1. Stringed instrument – String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some string instruments by plucking the strings with their fingers or a plectrum—and others by hitting the strings with a wooden hammer or by rubbing the strings with a bow. In some keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord or piano, with bowed instruments, the player rubs the strings with a horsehair bow, causing them to vibrate. With a hurdy-gurdy, the musician operates a wheel that rubs the strings. Bowed instruments include the string instruments of the Classical music orchestra. All of the string instruments can also be plucked with the fingers. Some types of string instrument are mainly plucked, such as the harp, in the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, string instruments are called chordophones. Other examples include the sitar, rebab, banjo, mandolin, ukulele, in most string instruments, the vibrations are transmitted to the body of the instrument, which often incorporates some sort of hollow or enclosed area. The body of the instrument also vibrates, along with the air inside it, the vibration of the body of the instrument and the enclosed hollow or chamber make the vibration of the string more audible to the performer and audience. The body of most string instruments is hollow, some, however—such as electric guitar and other instruments that rely on electronic amplification—may have a solid wood body. Archaeological digs have identified some of the earliest stringed instruments in Ancient Mesopotamian sites, like the lyres of Ur, the development of lyre instruments required the technology to create a tuning mechanism to tighten and loosen the string tension. During the medieval era, instrument development varied from country to country, Middle Eastern rebecs represented breakthroughs in terms of shape and strings, with a half a pear shape using three strings. Early versions of the violin and fiddle, by comparison, emerged in Europe through instruments such as the gittern, a four stringed precursor to the guitar and these instruments typically used catgut and other materials, including silk, for their strings. String instrument design refined during the Renaissance and into the Baroque period of musical history, violins and guitars became more consistent in design, and were roughly similar to what we use in the 2000s. At the same time, the 19th century guitar became more associated with six string models. In big bands of the 1920s, the guitar played backing chords. The development of guitar amplifiers, which contained a power amplifier, the development of the electric guitar provided guitarists with an instrument that was built to connect to guitar amplifiers. Electric guitars have magnetic pickups, volume control knobs and an output jack, in the 1960s, larger, more powerful guitar amplifiers were developed, called stacksStringed instrument – Various stringed instruments of Chinese make on display in a shop.
2. Musical instrument – A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument, the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment, Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered an instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some refer to as a musical instrument. Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago, many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone, wood, and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world, however, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North, Central, and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development slowed in areas and was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, Instruments can be classified by their effective range, their material composition, their size, etc. However, the most common method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound. The academic study of instruments is called organology. Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by using objects to create music from sounds. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, and their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment. The concept of melody and the pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the notion of making music. Musical instruments are constructed in an array of styles and shapesMusical instrument – Anne Vallayer-Coster, Attributes of Music, 1770. This still life painting depicts a variety of French Baroque musical instruments, such as a natural horn, transverse flute, musette, violin, and lute.
3. Accompaniment – Accompaniment is the musical parts which provide the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece. There are many different styles and types of accompaniment in different genres and styles of music, in homophonic music, the main accompaniment approach used in popular music, a clear vocal melody is supported by subordinate chords. In popular music and traditional music, the accompaniment parts typically provide the beat for the music, the accompaniment for a vocal melody or instrumental solo can be played by a single musician playing an instrument such as piano, pipe organ, or guitar. A solo singer can accompany herself by playing guitar or piano while she sings, and in rare cases. With choral music, the accompaniment to a vocal solo can be provided by other singers in the choir, accompaniment parts range from so simple that a beginner can play them to so complex that only an advanced player or singer can perform them. An accompanist is a musician who plays an accompaniment part, accompanists often play keyboard instruments (e. g. piano, pipe organ, synthesizer or, in folk music and traditional styles, a guitar. A number of classical pianists have found success as accompanists rather than soloists, arguably the best known example is Gerald Moore, the accompaniment instrumentalists and/or singers can be provided with a fully notated accompaniment part written or printed on sheet music. This is the norm in Classical music and in most large ensemble writing, chord-playing musicians can improvise chords, fill-in melodic lines and solos from the chord chart. It is rare for chords to be written out in music notation in pop. Some guitarists, bassists and other stringed instrumentalists read accompaniment parts using tabulature, drummers can play accompaniment by following the lead sheet, a sheet music part in music notation, or by playing by ear. In some cases, an arranger or composer may give a bassist a bass part that is written out in music notation. Comping Counter-melody Figure Figured bass Guitar picking Hauptstimme Strum The dictionary definition of accompaniment at WiktionaryAccompaniment – Travis picking. Play (help · info)
4. Chord (music) – A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. In everyday use by musical ensembles such as bands and orchestras, however, the notes of a chord do not have to be played together at the same time, arpeggios and broken chords may, for many practical and theoretical purposes, also constitute chords. Other chords with more than three notes include added tone chords, extended chords and tone clusters, which are used in classical music, jazz. Triads commonly found in the Western classical tradition are major and minor chords, the descriptions major, minor, augmented, and diminished are referred to collectively as chordal quality. Chords are also classified by their root note—for instance, a C major triad consists of the pitch classes C, E. While most chords have at least three notes, power chords, which are used in rock music, particularly in hard rock. An ordered series of chords is called a chord progression, one example of a widely used chord progression in Western traditional music and blues is the 12 bar blues progression, the simplest versions of which include tonic, subdominant and dominant chords. To describe this, Western music theory has developed the practice of numbering chords using Roman numerals which represent the number of steps up from the tonic note of the scale. Common ways of notating or representing chords in Western music include Roman numerals, figured bass, macro symbols, the chords in a song or piece are also given names which refer to their function. The chord built on the first note of a scale is called the tonic chord. The chord built on the note of a major scale is called the subdominant chord. The chord built on the degree of the major scale is called the dominant chord. There are names for the built on every note of the major scale. Chords can be played on instruments, including piano, pipe organ, guitar. Chords can also be performed when multiple musicians play together in an ensemble or when multiple singers sing in a choir. The English word chord derives from Middle English cord, a shortening of accord in the sense of agreement and later. A sequence of chords is known as a progression or harmonic progression. These are frequently used in Western music, a chord progression aims for a definite goal of establishing a tonality founded on a key, root or tonic chordChord (music) – Instruments and voices playing and singing different notes create chords.
5. Melody – A melody, also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more figuratively and it may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody, melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may also be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches, pitch range, tension and release, continuity and coherence, cadence, the true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody. All the parts of harmony have as their purpose only beautiful melody. Therefore, the question of which is the significant, melody or harmony, is futile. Beyond doubt, the means is subordinate to the end, given the many and varied elements and styles of melody many extant explanations confine us to specific stylistic models, and they are too exclusive. Paul Narveson claimed in 1984 that more than three-quarters of melodic topics had not been explored thoroughly, melodies in the 20th century utilized a greater variety of pitch resources than ha been the custom in any other historical period of Western music. While the diatonic scale was used, the chromatic scale became widely employed. Composers also allotted a structural role to the dimensions that previously had been almost exclusively reserved for pitch. Kliewer states, The essential elements of any melody are duration, pitch, and quality, texture, for example, Jazz musicians use the term lead or head to refer to the main melody, which is used as a starting point for improvisation. Rock music, melodic music, and other forms of popular music, indian classical music relies heavily on melody and rhythm, and not so much on harmony, as the music contains no chord changes. Balinese gamelan music often uses complicated variations and alterations of a melody played simultaneously. In western classical music, composers often introduce an initial melody, or theme, classical music often has several melodic layers, called polyphony, such as those in a fugue, a type of counterpoint. Often, melodies are constructed from motifs or short melodic fragments, richard Wagner popularized the concept of a leitmotif, a motif or melody associated with a certain idea, person or place. Appropriation Hocket Parsons code, a notation used to identify a piece of music through melodic motion—the motion of the pitch up. Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. p. 517–19, the Art of Melody, p. xix–xxx. A Textbook of Melody, A course in functional melodic analysis, a History Of Melody, Barrie and Rockliff, LondonMelody – " Pop Goes the Weasel " melody Play (help · info)
6. Classical guitar – The classical guitar is the member of the guitar family used in classical music. It is an acoustical wooden guitar with strings made of nylon, the traditional classical guitar has twelve frets clear of the body and is held on the left leg, so that the hand that plucks or strums the strings does so near the back of the soundhole. The modern steel string guitar, on the hand, usually has fourteen frets clear of the body and is commonly played off the hip. Examples of early guitars include the early romantic guitar. Classical guitar strings once made of catgut are now made of polymers as nylon. A guitar family tree may be identified, the flamenco guitar derives from the modern classical, but has differences in material, construction and sound. Todays modern classical guitar was established by the designs of the 19th-century Spanish luthier. Cultural baroque court music, 19th century opera and its influences, 19th century folk songs, Latin American music, thus over recent decades we have become accustomed to specialist artists with expertise in the art of vihuela, lute, Baroque guitar, 19th-century guitar, etc. Different types of guitars have different sound aesthetics, e. g. different colour-spectrum characteristics, different response and these guitars in turn sound different from the Torres models used by Segovia, that are suited for interpretations of romantic-modern works such as Moreno Torroba. When considering the guitar from a perspective, the musical instrument used is just as important as the musical language. As an example, It is impossible to play a historically informed de Visee or Corbetta on a classical guitar. The reason is that the guitar used courses, which are two strings close together, that are plucked together. This gives baroque guitars an unmistakable sound characteristic and tonal texture that is an part of an interpretation. Additionally the sound aesthetic of the guitar is very different from modern classical type guitars. However, they are considered to emphasize the fundamental too heavily for earlier repertoire, Some attribute this to the popularity of Segovia, considering him the catalyst for change toward the Spanish design and the so-called modern school in the 1920s and beyond. Some people consider it to have been influence of Segovia. It was the 19th century classical guitarist Francisco Tárrega who first popularized the Torres design as a solo instrument. Vihuela, renaissance guitars and baroque guitars have a bright sound - rich in overtones -, later in Spain a style of music emerged that favored a stronger fundamental, With the change of music a stronger fundamental was demanded and the fan bracing system was approachedClassical guitar – Baroque Guitars from the Museum Cité de la Musique in Paris (which houses almost 200 classical guitars)
7. Blues – Blues is a genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs, spirituals, Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. Blue notes, usually thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are also a part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove, Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative, often relating the troubles experienced in African-American society. Many elements, such as the format and the use of blue notes. The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community. The first appearance of the blues is often dated to after the ending of slavery and, later and it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century, the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues, World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience, especially white listeners. In the 1960s and 1970s, a form called blues rock evolved. The term blues may have come from blue devils, meaning melancholy and sadness, the phrase blue devils may also have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal. As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, by the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, in lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood. The lyrics of traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times. Two of the first published songs, Dallas Blues and Saint Louis Blues, were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure. Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times, the lines are often sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melodyBlues – John Lomax (left) shaking hands with musician "Uncle" Rich Brown in Sumterville, Alabama
8. Country music – Country music is a genre of United States popular music that originated in the southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from the genre of United States, such as folk music. Blues modes have been used throughout its recorded history. The term country music is used today to many styles and subgenres. In 2009 country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, immigrants to the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of Europe and Africa along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon, Bristol, Tennessee, has been formally recognized by the U. S. Congress as the Birthplace of Country Music, based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum, historians have also noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, and the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. Prior to these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a musical heritage. The first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlantas music scene playing a role in launching countrys earliest recording artists. Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, many hillbilly musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville, during the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a hot string band. His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had played at Carnegie Hall. Gospel music remained a component of country music. It became known as honky tonk, and had its roots in Western swing and the music of Mexico. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genresCountry music – Jimmie Rodgers
9. Rock music – It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues, rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk. Musically, rock has centered on the guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk. From the 1990s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers. The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group, Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, rock and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original. The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee LewisRock music – Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2006, showing a quartet lineup for a rock band (from left to right: bassist, lead vocalist, drummer, and guitarist).
