1. Central Europe – Central Europe lies between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a historical, social and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of strategic awakening, with such as the CEI, Centrope. While the regions economy shows high disparities with regard to income, elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Roman Catholicism and Latin. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in connection with Western European development. The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe and these phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns, counties and parliaments, in 1335 under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland, Bohemia and Hungary. They agreed to cooperate closely in the field of politics and commerce, in the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe, even in Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural. The concept of Central Europe was already known at the beginning of the 19th century, an example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch’s book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany, another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political, economic and cultural domination. The bible of the concept was Friedrich Naumann’s book Mitteleuropa in which he called for a federation to be established after the war. The concept failed after the German defeat in World War I, the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, italy and Yugoslavia are not considered by the author to be Central European because they are located mostly outside Central Europe. The author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, the interwar period brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, and the concept of Central Europe took a different character. The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, however, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe, after the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the conceptCentral Europe – Certain and disputed borders of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I (AD 870–894)
2. Austria – Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a provinceAustria – First appearance of the word "ostarrichi", circled in red. Modern Austria honours this document, dated 996, as the founding of the nation.
3. Slovakia – Slovakia, officially the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Slovakias territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres and is mostly mountainous. The population is over 5 million and comprises mostly ethnic Slovaks, the capital and largest city is Bratislava. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries, in the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samos Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra. In the 10th century, the territory was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, which became part of the Habsburg Empire. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a separate Slovak Republic existed in World War II as a client state of Nazi Germany. In 1945, Czechoslovakia was reëstablished under Communist rule as a Soviet satellite, in 1989 the Velvet Revolution ended authoritarian Communist rule in Czechoslovakia. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The country maintains a combination of economy with universal health care. The country joined the European Union in 2004 and the Eurozone on 1 January 2009, Slovakia is also a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. The Slovak economy is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and its legal tender, the Euro, is the worlds 2nd most traded currency. Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes, in 2016, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 165 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 11th in the world. Slovakia is the world’s biggest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone, the car industry represents 43 percent of Slovakia’s industrial output, and a quarter of its exports. Radiocarbon datingputs the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia – found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BC and these ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia. Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era come from the Prévôt cave near Bojnice, the most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium, discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. The most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone, the statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice, Hubina and these findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and Central Europe. The Bronze Age in the territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BCSlovakia – A Venus from Moravany nad Váhom, which dates back to 22,800 BC.
4. Ukraine – Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Poland, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II. Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace. Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, legislative, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwellingUkraine – Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Ordzhonikidze, dated to the 4th century BC
5. Romania – Romania is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia and it has an area of 238,391 square kilometres and a temperate-continental climate. With over 19 million inhabitants, the country is the member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth-largest city in the EU, the River Danube, Europes second-longest river, rises in Germany and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romanias Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest are marked by one of their tallest peaks, Moldoveanu, modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877, at the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war, following the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and it has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. A strong majority of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are speakers of Romanian. The cultural history of Romania is often referred to when dealing with artists, musicians, inventors. For similar reasons, Romania has been the subject of notable tourist attractions, Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning citizen of Rome. The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, after the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a leader of the early 19th century. The use of the name Romania to refer to the homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861, in English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975, Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. The Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the region of the earliest European civilization. Evidence from this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetageRomania – Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.
