoods such as Budapest, Dublin, immigrants from Denmark, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Russia, and Austria quickly dominated the factory jobs. In 1903, the Perth Amboy Public Library became the first Carnegie library in the state, made possible through grants from Andrew Carnegie, in 1914, Perth Amboy had a baseball team called the Pacers, they only played for one season. In late August 1923 a violent riot by an estimated 6,000 persons shook Perth Amboy when the Ku Klux Klan attempted to organize a meeting in the city. The city was also a town in the 19th century and early 20th century. Since the early 1990s Perth Amboy has seen redevelopment, small businesses have started to open up, helped by the citys designation as an Urban Enterprise ZonePerth Amboy, New Jersey – Perth Amboy Courthouse and Police Station
36. Anthropology – Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies, linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the development of humans. The abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history and its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Magnus Hundt and Otto Casmann. Their New Latin anthropologia derived from the forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English, possibly via French anthropologie, various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had already been formed. The Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839 and its members were primarily anti-slavery activists. When slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned and these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, and pro-human-rights activists. Anthropology and many other current fields are the results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century. For them, the publication of Charles Darwins On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect, Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s, there was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. When he read Darwin he became a convert to Transformisme. His definition now became the study of the group, considered as a whole, in its details. Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech and he wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech. He discovered the speech center of the brain, today called Brocas area after him. The title was translated as The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples. The last two volumes were published posthumously, Waitz defined anthropology as the science of the nature of man. By nature he meant matter animated by the Divine breath, i. e. he was an animist and he stresses that the data of comparison must be empirical, gathered by experimentationAnthropology – Forensic anthropologists can help identify skeletonized human remains, such as these found lying in scrub in Western Australia, c. 1900–1910.
37. David Harvey (geographer) – David W. Harvey FBA is the Distinguished Professor of anthropology and geography at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. He received his PhD in geography from the University of Cambridge in 1961, Harvey has authored many books and essays that have been prominent in the development of modern geography as a discipline. He is a proponent of the idea of the right to the city, Harvey attended Gillingham Grammar School for Boys and St Johns College, Cambridge. Harveys early work, beginning with his PhD, was historical in nature, emerging from a tradition of inquiry widely used at Cambridge. Historical inquiry runs through his later works and he later spent time at Queens University Belfast. By the mid-1960s, he followed trends in the sciences to employ quantitative methods, contributing to spatial science. Roots of this work were visible while he was at Cambridge, the Department of Geography also housed Richard Chorley, but after its publication Harvey moved on again, to become concerned with issues of social injustice and the nature of the capitalist system itself. Moving from Bristol University to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore in the USA, he positioned himself centrally in the emerging field of radical. Injustice, racism, and exploitation were visible in Baltimore, and activism around these issues was tangible in early 1970s East Coast, the journal Antipode was formed at Clark University, Harvey was one of the first contributors. The Boston Association of American Geographers meetings in 1971 were a landmark, with Harvey, in 1972, in a famous essay on ghetto formation, he argued for the creation of revolutionary theory, theory validated through revolutionary practice. Social Justice and the City expressed Harveys position that geography could not remain objective in the face of urban poverty and it has been cited widely, and it makes a significant contribution to Marxian theory by arguing that capitalism annihilates space to ensure its own reproduction. The Condition of Postmodernity, written while a Professor at Oxford, was a best-seller and it is a materialist critique of postmodern ideas and arguments, suggesting these actually emerge from contradictions within capitalism itself. Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference focuses on social and environmental justice, spaces of Hope has an utopian theme and indulges in speculative thinking about how an alternative world might look. His study of Second Empire Paris and the surrounding the Paris Commune in Paris. His next work, A Brief History of Neoliberalism, provides an examination of the theory. His most recent work The Enigma of Capital takes a view of the current economic crisis. Harvey explains how capitalism came to dominate the world and why it resulted in the current financial crisis and he describes that the essence of capitalism is its amorality and lawlessness and to talk of a regulated, ethical capitalism is to make a fundamental error. A series of events linked to this book across London academic forums, such as the LSE, proved hugely popular, in 1996, he delivered the Ellen Churchill Semple lecture at UK GeographyDavid Harvey (geographer) – David Harvey