10. Pop music – Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid 1950s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular. Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, dance, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, according to Pete Seeger, pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz, rock, and novelty songs. Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition. The term pop song was first recorded as being used in 1926, Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience. Since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles. Grove Music Online also states that, in the early 1960s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll. From about 1967, the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral. It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative. It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptionsPop music – The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance)
11. Jazz guitar – The term jazz guitar may refer to either a type of guitar or to the variety of guitar playing styles used in the various genres which are commonly termed jazz. The jazz-type guitar was born as a result of using electric amplification to increase the volume of acoustic guitars. Conceived in the early 1930s, the guitar became a necessity as jazz musicians sought to amplify their sound to be heard over loud big bands. When guitarists in big bands only had acoustic guitars, all they could do was play chords, once guitarists switched from acoustic guitar to electric guitar and began using guitar amplifiers, it made the guitar much easier to hear, which enabled guitarists to play guitar solos. Arguably, no musical instrument had greater influence on how jazz evolved since the beginning of the twentieth century. Traditionally, jazz guitarists use an archtop with a relatively broad hollow sound-box, violin-style f-holes, a floating bridge. Solid body guitars, mass-produced since the early 1950s, are also used, Jazz guitar playing styles include comping with jazz chord voicings and blowing over jazz chord progressions with jazz-style phrasing and ornaments. Comping refers to playing chords underneath a melody or another musicians solo improvisations. When jazz guitar players improvise, they may use the scales, modes, the stringed, chord-playing rhythm can be heard in groups which included military band-style instruments such as brass, saxes, clarinets, and drums, such as early jazz groups. As the acoustic guitar became a popular instrument in the early 20th century. The Gibson L5, an acoustic guitar which was first produced in 1923, was an early “jazz”-style guitar which was used by early jazz guitarists such as Eddie Lang. During the late 1930s and through the 1940s—the heyday of big band jazz, some guitarists, such as Freddie Green of Count Basie’s band, developed a guitar-specific style of accompaniment. Few of the big bands, however, featured amplified guitar solos, improved electric guitars such as Gibson’s ES-175, gave players a larger variety of tonal options. In the 1940s through the 1960s, players such as Wes Montgomery, Joe Pass, as jazz-rock fusion emerged in the early 1970s, many players switched to the more rock-oriented solid body guitars. Other jazz guitarists, like Grant Green and Wes Montgomery, turned to applying their skills to pop-oriented styles that fused jazz with soul and R&B, younger jazz musicians rode the surge of electric popular genres such as blues, rock, and funk to reach new audiences. Fusion players such as John McLaughlin adopted the fluid, powerful sound of guitarists such as Clapton. McLaughlin was an innovator, incorporating hard jazz with the new sounds of Clapton, Hendrix, Beck. Guitarists such as Pat Martino, Al Di Meola, Larry Coryell, John Abercrombie, John Scofield, in addition, they also simply turned up to full volume in order to create natural overdrive such as the blues rock playersJazz guitar – Duke Ellington 's big band had a rhythm section that included a jazz guitarist, a double bass player, and a drummer (not visible).
12. Acoustic guitar – An acoustic guitar is a guitar that produces sound acoustically—by transmitting the vibration of the strings to the air—as opposed to relying on electronic amplification. The sound waves from the strings of an acoustic guitar resonate through the guitars body and this typically involves the use of a sound board and a sound box to strengthen the vibrations of the strings. The main source of sound in a guitar is the string. The string vibrates at a frequency and also creates many harmonics at various different frequencies. The frequencies produced can depend on string length, mass, gitterns, a small plucked guitar were the first small guitar-like instruments created during the Middle Ages with a round back like that of a lute. Modern guitar shaped instruments were not seen until the Renaissance era where the body, the earliest string instruments that related to the guitar and its structure where broadly known as the vihuelas within Spanish musical culture. Vihuelas where string instruments that were seen in the 16th century during the Renaissance. Later, Spanish writers distinguished these instruments into 2 categories of vihuelas, the vihuela de arco was an instrument that mimicked the violin, and the vihuela de penola was played with a plectrum or by hand. When it was played by hand it was known as the vihuela de mano, vihuela de mano shared extreme similarities with the Renaissance guitar as it used hand movement at the sound hole or sound chamber of the instrument to create music. The real production of guitars kicked off in France where the popularity, the production became so large that early famous creators such as Gaspard Duyffooprucgars instruments were being sold as copies by other guitar makers in Lyon. Benoist Lejeune, a maker, offered and sold guitar copies of Duyffoprucgars instruments and was later imprisoned for using his mark and work. During this time, the production was increasing tremendously but it was not until Robert and Claude Denis appeared overproducing the early Renaissance guitar in Paris, as father and son, Robert and Claude produced hundreds of guitars that increased the popularity of the instrument greatly. Because of them and the great many guitar inventors of this time, by 1790 only six-course vihuela guitars were being created and had become the main type and model of guitar used in Spain. Most of the older 5-course guitars where still in use but were also being modified to a six-coursed acoustical guitar, by the 19th century, coursed strings where evolved into 6 single-stringed instruments much like that of the guitar today. It had evolved into the modern look except for size, retaining a smaller frame, the acoustic guitars soundboard, or top, also has a strong effect on the loudness of the guitar. No amplification actually occurs in this process, because no energy is added to increase the loudness of the sound. All the energy is provided by the plucking of the string, but without a soundboard, the string would just cut through the air without actually moving it much. The soundboard increases the surface of the area in a process called mechanical impedance matchingAcoustic guitar – A Gibson SJ200 Steel-string acoustic guitar.
13. Electric guitar – The vibrations of the strings are sensed by a pickup, of which the most common type is the magnetic pickup, which uses the principle of direct electromagnetic induction. The signal generated by a guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker, so it is plugged into a guitar amplifier before being sent to a loudspeaker. The output of a guitar is an electric signal. Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitarists. Early proponents of the guitar on record included Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker. During the 1950s and 1960s, the guitar became the most important instrument in pop music. It has evolved into an instrument that is capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music, blues and jazz. It served as a component in the development of electric blues, rock and roll, rock music, heavy metal music. Electric guitar design and construction vary greatly in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck, bridge, Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge that lets players bend the pitch of notes or chords up or down or perform vibrato effects. The sound of a guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending, tapping, hammering on, using audio feedback, in a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In larger rock and metal bands, there is often a rhythm guitarist, many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century. Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins, hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge, however, these detected vibration from the bridge on top of the instrument, resulting in a weak signal. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, Electric guitars were originally designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers. Some of the earliest electric guitars adapted hollow-bodied acoustic instruments and used tungsten pickups, the first electrically amplified guitar was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, who was vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminum frying pan was built by Harry Watson, commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, and Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company, in that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. The Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts provided players a full 25 scale, with 17 frets free of the fretboard and it is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937, fewer than 10 are known to survive today. The need for the guitar became apparent during the big band era as orchestras increased in size, particularly when acoustic guitars had to compete with largeElectric guitar – A Kramer XKG-20 electric guitar circa 1980, modified
14. Guitar amplifier – The input of modern guitar amplifiers is a 1/4 jack, which is fed a signal from an electro-magnetic pickup or a piezoelectric pickup using a patch cord, or a wireless transmitter. For electric guitar players, their choice of guitar amp and the settings they use on the amplifier are a key part of their signature tone or sound, some guitar players are longtime users of a specific amp brand or model. Many electric guitar players use external effects pedals to alter the sound of their tone before the signal reaches the guitar amp, such as the wah wah pedal and this article focuses on electric guitar amps. For information on amps for guitar, a lower-pitched, similar instrument. More expensive amplifiers typically have controls for other frequency ranges. Some guitar amplifiers have a graphic equalizer, which uses vertical fader controls which can control many frequency bands, the first amplifier stage is a preamplifier stage, which amplifies the guitar signal to a level that can drive the power stage. The power amplifier or output stage produces a current signal to drive a loudspeaker to produce sound that the guitarist. Amplifiers may use vacuum tubes, solid-state devices, or both, a wide range of speaker configurations are available in guitar cabinets, ranging from cabinets with a single speaker or multiple speakers. Guitar amplifiers have a range in price and quality. Music equipment companies import small, low-powered practice amplifiers for students, other companies produce expensive custom-made amplifiers for professional musicians, which can cost thousands of dollars. Most combo amplifiers have a handle, and many combo amplifiers. Control knobs are typically mounted on the front of the cabinet or chassis, though in some cases, the most basic amps only have a few knobs, which typically control volume, bass and treble. More expensive amps may have a number of knobs that control pre-amp volume, distortion or overdrive, volume, bass, mid and treble, some older amps have a knob that controls a vibrato effect. The 1/4 input jack is typically mounted on the front of the amplifier, in the simplest, least expensive amplifiers, this 1/4 jack is the only jack on the amplifier. Some amps have a 1/4 jack for connecting a pedal to turn the amps onboard overdrive and reverb on, the cone speaker, widely used in 2000s-era amp cabinets, was not offered for sale until 1925. The first amplifiers and speakers could only be powered with large batteries, when engineers developed the first AC mains-powered amplifiers, they were soon used to make musical instruments louder. Engineers invented the first loud, powerful amplifier and speaker systems for public address systems and these large PA systems and movie theatre sound systems were very large and very expensive, and so they could not be used by most touring musicians. During the late 1920s to mid-1930s, small portable PA systems, in 1928, the Stromberg-Voisinet firm was the first company to sell an electric stringed instrument and amplifier packageGuitar amplifier – Mesa-Boogie "Mark IV", a guitar combo amplifier