6. Serbia – Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. Relative to its territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, geographic, climatic. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, Belgrade, following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the 6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, in the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the regions first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro which dissolved peacefully in 2006, in 2008 the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of organizations such as the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC. An EU membership candidate since 2012, Serbia has been negotiating its EU accession since January 2014, the country is acceding to the WTO and is a militarily neutral state. Serbia is an income economy with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector. The country ranks high on the Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index, relatively high on the Human Development Index, located at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E. The country covers a total of 88,361 km2, which places it at 113th place in the world, with Kosovo excluded, the area is 77,474 km2. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km, all of Kosovos border with Albania, Macedonia and Montenegro are under control of the Kosovo border police. The Pannonian Plain covers the third of the country while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain. The terrain of the part of the country, with the region of Šumadija at its heart. Mountains dominate the third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the southwest, following the flow of the rivers Drina, the Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in a north–south direction in eastern Serbia. Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the country belong to the Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system, elevation ranges from the Midžor peak of the Balkan Mountains at 2,169 metres to the lowest point of just 17 metres near the Danube river at Prahovo. The largest lake is Đerdap Lake and the longest river passing through Serbia is the Danube, the climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean SeaSerbia – Clay figure from Vinča culture, 4000–4500 BC, British Museum
7. Croatia – Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II. After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric periodCroatia – Branimir Inscription
8. Slovenia – Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and it covers 20,273 square kilometers and has a population of 2.06 million. It is a republic and a member of the United Nations, European Union. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana, additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a river network, a rich aquifer system. Over half of the territory is covered by forest, the human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven. Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of South Slavic, Germanic, Romance, although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. Slovene is the language throughout the country. Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small, open, and export-oriented and has strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction, Historically, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats, in December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied and annexed by Germany, Italy, and Hungary, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, in June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and there is evidence of habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ±700 BP, in the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, in the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BCSlovenia – A pierced cave bear bone, possibly flute, from Divje Babe
9. 2004 – February 26 – Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a plane crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. February 29 – Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is overthrown in a coup détat, march 2 – A series of bombings occur in Karbala, Iraq, killing over 140 Shia Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. March 11 – Coordinated bombs explode at a Cercanías train station in Madrid, Spain, march 28 – Hurricane Catarina, the first ever recorded South Atlantic tropical cyclone, makes landfall in Santa Catarina, Brazil. March 29 – Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia are admitted to NATO, april 8 – The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement is signed by the Sudanese government and two rebel groups, in order to put a pause on the War in Darfur. April 17 – Israeli helicopters fire missiles at a convoy of vehicles in the Gaza Strip, april 24 – Referendums on the Annan Plan for Cyprus, which proposes to reunite the island, take place in both the Greek-controlled and the Turkish-controlled parts. Although the Turkish Cypriots vote in favour, the Greek Cypriots reject the proposal, june 21 – In Mojave, California, SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded spaceplane to achieve spaceflight. June 28 – The U. S. -led coalition occupying Iraq transfers sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government, june 30 – Preliminary hearings begin in Iraq in the trial of former president Saddam Hussein, for war crimes and crimes against humanity. July 1 – The Cassini–Huygens spacecraft arrives at Saturn, august 3 – NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft is launched, with its primary mission being the study of Mercury. August 13–29 – The 2004 Summer Olympics are held in Athens, august 22 – Armed robbers steal Edvard Munchs The Scream, Madonna, and other paintings from the Munch Museum in Oslo, Norway. September 1 – Chechen rebels take 1,128 people hostage, mostly children, at a school in Beslan, the crisis ends when Russian security forces storm the building, resulting in more than 330 people being