1. U.S. Congress – The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, however, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can also refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith, Roberts, and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percentU.S. Congress
2. POTUS – The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislationPOTUS – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
3. United States Supreme Court – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution. The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court also ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v. Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to voteUnited States Supreme Court – Chief Justice Marshall
4. Federal government of the United States – The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year termsFederal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
6. Government – A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the case of this broad definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. Forms of government, or forms of governance, refers to the set of political systems. Governments control the economy, social freedoms, and political systems and this usage is analogous to what is called an administration in American English. Finally, government is sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance. In addition to the political meanings, in grammar and theoretical linguisticsGovernment – presidential republics
7. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various statesUnited States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
8. Legislature – A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a seat, as, for, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress, diet and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral. In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
9. Judiciary – The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes, in some nations, under doctrines of separation of powers, the judiciary generally does not make law or enforce law, but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case. In other nations, the judiciary can make law, known as Common Law, by setting precedent for other judges to follow, the Judiciary is often tasked with ensuring equal justice under law. In many jurisdictions the judicial branch has the power to change laws through the process of judicial review, Judges constitute a critical force for interpretation and implementation of a constitution, thus de facto in common law countries creating the body of constitutional law. Budget of the judiciary in many transitional and developing countries is almost completely controlled by the executive, the latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics and it is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary, the state, and the private. For instance, in France, the jurisprudence constante of the Court of Cassation or the Council of State is equivalent in practice with case law, in common law jurisdictions, courts interpret law, this includes constitutions, statutes, and regulations. They also make law based upon prior case law in areas where the legislature has not made law, for instance, the tort of negligence is not derived from statute law in most common law jurisdictions. The term common law refers to this kind of law, in civil law jurisdictions, courts interpret the law, but are prohibited from creating law, and thus do not issue rulings more general than the actual case to be judged. Jurisprudence plays a role to case law. State courts, which try 98% of litigation, may have different names and organization, trial courts may be called courts of common plea, appellate courts superior courts or commonwealth courts. The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, is appealed to an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort. In France, the authority on the interpretation of the law is the Council of State for administrative cases. In the Peoples Republic of China, the authority on the interpretation of the law is the National Peoples Congress. Other countries such as Argentina have mixed systems that include lower courts, appeals courts, a cassation court, in this system the Supreme Court is always the final authority, but criminal cases have four stages, one more than civil law does. On the court sits a total of nine justices and this number has been changed several times. Japans process for selecting judges is longer and more stringent than the process in the United States, assistant judges are appointed from those who have completed their training at the Legal Training and Research Institute located in Wako. Once appointed, assistant judges still may not qualify to sit alone until they have served for five years, Judges require ten years of experience in practical affairs, as a public prosecutor or practicing attorneyJudiciary – Justitia, symbol of the judiciary (statue at Shelby County Courthouse, Memphis, TN, United States)
10. Public policy of the United States – Public policy consists of a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities by a government or its representatives. Public policy decisions are decided by a group of individuals with different beliefs. The policies of the United States of America comprise all actions taken by its federal government, the executive branch is the primary entity through which policies are enacted, however the policies are derived from a collection of laws, executive decisions, and legal precedents. Agricultural policy of the United States is the policy for agriculture in the United States and is composed primarily of the periodically renewed federal U. S. farm bills. Over time agricultural policies evolved to support an industrialized, commodity-based agriculture and this evolution resulted in farmers leaving the land with agriculture moving to an industrial structure. S. Our addiction to oil and fossil fuels puts our economy, our national security. Its general goal is to protect the environment for the welfare of future generations and it only addresses the security of the American people and promotes international order. Part of the announcements included temporary exceptions to section 23A and 23B, the exceptions would expire on January 30,2009, unless extended by the Federal Reserve Board. The Securities and Exchange Commission announced termination of short-selling of 799 financial stocks, as well as action against naked short selling, as part of its reaction to the mortgage crisisPublic policy of the United States – The United States Capitol.
11. Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15,1791. All remaining powers are reserved for the states or the people, the amendment was proposed by Congress in 1789 during its first term following the Constitutional Convention and ratification of the Constitution. In drafting this amendment, its framers had two purposes in mind, first, as a rule of construction, and second. When a vote on this version of the amendment with expressly delegated was defeated, Connecticut Representative Roger Sherman drafted the Tenth Amendment in its ratified form, shermans language allowed for an expansive reading of the powers implied by the Necessary and Proper Clause. Perhaps words which may define this more precisely than the whole of the instrument now does, I admit they may be deemed unnecessary, but there can be no harm in making such a declaration, if gentlemen will allow that the fact is as stated. I am sure I understand it so, and do therefore propose it, the states decided to ratify the Tenth Amendment, and thus declined to signal that there are unenumerated powers in addition to unenumerated rights. The amendment rendered unambiguous what had previously been at most a mere suggestion or implication, was appended in handwriting by the clerk of the Senate as the Bill of Rights circulated between the two Houses of Congress. The Tenth Amendment, which makes explicit the idea that the government is limited to only the powers granted in the Constitution, has been declared to be a truism by the Supreme Court. In United States v. Sprague the Supreme Court asserted that the amendment added nothing to the as originally ratified. An often-repeated quote, from United States v. Darby Lumber,312 U. S.100,124, reads as follows, The amendment states, the Supreme Court rarely declares laws unconstitutional for violating the Tenth Amendment. In the modern era, the Court has only done so where the government compels the states to enforce federal statutes. In 1992, in New York v. United States,505 U. S.144, for only the time in 55 years. The case challenged a portion of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the act provided three incentives for states to comply with statutory obligations to provide for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The first two incentives were monetary, the Court, in a 6–3 decision, ruled that the imposition of that obligation on the states violated the Tenth Amendment. However, Congress cannot directly compel states to enforce federal regulations, in 1998, the Court again ruled that the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act violated the Tenth Amendment (Printz v. United States,521 U. S.898. The act required state and local law enforcement officials to conduct checks on people attempting to purchase handguns. Justice Antonin Scalia, writing for the majority, applied New York v. United States to show that the law violated the Tenth Amendment, since the act forced participation of the States executive in the actual administration of a federal program, it was unconstitutional. Hence, in the aggregate, if farmers were allowed to consume their own wheat, in Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, the Court changed the analytic framework to be applied in Tenth Amendment casesTenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Bill of Rights in the National Archives
12. Washington, D.C. – Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standingWashington, D.C. – Clockwise from top left: Smithsonian Institution Building, Rock Creek Park, National Mall (including the Lincoln Memorial in the foreground), Howard Theatre and the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
13. United States Congress – The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, however, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can also refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith, Roberts, and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percentUnited States Congress
14. Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C. – It is one of the oldest residential neighborhoods in Washington, D. C. and with roughly 35,000 people in just under 2 square miles, it is also one of the most densely populated. As a geographic feature, Capitol Hill rises near the center of the District of Columbia, the Capitol Hill neighborhood today straddles two quadrants of the city, Southeast and Northeast, and a large portion of it is now designated as the Capitol Hill Historic District. The name Capitol Hill is often used to refer to both the district and to the larger neighborhood around it. Since 1800 the building known as the Capitol has been the home of the Congress of the United States, the Capitol is located inside the Capitol Hill historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but it is also listed separately on the NRHP. It was Thomas Jefferson who came up with the name Capitol Hill, consciously invoking the famous Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, however, crystal clear. The location of the Capitol was chosen by Pierre LEnfant in his design for the District of Columbia, LEnfant referred to the hill chosen as the site of the future Congress House as Jenkins Hill or Jenkins Heights. However, the tract of land had for many years belonged to the Carroll family and was noted in their records of ownership as New Troy. The neighborhood that is now called Capitol Hill started to develop when the government began work at two locations, the Capitol and the Washington Navy Yard and it became a distinct community between 1799 and 1810 as the federal government became a major employer. The first stage in its history was that of a boarding house community developed for members of Congress. In the early years of the Republic, few Congressmen wished to establish permanent residence in the city, instead, most preferred to live in boarding houses within walking distance of the Capitol. In 1799, the Washington Navy Yard was established on the banks of the Anacostia River, and provided jobs to craftsmen who built and repaired ships. Many of the craftsmen who were employed both at the Navy Yard and in the construction of the Capitol chose to live within walking distance, to the east of the Capitol and they became the original residential population of the neighborhood. In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson selected the location of the Marine Barracks, by 1810, shops, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, and churches were flourishing in the area. The Civil War resulted in construction in the Capitol Hill area. Construction of new houses continued in the 1870s and 1880s, the neighborhood began to divide along racial and economic class lines. Electricity, piped water, and plumbing were introduced in the 1890s, there was a real estate development boom between 1890 and 1910 as the Capitol Hill area became one of the first neighborhoods having these modern conveniences. In 1976, the Capitol Hill Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and it is one of the largest historic districts in the United States. It includes buildings from the Federal period through 1919, but most of the buildings are late Victorian, Capitol Hill has remained a fairly stable middle-class neighborhood throughout its existenceCapitol Hill, Washington, D.C. – Capitol Hill Historic District
15. National Mall – The National Mall is a national park in downtown Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. The National Park Service administers the National Mall, which is part of its National Mall, a smaller designation, sometimes referred to as the Mall proper, excludes both the Capitol grounds and the Washington Monument grounds, applying only to an area between them. The National Mall contains a number of museums and memorials and receives approximately 24 million visitors each year, in his 1791 plan for the future city of Washington, D. C. The National Mall occupies the site of this grand avenue. The Washington Monument stands near the site of its namesakes equestrian statue. Mathew Careys 1802 map is reported to be the first to name the area west of the United States Capitol as the Mall, during the early 1850s, architect and horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing designed a landscape plan for the Mall. Over the next century, federal agencies developed several naturalistic parks within the Mall in accordance with Downings plan. Two such areas were Henry Park and Seaton Park, in addition, railroad tracks crossed the Mall on 6th Street, west of the Capitol. Near the tracks, a market and a railroad station rose on the north side of the Mall. Greenhouses belonging to the U. S. Botanic Garden appeared near the east end of the Mall, the plan differed from LEnfants by replacing the 400 feet wide grand avenue with a 300 feet wide vista containing a long and broad expanse of grass. Four rows of American elm trees planted fifty feet apart between two paths or streets would line each side of the vista. Buildings housing cultural and educational institutions constructed in the Beaux-Arts style would line each outer path or street, on the opposite side of the path or street from the elms. In subsequent years, the vision of the McMillan plan was followed with the planting of American elms. In accordance with a plan that it completed in 1976, the NPS converted the two innermost boulevards into gravel walking paths, the two outermost boulevards remain paved and open to vehicular traffic. Although the Navy intended the buildings to provide quarters for the United States military during World War I. Much of the area then became Constitution Gardens, which was dedicated in 1976. From the 1970s to 1994, a model of a triceratops named Uncle Beazley stood on the Mall in front of the National Museum of Natural History. The life-size statue, which is now located at the National Zoological Park in Northwest Washington, in 2003, the 108th United States Congress enacted the Commemorative Works Clarification and Revision ActNational Mall – National Mall
16. Geography of Washington, D.C. – Washington, D. C. in the United States, is located at 38°53′42″N 77°02′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 68.3 square miles,61.4 square miles of which is land. The portion of the Potomac River that passes Washington is virtually entirely within the Districts border, the city contains the historic federal city, the territory of which was formerly part of those two adjacent states before they respectively ceded it for the national capital. The land ceded from Virginia was returned by Congress in 1847, the topography of the District of Columbia is very similar to the physical geography of much of Maryland. The District has three major natural flowing bodies of water, the Potomac River and two tributaries, the Anacostia River and Rock Creek, the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia forms the historic peninsula known as Arsenal Point. The District also includes the Washington Channel, which flows into the junction of the Anacostia, a fourth, minor reservoir is at Fort Reno in Tenleytown. The highest point in the District of Columbia is 410 feet above sea level at Reno Reservoir in Tenleytown, the lowest point is sea level, which occurs along all of the Anacostia shore and all of the Potomac shore except the uppermost mile. The sea level Tidal Basin rose eleven feet during Hurricane Isabel on September 18,2003, the geographic center of the District of Columbia is located near 4th Street NW, L Street NW, and New York Avenue NW, not under the Capitol dome as is sometimes stated. Other prominent geographical features of Washington, D. C. include Theodore Roosevelt Island, Columbia Island, the Three Sisters, some areas, especially around the National Mall and parts of Foggy Bottom, were marshes or parts of the river that have been filled in. Snipes and various types of ducks inhabited swampy areas, as well as soruses, native tree species include willow, birch, cedar, and oak. Other plant species found along the Potomac during the early 19th century include yellow jessamine, prickly pear cactus, white horehound, sweet fennel, wild cherries, the large percentage of parkland contributes to a high urban tree canopy coverage of 35%. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson called the Potomac River a national disgrace, the river is now home to a vibrant warm-water fishery and naturally reproducing bald eagles have returned to its banks. The National Park Services Center For Urban Ecology is a source of expertise. Earthquake activity in the District of Columbia is low, no earthquakes have been centered within the District, nor are there any faults. However it has felt earthquakes centered in Virginia, Maryland and other surrounding states, the District felt the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes, and according to old records, residents were badly frightened. In March 1828, President John Quincy Adams felt a violent earthquake in the White House, the 1886 Charleston earthquake was felt in DC. The strongest earthquake in Virginia happened in 1897 and was felt in the District, an earthquake in 1925 in Canada, estimated about magnitude 7, was felt over an area of 2 million square miles. Another 6.2 earthquake in 1935 caused damage in New York, the 2011 Virginia earthquake was felt in Washington and caused damage to landmarks and monuments such as the Washington Monument and the Washington National CathedralGeography of Washington, D.C. – Map showing the location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia
17. Origin (mathematics) – In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space. In physical problems, the choice of origin is often arbitrary and this allows one to pick an origin point that makes the mathematics as simple as possible, often by taking advantage of some kind of geometric symmetry. In a Cartesian coordinate system, the origin is the point where the axes of the system intersect, the origin divides each of these axes into two halves, a positive and a negative semiaxis. The coordinates of the origin are all zero, for example in two dimensions and in three. In a polar coordinate system, the origin may also be called the pole, in Euclidean geometry, the origin may be chosen freely as any convenient point of reference. The origin of the plane can be referred as the point where real axis. In other words, it is the number zeroOrigin (mathematics) – The origin of a Cartesian coordinate system
18. Quadrants of Washington, D.C. – Street and number addressing, centered on the Capitol, radiates out into each of the quadrants, producing a number of intersections of identically named cross-streets in each quadrant. Originally, the District of Columbia was a near-perfect square, however, even then the Capitol was never located at the geographic center of the territory. As a result, the quadrants are of varying size. Northwest is quite large, encompassing over a third of the geographical area, while Southwest is little more than a neighborhood. The boundaries of the quadrants are not straight lines radiating from the medallion, but follow the paths of the streets, North Capitol Street, South Capitol Street. The National Mall spans the boundary west of the medallion. Northwest is located north of the National Mall and west of North Capitol Street, the very large Rock Creek Park divides the northwest quadrant in two. Northeast is located north of East Capitol Street and east of North Capitol Street, Southeast is located south of East Capitol Street and east of South Capitol Street. Southeast D. C. is noted for its crime rate. Elizabeths Hospital, RFK Stadium, Nationals Park, and the Congressional Cemetery, the quadrant is divided by the Anacostia River, with the portion that is west of the river sometimes referred to as Near Southeast and the portion east of the river is known as River East. Many people falsely call the entire portion of the quadrant Anacostia. Southwest is located south of the National Mall and west of South Capitol Street and is the smallest quadrant of the city, fort McNair and the National War College are also thereQuadrants of Washington, D.C. – Color-enhanced USGS satellite image of Washington, D.C., taken April 26, 2002. The "crosshairs" in the image mark the quadrant divisions of Washington, with the United States Capitol at the center of the dividing lines. To the west of the Capitol extends the National Mall, visible as a slight green band in the image. The Northwest quadrant is the largest, located north of the Mall and west of North Capitol Street.