15. Tenor Guitar – The tenor guitar or four-string guitar is a slightly smaller, four-string relative of the steel-string acoustic guitar or electric guitar. The instrument was developed in its acoustic form by Gibson Guitar Company. Tenor guitars are four-stringed instruments normally made in the shape of a guitar, or sometimes with a pear shaped body or, more rarely. They can be acoustic and/or electric and they can come in the form of top, archtop. Tenor guitars normally have a length similar to that of the tenor banjo of between 21 and 23 inches. The earliest origins of the guitar are not yet fully clear. Gibson built the tenor lute TL-4 in 1924, which had a lute-like pear-shaped body, four strings and it is possible that similar instruments were made by other makers such as Lyon and Healy and banjo makers, such as Bacon. In the same period, banjo makers, such as Paramount, built transitional round banjo-like wood-bodied instruments with four strings, from 1927 onwards, the very first true wood-bodied acoustic tenor guitars appeared as production instruments made by both Gibson and Martin. Almost all the guitar makers, including Epiphone, Kay, Gretsch, Guild. In collaboration with Cliff Edwards, Dobro built the four-stringed round-bodied resonator tenor scale length instrument called the Tenortrope in the early 1930s, makers such as Gibson even used to offer the tenor models as a custom option for their six string guitar models at no extra charge. Gibson also had a line of tenor guitars under their brand name of Kalamazoo. Budget tenor guitars by makers such as Harmony, Regal and Stella, were made in numbers in the 1950s and 1960s and are still widely available. Tenor guitars were manufactured continuously by both Gibson and Martin from the 1920s until the 1970s, National, formed by the Dopyera Brothers, also made significant numbers of resonator tenor and plectrum guitars between the 1920s and 1940s. Dobro, another company associated with the Dopyera Brothers, as well as National, in 1934, Gibson introduced an acoustic archtop tenor guitar, the TG-50, based on the acoustic archtop six string model, the L-50, with its production run lasting until 1958. In 1936 Gibson introduced the worlds first commercially successful electric Spanish-style guitar, in early 1937 Gibson also began shipping two other versions of the ES-150, a tenor guitar and a plectrum version. This first electric archtop tenor guitar, the ETG-150, was in production until 1972. In the mid 1950s electric solid-body tenor guitar models started to be produced and these were mostly produced as one-off custom instruments but, for a short time in 1955, Gretsch manufactured the only production electric solid-bodied tenor guitar, the Gretsch 6127 DuoJet. The tenor guitar can also be tuned like a soprano/concert/tenor ukulele, the normal CGDA tuning is very open and it gives the instrument voicings more reminiscent of the mandolin family than the guitar family, from both open and closed chordsTenor Guitar – 1928 Dobro style 37 tenor guitar from Lowell Levinger's collection
16. Seven-string guitar – The seven-string guitar adds one additional string, commonly used to extend the bass range but it can also be used to extend the treble range of the 6 string guitar. In the latter case, the bass string lies next to the existing bass strings. Such unfrettable bass strings were known as diapasons or bourdons. Some types of seven-string guitars are specific to certain cultures such as the Russian and Brazilian guitars, the history of the seven-string guitar stretches back more than 230 years. During the Renaissance period, the European guitar generally had four courses, by the mid-Baroque period it more commonly had five courses and used a variety of tunings, some of them re-entrant. By the early eighteenth century six double-strung courses had become common, up to this point most stringed instruments were strung with gut strings. Around 1800 quality metal-wire strings became widely available and these new strings were more durable, remained in tune better, and—most importantly—produced a louder sound than the traditional gut strings. It is likely all of these factors contributed to the development of the seven-string guitar. The seven-string guitar never became as widely accepted in Europe as the six-string instrument, french guitarist Napoleon Coste composed works with a seven-string guitar specifically in mind. The Italian guitarist Mario Maccaferri was an advocate of bass strings. By contrast, in Russia the seven-string guitar became widely popular, despite some brief setbacks in the mid-20th century, during which six-string instruments rose in prominence, the seven-string Russian guitar has remained popular in Russia to this day. In the New World, a guitarra séptima or guitarra sétima—with fourteen strings and these instruments may still be found in use in Mexico, although the modern six-string instrument has become far more common. It is known in Russia as the semistrunnaya gitara or affectionately as the semistrunka, some of these were published again in the Soviet Union in 1926. Early instruments used gut, and latter silk strings, rarely wire, whatever material was used for stringing, the Russian guitar is traditionally played without a pick, using fingers for either strumming or picking. While greatly popular in Russia and Ukraine, this type of guitar has only recently been generating some interest outside of its traditional homeland, the earliest music published for a seven-string guitar was in St. Petersburg, Russia, on 15 December 1798. The school was owned by Ignác František Held and it was introduced to Brazil in the late 19th century as a steel string guitar. The style of counterpoint and accompaniment technique was developed throughout the 20th century, especially by Dino 7 Cordas. In the early 1980s, guitarist Luiz Otavio Braga had a string version madeSeven-string guitar – A Brazilian seven-string guitar
17. Eight string guitar – An eight-string guitar is a guitar with two more strings than the usual six, or one more than the Russian guitars seven. Eight-string guitars are less common than six and seven string guitars, but they are used by a few classical, jazz, however, eight strings is the standard for lap steel and pedal steel guitars. The eight-string guitar allows a range, or non-standard tunings. Various non-standard guitars were made in the 19th century, including eight-string guitars played by Italians Giulio Regondi, in the 1940s, American lap steel guitars generally standardized with eight strings. Tuning was usually based on either the E9 chord for Nashville style or the C6 chord for jazz configurations, recently, eight-string guitars have become very popular throughout Heavy Metal and its surrounding subcultures and subgenres. Many believe this wave of eight-string guitars were inspired almost exclusively by Swedish Progressive Death Metal band Meshuggah, seeking a guitar-tuning that would facilitate jazz improvisation, Ralph Patt invented major-thirds tuning in 1963. Seven-string guitars are needed for major-thirds tuning to have the E-e range of the standard tuning, eight-strings enabled Patts highest string to have G♯ for its open note. Patt purchased six-string archtop hollow-body guitars that were modified by luthiers to have wider necks, wider pickups. Patts Gibson ES-150 was modified by Vincent Jimmy DiSerio c, luthier Saul Koll modified a sequence of guitars, a 1938 Gibson Cromwell, a Sears Silvertone, a c. The solid-body eight string guitar is used in many modern bands today. The construction of a solid-body eight-string guitar is identical to seven, the standard tuning is F#, B, E, A, D, G, B, E. The tuning can always be changed, many prefer to tune the F# to a low E, which gives it the same range as a Bass VI, and providing the guitar with a fuller sound by having three different E strings. This is due to the neck being constructed too short, bridge problems such as improper intonation, uneven spacing for floating bridges, other problems associated with tuning stability rely on proper set up of the guitar. Extended range eight string guitars sometimes will have a design where the bass strings will be longer than the treble strings. This helps with proper intonation of the strings, improves string tension balance across the strings, improves harmonic overtones, overtone series. A point of clarity, inharmonicity is not Intonation, pressing a string against a fret — aside from raising the strings pitch by shortening the string — also causes a slight secondary raise in pitch because pressing the string increases its tension. The bass strings on an 8 string typically require the saddle to be pulled back a bit more than the strings to properly set the intonation. Some bridge designs accommodate this by offsetting back the 7th and 8th strings or providing a bit extra room for adjustment, longer scale lengths require less offset for proper intonationEight string guitar – Agile Intrepid
18. Ten string guitar – There are many varieties of ten-string guitar, including, Both electric and acoustic guitars. Instruments used principally for classical, folk and popular music, harp guitars are guitars to which extra strings have been added which are never fretted but may be plucked or strummed. These strings are played in a manner somewhat similar to those of the harp, while those of the principal neck are played as a guitar. Often but not always, a neck, parallel to the fretboard. There have been many designs of harp guitar, but in the nineteenth century ten-string versions were particularly popular, information on nineteenth-century harp guitars comes from three main primary sources, Surviving instruments in museums and private collections. Surviving music, tablature and in at least one case a complete student method for the instrument, paintings and drawings in which the instrument is visible. In the early 19th century Ferdinando Carulli and René Lacôte developed a harp guitar called the Décacorde. Carulli played this type of guitar and wrote a method for it titled Méthode Complète pour le Décacorde, in it he describes the tuning as C-D-E-F-G-A-d-g-b-e, with the upper five strings A-d-g-b-e fretted and the lower basses C-D-E-F-G not fretted. Carulli also wrote divertissements for this instrument, two Décacordes by Lacôte are housed in the Music Museum of the Cité de la Musique in Paris, One circa 1826, with five fretted and five unfretted strings. One circa 1830, with six fretted and four unfretted strings, there is also a Décacorde, that was in the workshop of Françoise Sinier de Ridder, which has 7 strings on the neck and 3 sub-basses. Sinier and de Ridder have pointed out that the décacorde was made in three different string configurations and those instruments that adhere to the Carulli patent have 5 strings on the fingerboard and 5 floating basses. Other specimens that do not bear the patent stamp are known with 6 strings on the fingerboard and 4 floating, period harp guitars built by Johann Gottfried Scherzer survive. A copy of one of these, based on an original circa 1862, has six fretted, Johann Kaspar Mertz is known to have played ten-string harp guitars. Based on surviving instruments and urtexts of music written for it, the extended-range classical guitar is a classical guitar with additional strings, normally extra bass strings past the bass E string, that are available on the fingerboard. This was significant for two reasons, The endorsement of an artist of Yepes calibre drew attention to the instrument, starting in 1963, and for the rest of his life, Yepes used only the ten-string guitar in recording and performance. The availability of high-quality ten-string classical guitars from the Ramírez Company allowed and encouraged other performers to investigate the instrument. The use of the classical guitar is similar to that of the harp guitar, Six-string guitar music can be played on the first six strings. This was Yepes original intention and the reason for the design, Music written by Bach and his contemporaries for lute is of particular interest in this regardTen string guitar – A classical ten-string guitar
19. Twelve string guitar – The twelve-string guitar is a steel-string guitar with twelve strings in six courses, which produces a richer, more ringing tone than a standard six-string guitar. Typically, the strings of the four courses are tuned in octaves. The gap between the strings within each dual-string course is narrow, and the strings of each course are fretted and plucked as a single unit, the neck is wider, to accommodate the extra strings, and is similar to the width of a classical guitar neck. The sound, particularly on acoustical instruments, is fuller and more resonant than six-string instruments. Structurally, twelve-string guitars, especially those built before 1970, differ from six-string guitars in the following ways, the added tension of the six additional strings necessitates heavier-duty reinforcement of the neck. The body is reinforced, and built with a stronger structure. The fretting scale is generally shorter to reduce the overall string tension, Twelve-string guitars are made in both acoustic and electric forms. However, it is the type that is most common. The result to the ear is a sound that seems to shimmer, pete Seeger described the distinctive sound of the 12-string guitar as the clanging of bells. The effect is more apparent when listening to notes that sustain for longer periods of time, at the very end of the nineteenth century, the Archtop mandolin was one of the first instruments with courses of doubled strings designed in the United States. The 19th and early 20th century twelve-strings were regarded as novelty instruments, the twelve-string guitar has since occupied roles in certain varieties of folk, rock, jazz, and popular music. Initially, it was used for accompaniment, owing to the greater difficulty of picking or executing string bends on the twelve-string guitars double-strung courses. In the later 20th century, however, a number of players devoted themselves to producing solo performances on the twelve-string guitar, the strings are placed in courses of two strings each that are usually played together. The two strings in each of the four courses are normally tuned an octave apart, while each pair of strings in the top two courses are tuned in unison. Another common variant is to tune the octave string in the course two octaves above the lower string, rather than one. Some players, either in search of distinctive tone or for ease of playing, for example, removing the higher octave from the three bass courses simplifies playing running bass lines, but keeps the extra treble strings for the full strums. Some manufacturers have produced nine-string instruments based on this setup, in either the lower three courses are undoubled, or the upper three courses are undoubled. The extra tension placed on the instrument by the strings is highTwelve string guitar – An acoustic 12-string guitar. The example shown is the Yamaha FG720S-12.