38. Gillingham, Kent – Gillingham /ˈdʒɪlɪŋəm/ is a town in the county of Kent in South East England. For local government purposes it is also in the authority of Medway. The town includes the settlements of Brompton, Hempstead, Wigmore, Parkwood, Rainham, Rainham Mark, Gillingham means a homestead of Gyllas family, from Old English ham and ingas, and was first recorded in the 10th century as Gyllingeham. Also referred to in old texts as Jillyingham Water, hence the pronunciation being Gillingham, Gillingham became an urban district under the Local Government Act 1894, gaining municipal borough status in 1903. John Robert Featherby was the first mayor of the Borough of Gillingham, in 1928 Rainham was added to the Gillingham Borough. Under the Local Government Act 1972 it became a non-metropolitan district and it merged with the other Medway Towns in 1998 under the 1990s UK local government reform, to become part of the Medway unitary authority. The Municipal Buildings in Canterbury Street were built as offices for Gillingham Borough Council. They were opened by the Lord Mayor of London, Sir George Broadbridge, the Lord Mayor was received at Gillingham Railway Station by a guard of honour of boys of HMS Arethusa. Before the Second World War, air raid sirens were placed on the Municipal Buildings, in about 1953, Gillingham Borough Control was built underground, beneath part of the car park. Medway Council then moved into the former Lloyds of London headquarters at Chatham Gun Wharf, and they were sold off in 2008 under a contract which turned them into a residential care home. The town grew along the road from Brompton on the great lines, as such it was a linear development. Close by was the road along the line, linking The Strand. Later, communiites developed along the top road- Watling street – turnpike linking Chatham with Dover, all these communities merged into the town that is called today Gillingham. Gillingham experiences a climate similar to almost all of the United Kingdom. Due to its southerly, sheltered, marine position near the European continent the climate is among the warmest in the whole of England, the name Gillingham is recorded in the Domesday book of 1086. It is said to have named after a warlord, Gyllingas—from the old English gyllan. He was a man in Kent history as he led his warriors into battle screaming and shouting. At the time of the Norman Conquest, Gillingham was a small hamlet, Gillingham itself, at the time, was a small hamlet, built around the parish church and surrounded by large farm-holdings, of which StGillingham, Kent – High St, Gillingham
39. South East England – South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km², and is also the most populous with a population of over eight. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to south east England becoming an economic hub and it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UKs second-busiest airport, and its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe. The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs, the River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley. The region has many universities, the University of Oxford is ranked among the best in the world. South east England is host to sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and the Epsom Derby. Some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney, the largest city in the region is Brighton & Hove. The dominant influence on the economy is neighbouring London. The highest point is Walbury Hill in Berkshire at 297 metres, until 1999, there was a south east Standard Statistical Region, which also included the counties of Bedfordshire, Greater London, Essex and Hertfordshire. The former south east Civil Defence Region covered the area as the current government office region. The South East is also used as a synonym for the home counties. The population of the region at the 2011 census was 8,634,750 making it the most populous English region, the major conurbations of the region include Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton, Portsmouth, Southampton and Reading. Settlements closer to London are part of the known as the Greater London Urban Area. The South East has the highest percentage of people born outside of Britain other than London. Estimates in 2007 state 87. 2% of people as White British,4. 8% Other White,3. 5% South Asians,1. 5% Mixed Race,1. 6% Black British,0. 7% Chinese,0. 7% Other. The area also has some seats where there is support for other parties, for example, Slough and Oxford for Labour. Buckingham, the seat of Speaker John Bercow, is also in this region, out of 83 parliamentary seats, the Conservatives hold 78South East England – Uffington White Horse on the Berkshire Downs
40. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD. The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthedGermany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
41. Glauberg – The Glauberg is a Celtic oppidum in Hesse, Germany consisting of a fortified settlement and several burial mounds, a princely seat of the late Hallstatt and early La Tène periods. Archaeological discoveries in the 1990s place the site among the most important early Celtic centres in Europe and it provides unprecedented evidence on Celtic burial, sculpture and monumental architecture. Geologically, the Glauberg, a ridge on the east edge of the Wetterau plain, is a spur of the Vogelsberg range. Rising about 150 m above the areas, it is located between the rivers Nidder and Seeme and belongs to the community of Glauburg. The hilltop forms a nearly horizontal plateau of 800 by 80–200m and its southwest promontory is known as Enzheimer Köpfchen. To the northwest, the Glauberg slopes steeply down towards the Nidder valley and, in the south, the plateau contained a small perennial pond, which was not fed by springs but simply by surface runoff. The hill is surrounded by springs and fertile land, the presence of ancient ruins on the Glauberg plateau has long been known, though they were credited to the Romans. The discovery of a fragment of an early La Tène torc in 1906, systematic archaeological research began in 1933–1934 with an excavation led by Heinrich Richter