19. Thomas Jefferson – Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law and he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nations first Secretary of State in 1790–1793 under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System, as President, Jefferson pursued the nations shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He also organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the countrys territory, as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. Jeffersons second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr, American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory. Jefferson mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and he was a proven architect in the classical tradition. Jeffersons keen interest in religion and philosophy earned him the presidency of the American Philosophical Society and he shunned organized religion, but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. He was well versed in linguistics and spoke several languages and he founded the University of Virginia after retiring from public office. He was a letter writer and corresponded with many prominent and important people throughout his adult life. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson owned several plantations which were worked by hundreds of slaves. Most historians now believe that, after the death of his wife in 1782, he had a relationship with his slave Sally Hemings and fathered at least one of her children. Various modern scholars are more critical of Jeffersons private life, pointing out the discrepancy between his ownership of slaves and his political principles, for example. Presidential scholars, however, consistently rank Jefferson among the greatest presidents, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13,1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children. He was of English and possibly Welsh descent and was born a British subject and his father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen, his mother was Jane Randolph. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of a friend who had named him guardian of his children, the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757, his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph. Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello and he assumed full authority over his property at age 21Thomas Jefferson – Thomas Jefferson
20. United States Capitol dome – The United States Capitol dome is the dome situated above the United States Capitol which reaches upwards to 288 feet in height and 96 feet in diameter. The dome was designed by Thomas U, Walter, the fourth Architect of the Capitol, and constructed between 1855 and 1866 at a cost of $1,047,291. The dome is not stone, but cast iron painted to appear to be made of the same stone as the main capitol building. It is actually two domes, one inside the other, and the weight is 14.1 million pounds. The iron for the dome was cast by the foundry of Janes, Fowler, Kirtland & Company, owned by Adrian Janes in the Bronx, New York. The origin of the first dome began with the Capitol design contest sponsored by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, at the behest of President George Washington, the winner of the contest, Doctor William Thornton, called for a dome in his original design for the building. Most vividly, Thornton drew upon the Roman Pantheon for inspiration with the Neoclassical dome, in 1822, Bulfinch requested funds for the construction of the center of the building, and President Monroe signed off on an appropriation of $120,000. Set at the crown of the dome was an oculus 24 feet wide. Bulfinch completed the project in 1823, for more than two decades, the green copper dome of the Capitol greeted visitors to the nations capitol, until the 1850s. Due to the growth of the United States and the expansion and addition of new states, under the guidance of the fourth Architect of the Capitol, Thomas U. Walter, extensions were built onto the north and south wings of the building, in the process, the new, longer building made the original Bulfinch dome appear aesthetically displeasing. Congress, after lobbying by Walter and Montgomery C, meigs, passed legislation to build a bigger dome in 1855. The current cast iron dome of the United States Capitol is the dome to sit above the building. Plans began in May 1854 to build a new cast-iron dome for the United States Capitol, sold on the aesthetics of a new dome, as well as the utility of a fire-proof one. Influenced by the domes of Europe, Walter paid particular attention to the Pantheon of Paris, St Pauls Cathedral in London. The upper part of the drum was enriched with decorated pilasters upholding a bracketed attic, crowning the composition was a statue standing on a slender, columned tholus. Walter drafted a seven-foot drawing of the design and displayed it in his office. A year later, on March 3,1855, President Franklin Pierce signed off on the appropriation of $100,000 to build the domeUnited States Capitol dome – The dome of the United States Capitol building at night
21. United States House of Representatives – The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries also saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the HouseUnited States House of Representatives – United States House of Representatives
22. United States Senate – The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was also a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other. They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, therefore, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislaturesUnited States Senate – United States Senate
23. United States Capitol rotunda – The United States Capitol rotunda is the central rotunda of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. Located below the Capitol dome, it is the tallest part of the Capitol and has described as its symbolic. The rotunda is surrounded by corridors connecting the House of Representatives, to the south of the rotunda is the semi-circular National Statuary Hall, which until 1857 was the House of Representatives chamber. To the northeast of the rotunda is the Old Senate Chamber, used by the Senate until 1859 and by the Supreme Court of the United States until 1935. The rotunda is 96 feet in diameter and rises 48 feet to the top of its walls and 180 feet 3 inches to the canopy of the dome, the dome is surmounted by the American Statue of Freedom. It is also used for ceremonial events authorized by concurrent resolution, the doctor and architect William Thornton was the winner of the contest to design the Capitol in 1793. Thornton had first conceived the idea of a central rotunda, however, due to lack of funds or resources, oft-interrupted construction, and the British attack on Washington during the War of 1812, work on the rotunda did not begin until 1818. The rotunda was designed in the style and was intended to evoke the design of the Pantheon. The sandstone rotunda walls rise 48 feet above the floor, everything above this—the Capitol dome–was designed in 1854 by Thomas U, Walter, the fourth Architect of the Capitol. Walter had also designed the Capitols north and south extensions, in 1862, Walter asked painter Constantino Brumidi to design a picture 65 feet in diameter, painted in fresco, on the concave canopy over the eye of the New Dome of the U. S. Capitol. At this time, Brumidi may have added a watercolor canopy design over Walters tentative 1859 sketch, the dome was being finished in the middle of the American Civil War and was constructed from fireproof cast iron. During the Civil War, the rotunda was used as a hospital for Union soldiers. The dome was completed in 1866. Originally the crypt had an open ceiling into the rotunda, visitors can still see the holes in the stone circle that marked the rim of the open space in the rotunda floor. In January 2013, the Architect of the Capitol announced a four-year, $10 million project to repair and conserve the Capitol Domes exterior, the dome and rotunda, which were last conserved in 1960, are showing significant signs of rust and disrepair. There is a danger that decorative ironwork could fall from the rotunda to the space below, without immediate repair, safety netting will be installed. Eight niches in the rotunda hold large, framed historical paintings, all are oil-on-canvas and measure 12 by 18 feet. Four of these are scenes from the American Revolution, painted by John Trumbull and these are Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, and General George Washington Resigning his CommissionUnited States Capitol rotunda – Rotunda viewed from behind the statue of George Washington
24. United States Capitol – The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building or Capitol Hill, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the end of the National Mall in Washington. Though not at the center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the Districts street-numbering system. The original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded, like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors. In 2014, scaffolding was erected around the dome for a project scheduled to be completed by early 2017. All exterior scaffolding was removed by the end of summer 2016, prior to establishing the nations capital in Washington, D. C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, and a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21,1783, and met in Annapolis, Maryland, the United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4,1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a capital for ten years, until the nations capital in Washington. Pierre Charles LEnfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city, in reviewing LEnfants plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the Capitol rather than Congress House. The word Capitol comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, however, crystal clear. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the Presidents House. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the Federal City, the most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect. However, Hallets designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, a late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31,1793, to much praise for its Grandeur, Simplicity, and Beauty by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the portion of the designUnited States Capitol – The west front of the United States Capitol in 2013, before dome restoration scaffolding was erected
25. Library of Congress – The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to also serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps, illustrations and diagrams printed in the United States. It also began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate. James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law also extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family later returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacementLibrary of Congress – Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May 15, 1894.
26. Carol M. Highsmith – Carol M. Highsmith is an American photographer, author, and publisher who has photographed in all the states of the United States, as well as the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. She photographs the entire American vista in all 50 US states as a record of the early 21st Century, Highsmith is donating her lifes work of more than 100,000 images, royalty-free, to the Library of Congress, which established a rare, one-person archive. In 2013, Peatross told the San Diego Union-Tribune newspaper, is not only taking photographs but creating a permanent record of the country and its people for the common good. On April 28,2013, the CBS television news magazine CBS This Morning featured Highsmiths work in a segment titled. CBS Correspondent Martha Teichner told in her report, Highsmith is at work on a project photographing all 50 states. Her pictures, thousands of them, are going to the Library of Congress and are being made free for anyone to use. The CBS Sunday Morning report continued, Highsmiths images also capture a disappearing America, Two weeks after she photographed Big Tex, the mascot of the Texas State Fair, he burned down. Her photograph of the New York skyline, just before 9/11, is also in the Library of Congress, CBS included more than 30 of Carols images in the online version of its report. In its December 2007 issue, the Library of Congresss Information Bulletin included a Conversation with Carol Highsmith, in the article, Jeremy Adamson, the director of Collections and Services at the library, said, Highsmiths color images are certainly of the highest technical and artistic quality. But more importantly, she has the ability to identify, focus on and capture for posterity the essential features of our social landscape and physical environment. A photograph by Carol Highsmith is a document of rare precision and beauty, revealing with exacting clarity the look and feel of people, Highsmith also photographed, and her publishing company, Chelsea Publishing, Inc. Early in her career, Highsmith photographed interior and exterior architecture and she photographed ordinary people and everyday sites as well as soaring architecture, natural landscapes, national parks and monuments, Civil War battlefields, and engineering marvels. In early 2002, Crescent Books published World Trade Center, Tribute and Remembrance, about the 2001 September 11 attacks in New York and she had taken aerial photographs of the Twin Towers two months before they fell. That same year, Highsmith and Landphair collaborated on Deep in the Heart and they also produced The Mount Washington, A Century of Grandeur, on the White Mountains resort. Highsmith collaborated with architectural writer Dixie Legler on Historic Bridges of Maryland, in 2007, Highsmith photographed, and author Ryan Coonerty described,52 monuments and other public sites in a National Geographic book Etched in Stone. Entitled California, it was published by Chelsea Publishing, Inc. and this archive, Carol M. Highsmiths America, Documenting the 21st Century, includes 1,000 images taken across the country. The collection emphasizes what Highsmith calls Disappearing America, including 200 shots taken along U. S. Route 66 in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. The more she travels across the country, the more convinced she is about the need to capture in photographs a rapidly changing America, the America I knew is disappearing at lightning speed, observedCarol M. Highsmith – Carol M. Highsmith self portrait in front of a broken mirror at the Willard Hotel in 1980
27. United States Department of Agriculture – Approximately 80% of USDAs $140 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, after the resignation of Thomas Vilsack on January 13,2017 and the departure of President Barack Obama from office on January 20,2017, the acting Secretary of Agriculture is Michael Young. Activities in this include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income. The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, also known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation, early in its history, the economy of the United States was largely agrarian. Officials in the government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents and he began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for the collection of agricultural statistics, Ellsworth was called the Father of the Department of Agriculture. In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior, in the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. Lincoln called it the peoples department, in the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank, finally, on February 9,1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 then funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, with these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a way of life for millions of Americans. The Department of Agricultures Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners. The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion, the Washington Post reports that he said There are days when I have literally nothing to do, he recalled thinking as he weighed his decision to quitUnited States Department of Agriculture – The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C., the USDA headquarters.