20. Gibson EDS-1275 – The Gibson EDS-1275 is a doubleneck Gibson electric guitar, weighing about 13 pounds and introduced in 1958. A model with a 4-string bass and a 6-string guitar neck was called the EBS-1250, it had a built-in fuzztone and was produced from 1962 to 1968 and again from 1977 to 1978. In 1963, the solid-body EDS-1275 was designed, resembling the SG model, the guitar was available in jet black, cherry, sunburst, and white. In 1974, Gibson started making the guitar again, in a number of additional colors, the EDS-1275, while never selling in great quantities, was used by a number of notable musicians. Chicago bluesman Earl Hooker is seen holding one on the cover of the 1969 albums Two Bugs and a Roach and The Moon is Rising, the model was popularized by Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin, most notably during live performances of Stairway to Heaven. By the time Page desired an EDS-1275, they were no longer in production so he ordered a custom-made cherry 6/12, Pages EDS-1275 has a slightly different body shape from that of the current model. Pages influence was such that after him other guitarists picked up the EDS-1275, including Alex Lifeson of Rush, eddie Van Halen also has one in his collection. Gibson released a VOS Jimmy Page Signature EDS-1275 model in 2007, Page kept serial number one for himself. Serial numbers 2 through 26 of these were played and signed by Page, Alex first bought a cherry 1976 EDS-1275, in Nashville at the end of the 2112 tour. It was modified with an after market tune-o-matic bridge on the six string, in 1978, during the Hemispheres tour, the guitar was broken when a speaker horn fell on it, in Uniondale, New York. Gibson later repaired it and repainted it Alpine White, he continued to use it until the Signals Tour when it was retired and it saw use again on the Counterparts Tour in 1994, where it was used to play Cygnus X-1 Book II, Hemispheres. In 1996 Alex gave his EDS-1275 to Gordie Johnson of Big Sugar, steve Clark of Def Leppard signed an endorsement with Gibson in the mid-1980s and used two EDS 1275s on the Hysteria World Tour in 1987/88. The guitar is offered only through the Gibson Custom Shop as a special order model. It features two volume and two control knobs, a three-way pickup-selector switch, and a three-way neck-selector switch. It has vintage tulip tuners, pearloid split parallelogram inlays, black pickguards and pickup rings, twenty frets per neck, the Custom Shop also makes a Don Felder Hotel California signature model. Epiphone makes a version of the classic doubleneck, marketing it as the G-1275, japanese guitar manufacturer Ibanez produced a model inspired by the Gibson, called the Double Axe, from 1974 to 1976. They were available as a 6/12, a 4/6, and a 6/6 configuration, in cherry, the Gibson EDS-1275 in both finishes Cherry, which resemble Jimmy Pages, and Alpine White with gold hardware appeared in video games Guitar Hero and Guitar hero II as purchasable guitars. The doubleneck resembling Don Felders appeared in Guitar Hero, Aerosmith as a guitar for getting 5-stars in every career song on HardGibson EDS-1275 – Gibson EDS-1275
21. Luthier – A luthier is someone who builds or repairs string instruments generally consisting of a neck and a sound box. The word luthier comes from the French word luth, which means lute, a luthier was originally a maker of lutes, but the term now includes makers of stringed instruments such as the violin or classical guitar. A luthier does not make harps or pianos, as these require different skills, the craft of making string instruments, or lutherie, is commonly divided into two main categories, makers of stringed instruments that are plucked or strummed, and those that are bowed. Since bowed instruments require a bow, the category includes a subtype known as a bow maker or archetier. Luthiers may also teach string-instrument making, either through apprenticeship or formal classroom instruction, Antonio Torres Jurado is credited with developing the form of classical guitar still in use today. Christian Frederick Martin of Germany developed a form evolved into the modern steel-string acoustic guitar. The American luthier Orville Gibson specialized in mandolins, and is credited with creating the archtop guitar, the important 20th-century American luthiers John DAngelico and Jimmy DAquisto made archtop guitars. Lloyd Loar worked briefly for the Gibson Guitar Corporation making mandolins and his designs for a family of arch top instruments are held in high esteem by todays luthiers, who seek to reproduce their sound. Concurrent with Fenders work, guitarist Les Paul independently developed an electric guitar. A company founded by luthier Friedrich Gretsch and continued by his son and grandson, Fred and Fred, Jr. originally made banjos, vintage guitars are often sought by collectors. Bowed instruments include, cello, crwth, double bass, erhu, fiddle, hudok, mouthbow, nyckelharpa, hurdy-gurdy, rabab, rebec, sarangi, viol, viola, viola da braccio, viola damore, the purported inventor of the violin is Andrea Amati. Amati was originally a maker, but turned to the new instrument form of violin in the mid-16th century. He was the progenitor of the famous Amati family of luthiers active in Cremona and his eldest was Antonio Amati, and the younger, Girolamo Amati. It is even possible Bartolomeo Cristofori, later inventor of the piano, gasparo da Salò of Brescia was another important early luthier of the violin family. About 80 of his instruments survive, and around 100 documents that relate to his work and he was also a double bass player and son and nephew of two violin players, Francesco and Agosti, respectively. Gasparo Duiffopruggar of Füssen, Germany, was incorrectly credited as the inventor of the violin. He was likely an important maker, but no documentation survives, da Salò made many instruments and exported to France and Spain, and probably to England. He had at least five apprentices, his son Francesco, a helper named Battista, Alexander of Marsiglia, Maggini inherited da Salòs business in BresciaLuthier – Workshop of a luthier in Cremona
22. Guitar technician – A guitar technician is a member of a music ensembles road crew who maintains and sets up the musical equipment for one or more guitarists. Once the guitar equipment has been set up onstage, the guitar tech does a soundcheck to ensure that the equipment is working well, if there are any problems, the guitar tech replaces or repairs the faulty components or equipment. The salaries and conditions of work for guitar techs vary widely, depending on whether a guitar tech is working for a minor or regional touring bar band or a major international touring act. The duties of a guitar technician depend on the type of band they are working for, and on a range of factors such as the size and nature of the stage show. A guitar tech for a metal band, on the other hand, may focus mainly on electric guitars, guitar amplifiers. A guitar tech may change the sequence of effects pedals or alter the settings on effects pedals during the show, for example, a guitarist may ask the guitar tech to connect a chorus effect and reverb before a guitar solo. In an indie band, a guitar technician would likely configure the equipment to evoke through tone a modern yet historically evocative sound. In an acid rock band, a guitar tech might have to manipulate the controls on a ring modulator or a rotating Leslie speaker cabinet to create unusual sounds while the guitarist is performing. During the show, the guitar tech hands instruments to the guitarist or guitarists according to the types of guitar that are required in the songs that they are playing. For example, a rock guitarist may use a flying-V guitar for a fast song. After each guitar is used, the guitar tech cleans the strings with a cloth, during the show, the tech stands ready to replace any guitars in case a string breaks or if there is an equipment malfunction. At the end of the show, the guitar tech disconnects all of the patch cords, the guitar tech also does a variety of regular maintenance. They also check the batteries on effects devices, tuners, and pre-amps, and change them if necessary. Depending on the size of a road crew, the guitar tech may either do this maintenance him or herself, or, in a large touring act. For a stripped-down roots rock band guitarist, this may be as simple as plugging a guitar into an amplifier and plugging an acoustic guitar into a DI box. Tuning problems may come from old or dirty strings, damaged or worn machine heads or frets, a guitar tech is often a jack of all trades when it comes to making simple repairs. While another member of the crew may be dispatched to pick up the item. On rare occasions, guitar technicians may be asked to fill in for the guitarist they are teching forGuitar technician – Photo of Billy Corgan 's guitar rig taken by his guitar tech during one of the Smashing Pumpkins ' live shows during their 200? tour.
23. Effects units – An effects unit or pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters how a musical instrument or other audio source sounds. In the 2010s, most effects use solid state electronics and/or computer chips, some vintage effects units from the 1930s to the 1970s and modern reissues of these effects use mechanical components as well or vacuum tubes. Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio, typically with electric guitar, electronic keyboard, while guitar effects are most frequently used with electric or electronic instruments, effects can also be used with acoustic instruments, drums and vocals. Rackmounted or audio console-integrated reverb effects are used with vocals in live sound and sound recording. Examples of common units include wah-wah pedals, fuzzboxes and reverb units. A stompbox or pedal is a metal or plastic box placed on the floor in front of the musician and connected to the instrument. Pedals are usually the least expensive format, a rackmount device mounts on a standard 19-inch equipment rack and usually contains several types of effects. Rackmount effects typically have buttons and/or knobs on the face of the chassis for controlling the effects, an effects unit is also called an effect box, effects device, effects processor or simply effects. In audio engineer parlance, a signal without effects is dry, the abbreviation F/X or FX is sometimes used. A pedal-style unit may be called a box, stompbox. When a musician has multiple effects in a rack mounted road case, Effects units are available in a variety of formats or form factors. Stompboxes are usually the smallest, least expensive, and most rugged effects units, rackmount devices are generally more expensive and offer a wider range of functions. An effects unit can consist of analog or digital circuitry or a combination of the two, during a live performance, the effect is plugged into the electrical signal path of the instrument. In the studio, the instrument or other sound-sources auxiliary output is patched into the effect, form factors are part of a studio or musicians outboard gear. Stompboxes are small plastic or metal chassis which usually lie on the floor or in a pedalboard to be operated by the users feet, pedals are often rectangle-shaped, but there are a range of other shapes. Typical simple stompboxes have a single footswitch, one to three potentiometers for controlling the effect, and a single LED that indicates if the effect is on, depending on the type of pedal, the potentiometers may control different parameters of the effect. For a chorus effect, for example, the knobs may control the depth, some pedals have two knobs stacked on top of each other, enabling the unit to provide two knobs per single knob space. An effects chain or signal chain is formed by connecting two or more stompboxes, effect chains are typically created between the guitar and the amp or between the preamplifier and the power ampEffects units – A pedalboard allows a performer to create a ready-to-use chain of multiple pedals. Signal chain order: tuner, compressor, octave generator, wah-wah pedal, overdrive, distortion, fuzz, EQ and tremolo.
24. Distortion (music) – Distortion and overdrive are forms of audio signal processing used to alter the sound of amplified electric musical instruments, usually by increasing their gain. Distortion is most commonly used with the guitar, but may also be used with other electric instruments. Guitarists playing electric blues originally obtained an overdriven sound by turning up their vacuum tube-powered guitar amplifiers to high volumes, the terms distortion and overdrive are often used interchangeably, where a distinction is made, distortion is used to denote a more extreme version of the effect than overdrive. Fuzz is a used to describe a particular form of distortion originally created by guitarists using faulty equipment. Distortion, overdrive, and fuzz can be produced by effects pedals, rackmounts, pre-amplifiers, power amplifiers, speakers and by digital amplifier modeling devices and these effects are used with electric guitars, electric basses, electronic keyboards, and more rarely as a special effect with vocals. The first guitar amplifiers were relatively low-fidelity, and would often produce distortion when their volume was increased beyond their design limit or if they sustained minor damage. Around 1945, Western-swing guitarist Junior Barnard began experimenting with a rudimentary humbucker pick-up, in early rock music, Goree Carters Rock Awhile featured an over-driven electric guitar style similar to that of Chuck Berry several years later, as well as Joe Hill Louis Boogie in the Park. In the early 1950s, pioneering rock guitarist Willie Johnson of Howlin Wolf′s band began deliberately increasing gain beyond its intended levels to produce distorted sounds. Guitar Slim also experimented with distorted overtones, which can be heard in his hit electric blues song The Things That I Used to Do, Chuck Berrys 1955 classic Maybellene features a guitar solo with warm overtones created by his small valve amplifier. Rock guitarists began intentionally doctoring amplifiers and speakers in order to emulate this form of distortion, according to other sources Burlisons amp had a partially broken loudspeaker cone. In the late 1950s, Guitarist Link Wray began intentionally manipulating his amplifiers vacuum tubes to create a noisy and dirty sound for his solos after a similarly accidental discovery. Wray also poked holes in his speaker cones with pencils to further distort his tone, used electronic echo chambers, the recent powerful and fat Gibson humbucker pickups, the resultant sound can be heard on his highly influential 1958 instrumental, Rumble and Rawhide. In 1961, Grady Martin scored a hit with a fuzzy tone caused by a faulty preamplifier that distorted his guitar playing on the Marty Robbins song Dont Worry, later that year Martin recorded an instrumental tune under his own name, using the same faulty preamp. The song, on the Decca label, was called The Fuzz, Martin is generally credited as the discoverer of the fuzz effect. Rhodes offered The Ventures a fuzzbox he had made, which used to record 2000 Pound Bee in 1962. The best-known early commercial distortion circuit was the Maestro FZ-1 Fuzz-Tone, manufactured by Gibson, in May 1965 Keith Richards used a Gibson Maestro FZ-1 Fuzz-Tone to record Satisfaction. The songs success boosted sales of the device, and all available stock sold out by the end of 1965. In music the different forms of linear distortion have specific names describing them, in the context of music, the most common source of distortion is clipping in amplifier circuits and is most commonly known as overdriveDistortion (music) – A well-used "Turbo Distortion" guitar effect pedal made by Boss
25. Reverberation – Reverberation, in psychoacoustics and acoustics, is the persistence of sound after a sound is produced. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but the reflections continue, decreasing in amplitude, until they reach zero amplitude. In comparison to an echo that is a minimum of 50 to 100 ms after the initial sound. As time passes, the amplitude of the reflections is reduced until it is reduced to zero, Reverberation is not limited to indoor spaces as it exists in forests and other outdoor environments where reflection exists. Reverberation occurs naturally when a person sings, talks or plays an instrument acoustically in a hall or performance space with sound-reflective surfaces. The sound of reverberation is often added to the vocals of singers in live sound systems. The time it takes for a signal to drop by 60 dB is the reverberation time, RT60 is the time required for reflections of a direct sound to decay 60 dB. Reverberation time is stated as a single value, if measured as a wide band signal, however, being frequency dependent. Being frequency dependent, the time measured in narrow bands will differ depending on the frequency band being measured. For precision, it is important to know what ranges of frequencies are being described by a time measurement. In the late 19th century, Wallace Clement Sabine started experiments at Harvard University to investigate the impact of absorption on the reverberation time. Using a portable wind chest and organ pipes as a sound source and he found that the reverberation time is proportional to room dimensions and inversely proportional to the amount of absorption present. The optimum reverberation time for a space in which music is played depends on the type of music that is to be played in the space, rooms used for speech typically need a shorter reverberation time so that speech can be understood more clearly. If the reflected sound from one syllable is still heard when the syllable is spoken. Cat, Cab, and Cap may all sound very similar, if on the other hand the reverberation time is too short, tonal balance and loudness may suffer. Reverberation effects are used in studios to add depth to sounds. Reverberation changes the perceived spectral structure of a sound, but does not alter the pitch, basic factors that affect a rooms reverberation time include the size and shape of the enclosure as well as the materials used in the construction of the room. Every object placed within the enclosure can also affect this time, including peopleReverberation – Folded line reverberation device.