which focused on the fortification. Hermann began in 1985 and continued until 1998 and it was during this phase that the important burial mound was examined. The settlement history of the Glauberg and its area in Celtic times was the focus of a project by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The topographic location marks the Glauberg as a focus of human activity. It combines access to arable land and water with an easily defensible site. Thus, it is not surprising that the hill was the site of human occupation long before and long after its Celtic phase, the Glauberg plateau was first settled in the Neolithic era by people of the Rössen culture. This was followed by a settlement of the Michelsberg phase. Michelsberg hilltop fortifications are known elsewhere, so it is possible that the hill was fortified for the first time at that stage, the hill was also settled by the late Bronze Age Urnfield culture. During the Celtic late Hallstatt/early La Tène period, the Glauberg became a centre of supra-regional importance, at this time, it was the seat of an early Celtic prince. During the Roman occupation of Germany, the Glauberg remained unoccupied, in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, it was reoccupied and became a regional centre once again, as the seat of a local king of the Alamanni. From the 7th to the 9th century, it was the site of a large Frankish fortification and its importance grew throughout this time, and the fortifications were renewed and extended considerablyGlauberg – The "Lord of Glauberg" (c. 500 BC)
42. Warrior – A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste. In tribal societies engaging in warfare, warriors often form a caste or class of their own. In feudalism, the vassals essentially form a military or warrior class, even if in actual warfare, in some societies, warfare may be so central that the entire people may be considered warriors, for example in the Iron Age Germanic tribes and Indian clans like the Rajputs. While the warrior class in tribal societies is typically all-male, there are some exceptions on record where women formed part of the warrior class, a purported group of fighting women is the legendary Amazons, recorded in Classical Greek mythology. Similarly, the Valkyrie are depicted in Norse mythology, particularly the Icelandic Etta, many women not only fought on the field but led entire hosts of men within Pictish, Briton, and Irish Tribes in Pre Christian culture. Boudicca of the Iceni is an example of a female leader of warriors. Tomoe Gozen is celebrated in Japanese history as a woman samurai General in the 12th Century, joan of Arc, nicknamed The Maid of Orléans is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years War. The military caste in a society is evolved from—but not identical with—the warrior class in a tribal society. Many pre-modern states had castes, estates or social groups dedicated to warfare, common features include valuing honor in the forms of faith, loyalty and courage. Examples include the following, Ethical codes of the early Germanic Peoples, chhetris of Nepal, warrior and Kings caste of Nepal, original true Gurkhas. Xiá in China, French Foreign Legion Code dHonneur, still in use today, Spanish Legion Credo legionario, still in use today, Warriors honor is dependent on following the code. Common virtues in warrior codes are mercy, courage, and loyalty, with the end of the Middle Ages and the professional standing armies of Early Modern warfare, the concept of a warrior class or military caste became an anachronism. The term warrior is sometimes used, anachronistically, to refer to professional soldiers or mercenaries. Due to the connotations of the term warrior, this metaphor is especially popular in publications advocating or recruiting for a countrys military. The warrior metaphor in sports is particularly popular in sport, as evident from brand names such as Warrior-1 MMA, Cage Warriors, Supreme Warrior Championship. A spiritual warrior is a person who battles with the enemy, self-ignorance. The term is applied in religious and metaphysical writing, the spiritual warrior can be described as an archetype character on a journey for self-discovery. Deadliest Warrior Head-Hunting Roman Cavalry Roman centurions Roman Warrior Culture Late Roman warrior culture Warrior culture in the Scottish HighlandsWarrior – Drawing of a Thracian peltast of 400 BC
43. Solarium Augusti – The Solarium Augusti was an ancient Roman monument in the Campus Martius constructed during the reign of Augustus. It functioned as a giant solar marker, according to various interpretations serving either as a meridian line or as a sundial. It was erected by the emperor Augustus, with the 30-meter Egyptian red granite Obelisk of Montecitorio, the solarium was dedicated to the Sun in 10 BCE, shortly after Julius Caesars calendar reform. It was the first solar dedication in Rome, the obelisk itself was set up to memorialize Augustus subordination of Egypt to the control of the Roman empire. The two monuments must have planned together, in relation to the pre-existing Mausoleum of Augustus, to demonstrate that Augustus was born to bring peace. According to the Cambridge Ancient History, the collective message dramatically linked peace with military authority, pliny the Elder remarked that in the course of time it had become incorrect, and offered several explanations for the shift. The obelisk was illustrated, supported by a figure, on the base of the Column of Antoninus Pius. The obelisk gnomon was still standing in the 8th century CE, but was thrown down and broken, then covered in sediment, it was rediscovered in 1512, in a triumphant rededication, the Montecitorio obelisk was re-erected in Piazza di Montecitorio by Pius VI in 1789. Edmund Buchner excavated some sections of the marble pavement of the Solarium Augusti under the block of houses between Piazza del Parlamento and Piazza San Lorenzo in Lucina. Paul Zanker, The Augustan Program of Cultural Renewal, the Solarium Augusti in the context of Augustan monumentsSolarium Augusti – Part of the meridian under the cellar of a stable building in the Campus Martius.