28. Food guide pyramid – A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a pyramid-shaped diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups. The first pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974, the 1992 pyramid introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture was called the Food Guide Pyramid. It was updated in 2005, and then it was replaced by MyPlate in 2011, anna-Britt Agnsäter, chief of the test kitchen for Kooperativa Förbundet, held a lecture the next year on how to illustrate these food groups. Attendee Fjalar Clemes suggested a triangle displaying basic foods at the base, Agnsäter developed the idea into the first food pyramid, which was introduced to the public in 1974 in KFs Vi magazine. While the Board distanced itself from the pyramid, KF continued to promote it, the United States later developed its first food pyramid in 1992. The reports quoted here explain that there is no stated lower limit in the table below. All percentages are percentages of calories, not of weight or volume, to understand why, consider the determination of an amount of 10% free sugar to include in a days worth of calories. For the same amount of calories, free sugars take up less volume and weight, in a similar manner all the items are in competition for various categories of calories. The representation as a pyramid is not precise, and involves variations due to the percentages of different elements. The USDA food pyramid was created in 1992 and divided into six sections containing depictions of foods from each sections food group. It was updated in 2005 with colorful vertical wedges replacing the horizontal sections, MyPyramid was often displayed with the food images absent, creating a more abstract design. In an effort to restructure food nutrition guidelines, the USDA rolled out its new MyPlate program in June 2011 and my Plate is divided into four slightly different sized quadrants, with fruits and vegetables taking up half the space, and grains and protein making up the other half. The vegetables and grains portions are the largest of the four, a vegetable is a part of a plant consumed by humans that is generally savory but is not sweet. A vegetable is not considered a grain, fruit, nut, spice, for example, the stem, root, flower, etc. may be eaten as vegetables. Vegetables contain many vitamins and minerals, however, different vegetables contain different spreads, for example, green vegetables typically contain vitamin A, dark orange and dark green vegetables contain vitamin C, and vegetables like broccoli and related plants contain iron and calcium. Vegetables are very low in fats and calories, but ingredients added in preparation can often add these and these foods provide complex carbohydrates, which are an important source of energy, especially for a low-fat meal plan. Examples include corn, wheat, and rice, in terms of food, fruits are the sweet-tasting seed-bearing parts of plants, or occasionally sweet parts of plants which do not bear seeds. These include apples, oranges, grapes, bananas, etc, fruits are low in calories and fat and are a source of natural sugars, fiber and vitaminsFood guide pyramid – The "Basic Seven" developed by the United States Department of Agriculture
29. MyPlate – MyPlate is the current nutrition guide published by the United States Department of Agriculture, a food circle depicting a place setting with a plate and glass divided into five food groups. It replaced the USDAs MyPyramid guide on June 2,2011, MyPlate will be displayed on food packaging and used in nutrition education in the United States. MyPlate is the latest nutrition guide from the USDA, the USDAs first dietary guidelines were published in 1894 by Dr. Wilbur Olin Atwater as a farmers bulletin. Since then, the USDA has provided a variety of nutrition guides for the public, including the Basic 7, the Basic Four, the Food Guide Pyramid, many other governments and organizations have created nutrition guides. Some, like the United Kingdoms Eatwell Plate, the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, the guidelines also recommend portion control while still enjoying food, as well as reductions in sodium and sugar intakes. In unveiling MyPlate, First Lady Michelle Obama said, Parents dont have the time to measure out exactly three ounces of chicken or to look up how much rice or broccoli is in a serving, but we do have time to take a look at our kids plates. And as long as theyre eating proper portions, as long as half of their meal is fruits and vegetables alongside their lean proteins, whole grains and low-fat dairy, then were good. The USDA has created partnerships with a number of organizations to promote the messages of MyPlate and spread the reach as far. These partners consist of national in scope and reach that have agreed to promote nutrition content in the context of the entirety of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. MyPlate was widely received as an improvement on the previous MyPyramid icon, the 50-percent emphasis on fruits and vegetables, as well as the simplicity and understandability of the plate image, were particularly praised. The dairy section was criticized by some as similarly dispensable, the Harvard School of Public Health released their own adjusted and more detailed version of MyPlate, called the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate, in response. The Harvard plate also contains a recommendation for physical activityMyPlate – The MyPlate food guide icon
30. United States Department of Justice – The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan members, the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department has responsibility to investigate instances of fraud, to represent the United States in legal matters such as in the Supreme Court. The department also has responsibilities to review actions of law enforcement conduct by the Violent Crime Control. The Department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President, the current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions. The U. S. Attorney General was initially a one-person and it was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, but this grew with the bureaucracy. At one time the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, until March 3,1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salary by engaging in private practice of law. Following unsuccessful efforts to put the Attorney Generals Office on a footing, in 1869. On February 19,1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice, President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill into law on June 22,1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1,1870, just prior to the Civil War, in February 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as Americas first Solicitor General, both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grants first term in there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. The result was a decrease in violence in the South. Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was better or stronger then Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. Akermans successor, George H. Williams, in December 1871, the law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, new facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, and a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary, upon Medarys death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the projectUnited States Department of Justice – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
31. United States v. Scheinberg et al. – United States v. Scheinberg,10 Cr. A companion civil case, United States v. PokerStars, et al.11 Civ,2564, includes Full Tilt and Cereus as defendants and seeks the recovery of forfeiture equalling approximately $3 billion in assets belonging to the companies. Three years after the start of the boom in 2003. The law made processing payments for online gambling a crime, however. A former payment processor for the companies turned states evidence after initially being charged with violating UIGEA himself, on September 20, the civil suit was amended claiming individual fraud by Messrs. Howard Lederer, Chris Ferguson and Rafael Furst, about 76 bank accounts in 14 countries were frozen, including an unknown amount of player funds. The prosecutors are seeking jail sentences for the 11 criminal defendants including site founders and executives, U. S. Antigua, the companies ceased their U. S. -facing ad campaigns, resulting in cancellations of poker-themed television shows. In June, Full Tilts eGambling license was suspended, which halted all of its online play. The Alderney Gambling Control Commission on the British Channel Islands later revoked its license on September 29, PokerStars and Full Tilt admitted no wrongdoing as part of the settlement, which ends all litigation between the government and the poker companies. The criminal indictments remain in place for the named individuals, in 2003, ESPN expanded its coverage of the World Series of Poker. Between 2003 and 2006 the number of contestants in the $10,000 No Limit Texas holdem Main Event grew from 839 to 8773, after the UIGEA was passed the World Series of Poker main event decreased in size, to 6358 players in 2007. However, according to syndicated columnist Jacob Sullum, the law did not define or alter the definition of unlawful gambling, which under Federal law only applies to sports betting via the Wire Act. Nevertheless, Party Poker, at the time the largest provider for U. S. demand, also in 2006, several other online poker service providers withdrew from the market, including Sportingbets Paradise Poker,888 Holdings Pacific Poker, and the iPoker Networks CD Poker. Several other sites continued to facilitate the demand for online poker in the U. S. which had been growing about 20% per year. A2006 law passed in Washington State that made it a felony to play online poker was upheld as constitutional by the Washington Supreme Court in September 2010. PokerStars immediately withdrew from Washingtons market, and Full Tilt soon followed suit and this case was preceded by a 2009 seizure of $34 million worth of winnings in transit U. S. poker players. Since Federal law says nothing specifically about online poker, or any gambling other than sports betting, Preet Bharara, although none of the sites are actually run out of New York, he was able to obtain a felony indictment for UIGEA violations. In addition to the 2006 UIGEA, the defendants were charged with violating the Illegal Gambling Business Act of 1955, additionally, in April 2010, the former head of Intabill, a defunct payment processor in Australia, Daniel Tzvetkoff, was arrested in Las Vegas by the FBIUnited States v. Scheinberg et al. – United States Department of Justice website seizure notice