26. Electric bass – The bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum, often known as a pick. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to a guitar, but with a longer neck and scale length. The four-string bass, by far the most common, is tuned the same as the double bass. The bass guitar is an instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds to avoid excessive ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the guitar has pickups and it is plugged into an amplifier and speaker on stage, or into a larger PA system using a DI unit. Since the 1960s, the guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary widely from one style of music to another, many styles of music utilise the bass guitar, including rock, heavy metal, pop, punk rock, country, reggae, gospel, blues, symphonic rock, and jazz. It is often a solo instrument in jazz, jazz fusion, Latin, funk, progressive rock and other rock, the adoption of a guitar form made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments. The addition of frets enabled bassists to play in more easily than on acoustic or electric upright basses. Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period, around 1947, Tutmarcs son, Bud, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948, however, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender, with the help of his employee George Fullerton and his Fender Precision Bass, which began production in October 1951, became a widely copied industry standard. This split pickup, introduced in 1957, appears to have been two mandolin pickups, the pole pieces and leads of the coils were reversed with respect to each other, producing a humbucking effect. Humbucking is a design that electrically cancels the effect of any AC hum, the Fender Bass was a revolutionary new instrument, which could be easily transported, and which was less prone to feedback when amplified than acoustic bass instruments. Monk Montgomery was the first bass player to tour with the Fender bass guitar, roy Johnson, and Shifty Henry with Louis Jordan & His Tympany Five, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957. The bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, following Fenders lead, in 1953, Gibson released the first short scale violin-shaped electric bass with extendable end pin, allowing it to be played upright or horizontally. In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass, the EB-0 was very similar to a Gibson SG in appearanceElectric bass – A Music Man StingRay bass
27. Guitar – The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a fretted string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a wooden or plastic and wood box, or through electrical amplifier. It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, the guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. There are three types of modern acoustic guitar, the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of a guitar is produced by the strings vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar. The term finger-picking can also refer to a tradition of folk, blues, bluegrass. The acoustic bass guitar is an instrument that is one octave below a regular guitar. Early amplified guitars employed a body, but a solid wood body was eventually found more suitable during the 1960s and 1970s. As with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars. The electric guitar has had a influence on popular culture. The guitar is used in a variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as an instrument in genres such as blues, bluegrass, country, flamenco, folk, jazz, jota, mariachi, metal, punk, reggae, rock, soul. The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and, later, in the Americas. The modern word guitar, and its antecedents, has applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times. Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar, at least two instruments called guitars were in use in Spain by 1200, the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca. The guitarra morisca had a back, wide fingerboard. The guitarra Latina had a sound hole and a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers moresca or morisca and latina had been dropped, and it had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a sharply cut waistGuitar – Illustration in a Carolingian psalter from the 9th century showing an instrument of the chordophone family, most probably a lute
28. John Williams (guitarist) – John Christopher Williams is an Australian virtuosic classical guitarist renowned for his ensemble playing as well as his interpretation and promotion of the modern classical guitar repertoire. In 1973, he shared a Grammy Award in the Best Chamber Music Performance category with fellow guitarist Julian Bream for Julian, guitar historian Graham Wade has said, John is perhaps the most technically accomplished guitarist the world has seen. In 1952, the moved to England, where he attended Friern Barnet Grammar School. Williams was initially taught guitar by his father, who was an accomplished guitarist, from the age of 11, Williams attended summer courses with Andrés Segovia at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, Italy. Later, he attended the Royal College of Music in London, from 1956 to 1959, upon graduation, he was invited to create such a department. He took the opportunity and ran the department for its first two years, Williams has maintained links with the college ever since. Williams first professional performance was at the Wigmore Hall in London on 6 November 1958, since then, he has been performing throughout the world and has made regular appearances on radio and TV. He has extended the repertoire by commissioning guitar concertos from composers such as Stephen Dodgson, André Previn, Patrick Gowers, Richard Harvey, Williams has recorded albums of duets with fellow guitarists Julian Bream and Paco Peña. Williams is a professor and honorary member of the Royal Academy of Music in London. Williams mostly uses Greg Smallman guitars, after using Spanish Fleta during the 1970s and he also plays a guitar by Paulino Bernabe II. Williams notes that students preoccupied with fingerings and not notes, much less sounds, some are able to play difficult solo works from memory, although Williams is best known as a classical guitarist, he has explored many different musical genres. Between 1978 and 1984 he was a member of the fusion group Sky and he is also a composer and arranger. The duet featured on the album and the film version of the show – bringing Williams to the broader attention of the rock audience. Williams recorded Cavatina by Stanley Myers, the piece originally included only the first few measures but, at Williams request, it was rewritten for guitar and expanded by Myers. After this transformation it was used for a film, The Walking Stick, in 1973, Cleo Laine wrote lyrics and recorded it as the song He Was Beautiful accompanied by Williams. The guitar version became a hit single when it was used as the theme tune to the Oscar-winning film The Deer Hunter. Williams and his wife, Kathy, reside in London. He has a daughter Kate, now a jazz pianistJohn Williams (guitarist) – Williams in concert in Cordoba, 1986
29. Melbourne – Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was then the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities. After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is also home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong. The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman then returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship EnterprizeMelbourne – (From top left to bottom right) Melbourne City Centre, Flinders Street Station, Shrine of Remembrance, Federation Square, Melbourne Cricket Ground, Royal Exhibition Building.
30. Australia – Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states. The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia. The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828. Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South AustraliaAustralia – Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia
31. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
32. Royal College of Music – The Royal College of Music is a conservatoire established by royal charter in 1882, located in South Kensington, London, UK. It offers training from the undergraduate to the level in all aspects of Western Art including performance, composition, conducting. The RCM also undertakes research, with strengths in performance practice and performance science. The college is one of the four conservatories of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music and its buildings are directly opposite the Royal Albert Hall on Prince Consort Road, next to Imperial College and among the museums and cultural centres of Albertopolis. The college was founded in 1883 to replace the short lived, the school was the result of an earlier proposal by the Prince Consort to provide free musical training to winners of scholarships under a nationwide scheme. After many years delay it was established in 1876, with Arthur Sullivan as its principal, the school was housed in a new building in Kensington Gore, opposite the west side of the Royal Albert Hall. The building was not large, having only 18 practice rooms, the following year Sullivan resigned, and was replaced by John Stainer. And because its purpose was unclear, so was its provision, even before the 1880 report it had become clear that the NTSM would not fulfil the role of national music conservatoire. The original plan was to merge the Royal Academy of Music, the NTSM agreed, but after prolonged negotiations the Royal Academy refused to enter into the proposed scheme. In 1881, with George Grove as an instigator, and with the support of the Prince of Wales. The Royal College of Music occupied the premises previously home to the NTSM, Grove was appointed its first director. There were 50 scholars elected by competition and 42 fee-paying students, Grove, a close friend of Sullivan, loyally maintained that the new college was a natural evolution from the NTSM. In reality his aims were different from Sullivans. They believed that a capable college orchestra would not only benefit instrumental students, the colleges first intake of scholarship students included 28 who studied an orchestral instrument. The potential strength of the orchestra, including fee-paying instrumental students, was 33 violins, five violas, six cellos, one double bass, one flute, one oboe. The old premises proved restrictive, and a new building was commissioned in the early 1890s on a new site in Prince Consort Road, the building was designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield in Flemish Mannerist style in red brick dressed with buff-coloured Welden stone. Construction began in 1892 and the building opened in May 1894, the building was largely paid for by two large donations from Samson Fox, a Yorkshire industrialist, whose statue, along with that of the Prince of Wales, stands in the entrance hall. Grove retired at the end of 1894, and was succeeded as director by Hubert Parry, since its founding in 1882 the college has been linked with the British royal familyRoyal College of Music – Royal College of Music
33. London – London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London areaLondon – Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace and Central London skyline