44. Ancient Rome – In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and then Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, Amulius, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the AeneidAncient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
45. Sundial – A sundial is a device that tells the time of day by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky. In the narrowest sense of the word it consists of a flat plate, as the sun appears to move across the sky, the shadow aligns with different hour-lines which are marked on the dial to indicate the time of day. The style is the edge of the gnomon, though a single point or nodus may be used. The gnomon casts a shadow, the shadow of the style shows the time. The gnomon may be a rod, a wire or a decorated metal casting. The style must be parallel to the axis of the Earths rotation for the sundial to be throughout the year. The styles angle from horizontal is equal to the geographical latitude. In a broader sense a sundial is any device that uses the suns altitude or azimuth to show the time, in addition to their time-telling function, sundials are valued as decorative objects, as literary metaphors and as objects of mathematical study. It is common for inexpensive mass-produced decorative sundials to have incorrectly aligned gnomons and hour-lines, there are several different types of sundials. Some sundials use a shadow or the edge of a shadow while others use a line or spot of light to indicate the time, the shadow-casting object, known as a gnomon, may be a long thin rod or other object with a sharp tip or a straight edge. Sundials employ many types of gnomon, the gnomon may be fixed or moved according to the season. It may be oriented vertically, horizontally, aligned with the Earths axis, given that sundials use light to indicate time, a line of light may be formed by allowing the suns rays through a thin slit or focusing them through a cylindrical lens. A spot of light may be formed by allowing the suns rays to pass through a hole or by reflecting them from a small circular mirror. Sundials also may use many types of surfaces to receive the light or shadow, planes are the most common surface, but partial spheres, cylinders, cones and other shapes have been used for greater accuracy or beauty. Sundials differ in their portability and their need for orientation, the installation of many dials requires knowing the local latitude, the precise vertical direction, and the direction to true North. Portable dials are self-aligning, for example, it may have two dials that operate on different principles, such as a horizontal and analemmatic dial, mounted together on one plate, in these designs, their times agree only when the plate is aligned properly. Sundials indicate the solar time, unless corrected for some other time. To obtain the clock time, three types of corrections need to be madeSundial – SSW facing, vertical declining sundial on Moot Hall, Aldeburgh, Suffolk, England.
46. Indo-Burma barrier – The Indo–Burma barrier is a border barrier that India is constructing to seal its 1, 624-kilometer -long border with Burma. India hopes to curtail cross-border crime, including goods, arms and counterfeit Indian currency smuggling, drug trafficking, during the years 2001-2003, Indian security forces blamed the porous border for 200 security personnel and civilian deaths in militancy-related violence in the region. Four Northeast Indian states share the border with Burma, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, both governments agreed to conduct a joint survey before erecting the fence. The Indian Home Ministry and its Burmese counterpart completed the survey within six months, in 2004, fencing work in the state of Manipur along the border was stalled due to protests raised by the local Kuki, and Naga communities. According to them, a stretch of land would become Burma’s territory. The protests from people living in the Moreh, Chorokhunou, and this fence will divide many ethnic communities, including the Lushei, Nagas, Chins, and Kukis whose lands straddle the regions between the two states. It is thus a sensitive issue. In 2007 it was reported that in the state of Manipur, india-Myanmar border has the Free Movement Regime which allows the tribes living along the border to travel 16-km across the boundary without visa restrictions. There are over 250 villages with over 300,000 people living within 10 km of the border who frequently cross the border through 150 small and large, formal and informal, border crossingsIndo-Burma barrier – Burma with India to the west
47. Separation barrier – A separation barrier or separation wall is a barrier, wall or fence, constructed to limit the movement of people across a certain line or border, or to separate peoples or cultures. A separation barrier that runs along an internationally recognized border is known as a border barrier, david Henley opines in The Guardian that separation barriers are being built at a record-rate around the world along borders and do not only surround dictatorships or pariah states. The term separation barrier has been applied to structures erected in Belfast, Homs, the West Bank, São Paulo, Cyprus, and along the Greece-Turkey border, the Washington Post listed 14 separation walls, as of 2014. Several erected separation barriers are no active or in place, including the Berlin Wall. The Egypt–Gaza barrier is referred as separation barrier in the media or as a separating wall. In December 2009, Egypt started the construction of the Egypt–Gaza barrier along the border with Gaza, egypts foreign minister said that the wall, being built along the countrys border with the Gaza Strip will defend it against threats to national security. Though the construction paused a number of times, the wall is nearly complete, originally known as the Cease-fire Line, it was redesignated as the Line of Control following the Simla Agreement, which was signed on 3 July 1972. The part of the princely state that is under Indian control is known as the state of