killed. September 2 – The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 1559, calling for the removal of all troops from Lebanon. October 8 – Suicide bombers detonate two bombs at the Red Sea resort of Taba, Egypt, killing over 30 people, october 19 – A team of explorers reach the bottom of Krubera Cave, the worlds deepest cave, with a depth of 2,080 meters. October 29 – European heads of state sign in Rome the Treaty and Final Act, november 13 – The European Space Agency probe SMART-1 arrives at the Moon, becoming the first European satellite to travel to and orbit it. November 16 – NASAs hypersonic Scramjet breaks a record by reaching a velocity of about 7,000 mph in an experimental flight. It obtains a speed of Mach 9.6, almost 10 times the speed of sound, november 22 – The Orange Revolution begins following a disputed presidential election in Ukraine where Viktor Yanukovych won against Viktor Yushchenko amid accusations of electoral fraud. A revote results in Yushchenko being declared the winner, December 14 – The worlds tallest bridge, the Millau Viaduct over the River Tarn in the Massif Central mountains, France, is officially opened. December 21 – Iraqi insurgents attack a U. S. military base in the city of Mosul, December 26 – The 9. 1–9.3 Mw Indian Ocean earthquake shakes northern Sumatra with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. One of the largest observed tsunamis follows, affecting areas of Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh2004 – Cyclone Gafilo
10. European Union – The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendumEuropean Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
11. Budapest – Budapest is the capital and most populous city of Hungary, one of the largest cities in the European Union and sometimes described as the primate city of Hungary. It has an area of 525 square kilometres and a population of about 1.8 million within the limits in 2016. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the Danube river with the unification of Buda and Óbuda on the west bank, the history of Budapest began with Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement that became the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia. Hungarians arrived in the territory in the 9th century and their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241–1242. The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century, following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule, the region entered a new age of prosperity, and Budapest became a global city after its unification in 1873. It also became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a power that dissolved in 1918. Budapest was the point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian Republic of Councils in 1919, the Battle of Budapest in 1945. Budapest is an Alpha- global city, with strengths in arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its business district hosts the Budapest Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and it is the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it the 25th most popular city in the world, further famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. It has around 80 geothermal springs, the worlds largest thermal water system, second largest synagogue. Budapest is home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College, over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, Central European University and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Budapest is the combination of the city names Buda and Pest, One of the first documented occurrences of the combined name Buda-Pest was in 1831 in the book Világ, written by Count István Széchenyi. The origins of the names Buda and Pest are obscure, according to chronicles from the Middle Ages, the name Buda comes from the name of its founder, Bleda, brother of the Hunnic ruler Attila. The theory that Buda was named after a person is also supported by modern scholars, an alternative explanation suggests that Buda derives from the Slavic word вода, voda, a translation of the Latin name Aquincum, which was the main Roman settlement in the region. There are also theories about the origin of the name Pest. One of the states that the word Pest comes from the Roman times. According to another theory, Pest originates from the Slavic word for cave, or oven, the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 ADBudapest
12. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeriHungary – Italian fresco depicting a Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
13. Flag of Hungary – The flag of Hungary is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green. In this exact form, it has been the flag of Hungary since May 23,1957. The flags form originates from national republican movements of the 18th and 19th centuries and it both shares close relations to the flag of Bulgaria. The nation of Hungary originated from the freedom movement from before 1848. The revolution was not only in opposition against the monarchy but also the Habsburg Empire, the stripes are horizontal rather than vertical to prevent confusion with the Italian flag, which had also been designed after the French flag. According to other data, the recent form of the Hungarian tricolour had been used from 1608 at the coronation of Mathias II of Hungary. Folklore of the period attributed the colours to virtues, red for strength, white for faithfulness. Alternatively, red for the blood spilled for the fatherland, white for freedom and green for the land, the new constitution, which took effect on 1 January 2012, makes the ex-post interpretation mentioned first official. As described above, the red-white-green tricolour emerged as a sign of sovereignty during the 1848–1849 revolution against the Habsburgs. The flag had the minor arms of Hungary with archangels as supporters were used as a badge on the flag. This configuration was used until the end of the Habsburg Empire in 1918, after the fall of the Habsburg Empire, the years 1918 to 1920 were highly