34. Angus Young – Angus McKinnon Young is an Australian guitarist, best known as the co-founder, lead guitarist, songwriter and sole constant member of the Australian hard rock band AC/DC. He is known for his performances, schoolboy-uniform stage outfits. Young was ranked 24th in Rolling Stone magazines 100 greatest guitarists of all-time list, in 2003, Young and the other members of AC/DC were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The youngest of eight children of William and Alexandra Young, Angus was born in Glasgow, in 1963 he emigrated from Scotland to Sydney, with his parents, older brothers Malcolm and George, and older sister Margaret. He dropped out of Ashfield Boys High School at age 15 and his older brother, Alex, remained in Scotland and later formed the London-based group Grapefruit. His oldest brother Stephen was the father of his future AC/DC bandmate Stevie Young, Young first started playing on a banjo, re-strung with six strings. He first started playing guitar on an acoustic model purchased second-hand by his mother. I bought it second-hand, it was about a 67 and it had a real thin neck, really slim, like a Custom neck. Prior to forming AC/DC, Young played in a group called Kantuckee. Kantuckees line-up included Bob McGlynn, Angus Young, Jon Stevens, the band split and was later called Tantrum with the following line up, Mark Sneddon, Angus Young, Jon Stevens and Trevor James. Can I Sit Next To You Girl, their first single, was later re-recorded with Bon Scott as their vocalist and they decided upon the name AC/DC after seeing the letters AC/DC on the back of their sister Margarets sewing machine. To match this image the press and public were told that Young was born in 1959, the original uniform was created by his sister Margaret and when it fell apart from wear and tear, he used his uniform from Ashfield Boys High School in Sydney. I dont like to play above or below peoples heads, basically, I just like to get up in front of a crowd and rip it up. AC/DC released their album, High Voltage on 17 February 1975. Over the next 3 years AC/DC cemented themselves as a hard rock act, especially in Australia, with the follow-up albums. Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, Let There Be Rock and Powerage and their 1979 studio album, Highway to Hell, became their best-selling at the time and launched them to new heights of fame. Shortly after this, however, lead singer Bon Scott died from alcohol poisoning, AC/DCs next album, For Those About to Rock We Salute You, cemented their position as the most popular hard rock act of the time. However, their 1990 studio album, The Razors Edge, brought back into the spotlight, reaching 5x multi-platinum in the US aloneAngus Young – Young on the Black Ice World Tour
35. Flamenco – Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain. It includes cante, toque, baile, jaleo, palmas, the oldest record of flamenco dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso. The genre originated in the music and dance styles of Andalusia, Flamenco has been influenced by and become associated with the Romani people in Spain, however, unlike Romani music in Eastern Europe, its origin and style is uniquely Andalusian. In recent years, flamenco has become popular all over the world and is taught in many countries, especially the United States. In Japan, there are more flamenco academies than there are in Spain, on November 16,2010, UNESCO declared flamenco one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. There are many suggestions for the origin of the word flamenco as a musical term, the word was not recorded as a musical and dance term until the late 18th century. The Spanish word flamenco could have been a derivative of fire or flame, the word flamenco may have come to be used for fiery behaviour, which could have come to be applied to the Gitano players and performers. Palos are flamenco styles, classified by criteria such as rhythmic pattern, mode, chord progression, stanzaic form, there are over 50 different palos, some are sung unaccompanied while others have guitar or other accompaniment. Some forms are danced while others are not, there are many ways to categories Palos but they traditionally fall into three classes, the most serious is known as cante jondo, while lighter, frivolous forms are called cante chico. Forms that do not fit either category are classed as cante intermedio, Cante jondo has clear traces of Arabic and Spanish folk melodies, as well as vestiges of Byzantine, Christian and Jewish religious music. Each song of a set of verses, which are punctuated by guitar interludes called falsetas, the guitarist also provides a short introduction which sets the tonality, compás and tempo of the cante. Flamenco uses the Flamenco mode, in addition to the major and minor scales used in modern Western music. The Phrygian mode occurs in such as soleá, most bulerías, siguiriyas. A typical chord sequence, usually called the Andalusian cadence may be viewed as in a modified Phrygian, according to Manolo Sanlúcar E is here the tonic, F has the harmonic function of dominant while Am and G assume the functions of subdominant and mediant respectively. Guitarists tend to use two basic inversions or chord shapes for the tonic chord, the open 1st inversion E. Montoya also created a new palo as a solo for guitar, later guitarists have further extended the repertoire of tonalities, chord positions and scordatura. There are also palos in major mode, most cantiñas and alegrías, guajiras, some bulerías and tonás, the minor mode is restricted to the Farruca, the milongas, and some styles of tangos, bulerías, etc. In general traditional palos in major and minor mode are limited harmonically to two-chord or three-chord progressions, however modern guitarists have introduced chord substitution, transition chords, and even modulationFlamenco – Flamenco dancer with traditional dress
36. Flamenco guitar – A flamenco guitar is a guitar similar to a classical guitar but with thinner tops and less internal bracing. It is used in toque, the part of the art of flamenco. The cheapest guitars were often simple, basic instruments made from the less expensive woods such as cypress, antonio de Torres, one of the most renowned luthiers, did not differentiate between flamenco and classical guitars. Only after Andrés Segovia and others popularized classical guitar music, did this distinction emerge, the traditional flamenco guitar is made of Spanish cypress, sycamore, or rosewood for the back and sides, and spruce for the top. This accounts for its body color. Flamenco guitars are built lighter with thinner tops than classical guitars, builders also use less internal bracing to keep the top more percussively resonant. The top is made of either spruce or cedar, though other tone woods are used today. Volume has traditionally been important for flamenco guitarists, as they must be heard over the sound of the dancers’ nailed shoes. To increase volume, harder woods, such as rosewood, can be used for the back and sides, the harder materials increase volume and tonal range. A typical cypress flamenco guitar produces more treble and louder percussion than the more sonorous negra and these guitars strive to capture some of the sustain achieved by concert caliber classical guitars while retaining the volume and attack associated with flamenco. Classical guitars are made with spruce or cedar tops and rosewood or mahogany backs. Flamenco guitars are made with spruce tops and cypress or sycamore for the backs and sides to enhance volume. Nevertheless, other types of wood may be used for the back and sides, like rosewood, maple, koa, satinwood, a well-made flamenco guitar responds quickly, and typically has less sustain than a classical. This is desirable, since the flurry of notes that a good player can produce might sound muddy on a guitar with a big, lush. The flamenco guitar’s sound is described as percussive, it tends to be brighter, drier. Flamenco is played differently from classical guitar. Players use different posture, strumming patterns, and techniques, Flamenco guitarists are known as tocaores and flamenco guitar technique is known as toque. Flamenco players tend to play the guitar between the hole and the bridge, but as closely as possible to the bridge, to produce a harsherFlamenco guitar – Example of a cedar top flamenco guitar with traditional tap plates/golpeadores installed
37. Guitarist – A guitarist is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars. Some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by singing or playing the harmonica, the correctness of techniques that a guitarist acquires depends on the quality of training. Learning how to play correctly is crucial for any guitarist no matter which guitar he/she plays, the guitarist may also employ various methods for selecting notes and chords, including fingering, thumbing, the barre, and bottleneck or steel-guitar slides, usually made of glass or metal. These left- and right-hand techniques may be intermixed in performance, while music is an art form in itself, playing an instrument such as the guitar has long been a popular subject for painters. Despite perceived tendencies in mainstream music diffusion, to Rock music and electric guitar, notable guitarists arrived from other genres, Rolling Stone In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine published a list called The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. This list included 100 guitarists whom the magazine editor David Fricke considered the best, the first in this list is the American guitarist Jimi Hendrix introduced by Pete Townshend, guitarist for The Who, who was, in his turn, ranked at #50 in the list. Artists who had not been included in the previous list were added, rory Gallagher, for example, was ranked in 57th place. The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time is mentioned in many biographies about artists who appear in the list, despite the appearance in other magazines like Billboard, this publication by Guitar World was criticized for including no female musicians within its selection. However, Guitar World recently published a list of Eight Amazing Female Acoustic Players, including Kaki King, TIME and others Following the death of Les Paul, TIME website presented their list of 10 greatest artists in electric guitar. As in Rolling Stone magazines list, Jimi Hendrix was chosen as the greatest guitarist followed by Slash from Guns N Roses, B. B. King, Keith Richards, Jimmy Page, and Eric Clapton. Gigwise. com, a music magazine, also ranks Jimi Hendrix as the greatest guitarist ever, followed by Jimmy Page, B. B. King, Keith Richards. There are many classical guitarists listed as notable in their respective epochs, media related to Guitarists at Wikimedia CommonsGuitarist – Montage of guitarists. The guitarists pictured are named on the image page.
38. Charango – About 66 cm long, the charango was traditionally made with the shell from the back of an armadillo, but also it can be made of wood, which some believe to be a better resonator. Wood is more used in modern instruments. Charangos for children may also be made from calabash, many contemporary charangos are now made with different types of wood. It typically has 10 strings in five courses of 2 strings each, the charango is primarily played in traditional Andean music, but is sometimes used by other Latin American musicians. A charango player is called a charanguista, when the Spanish conquistadores came to South America, they brought the vihuela with them. It is not clear whether the charango is a descendent of a particular Spanish stringed instrument, it may have evolved from the vihuela, bandurria. There are many stories of how the charango came to be made with its distinctive diminutive soundbox of armadillo, one story says that the native musicians liked the sound the vihuela made, but lacked the technology to shape the wood in that manner. Around here in the Andes of Bolivia they called them Charangos, Turino mentions that he found carved sirens representing playing charangos in some Colonial churches in the highlands of Bolivia. One of the churches to which Turino refers may well be that mentioned by Cavour, construction on the San Lorenzo edifice began in 1547, the origin of the term charango is not entirely clear. One source suggests that the instrument took its name from its players, Another traces the term to the alteration of a Spanish term, charanga, which could refer to either a type of military music played on wind instruments, or an out-of-tune orchestra. As support for this he points to the practice of the Conquistadors appropriating local terminology. Charanguista Ernesto Cavour disagrees, and tends to support the second origin, maintaining that the word comes from a mispronunciation of the Spanish word “charanga”. The tern charanga, for example, was used to refer to a small instrumental band. Charanguero, meanwhile, denoted something rough or rustic, nevertheless, the small Spanish-American guitar has been known by the name changango for more than one hundred years. In a footnote to his correspondence with Paulino Lucero regarding the Great War, Hilario Ascasubi explains this situation with indisputable clarity, Changango, research and debate on this topic continues in scholarly circles. Traditionally a charango was made with an armadillo shell for the back and wood for the soundbox top. While still common, this is no longer the norm, rather they are now made of wood. Unlike most wooden lutes, the body and neck are made of a single block of woodCharango – A modern charango.