32. United States Department of Defense – The Department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 801,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services and it is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside of Washington, D. C. The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, Military operations are managed by nine regional or functional Unified Combatant Commands. The Department of Defense also operates several joint services schools, including the National Defense University, the history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775. The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775 and this coincides with the American holiday Flag Day. The Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, today, both the Navy and the Marine Corps are separate military services subordinate to the Department of the Navy. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to federal government, to defend its citizens and this first Congress had a huge agenda, that of creating legislation to build a government for the ages. Legislation to create a military defense force stagnated, two separate times, President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts, deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing heavily on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense, the National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment was renamed the Department of Defense on 10 August 1949, under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the authority of the Military Departments. Also provided in this legislation was a centralized authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Act moved decision-making authority from the Military Departments to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and it also strengthened the command channel of the military over U. S. forces from the President to the Secretary of Defense. Written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, it was signed into law 6 August 1958, because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the relationships within the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987, the Office of the Secretary of Defense is the Secretary and Deputy Secretarys civilian staff. S. Government departments and agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, OSD also performs oversight and management of the Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities. OSD also supervises the following Defense Agencies, Several defense agencies are members of the United States Intelligence Community and these are national-level intelligence services that operate under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense but simultaneously fall under the authorities of the Director of National IntelligenceUnited States Department of Defense – The Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense
33. Military budget of the United States – The military budget pays the salaries, training, and health care of uniformed and civilian personnel, maintains arms, equipment and facilities, funds operations, and develops and buys new equipment. The budget funds 4 branches of the U. S. military, the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, in FY2015, Pentagon and related spending totaled $598 billion, about 54% of the fiscal year 2015 U. S. discretionary budget. For FY2017, President Obama proposed the budget of $523.9 billion. For the period 2010-14, SIPRI found that the United States was the worlds biggest exporter of arms, accounting for 31 percent of global shares. The USA delivered weapons to at least 94 recipients, the United States was also the worlds eighth largest importer of major military equipment for the same period. The following is historical spending on defense from 1996-2015, spending for 2014-15 is estimated, the Defense Budget is shown in billions of dollars and total budget in trillions of dollars. The percentage of the total U. S. budget spent on defense is indicated in the third row, for the 2011 fiscal year, the presidents base budget for the Department of Defense and spending on overseas contingency operations combine to bring the sum to US$664.84 billion. When the budget was signed into law on 28 October 2009, the recent invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan were largely funded through supplementary spending bills outside the federal budget, which are not included in the military budget figures listed below. However, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were categorized as overseas operations in the starting of the fiscal year 2010. By the end of 2008, the U. S. had spent approximately $900 billion in costs on the wars in Iraq. The government also incurred costs, which include interests on additional debt and incremental costs, financed by the Veterans Administration. Some experts estimate the costs will eventually exceed the direct costs. As of June 2011, the total cost of the wars was approximately $1.3 trillion, the federally budgeted military expenditure of the United States Department of Defense for fiscal year 2013 are as follows. While data is provided from the 2015 budget, data for 2014 and 2015 is estimated, the Department of Defenses FY2011 $137.5 billion procurement and $77.2 billion RDT&E budget requests included several programs with more than $1.5 billion. In December 2011, the GAO found that neither the Navy nor the Marine Corps have implemented effective processes for reconciling their FBWT, according to the GAO, An agency’s FBWT account is similar in concept to a corporate bank account. The difference is instead of a cash balance, FBWT represents unexpended spending authority in appropriations. In addition, As of April 2011, there were more than $22 billion unmatched disbursements, the GAO cited as the principal obstacle to its provision of an audit opinion serious financial management problems at the Department of Defense that made its financial statements unauditable. In FY2010, six out of thirty-three DoD reporting entities received unqualified audit opinions and that affect the safeguarding of assets, proper use of funds, and impair the prevention and identification of fraud, waste, and abuseMilitary budget of the United States – USA 2010 Military Budget Spending
34. United States Environmental Protection Agency – The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2,1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House, the agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the president and approved by Congress. The current administrator is Scott Pruitt, the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the ten regions. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education and it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U. S. states, EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs. In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees, more than half of EPAs employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists, other employees include legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment, in the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on RCA, President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1,1970. The law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President, NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions significantly affecting the environment. The detailed statement would ultimately be referred to as an impact statement. On July 9,1970, Nixon proposed a reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal, the agency’s first administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4,1970. In May 2013, Congress renamed the EPA headquarters as the William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building, the EPA is led by an Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. As of 2017 Scott Pruitt is the 14th administrator, each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agencys programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to statesUnited States Environmental Protection Agency – Stacks emitting smoke from burning discarded automobile batteries, photo taken in Houston in 1972 by Marc St. Gil (cs), official photographer of recently founded EPA
35. Greenhouse gases – A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earths surface would be about −18 °C, rather than the present average of 15 °C. In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of a portion of the emissions by various natural sinks involved in the carbon cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fuels, principally coal, oil. Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the range emitted by Earth. The proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a time is the airborne fraction. The annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the increase in a given year to that years total emissions. Over the last 50 years the annual airborne fraction for CO2 has been increasing at 0.25 ±0. 21%/year, therefore, they do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect and usually are omitted when discussing greenhouse gases. Some gases have indirect radiative effects and this happens in two main ways. One way is that when they break down in the atmosphere they produce another greenhouse gas, for example, methane and carbon monoxide are oxidized to give carbon dioxide. Oxidation of CO to CO2 directly produces an increase in radiative forcing although the reason is subtle. The peak of the thermal IR emission from Earths surface is close to a strong vibrational absorption band of CO2. On the other hand, the single CO vibrational band only absorbs IR at much higher frequencies, where the ~300 K thermal emission of the surface is at least a factor of ten lower. Oxidation of methane to CO2, which requires reactions with the OH radical, produces a reduction, since CO2 is a weaker greenhouse gas than methane. As described below this is not the story, since the oxidations of CO. In any case, the calculation of the radiative effect needs to include both the direct and indirect forcingGreenhouse gases – The false colors in this image represent concentrations of carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere, ranging from about 390 parts per billion (dark brown pixels), to 220 parts per billion (red pixels), to 50 parts per billion (blue pixels).
36. Clean Air Act (United States) – The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States first and most influential environmental laws. As with many other major U. S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, in coordination with state, local and its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C. F. R. The 1955 Air Pollution Control Act was the first U. S federal legislation that pertained to air pollution, the first federal legislation to actually pertain to controlling air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a program within the U. S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution, the 1967 act also authorized expanded studies of air pollutant emission inventories, ambient monitoring techniques, and control techniques. Major amendments to the law, requiring regulatory controls for air pollution, the 1970 amendments greatly expanded the federal mandate, requiring comprehensive federal and state regulations for both stationary pollution sources and mobile sources. It also significantly expanded federal enforcement, the 1990 amendments addressed acid rain, ozone depletion, and toxic air pollution, established a national permits program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. Bush, the Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. Numerous state and local governments have enacted legislation, either implementing federal programs or filling in locally important gaps in federal programs. This section of the act declares that protecting and enhancing the nations air quality promotes public health, the law encourages prevention of regional air pollution and control programs. It also provides technical and financial assistance for air pollution prevention at both state and local governments, additional subchapters cover of cooperation, research, investigation, training and other activities. Grants for air pollution planning and control programs, and interstate air quality agencies, the act mandates air quality control regions, designated as attainment vs non-attainment. Non-attainment areas do not meet standards for primary or secondary ambient air quality. Attainment areas meet these standards, while unclassifiable areas cannot be classified on the basis of the information that is available, Air quality criteria, national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, state implementation plans and performance standards for new stationary sources are also covered in Part A. The list of air pollutants established by the act includes acetaldehyde, benzene, chloroform, phenols. The list also includes mineral fiber emissions from manufacturing or processing glass, the list periodically can be modified. The remaining subchapters cover smokestack heights, state plan adequacy, and estimating emissions of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, measures to prevent unemployment or other economic disruption include using local coal or coal derivatives to comply with implementation requirementsClean Air Act (United States) – Counties in the United States where one or more National Ambient Air Quality Standards are not met, as of October 2015.