Jammu. The two parts of the princely state that are under Pakistani control are known as Gilgit–Baltistan. Its northernmost point is known as the NJ9842 and this territorial division, which to this day still exists, severed many villages and separated family members from each other. A separation fence construction between Indian and Pakistani controlled areas, based on 1972 cease-fire line, was initiated by India in 2003, in December 2013, it was revealed that India plans a construction of a separation wall in the Himalayan area in Kashmir. The wall is aimed to cover 179 km, barrier opponents claim it seeks to annex Palestinian land under the guise of security and undermines peace negotiations by unilaterally establishing new borders. When completed it will be a 700-kilometres long network of high walls and it cuts far into the West Bank and encompasses Israels largest settlement blocs containing hundreds of thousands of settlers. The Israeli finance minister replied that it was disputed land, not Palestinian, Israel refers to land between the 1949 lines and the separation barrier as the Seam Zone, including all of Palestinian East Jerusalem. The separation barrier cuts off east Jerusalem and some settlement blocs from the remainder of the West Bank, Palestinians in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, have continued to protest the separation barrier. Israel also has built a barrier in the Jordan Valley near the Jordan border to prevent infiltration from Jordan, because of international condemnation after the International Court ruling Israel did not build an even stronger barrier, instead instituting a restrictive permit regime for Palestinians. It has been opined that this change was to land to be annexed. The existing barrier cuts off access to the Jordan River for Palestinian farmers in the West Bank, Israeli settlement councils already have de facto control of 86 percent of the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea as the settler population steadily grows thereSeparation barrier – The Berlin Wall divided Berlin from 1961 until 1989, and was demolished between 1990 and 1992.
48. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entiretyIndia – Flag
49. Burma – Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in South East Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand. About one third of Myanmars total perimeter of 5,876 km, forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal, the countrys 2014 census revealed a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size and its capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city and former capital city is Yangon. Early civilizations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma, the Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia. The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur. The British invaded Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the became a British colony. Myanmar became an independent nation in 1948, initially as a nation and then, following a coup détat in 1962. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife, during this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election. While former military leaders still wield enormous power in the country, there is, however, continuing criticism of the governments treatment of the Muslim Rohingya minority and its poor response to the religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyis party won a majority in both houses, Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at US$56.7 billion, the income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. As of 2016, according to the Human Development Index, Myanmar had a level of human development. The renaming remains a contested issue, many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use Burma because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. The countrys official name is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form Union of Burma instead, in English, the country is popularly known as either Burma or Myanmar /ˈmjɑːnˌmɑːr/. Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group, Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from Bamar, the colloquial form of the groups nameBurma – Pagodas and kyaungs in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Pagan Kingdom.
50. Gunrunning – Arms trafficking, also known as gunrunning, is the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition. What constitutes legal trade in firearms varies widely, depending on local and national laws, the 1999 Report of the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms provides a more refined and precise definition, which has become internationally accepted. This distinguishes between small arms, which are designed for personal use, and light weapons, which are designed for use by several persons serving as a unit. Ammunition and explosives also form a part of small arms. The suppression of gunrunning is one of the areas of increasing interest in the context of international law, the total value of the global arms market is estimated around $60 billion a year, with around $8 billion attributed to pistols, rifles, machine guns, and bullets. The total illegal trade is harder to estimate, but the illicit small arms market has been estimated at 10-20% of the total global arms trade. Numerous other documentaries about arms trafficking are linked on this films YouTube page, sons of Anarchy, a FX-TV series about a fictional outlaw motorcycle club whose main source of income is trafficking arms to a variety of criminal enterprises domestically and internationally. The Night Manager, a BBC miniseries where a former British soldier who is currently a manager in hotels infiltrates the inner circle of an arms dealer. In the Grand Theft Auto game series, the player access to weaponry through illegal arms trading. In Grand Theft Auto V, all arms are available through the Ammunation gun storesGunrunning – A tower of confiscated smuggled weapons about to be set ablaze in Nairobi, Kenya