39. Cuatro (instrument) – The cuatro is any of several Latin American instruments of the guitar or lute families. Many cuatros are smaller than a guitar, Cuatro means four in Spanish, although current instruments often have more than four strings. The cuatro is found in Puerto Rico and in South America, certain variants are considered the national instrument of some countries. Its 15th century predecessor was the Portuguese Cavaquinho, which, like the cuatro had four strings, the cuatro is widely used in ensembles in Jamaica, Mexico, and Surinam to accompany singing and dancing. In Trinidad and Tobago it accompanies Parang singers, in Puerto Rico and Venezuela, the cuatro is an ensemble instrument for secular and religious music, and is played at parties and traditional gatherings. The cuatro of Venezuela has four single strings, tuned or. It is similar in shape and tuning to the ukulele, but their character and it is tuned in a similar fashion to the traditional D tuning of the ukulele, but the B is an octave lower. Consequently, the same fingering can be used to shape the chords, there are variations on this instrument, having five strings or six strings. Variants, Other Venezuelan cuatro variants include, cinco cuatro, seis cinco, cinco y medio, cuatro y medio, the Puerto Rican cuatro is shaped more like a violin than a guitar, and is the most familiar of the three instruments of the Puerto Rican orquesta jíbara. The Cuban Cuatro, is similar to a Cuban Tres, but with 4 courses of doubled strings and it is usually tuned G4 G3•C4 C4•E4 E4•A4 A4. Stringed instrument tunings Banjo Instrumentos Musicales de Venezuela, Cuatro, diccionario Multimedia de Historia de Venezuela. Fredy Reyna, Alfa Beta Cuatro - Monte Avila Editores 1994 Alejandro Bruzual, Fredy Reyna - Ensayo biográfico - Alter Libris 1999 Chord, the Venezuelan Cuatro Chord Bible, ADF#B Standard Tuning 1,728 Chords. The Puerto Rican Cuatro Chord Bible, BEADG Standard Tuning 1,728 Chords, news and Videos about Venezuelan Cuatro Material and HD Videos for learning to play Venezuelan Cuatro The Puerto Rican Cuatro ProjectCuatro (instrument) – A Puerto Rican Cuatro
40. Cavaquinho – The cavaquinho is a small string instrument of the European guitar family with four wire or gut strings. A cavaquinho player is called a cavaquista, the most common tuning is D–G–B–D, other tunings include D–A–B–E and G–G–B–D and A–A–C♯–E. Guitarists often use D–G–B–E tuning to emulate the highest four strings of the guitar, the origins of this Portuguese instrument are elusive. The author holds that the cavaquinho and the guitar may have brought to Braga by the Biscayans. There are different kinds of cavaquinho and it is a very important instrument in Brazilian music, especially for samba and choro. The standard tuning in Brazil is D–G–B–D, some of the most important players and composers of the instruments Brazilian incarnation are, Waldir Azevedo, Paulinho da Viola and Mauro Diniz. The samba cavaco is the connection between the rhythm and harmony sections, playing the rhythm comping and it is played with a pick, with sophisticated percussive strumming beats. The cavaquinho is also found in other places, in Cape Verde the cavaquinho was introduced in the thirties from Brazil. The present-day Cape-Verdean cavaquinho is very similar to the Brazilian one in dimensions and it is generally used as a rhythmic instrument in Cape-Verdean music genres but it is occasionally used as a melodic instrument. In the United States, it was introduced by Portuguese and became an important part of the music of that place. The Hawaiian islands have an instrument very similar to the cavaquinho, called the ukulele, the Hawaiian ukulele also has four strings, though tuned differently, and a shape somewhat similar to the cavaquinho. The machete was introduced into Hawaii by Augusto Dias, Manuel Nunes, Viola braguesa Rabeca Gaita transmontana Ukulele Cuatro Tenor guitar Richards, Tobe A. The Cavaquinho Chord Bible, DGBD Standard Tuning 1,728 Chords, — A comprehensive chord dictionary instructional guide for the Brazilian and Portuguese cavaquinho. All the Cavaquinhos types at Associação Cultural Museu Cavaquinho Cavaquinho at Grupo de Cavaquinhos do PortoCavaquinho – Portuguese & Brazilian cavaquinhos
41. Tiple – A tiple is a plucked-string chordophone of the guitar family. A tiple player is called a tiplista, the tiple Colombiano is an instrument of the guitar family, similar in appearance although slightly smaller than a standard classical guitar. The typical fretboard scale is about 530 mm, and the neck joins the body at the 12th fret, there are 12 strings, grouped in four tripled courses. Traditional tuning from lowest to highest course is C E A D, although many modern players tune the instrument like the four strings of the modern guitar. The outer two strings of each of the three lowest triple courses is tuned an octave higher than the string in the course. An 18 or 19 fret fingerboard give the tiple Colombiano a range of about 2-2/3 octaves and this tiple is associated with Colombia, and is considered the national instrument. At the end of the 19th century, it evolved to its present shape, the central ones are tuned one octave lower than the surrounding strings of the group. This arrangement produces the set of harmonics that gives the instrument its unique voice, outside of Colombia the copper strings are more likely to be standard brass or bronze wound steel guitar strings. There is also a tiple Colombiano requinto, often simply called tiple requinto, the tiple requinto is sometimes made in more of a violin or hourglass shape, than a guitar shape. These differences give it a thinner, higher-pitched sound than the tiple Colombiano. The tiple is the smallest of the three string instruments of Puerto Rico that make up the orquesta jibara, according to investigations made by Jose Reyes Zamora, the tiple in Puerto Rico dates back to the 18th century. It is believed to have evolved from the Spanish guitarrillo, there was never a standard for the tiple and as a result there are many variations throughout the island of Puerto Rico. Most tiples have four or five strings and most tiple requintos have three strings, some tiples have as many as 6 strings and as few as a single string, though these types are rare. The main types of tiple in Puerto Rico are, Tiple requinto de la montaña - a tiny version of the tiple doliente with only three strings and it is usually smaller than 12 inches. Tiple requinto costanero - a smaller version of the tiplón with only three strings and it is usually about 15 inches in length. Tiple doliente - this tiple has 5 single strings and is the most common used today and it is usually about 15 inches in length. Tiplón or tiple con macho - a larger version of the tiple with a fifth string peg like an American banjo and it is usually about 21 inches in length. Tiple grande de Ponce - the largest version with 5 strings and it is considered a link between tiples and bordonuasTiple – Colombian Tiple
42. Guitarists – A guitarist is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars. Some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by singing or playing the harmonica, the correctness of techniques that a guitarist acquires depends on the quality of training. Learning how to play correctly is crucial for any guitarist no matter which guitar he/she plays, the guitarist may also employ various methods for selecting notes and chords, including fingering, thumbing, the barre, and bottleneck or steel-guitar slides, usually made of glass or metal. These left- and right-hand techniques may be intermixed in performance, while music is an art form in itself, playing an instrument such as the guitar has long been a popular subject for painters. Despite perceived tendencies in mainstream music diffusion, to Rock music and electric guitar, notable guitarists arrived from other genres, Rolling Stone In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine published a list called The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. This list included 100 guitarists whom the magazine editor David Fricke considered the best, the first in this list is the American guitarist Jimi Hendrix introduced by Pete Townshend, guitarist for The Who, who was, in his turn, ranked at #50 in the list. Artists who had not been included in the previous list were added, rory Gallagher, for example, was ranked in 57th place. The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time is mentioned in many biographies about artists who appear in the list, despite the appearance in other magazines like Billboard, this publication by Guitar World was criticized for including no female musicians within its selection. However, Guitar World recently published a list of Eight Amazing Female Acoustic Players, including Kaki King, TIME and others Following the death of Les Paul, TIME website presented their list of 10 greatest artists in electric guitar. As in Rolling Stone magazines list, Jimi Hendrix was chosen as the greatest guitarist followed by Slash from Guns N Roses, B. B. King, Keith Richards, Jimmy Page, and Eric Clapton. Gigwise. com, a music magazine, also ranks Jimi Hendrix as the greatest guitarist ever, followed by Jimmy Page, B. B. King, Keith Richards. There are many classical guitarists listed as notable in their respective epochs, media related to Guitarists at Wikimedia CommonsGuitarists – Montage of guitarists. The guitarists pictured are named on the image page.
43. Warr guitar – The Warr Guitar is an American-made touch guitar, a type of instrument that combines both bass and melodic strings on a single fretboard. It is related to the Chapman Stick, another two-handed tapping instrument, the Warr Guitar is designed for either two-handed tapping or strumming. Warr Guitars have between seven and 14 strings, perhaps the best known Warr Guitar players are Trey Gunn, formerly of the progressive rock band King Crimson, and Colin Marston of BeholdWarr guitar – Trey Gunn playing a Warr Guitar at Tampere Jazz Happening 2005
44. Bass guitar – The bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum, often known as a pick. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to a guitar, but with a longer neck and scale length. The four-string bass, by far the most common, is tuned the same as the double bass. The bass guitar is an instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds to avoid excessive ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the guitar has pickups and it is plugged into an amplifier and speaker on stage, or into a larger PA system using a DI unit. Since the 1960s, the guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary widely from one style of music to another, many styles of music utilise the bass guitar, including rock, heavy metal, pop, punk rock, country, reggae, gospel, blues, symphonic rock, and jazz. It is often a solo instrument in jazz, jazz fusion, Latin, funk, progressive rock and other rock, the adoption of a guitar form made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments. The addition of frets enabled bassists to play in more easily than on acoustic or electric upright basses. Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period, around 1947, Tutmarcs son, Bud, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948, however, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender, with the help of his employee George Fullerton and his Fender Precision Bass, which began production in October 1951, became a widely copied industry standard. This split pickup, introduced in 1957, appears to have been two mandolin pickups, the pole pieces and leads of the coils were reversed with respect to each other, producing a humbucking effect. Humbucking is a design that electrically cancels the effect of any AC hum, the Fender Bass was a revolutionary new instrument, which could be easily transported, and which was less prone to feedback when amplified than acoustic bass instruments. Monk Montgomery was the first bass player to tour with the Fender bass guitar, roy Johnson, and Shifty Henry with Louis Jordan & His Tympany Five, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957. The bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, following Fenders lead, in 1953, Gibson released the first short scale violin-shaped electric bass with extendable end pin, allowing it to be played upright or horizontally. In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass, the EB-0 was very similar to a Gibson SG in appearanceBass guitar – A Music Man StingRay bass
45. Acoustic bass guitar – The acoustic bass guitar is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to, though usually somewhat larger than a steel-string acoustic guitar. Balls aim was to provide bass guitarists with a more acoustic-sounding instrument that would match better with the sound of acoustic guitars, ball stated that. if there were electric bass guitars to go with electric guitars then you ought to have acoustic basses to go with acoustic guitars. Ball notes that. the closest thing to an acoustic bass was the Mexican guitarron. in mariachi bands, so I bought one down in Tijuana and tinkered with it. Ball collaborated with George Fullerton, an employee at Fender, to develop the Earthwood acoustic bass guitar. Production of this instrument ceased in 1974, resuming a few years later under the direction of Ernie Balls employee Dan Norton, the Earthwood acoustic bass guitar was quite large in contrast to most instruments in current production, which gave it more volume, especially in the low register. The Earthwood was quickly supplanted by the Washburn AB-40 designed by Mick Donner, the AB-40 and the more affordable AB-20 became the instrument of choice for bass players appearing on Unplugged. Folk bass player Ashley Hutchings used the bass guitar with his Etchingham Steam Band in 1974 and 1975. An early user of the bass guitar in rock was English multi-instrumentalist and composer Mike Oldfield. Mike used the bass on a number of his recordings from that time onwards, brian Ritchie of Violent Femmes was also an early user of acoustic bass guitars. Unlike the electric guitar, which is generally a solid body instrument. The majority of acoustic basses are fretted, but a significant number are fretless instead, semi-fretted versions also exist, although they are quite rare. Like the electric guitar, models with five or more strings have been produced. In part, this is because the body of a bass guitar is too small to produce a resonance of acceptable volume at lower pitches on the low B string. One solution uses the five string acoustic bass to add a high string instead of adding a low B. Another solution is to rely on amplification to reproduce the low B strings notes, there are also semi-acoustic models fitted with pickups that are intended to be used with an amplifier. The soundbox of these instruments is not large enough to amplify the sound, instead, it is designed to produce a tone when amplified. Saga Musical Instruments produces a four-string bass resonator guitar under their Regal brand name. videos National Reso-Phonic Guitars also produce three models of bass guitar. Traditional music of Mexico features varieties of acoustic bass guitars, the bajo sexto, with six pairs of strings, resembles a twelve-string guitar tuned an octave lowerAcoustic bass guitar – An acoustic bass guitar.