37. Guantanamo Bay detention camp – The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which fronts on Guantánamo Bay in Cuba. Since the inmates have been detained indefinitely without trial and several inmates were severely tortured, the camp was established by the President George W. Bushs administration in 2002 during the War on Terror. During his term, his administration succeeded in reducing the number of inmates from about 245 to 41, in practice, the site has long been used for indefinite detention without trial. The facility is operated by the Joint Task Force Guantanamo of the United States government in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Detention areas consisted of Camp Delta including Camp Echo, Camp Iguana, and Camp X-Ray, which is now closed. The Bush administration asserted that detainees were not entitled to any of the protections of the Geneva Conventions. Following this, on 7 July 2006, the Department of Defense issued a memo stating that detainees would, in the future. Current and former detainees have reported abuse and torture, which the Bush administration denied, in a 2005 Amnesty International report, the facility was called the Gulag of our times. In 2006, the United Nations called unsuccessfully for the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be closed, on 22 January 2009, President Obama issued a request to suspend proceedings at Guantanamo military commission for 120 days and to shut down the detention facility that year. President Obama issued a Presidential memorandum dated 15 December 2009, ordering Thomson Correctional Center, Thomson, in February 2011, U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that Guantanamo Bay was unlikely to be closed, due to opposition in the Congress. Congress particularly opposed moving prisoners to facilities in the United States for detention or trial, in April 2011, Wikileaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. On 4 November 2015, President Barack Obama stated that he was preparing to unveil a plan to close the facility, the plan would propose one or more prisons from a working list that includes facilities in Kansas, Colorado and South Carolina. Two others that were on the list, in California and Washington state, do not appear to have made the preliminary cut, by January 19,2017, however, the detention center remained open, with 41 detainees remaining. Camp Delta is a 612-unit detention center finished in April 2002 and it includes detention camps 1 through to 6, as well as Camp Echo, where pre-commissions are held. Camp X-Ray was a detention facility, which was closed in April 2002. Its prisoners were transferred to Camp Delta, in 2008, the Associated Press reported Camp 7, a separate facility on the naval base that is considered the highest security jail on the base, and its location is classified. It is used to house high-security detainees formerly held by the CIA, in January 2010, Scott Horton published an article in Harpers Magazine describing Camp No, a black site about a mile outside the main camp perimeter, which included an interrogation center. His description was based on accounts by four guards who had served at Guantanamo and they said prisoners were taken one at a time to the camp, where they were believed to be interrogated. He believes that the three detainees that DoD announced as having committed suicide were questioned under torture the night of their deathsGuantanamo Bay detention camp – Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002
38. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution. The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court also ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v. Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to voteSupreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
39. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The Affordable Care Act was designed to increase health insurance quality and affordability, lower the uninsured rate by expanding insurance coverage and reduce the costs of healthcare. It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges, the law requires insurers to accept all applicants, cover a specific list of conditions and charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex. The ACA has caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, increases in overall healthcare spending have slowed since the law was implemented, including premiums for employer-based insurance plans. The Congressional Budget Office reported in studies that the ACA would reduce the budget deficit. As implementation began, first opponents, then others, and finally the president himself adopted the term Obamacare to refer to the ACA. The law and its implementation faced challenges in Congress and federal courts, and from state governments, conservative advocacy groups, labor unions. The ACA includes provisions to take effect between 2010 and 2020, although most took effect on January 1,2014, few areas of the US health care system were left untouched, making it the most sweeping health care reform since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. However, some areas were more affected than others, most of the coverage gains were made through the expansion of Medicaid, and the biggest cost savings were made in Medicare. Some regulations applied to the market, and the law also made delivery system changes that affected most of the health care system. Not all provisions took full effect, some were made discretionary, some were deferred, and others were repealed before implementation. Guaranteed issue prohibits insurers from denying coverage to individuals due to pre-existing conditions, States were required to ensure the availability of insurance for individual children who did not have coverage via their families. The law provides a 5% income disregard, making the income eligibility limit for Medicaid 138% of the poverty level. The State Childrens Health Insurance Program enrollment process was simplified, among the groups who remained uninsured were, Illegal immigrants, estimated at around 8 million—or roughly a third of the 23 million projection—are ineligible for insurance subsidies and Medicaid. They remain eligible for emergency services, eligible citizens not enrolled in Medicaid. Citizens who pay the penalty instead of purchasing insurance, mostly younger. Citizens whose insurance coverage would cost more than 8% of household income and are exempt from the penalty, citizens who live in states that opt out of the Medicaid expansion and who qualify for neither existing Medicaid coverage nor subsidized coverage through the states new insurance exchanges. Households with incomes between 100% and 400% of the poverty level were eligible to receive federal subsidies for policies purchased via an exchange. Subsidies are provided as an advanceable, refundable tax credits, additionally, small businesses are eligible for a tax credit provided that they enroll in the SHOP MarketplacePatient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The President and White House Staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.
40. Miller v. Alabama – The ruling extended beyond the Graham v. Florida case, which had ruled juvenile life without parole sentences unconstitutional for crimes excluding murder. The decision of the court was based on two consolidated cases, Jackson v. Hobbs, No, 10-9647, and Miller v. Alabama, No. The Los Angeles Times wrote, In one case that came before the court, Kuntrell Jackson was 14 when he and he stayed outside, and one of the youths pulled a gun and killed the store clerk. Jackson was charged as an adult and given a term with no parole. In the second case, Evan Miller, a 14-year-old from Alabama, was convicted of murder after he and he too was given a life term with no parole. Jackson waited outside the store for a time, but entered shortly before Derrick Shields shot the store clerk, there is debate as to whether he told the clerk, We aint playin or whether he said to his accomplices, I thought you all was playin. Evan Miller committed homicide in the act of robbing his neighbor, Cannon had fallen asleep after he, Miller, and Colby Smith had indulged in alcohol and marijuana. Cannon awoke as Miller was replacing his wallet, and Smith hit Cannon with a baseball bat, Miller took up the bat and proceeded to severely beat Cannon. Smith and Miller later returned to destroy the evidence of what they had done by setting fire to Cannons trailer, Cannon died of severe injuries and smoke inhalation. “It prevents taking into account the family and home environment that surrounds him — and he wrote, “Determining the appropriate sentence for a teenager convicted of murder presents grave and challenging questions of morality and social policy. Our role, however, is to apply the law, not to such questions. ”A separate dissent was filed by Justice Samuel Alito. “Nothing in the Constitution supports this arrogation of legislative authority. ”The holding of the court applies retroactively to all convicted of crimes committed under 18. It does not automatically free any prisoner, and it does not forbid sentences of life terms for young murderers. Instead judges in their review have to consider the defendant’s youth, mitigating factors, the case was remanded to the trial court for the convicted youths to be re-sentenced. In Montgomery v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court determined that Miller v. Alabama must be applied retroactively, the petitioner, Henry Montgomery, has been in prison since 1963 for a murder he committed at the age of 17. The Court said that states could undertake re-sentencing, or offer parole to inmates sentenced to life as minors, up to 2,300 cases nationwide may be affected by the ruling. Slip opinion from the U. S. Supreme CourtMiller v. Alabama – Supreme Court of the United States
41. Arizona SB 1070 – It has received national and international attention and has spurred considerable controversy. The law barred state or local officials or agencies from restricting enforcement of immigration laws. The paragraph on intent in the legislation says it embodies an attrition through enforcement doctrine, critics of the legislation say it encourages racial profiling, while supporters say the law prohibits the use of race as the sole basis for investigating immigration status. The law was modified by Arizona House Bill 2162 within a week of its signing with the goal of addressing some of these concerns, there have been protests in opposition to the law in over 70 U. S. cities, including boycotts and calls for boycotts of Arizona. Polling has found the law to have majority support in Arizona, passage of the measure has prompted other states to consider adopting similar legislation. The Act was signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer on April 23,2010 and it was scheduled to go into effect on July 29,2010, ninety days after the end of the legislative session. The day before the law was to effect, a federal judge issued a preliminary injunction that blocked the laws most controversial provisions. Any person arrested cannot be released without confirmation of the legal immigration status by the federal government pursuant to §1373 of Title 8 of the United States Code. A first offense carries a fine of up to $100, plus court costs, if the person who brings suit prevails, that person may be entitled to reimbursement of court costs and reasonable attorney fees. In addition, the Act makes it a crime for anyone, regardless of citizenship or immigration status, vehicles used in such manner are subject to mandatory immobilization or impoundment. Violation is a class 1 misdemeanor if fewer than ten unauthorized aliens are involved, the offender is subject to a fine of at least $1,000 for each unauthorized alien involved. The transportation provision includes exceptions for child protective services workers, and ambulance attendants, Arizona is the first state to enact such far-reaching legislation. Prior law in Arizona, like the law in most other states, does not mandate that law enforcement personnel ask about the status of those they encounter. Many police departments discourage such inquiries to avoid deterring immigrants from reporting crimes, Arizona had an estimated 460,000 undocumented aliens in April 2010, a figure that had increased fivefold since 1990. As the state with the most illegal crossings of the Mexico – United States border, its remote and dangerous deserts are the point for thousands of illegal alien Mexicans. By the late 1990s, Tucson Border Patrol Sector had become the location for the most number of arrests by the United States Border Patrol, Arizona has a history of passing restrictions on illegal immigration, including legislation in 2007 that imposed heavy sanctions on employers hiring illegal aliens. Measures similar to SB1070 had been passed by the legislature in 2006 and 2008 and she was subsequently appointed as Secretary of Homeland Security in the Obama administration and was replaced by Republican Secretary of State of Arizona Jan Brewer. There is a history of referenda, such as the Arizona Proposition 200 that have sought to restrict illegal aliens use of social servicesArizona SB 1070 – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer meeting with President Barack Obama in June 2010 in the wake of SB 1070, to discuss immigration and border security issues.