turbulent, and several hard-to-trace minor changes took place. The red-green-white tricolour stayed the same, but small differences emerged in terms of the badge, a short interlude and exception was the 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic, which lasted for four-and-a-half months, it used a solid red banner. It seems that from 1920–1944 or 1945 the tricolour displayed the arms of Hungary. Between 1946 and 1949 the crown was removed from the top of the serving as the badge. With the onset of Communist rule in 1949, a new coat of arms featuring a Communist red star was placed on the flag as the badge. During the anti-Soviet uprising in 1956, revolutionaries cut out the Stalinist emblem, for some months the new government changed the flag to bear the minor arms without the crown as the badge again. Therefore, the flag of Hungary has been a pure red-white-green tricolour since 1957. After the fall of communism in 1989 there was no need to change the flag, there was a recommendation of the Committee of Symbols some years ago, that the coat of arms should be part of the state flag, while the national flag should remain plainFlag of Hungary – Hungary
14. Himnusz – Himnusz is the official national anthem of Hungary. It was adopted in the 19th century and the first stanza is sung at official ceremonies, the full meaning of the poems text is evident only to those well acquainted with Hungarian history. The lyrics of Himnusz are a prayer beginning with the words Isten, the title in the original manuscript is Hymnus - a Latin word meaning hymn, and one which had no widely used counterpart in the Hungarian language at the time. It is only in specialist usage that it is used in its meaning of hymn in Hungarian. Although Kölcsey completed the poem on 22 January 1823, it was published first in 1829 in Károly Kisfaludys Aurora, without the subtitle. It subsequently appeared in a collection of Kölcseys works in 1832, a competition for composers to make the poem suitable to be sung by the public was staged in 1844 and won by Erkels entry. His version was first performed in the National Theatre in July 1844, then in front of an audience on 10 August 1844. By the end of the 1850s it became customary to sing Himnusz at special occasions either alongside Vörösmartys Szózat or on its own. It wasnt until 1989 that Erkels musical adaptation of Himnusz finally gained recognition as Hungarys national anthem. The public radio station Kossuth Rádió plays Himnusz at ten minutes past midnight each day at the close of transmissions in the AM band, Himnusz is also traditionally played on Hungarian television at the stroke of midnight on New Years Eve. Traditionally, Himnusz is sung at the beginning of ceremonies, recognition is also given to the Rákóczi March, a short wordless piece which is often used on state military occasions, and the poem Nemzeti dal written by Sándor Petőfi. Another popular song is the Székely Himnusz, a national anthem of the Hungarian-speaking Szekler living in Eastern Transylvania. Two English versions are given below, both are free translations of the Hungarian words, since Hungarian is a genderless language, references to the Magyar as he in the English translations are in fact directed to all Hungarians regardless of gender. On May 7,2006, a sculpture was inaugurated for Himnusz at Szarvas Square, Budakeszi and it was created by Mária V. The musical form of the poem can be played on the bells, the cost of its construction,40 million forints, was collected through public subscription. Sheet Music is available at the Hungarian Electronic Library website, Hungarian Anthem on Music Keyboard 2.4Himnusz – Original sheet music for Himnusz.
15. Miskolc – Miskolc is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 Miskolc is the fourth largest city in Hungary and it is also the county capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and the regional centre of Northern Hungary. The city lies at the point of different geographical regions – east from the Bükk mountains, in the valley of the river Sajó. According to the 2001 Census the city has an area of 236.68 km2. The ground level slopes gradually, the difference between the highest and lowest area is about 800 m, the lowest areas are the banks of the river Sajó, with an altitude of 110–120 m. The area belongs to the Great Plain region and is made up of sedimentary rocks. Between the Avas hill and Diósgyőr lies the area of the Lower Bükk consisting of sandstone, marl, clay, layers of coal, from the tertiary period. The surface was formed mostly by karstic erosions, the highest area, the 600–900 m high Higher Bükk bore Bükk Highlands begin at Lillafüred. This mostly consists of sea sediments from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, several caves can be found in the area. The city is known for lowest measured temperature ever in Hungary with −35 °C. Summers are fresh but sometimes warm and humid in Miskolc, daytime temperatures of 20–30 °C or higher are commonplace. Snow and ice are dominant during the winter season, Miskolc receives about 120 centimetres of snowfall annually. Days below freezing and nights below −20 °C both occur in the winter, the area has been inhabited since ancient times – archaeological findings date back to the Paleolithic, proving human presence for over 70,000 years. Its first known dwellers were the Cotini, one of the Celt tribes, the area has been occupied by Hungarians since the Conquest in the late 9th century. It was named after the Miskóc clan and was first mentioned by this name around 1210 AD, the Miskóc clan lost their power when King Charles I centralized his power by curbing the power of the oligarchs. Miskolc was elevated to the rank of oppidum in 1365 by King Louis I and he also had the castle of the nearby town Diósgyőr transformed into a Gothic fortress. The city developed in a way, but during the Ottoman occupation of most of Hungary the development of Miskolc was brought to a standstill. The Turks burnt Miskolc in 1544 and the city had to pay taxes until 1687Miskolc – Aerial photograph of Miskolc