46. Multi-necked bass guitar – A multi-neck guitar is a guitar that has multiple fingerboard necks. They exist in both electric and acoustic versions, although multi-neck guitars are quite common today, they are not a modern invention. Examples of multi-neck guitars and lutes go back at least to the Renaissance, combination six-string and bass guitar are also used, as well as a fretless guitar with a regular fretted guitar, or any other combination of guitar neck and pickup styles. Two necks allows the guitarist to switch quickly and easily between guitar sounds without taking the time to change guitars. There are many ways to customize a multiple-necked guitar, such as the number of strings on a neck, frets or no frets, one of the earliest designs still in regular use is the acoustic contraguitar, invented around 1850 in Vienna. This guitar, also known as the Schrammel guitar, has a fretted six-string neck, one of the more common combinations is where one neck of a double-necked guitar is set up as for a 6 string guitar and the other neck is configured as a 4 string bass guitar. Rickenbacker International Corporation and Gibson Guitar Corporation in the US have both manufactured production models of these configurations in the past, the complete original set consisted of a top section 6-string guitar, two top-section 12-string guitars, and a bottom-section 4-string bass. Electric bass guitars with two or more necks have existed at least since the 1970s, some basses have three or more necks, but usually upon custom order only. A double-necked bass guitar can be used for tuning, combining fretted and fretless necks, combining necks with different numbers of strings. One of the best-known multiple-necked bass guitars is that used by Chris Squire for the song Awaken and this is a replica of a guitar built by Wal for Roger Newell of the English Rock Ensemble. Squires original triple-necked bass guitar had a four-string fretted neck, a fretless neck. This bass is currently on display at the Hard Rock Cafe, steve Digiorgio used a multiple-necked bass guitar with a fretless neck and another fretted neck. A number of makers have also produced double neck basses with an 8-string bass neck on top, Double neck basses with various other combinations exist, such as 4-string/6-string and 4-string/5-string. Multiple neck guitars have also made which include other stringed instruments among the alternate necks. Country guitarist Joe Maphis famously played a double-neck Mosrite instrument that had a regular 6-string neck on the bottom and this was a 6-string neck tuned an octave higher than the standard guitar, that both extended the range of the instrument, and allowed Maphis to play mandolin-like sounds. Between 1958-1968, Gibson made an instrument of this type which it called the Double Mandolin, hybrids with a 6-string guitar neck and a true 8-string mandolin neck were also made. In 2011, the National Guitar Museum unveiled the Rock Ock, the 8-necked guitar weighs 40 pounds, has 154 frets,51 strings, and 8 necks. The eight instruments are a mandolin, ukulele, 6-string, fretless bass, standard bass, 12-string, baritone guitar, the guitar was designed by noted artist Gerard Huerta and built by Dan Neafsey of DGN Custom GuitarsMulti-necked bass guitar – A 17th century multi-neck guitar by Alexandre Voboam.
47. Semi-acoustic guitar – A semi-acoustic guitar or hollow-body electric is a type of electric guitar that originates from the 1930s. It has both a box and one or more electric pickups. This is not the same as a guitar, which is an acoustic guitar with the addition of pickups or other means of amplification. This led makers to try a series of designs that focused on amplifying a guitar electrically through a loudspeaker, in 1936, Gibson made their first production run of electric guitars. These guitars, known as ES-150s were the first manufactured semi-acoustic guitars, Gibson based them on a standard production archtop, with f holes on the face of the guitars soundbox. This model resembled traditional jazz guitars that were popular at the time, the soundbox on the guitar let limited sound emit from the hollow body of the guitar. These guitars, however, could be electrically amplified via a Charlie Christian pickup, the clear sound of the pickups made the ES series immediately popular with jazz musicians. The first semi-acoustic guitars are thought of as an evolutionary step in the progression from acoustic guitars to full electric models. However, Gibson made the ES-150 several years after Rickenbacker made the first solid-body electric guitar, the ES series was merely an experiment the Gibson company used to test the potential success of electric guitars. The experiment was a successful venture, and the ES series is often referred to as the first successful electric guitar. The ES-150 was followed by the ES-250 a year later, in became a long line of semi acoustics for the Gibson company. In 1949 Gibson released two new models, the ES-175 and ES-5 and these guitars came standard with built-in electric pickups and are widely considered the first fully electric semi-acoustic guitars. Prior models were not built with pickups, rather, they came as attachments, several models, including the ES-350T by Gibson, were made in the 1950s to accommodate this growing demand by including a more comfortable version of the archtop model. Gibson and other makers followed these variations with a new type of guitar that featured a block of solid wood between the front and back sections of the guitars cutaway. This guitar still functioned acoustically, but had a resonant cavity inside. Gibson first manufactured this variant in 1958 and it is commonly referred to as a semi-hollow body guitar, because of the smaller, less open body. Rickenbacker also began making semi-acoustic guitars in 1958, when the company changed ownership in 1954, they hired German guitar crafter, Roger Rossmiesl. He developed the 300 series for Rickenbacker, which was a wide semi-acoustic that did not use a traditional f hole, rather it used a sleeker dash hole on one side of the guitar, the other side had a large pickguardSemi-acoustic guitar – The Gibson ES-335, with its f-holes visible
48. Steel-string acoustic guitar – The steel-string acoustic guitar is a modern form of guitar that descends from the classical guitar, but is strung with steel strings for a brighter, louder sound. It is often referred to simply as a guitar, though the nylon-strung classical guitar is also sometimes called an acoustic guitar. The most common type is called a flat top guitar, to distinguish it from the more specialized archtop guitar. The standard tuning for a guitar is E-A-D-G-B-E, although many players, particularly fingerpickers, use alternate tunings, such as open G, open D. There are many variations in construction and materials used in steel-string guitars, different combinations of woods and construction elements affect the timbre or tone of the guitar. Many players and luthiers are convinced that a well-made guitars tone improves over time, acoustic guitars are commonly constructed in several different body types. The proportion and overall size of two parts helps determine the overall tonal balance and native sound of a particular body style – the larger the body. The 00, also called the Double-Oh or the Grand Concert and it has the thinnest soundbox and the smallest overall size of the major styles, making it very comfortable to play but also one of the quietest. Its smaller size makes it suitable for younger or smaller-framed players and these guitars are commonly called parlor steels as they are well-suited to smaller rooms. Martins 00-xxx series and Taylors x12 series are common examples, the Grand Auditorium guitar, sometimes called the 000 or the Triple-Oh, is very similar in design to the Grand Concert, but slightly wider and deeper. Many 000-style guitars also have a back panel to increase the volume of space in the soundbox without making the soundbox deeper at the edges. Eric Claptons signature Martin guitar, for example, is of this style, Martins 000-xxx series and Taylors x14 series are well-known examples of the Grand Auditorium style. The Dreadnought style was designed by Martin Guitars to produce a deeper sound than classic-style guitars and this body styles combination of a small profile with a deep sound has made it immensely popular, and it has since been copied by virtually every major steel-string luthier. Martins D series guitars, such as the highly-prized D-28, are examples of the Dreadnought. This comes at the expense of being oversized, with a very deep sounding box, the foremost example of this style is the Gibson J-200, but like the Dreadnought, most guitar manufacturers have at least one jumbo model. Any of these body type can optionally incorporate a cutaway, a cutaway guitar has a redesigned upper bout that removes a section of the soundbox on the underside of the neck, hence the name cutaway. This allows for access to the frets that are located on top of the soundbox past the heel of the neck. The tradeoff is reduced soundbox volume, and often a change in bracing, the 12-string guitar replaces each single string with a course of two stringsSteel-string acoustic guitar – A Gibson SJ200 model.
49. Tenor guitar – The tenor guitar or four-string guitar is a slightly smaller, four-string relative of the steel-string acoustic guitar or electric guitar. The instrument was developed in its acoustic form by Gibson Guitar Company. Tenor guitars are four-stringed instruments normally made in the shape of a guitar, or sometimes with a pear shaped body or, more rarely. They can be acoustic and/or electric and they can come in the form of top, archtop. Tenor guitars normally have a length similar to that of the tenor banjo of between 21 and 23 inches. The earliest origins of the guitar are not yet fully clear. Gibson built the tenor lute TL-4 in 1924, which had a lute-like pear-shaped body, four strings and it is possible that similar instruments were made by other makers such as Lyon and Healy and banjo makers, such as Bacon. In the same period, banjo makers, such as Paramount, built transitional round banjo-like wood-bodied instruments with four strings, from 1927 onwards, the very first true wood-bodied acoustic tenor guitars appeared as production instruments made by both Gibson and Martin. Almost all the guitar makers, including Epiphone, Kay, Gretsch, Guild. In collaboration with Cliff Edwards, Dobro built the four-stringed round-bodied resonator tenor scale length instrument called the Tenortrope in the early 1930s, makers such as Gibson even used to offer the tenor models as a custom option for their six string guitar models at no extra charge. Gibson also had a line of tenor guitars under their brand name of Kalamazoo. Budget tenor guitars by makers such as Harmony, Regal and Stella, were made in numbers in the 1950s and 1960s and are still widely available. Tenor guitars were manufactured continuously by both Gibson and Martin from the 1920s until the 1970s, National, formed by the Dopyera Brothers, also made significant numbers of resonator tenor and plectrum guitars between the 1920s and 1940s. Dobro, another company associated with the Dopyera Brothers, as well as National, in 1934, Gibson introduced an acoustic archtop tenor guitar, the TG-50, based on the acoustic archtop six string model, the L-50, with its production run lasting until 1958. In 1936 Gibson introduced the worlds first commercially successful electric Spanish-style guitar, in early 1937 Gibson also began shipping two other versions of the ES-150, a tenor guitar and a plectrum version. This first electric archtop tenor guitar, the ETG-150, was in production until 1972. In the mid 1950s electric solid-body tenor guitar models started to be produced and these were mostly produced as one-off custom instruments but, for a short time in 1955, Gretsch manufactured the only production electric solid-bodied tenor guitar, the Gretsch 6127 DuoJet. The tenor guitar can also be tuned like a soprano/concert/tenor ukulele, the normal CGDA tuning is very open and it gives the instrument voicings more reminiscent of the mandolin family than the guitar family, from both open and closed chordsTenor guitar – 1928 Dobro style 37 tenor guitar from Lowell Levinger's collection
50. Baritone guitar – The baritone guitar is a guitar with a longer scale length, typically a larger body, and heavier internal bracing, so it can be tuned to a lower pitch. Tacoma, Santa Cruz, Taylor, Martin, Alvarez Guitars and others have made acoustic baritone guitars, the baritone guitar first appeared in classical music. More recently, the guitar has appeared in rock, metal. With appropriate strings, some baritone guitars can play in the guitar range. Tic-tac bass is a method of playing, in which a muted baritone guitar doubles the part played by the guitar or double bass. The method is used in country music. A standard guitars standard tuning is E A D G B E, while no standard tuning has been established for baritone guitars, popular tunings for the instrument are, a perfect fifth, a diminished fifth, a perfect fourth, or a major third lower. The most common scale lengths on an electric baritone range from 25.5 to 28.7, With the latter more commonly being tuned lower than a common six-string. The average baritone scale on the market would be around the length of 27, with a tuning set to a perfect fourth. On a standard, steel-string, acoustic guitar, the length is typically 24.9 to 25.7. The scale lengths of various baritone designs range from 27 to 30.5, shorter-scale baritone guitars are more like long-scale guitars, having more midrange volume, whereas the longer scale lengths and heavier string sets give more bass to the instruments timbre. Shorter scale baritones tend to be tuned C-C or B-B, whereas longer ones are typically tuned A-A, the instrument was used almost exclusively on his best-selling 1960 album The Twangs the Thang and appears regularly on singles and albums throughout his career. The twangy sound of his guitars augmented the even deeper twangy sound made by the Danelectro baritone, eddy used the familiar black model and an unusual gray Longhorn model. Brian Wilson often included baritone guitars in his arrangements for The Beach Boys records, such as in Dance, Dance, Dance or Caroline, singer Jimmie Rodgers also favored the baritone guitar, which can be heard in the opening bars of his recording of Woman from Liberia. Baritone guitars became popular in metal music during the late 1980s, as it became increasingly popular to employ lower guitar tunings. Early examples include Carcass and Bolt Thrower, Pat OBrien of the band Cannibal Corpse has a baritone guitar to allow him to use the tuning G# without experiencing tuning problems because of his use of a Floyd Rose tremolo. Dylan Carlson of drone metal band Earth played a guitar on Hex. Machine Head uses baritone guitars tuned to drop B and C# standard, robb Flynn, singer and guitarist from the band, has a signature Epiphone Baritone Flying V model called Love DeathBaritone guitar – Clifton Hyde with Mustapick Acoustic Baritone Guitar; Brooklyn, New York City 2007