42. Arizona v. United States – Arizona v. United States,567 U. S. ___, was a United States Supreme Court case involving Arizonas S. B. 1070, a law intended to increase the powers of local law enforcement who wished to enforce federal immigration laws. At issue is whether the law usurps the federal authority to regulate immigration laws. On April 23,2010, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed into law SB1070, the bills passage immediately sparked constitutional concerns over potential civil rights violations and have accused it of encouraging racial profiling. Tens of thousands of people demonstrated against the law in over 70 U. S. cities on May 1,2010. A rally in Los Angeles, attended by Cardinal Mahony of the Roman Catholic Church, the city had become the national epicenter of protests against the Arizona law. Around 25,000 people were at a protest in Dallas and more than 5,000 were in Chicago and Milwaukee, while rallies in other cities generally attracted around a thousand people or so. There and in other locations, demonstrators expressed frustration with what they saw as the administrations lack of action on immigration reform. Additionally, the Justice Department in its July 6,2010 motion, the 1976 precedent of De Canas v. Bica was relied upon in Arizonas Motion. On Wednesday, July 28,2010, Judge Susan R, several states jointly filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. Under the current situation, the States have lost control over their borders and are left to guess at the reality of the law. The Latin American countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, additionally,81 members of the U. S. Congress filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. On July 28,2010, Judge Bolton issued an order denying in part, among the provisions that will go into effect are the following, A. R. S. § 11-1051, prohibiting Arizona officials, agencies, and political subdivisions from limiting enforcement of immigration laws. § 11-1051-, requiring that state officials work with federal officials with regard to undocumented immigrants, see 7/28/2010 Order An appeal of the US District Courts 7/28/2010 ruling was filed on July 29,2010. A motion to expedite the normal appeal schedule was also filed, Arizona gave the following reasons for the motion to expedite, Good cause exists to expedite this appeal under Ninth Circuit Rules 27-12 and 34-3 and 28 U. S. C. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit heard arguments in the case, the three-judge panel was composed of Judges Richard Paez, Carlos Bea, and John T. Noonan. On April 11,2011, the Ninth Circuit panel upheld the district courts ban on parts of the law taking effect, thus ruling in favor of the Obama administration and against ArizonaArizona v. United States – Supreme Court of the United States
43. Rodney King – Rodney Glen King was an African American taxi driver, who became internationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase on March 3,1991. A witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony, the footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. Parts of the footage were aired around the world, and raised concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States. Four officers were charged with assault with a weapon and use of excessive force. Three were acquitted of all charges, the jury acquitted the fourth of assault with a deadly weapon but failed to reach a verdict on the use of excessive force. The jury deadlocked at 8–4 in favor of acquittal at the state level, the acquittals also led to the federal governments obtaining grand jury indictments for violations of Kings civil rights. The trial of the four in a district court ended on April 16,1993. The other two were acquitted again, King was born in Sacramento, California, the son of Ronald King and Odessa King. He and his four siblings grew up in Altadena, California, King attended John Muir School and often talked about being inspired by his Social Science teacher Robert E. Jones, an openly gay man who was found dead with a fellow student Ronald McClendon. Kings father died in 1984 at the age of 42, July 27,1987, According to a complaint filed by his wife, King beat her while she was sleeping, then dragged her outside the house and beat her again. King was charged with battery and pleaded no contest and he was placed on probation and ordered to obtain counseling. On November 3,1989, King robbed a store in Monterey Park and he threatened to hit the Korean store owner with an iron bar, then hit him with a pole. King stole two hundred dollars in cash during the robbery and was caught, convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment and he was released after serving one year of the sentence, on December 27,1990. King had three daughters, one by Carmen Simpson, when he was a teenager, and one by each of his two wives, both of Kings marriages, to Danetta Lyles and Crystal Waters, ended in divorce. Prior to driving onto the Foothill Freeway, the three men had spent the night watching a game and drinking at a friends house in Los Angeles. Five hours after the incident, Kings blood-alcohol level was found to be slightly below the legal limit. This suggests that his blood alcohol level may have fallen from 0. 19% while he was driving, at 12,30 a. m. officers Tim and Melanie Singer, husband-and-wife members of the California Highway Patrol, noticed Kings car speeding on the freeway. The officers pursued King, and the pursuit reached high speeds, King would later admit he attempted to outrun the police at dangerously high speeds because a charge of driving under the influence would violate his parole for a previous robbery convictionRodney King – King in April 2012
44. 1992 Los Angeles riots – It then spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area as thousands of people rioted over a six-day period following the announcement of the verdict. Widespread looting, assault, arson, and killings occurred during the riots, in total,55 people were killed during the riots, more than 2,000 people were injured, and more than 11,000 were arrested. LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates, who had announced his resignation by the time of the riots. On the evening of March 3,1991, Rodney King, the California Highway Patrol attempted to initiate a traffic stop. A high-speed pursuit ensued with speeds estimated at up to 115 mph, first over freeways, when King finally came to a stop, CHP Officer Timothy Singer and his wife, CHP Officer Melanie Singer, ordered the occupants under arrest. King was tasered, struck with side-handled batons, then tackled to the ground, video footage of the arrest showed that he was attempting to get up each time he was struck, and that the police made no attempt to cuff him until he lay still. A subsequent test for the presence of PCP in Rodney Kings body at the time of the arrest turned up negative, the incident was captured on a camcorder by local resident George Holliday from his apartment in the vicinity. The tape was roughly 12 minutes long, while the tape was presented during trial, some clips of the incident were not released to the public. The footage of King being beaten by police while lying on the ground became an instant focus of media attention, eight stories appeared on ABC News, including a sixty-minute special on Primetime Live. Upon watching the tape of the beating, LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates said, I played the one-minute-50-second tape again. Then again and again, until I had viewed it 25 times, and still I could not believe what I was looking at. The Los Angeles County District Attorney subsequently charged four police officers, including one sergeant, with assault, due to the heavy media coverage of the arrest, the trial received a change of venue from Los Angeles County to Simi Valley in neighboring Ventura County. The jury was composed of nine whites, one male, one Latino. The prosecutor, Terry White, was black, on April 29,1992, the seventh day of jury deliberations, the jury acquitted all four officers of assault and acquitted three of the four of using excessive force. The jury could not agree on a verdict for the officer charged with using excessive force. The first two seconds of videotape, contrary to the claims made by the officers, show King attempting to flee past Laurence Powell. During the next one minute and 19 seconds, King is beaten continuously by the officers, the officers testified that they tried to physically restrain King prior to the starting point of the videotape, but King was able to physically throw them off himself. Outside the Simi Valley courthouse where the acquittals were delivered, county sheriffs deputies protected Stacey Koon from angry protesters on the way to his car1992 Los Angeles riots – 4,000 California Army National Guardsmen patrolled the city to enforce the law.
45. Voyager 1 – Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5,1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 launched 16 days after its twin, having operated for 39 years,6 months and 30 days, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. At a distance of 138 AU from the Sun as of March 2017, the probes primary mission objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturns large moon, Titan. It studied the weather, magnetic fields, and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. After completing its mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 20,1980, Voyager 1 began an extended mission to explore the regions. On August 25,2012, Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause to become the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space, in the 1960s, a Grand Tour to study the outer planets was proposed which prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. Information gathered by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft helped Voyagers engineers design Voyager to cope effectively with the intense radiation environment around Jupiter. Initially, Voyager 1 was planned as Mariner 11 of the Mariner program, due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was changed to Voyager. Voyager 1 was constructed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and it has 16 hydrazine thrusters, three-axis stabilization gyroscopes, and referencing instruments to keep the probes radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively, these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem, the spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects such as planets as it travels through space. The radio communication system of Voyager 1 was designed to be used up to, the communication system includes a 3. 7-meter diameter parabolic dish high-gain antenna to send and receive radio waves via the three Deep Space Network stations on the Earth. The craft normally transmits data to Earth over Deep Space Network Channel 18, using a frequency of either 2.3 GHz or 8.4 GHz, while signals from Earth to Voyager are broadcast at 2.1 GHz. When Voyager 1 is unable to communicate directly with the Earth, signals from Voyager 1 take over 19 hours to reach Earth. Voyager 1 has three radioisotope thermoelectric generators mounted on a boom, each MHW-RTG contains 24 pressed plutonium-238 oxide spheres. The RTGs generated about 470 W of electric power at the time of launch, the power output of the RTGs declines over time, but the crafts RTGs will continue to support some of its operations until 2025. As of 2017-04-04, Voyager 1 has 73. 14% of the plutonium-238 that it had at launch, by 2050, it will have 56. 5% left. Since the 1990s, space probes usually have completely autonomous cameras, the computer command subsystem controls the camerasVoyager 1 – Voyager 1, artist's impression