16. Miskolc-Avas TV Tower – Miskolc-Avas TV Tower is a 72 metre tall TV tower with an observation deck on the Avas hill in Miskolc, Hungary. The Avas TV Tower was designed by Miklós Hófer and György Vörös and it is commonly regarded as the symbol of the city, even though in the 1990s the bell tower of the Avas church was declared the citys symbol in its place. The first lookout tower stood in this place was built in 1906. It was a structure built within two weeks, as a sign of respect for Ferenc II Rákóczi, whose ashes were transported to Kassa through Miskolc. The tower was decorated with the flag and other insignia of Rákóczi, the first permanent tower was erected in 1934 and was designed by Bálint Szeghalmy. Like the previous one, it was named Rákóczi Tower and it was damaged by fire in 1943 and almost completely destroyed in December 1956 – according to an urban legend it was shot to pieces by a Soviet tank during the suppression of the 1956 Revolution. List of towers István Dobrossy, Az Avas kilátóinak története, in, A miskolci Avas ISBN 963-7221-58-1 Avas TV Tower at Structurae http, //www. dxradio-ffm. de/HNG_Miskolc. jpg http, //skyscraperpage. com/diagrams/. b56826Miskolc-Avas TV Tower – The tower
17. Ferenc Erkel – Ferenc Erkel was a Hungarian composer, conductor and pianist. He was the father of Hungarian grand opera, written mainly on historical themes and he also composed the music of Himnusz, the national anthem of Hungary, which was adopted in 1844. Erkel was born in Gyula to a Danube Swabian family, a son of Joseph Erkel who was a musician and his mother was the Hungarian Klára Ruttkay. The libretti of his first three operas were written by Béni Egressy, beside his operas, for which he is best known, he wrote pieces for piano and chorus, and a majestic Festival Overture. He acquainted Hector Berlioz with the tune of the Rákóczi March and he headed the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra. He was also the director and piano teacher of the Hungarian Academy of Music until 1886, the Hungarian State Opera House in Budapest was opened in 1884, of which he was the musical director. In 1839, he married Adél Adlers, four of his sons participated in the composing of his later operas, Gyula, Elek, László and Sándor. Erkel was an internationally acknowledged chess player as well, and a founder of Pesti Sakk-kör, a department of the Opera House was established in 1911 in Budapest which also performs operas, named Erkel Színház since 1953Ferenc Erkel – 1850s painting of Erkel by Alajos Györgyi Giergl
18. Franz Liszt – Franz Liszt was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary. Liszt gained renown in Europe during the nineteenth century for his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist. As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School and he left behind an extensive and diverse body of work in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated many 20th-century ideas and trends. Franz Liszt was born to Anna Liszt and Adam Liszt on October 22,1811, in the village of Doborján in Sopron County, in the Kingdom of Hungary, Liszts father played the piano, violin, cello and guitar. He had been in the service of Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy and knew Haydn, Hummel, at age six, Franz began listening attentively to his fathers piano playing and showed an interest in both sacred and Romani music. Adam began teaching him the piano at age seven, and Franz began composing in an elementary manner when he was eight and he appeared in concerts at Sopron and Pressburg in October and November 1820 at age 9. After the concerts, a group of wealthy sponsors offered to finance Franzs musical education in Vienna, There Liszt received piano lessons from Carl Czerny, who in his own youth had been a student of Beethoven and Hummel. He also received lessons in composition from Antonio Salieri, then director of the Viennese court. Liszts public debut in Vienna on December 1,1822, at a concert at the Landständischer Saal, was a great success and he was greeted in Austrian and Hungarian aristocratic circles and also met Beethoven and Schubert. In spring 1823, when his one-year leave of absence came to an end, Adam Liszt therefore took his leave of the Princes services. At the end of April 1823, the returned to Hungary for the last time. At the end of May 1823, the family went to Vienna again, towards the end of 1823 or early 1824, Liszts first composition to be published, his Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli, appeared as Variation 24 in Part II of Vaterländischer Künstlerverein. Liszts inclusion in the Diabelli project—he was described in it as an 11 year old boy, born in Hungary—was almost certainly at the instigation of Czerny, his teacher, Liszt was the only child composer in the anthology. After his fathers death in 1827, Liszt moved to Paris, to earn money, Liszt gave lessons in piano playing and composition, often from early morning until late at night. His students were scattered across the city and he often had to long distances. Because of this, he kept uncertain hours and also took up smoking, the following year he fell in love with one of his pupils, Caroline de Saint-Cricq, the daughter of Charles Xs minister of commerce, Pierre de Saint-Cricq. Her father, however, insisted that the affair be broken off, Liszt fell very ill, to the extent that an obituary notice was printed in a Paris newspaper, and he underwent a long period of religious doubts and pessimism. He again stated a wish to join the Church but was dissuaded this time by his mother and he had many discussions with the Abbé de Lamennais, who acted as his spiritual father, and also with Chrétien Urhan, a German-born violinist who introduced him to the Saint-SimonistsFranz Liszt – Portrait of Liszt by Ary Scheffer, 1837
19. Eugene Ormandy – Eugene Ormandy was a Hungarian-born conductor and violinist, best known for his association with the Philadelphia Orchestra, as its music director. The maestros 44-year association with the orchestra is one of the longest enjoyed by any conductor with a single orchestra, under his baton, the Philadelphia Orchestra had three gold records and won two Grammy Awards. Ormandy was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary as Jenő Blau, the son of Jewish parents Rosalie and Benjamin Blau, Ormandy began studying violin at the Royal National Hungarian Academy of Music at the age of five. He gave his first concerts as a violinist at age seven and, studying with Jenő Hubay, in 1920, he obtained a university degree in philosophy. In 1921, he moved to the United States, around this time Blau changed his name to Eugene Ormandy, Eugene being the equivalent of the Hungarian Jenő. Accounts differ on the origin of Ormandy, it may have either been Blaus own middle name at birth and he became the concertmaster within five days of joining and soon became one of the conductors of this group. Ormandy also made 16 recordings as a violinist between 1923 and 1929, half of using the acoustic process. Judson greatly assisted Ormandys career, and when Arturo Toscanini was too ill to conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1931 and this led to Ormandys first major appointment as a conductor, in Minneapolis. Ormandy served until 1936 as conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, during the depths of the Great Depression, RCA Victor contracted Ormandy and the Minneapolis Symphony for many recordings. A clause in the contract required them to earn their salaries by performing a certain number of hours each week. Since Victor did not need to pay the musicians, it could afford to send its best technicians, recordings were made between January 16,1934, and January 16,1935. Ormandys recordings also included Anton Bruckners Symphony No.7 and Mahlers Symphony No,2, which became extremely well known. Ormandys 44-year tenure with the Philadelphia Orchestra began in 1936 and became the source of much of his lasting reputation, two years after his appointment as associate conductor under Leopold Stokowski, he became its music director. As music director, Ormandy conducted from 100 to 180 concerts each year in Philadelphia, upon his retirement in 1980, he was made conductor laureate. Ormandy was a quick learner of scores, often conducting from memory and he demonstrated exceptional musical and personal integrity, exceptional leadership skills, and a formal and reserved podium manner in the style of his idol and friend, Arturo Toscanini. One orchestra musician complimented him by saying, He doesnt try to conduct every note as some conductors do, under Ormandys direction the Philadelphia Orchestra continued the lush, legato style originated by Stokowski and for which the orchestra was well known. Ormandys conducting style was praised for its opulent sound, but also was criticized for lacking any real individual touch. Ormandy was particularly noted for conducting late Romantic and early 20th century music and he particularly favored Bruckner, Debussy, Dvořák, Ravel, Richard Strauss, Tchaikovsky, Sibelius, and transcriptions of BachEugene Ormandy – Ormandy conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra.
20. George Szell – George Szell, originally György Széll, György Endre Szél, or Georg Szell, was a Hungarian-born Jewish-American conductor and composer. He is widely considered one of the centurys greatest conductors. Szell came to Cleveland in 1946 to take over a respected if undersized orchestra, by the time of his death he was credited, to quote the critic Donal Henahan, with having built it into what many critics regarded as the worlds keenest symphonic instrument. Through his recordings, Szell has remained a presence in the music world long after his death. While on tour with the Orchestra in the late 1980s, then-Music Director Christoph von Dohnányi remarked, We give a great concert, Szell was born in Budapest but grew up in Vienna. One of Roberts other students was Rudolf Serkin, Szell and Serkin became lifelong friends, in addition to the piano, Szell studied composition with Eusebius Mandyczewski, and with Max Reger for a brief period. Although his work as a composer is unknown today, when he was fourteen Szell signed a ten-year exclusive publishing contract with Universal Edition in Vienna. In addition to writing pieces, he arranged Bedřich Smetanas String Quartet No. 1, From My Life, for orchestra, at the age of eleven, Szell began touring Europe as a pianist and composer, making his London debut at that age. Newspapers declared him the next Mozart, throughout his teenage years he performed with orchestras in this dual role, eventually making appearances as composer, pianist and conductor, as he did with the Berlin Philharmonic at age seventeen. Szell quickly realized that he was never going to make an out of being a composer or pianist. He made an unplanned public conducting debut when he was seventeen, the Vienna Symphonys conductor had injured his arm, and Szell was asked to substitute. Szell quickly turned to conducting full-time, though he abandoned composing, throughout the rest of his life he occasionally played the piano with chamber ensembles and as an accompanist. Despite his rare appearances as a pianist after his teens, he remained in good form, during his Cleveland years he occasionally would demonstrate to guest pianists how he thought they should play a certain passage. In 1915, at the age of 18, Szell won an appointment with Berlins Royal Court Opera, there, he was befriended by its Music Director, Richard Strauss. Strauss instantly recognized Szells talent and was impressed with how well the teenager conducted Strausss music. Strauss once said that he could die a happy man knowing that there was someone who performed his music so perfectly, in fact, Szell ended up conducting part of the world premiere recording of Don Juan for Strauss. The composer had arranged for Szell to rehearse the orchestra for him, since the recording session was already paid for, and only Szell was there, Szell conducted the first half of the recordingGeorge Szell – For the Hungarian Prime Minister, see Kálmán Széll.