46. Heliosphere – The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto. The solar wind flows outward from the Sun until encountering the termination shock, the overall shape of the heliosphere is controlled by the interstellar medium through which it is traveling, as well as the Sun, and is not perfectly spherical. The limited data available and unexplored nature of structures have resulted in many theories. On September 12,2013, NASA announced that Voyager 1 had exited the heliosphere on August 25,2012, originating at the extremely hot surface of the corona, solar wind particles reach escape velocity, streaming outwards at 300 to 800 km/s. As it begins to interact with the medium, its velocity slows before finally stopping altogether. The termination shock was traversed by Voyager 1 in 2004, and it may be a more gentle bow wave. Voyager data led to a new theory that the heliosheath has magnetic bubbles, the stagnation region within the heliosheath, starting around 113 au, was detected by Voyager 1 in 2010. There the solar wind velocity drops to zero, the field intensity doubles. Starting in May 2012 at 120 au, Voyager 1 detected an increase in cosmic rays. In the summer of 2013 NASA announced that Voyager 1 had reached interstellar space as of August 25,2012, cassini and IBEX data challenged the heliotail theory in 2009. In July 2013, IBEX results revealed a 4-lobed tail on the Solar Systems heliosphere, the solar wind consists of particles and fields. Because the Sun rotates once approximately every 25 days, the magnetic field transported by the wind gets wrapped into a spiral. Variations in the Suns magnetic field are carried outward by the solar wind, the heliospheric current sheet is a ripple in the heliosphere created by the rotating magnetic field of the Sun. Extending throughout the heliosphere, it is considered the largest structure in the Solar System and is said to resemble a ballerinas skirt, the outer structure of the heliosphere is determined by the interactions between the solar wind and the winds of interstellar space. The solar wind away from the Sun in all directions at speeds of several hundred km/s in the Earths vicinity. At some distance from the Sun, well beyond the orbit of Neptune and this takes place in several stages, The solar wind is traveling at supersonic speeds within the Solar System. At the termination shock, a shock wave, the solar wind falls below the speed of sound. However, observations in 2009 showed that model is incorrectHeliosphere
47. Solar system – The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets, of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the mass is in the Sun. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a flat disc called the ecliptic. The Solar System also contains smaller objects, the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptunes orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets, identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust clouds. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, the heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium, it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, the Solar System is located in the Orion Arm,26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way. For most of history, humanity did not recognize or understand the concept of the Solar System, the invention of the telescope led to the discovery of further planets and moons. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99. 86% of the known mass. The Suns four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the mass, with Jupiter. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0. 002% of the Solar Systems total mass, most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earths orbit, known as the eclipticSolar system – The Sun and planets of the Solar System (distances not to scale)
48. Allen Stanford – Stanford was the chairman of the now defunct Stanford Financial Group of Companies. A fifth-generation Texan who once resided in Saint Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, he holds dual citizenship, being a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda and he contributed millions of dollars to politicians in both Antigua and the United States amongst other countries. The Federal Bureau of Investigation raided Stanfords offices in Houston, Texas, Memphis, Tennessee, on February 27,2009, the SEC amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a massive Ponzi scheme. He voluntarily surrendered to authorities on June 18,2009, on March 6,2012, Stanford was convicted on all charges except a single count of wire fraud. He is serving his 110-year sentence at United States Penitentiary, Coleman in Coleman, in September 2014, Stanford appealed his conviction, however, the appeals court rejected the appeal in October 2015. Stanford grew up in Mexia, Texas and his father, James Stanford, is former mayor of Mexia and a member of the Board of Directors of Stanford Financial Group. His mother, Sammie, is a nurse, after his parents divorced in 1959, Stanford and his brother went to live with their mother. Stanford graduated from Eastern Hills High School in Fort Worth, Texas, in 1974, Stanford graduated from Baylor University in Waco, Texas, earning a BA degree in finance. Stanford started in business in Waco, Texas, opening a gym that failed. His first success in business came from speculating in real estate in Houston after the Texas oil bubble burst in the early 1980s, the men made a fortune in the 1980s, buying up depressed real estate and selling it years later as the market recovered. After his father retired in 1993, Stanford took control of the company, Stanford moved to the Caribbean in the 1980s, first to Montserrat, then to Antigua. Early in 2007, Stanford and Baldwin Spencer, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda and formerly an ally, began verbally feuding in public. Reports surfaced in early February 2009 that the SEC, the FBI, the Florida Office of Financial Regulation, and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, a former executive told SEC officials that Stanford presented hypothetical investment results as actual historical data in sales pitches to clients. Stanford claimed his certificates of deposit were as safe as, or safer than, the U. S. Ambassador to the Bahamas at the time was reported to have managed to stay out of any one-on-one photos with Stanford during a charity breakfast event. Federal agents raided the offices of Stanford Financial on February 17,2009, the SEC charged Stanford with massive ongoing fraud centered on an eight-billion-dollar investment scheme. Stanfords assets, along with those of his companies, were frozen and placed into receivership by a U. S. federal judge, CNBC reported that Stanford tried to flee the country on the same day as the raids on his headquarters. He contacted a private jet owner and attempted to pay for a flight to Antigua with a credit card, but was refused because the company would accept only a wire transfer. On February 19, acting at the request of the SEC, FBI agents located Stanford at his girlfriends house near Fredericksburg, Virginia, the SEC often files civil charges before criminal charges are filedAllen Stanford – Robert Allen Stanford mug shot, 2009
49. Stanford Financial Group – The Stanford Financial Group was a privately held international group of financial services companies controlled by Allen Stanford, until it was seized by United States authorities in early 2009. On February 17,2009, U. S. Federal agents put the company under management of a receiver, ten days later, the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a massive Ponzi scheme. Allen Stanford traced his company to the company founded in 1932 in Mexia, Texas, by his grandfather. Allen Stanfords move into banking utilised funds he had made in real estate in Houston in the early 1980s, in 2008, Stanford Financial Group announced it would open a new global management complex in St. Croix, U. S. Completion was planned for July 2009 but did not occur due to the companys dissolution, the company was bound by a web of personal and family ties. Stanfords chief financial officer and second-in-command, James M. Davis, was his roommate at Baylor University, the chief investment officer, Laura Pendergest-Holt, grew up attending a church in Baldwyn, Mississippi where Davis was a Sunday school teacher. Many top officials were related to each other, Allen Stanford relocated its operations to Antigua. On February 19,2009 Nigel Hamilton-Smith and Peter Wastell of the British accounting firm Vantis were appointed joint receivers of the bank, in June 2010, the High Court of Antigua resolved that Vantis should be removed from its responsibilities. The firm, which had received government approval to sell the property assets. Stanford Trust Company, helped manage and protect wealth, Vantis was also appointed receivers of Stanford Trust Company. Stanford Financial Group was the financier for the 2007 film The Ultimate Gift. According to the Association for Healthcare Philanthropy, the story of The Ultimate Gift promoted philanthropy in health care institutions. The group established a significant presence in golf, polo, tennis, cricket and sailing, Stanford also sponsored professional golfers Vijay Singh, Camilo Villegas and David Toms as well as Morgan Pressel on the LPGA Tour. In tennis, the company was a sponsor of the Sony Ericsson Open, Stanford also sponsored the Champions Series Tennis Tournaments featuring Jim Courier, John McEnroe and Pete Sampras. The Stanford Financial Tour Championship, previously known as the LPGA Playoffs at The ADT, beginning with the 2009 event, it was to be sponsored by Stanford Financial Group. As one of the partners, Stanford Financial Group was also involved in Tiger Woodss annual golf tournament. During the week of February 13,2009, Stanford issued a letter to clients saying, on February 17,2009, U. S. Federal agents entered the companys Houston and Memphis offices. Law enforcement officials placed signs on the office stating that the company was temporarily closed, The company is still in operationStanford Financial Group – Galleria Tower II, the headquarters of Stanford Financial Group in Houston
50. Ponzi scheme – Operators of Ponzi schemes usually entice new investors by offering higher returns than other investments, in the form of short-term returns that are either abnormally high or unusually consistent. Ponzi schemes occasionally begin as legitimate businesses, until the business fails to achieve the returns expected, the business becomes a Ponzi scheme if it then continues under fraudulent terms. Whatever the initial situation, the perpetuation of the high returns requires a flow of money from new investors to sustain the scheme. The scheme is named after Charles Ponzi, who became notorious for using the technique in 1920. The idea, present in novels, was performed in real life by Ponzi who with his operation took in so much money that it was the first to become known throughout the United States. Ponzis original scheme was based on the arbitrage of international reply coupons for postage stamps, however, he soon diverted investors money to make payments to earlier investors, Ponzi schemes sometimes commence operations as legitimate investment vehicles, such as hedge funds. A wide variety of investment vehicles or strategies, typically legitimate, have become the basis of Ponzi schemes, for instance, Allen Stanford used bank certificates of deposit to defraud tens of thousands of people. Certificates of deposit are usually low-risk and insured instruments, but the Stanford CDs were fraudulent, initially the promoter will pay out high returns to attract more investors, and to lure current investors into putting in additional money. Other investors begin to participate, leading to a cascade effect, the return to the initial investors is paid out of the investments of new entrants, rather than solely from profits. This maintains the deception that the scheme is an investment with high returns, promoters also try to minimize withdrawals by offering new plans to investors, often where money is frozen for a longer period of time, in exchange for higher returns. The promoter sees new cash flows as investors are told they cannot transfer money from the first plan to the second. When a Ponzi scheme is not stopped by the authorities, it sooner or later falls apart for one of the reasons, The promoter vanishes. Such liquidity crises often trigger panics, as people start asking for their money. External market forces, such as a decline in the economy. However, several characteristics distinguish these schemes from Ponzi schemes, In a Ponzi scheme, in a pyramid scheme, those who recruit additional participants benefit directly. A pyramid scheme typically collapses much faster because it requires exponential increases in participants to sustain it, by contrast, Ponzi schemes can survive simply by persuading most existing participants to reinvest their money, with a relatively small number of new participants. An economic bubble, A bubble is similar to a Ponzi scheme in that one participant gets paid by contributions from a subsequent participant, a bubble involves ever-rising prices in an open market where prices rise because buyers bid more and buyers bid more because prices are rising. Bubbles are often said to be based on the greater fool theory, as with the Ponzi scheme, the price exceeds the intrinsic value of the item, but unlike the Ponzi scheme, there is no single person misrepresenting the intrinsic valuePonzi scheme – 1920 photo of Charles Ponzi, the namesake of the scheme, while still working as a businessman in his office in Boston