21. Victor Vasarely – Victor Vasarely, was a Hungarian–French artist, who is widely accepted as a grandfather and leader of the op art movement. His work entitled Zebra, created in the 1930s, is considered by some to be one of the earliest examples of op art, Vasarely was born in Pécs and grew up in Pöstyén and Budapest, where in 1925 he took up medical studies at Eötvös Loránd University. In 1927, he abandoned medicine to learn traditional academic painting at the private Podolini-Volkmann Academy, in 1928/1929, he enrolled at Sándor Bortnyiks private art school called Műhely, then widely recognized as Budapests centre of Bauhaus studies. Cash-strapped, the műhely could not offer all that the Bauhaus offered, instead it concentrated on applied graphic art and typographical design. In 1929 he painted his Blue Study and Green Study, in 1930, he married his fellow student Claire Spinner. Together they had two sons, Andre and Jean-Pierre, in Budapest, he worked for a ball-bearings company in accounting and designing advertising posters. Vasarely became a designer and a poster artist during the 1930s combining patterns. Vasarely left Hungary and settled in Paris in 1930 and he worked as a graphic artist and as a creative consultant at the advertising agencies Havas, Draeger and Devambez. His interactions with other artists during this time were limited and he thought of opening an institution modeled after Sándor Bortnyiks műhely and developed some teaching material for it. Having lived mostly in hotels, he settled in 1942/1944 in Saint-Céré in the Lot département. After the Second World War, he opened an atelier in Arcueil, in 1961, he finally settled in Annet-sur-Marne. Vasarely eventually went on to art and sculpture using optical illusion. His early graphic period resulted in such as Zebras, Chess Board. Afterwards, he said he was on the wrong track and he exhibited his works in the gallery of Denise René and the gallery René Breteau. Writing the introduction to the catalogue, Jacques Prévert placed Vasarely among the surrealists, Prévert creates the term imaginoires to describe the paintings. Self Portrait and The Blind Man are associated with this period, 1947-1951, Developing geometric abstract art, Finally, Vasarely found his own style. The overlapping developments are named after their geographical heritage, Denfert refers to the works influenced by the white tiled walls of the Paris Denfert - Rochereau metro station. Ellipsoid pebbles and shells found during a vacation in 1947 at the Breton coast at Belle Île inspired him to the Belles-Isles works, since 1948, Vasarely usually spent his summer months in Gordes in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzurVictor Vasarely – Outdoor Vasarely artwork at the church of Pálos in Pécs
22. Cornell Capa – Cornell Capa was a Hungarian American photographer, member of Magnum Photos, photo curator, and the younger brother of photo-journalist and war photographer Robert Capa. Graduating from Imre Madách Gymnasium in Budapest, he intended to study medicine. Born as Kornél Friedmann in Budapest, he moved, aged 18, to Paris to work with his elder brother Robert Capa, in 1937, Cornell Capa moved to New York City to work in the Life magazine darkroom. After serving in the U. S. Air Force, Capa became a Life staff photographer in 1946, the many covers that Capa shot for the magazine included portraits of television personality Jack Paar, painter Grandma Moses, and Clark Gable. In May 1954, Robert Capa was killed by a landmine and he joined Magnum Photos, the photo agency co-founded by his brother, the same year. For Magnum, Capa covered the Soviet Union, Israeli Six-Day War, beginning in 1967, Capa mounted a series of exhibits and books entitled The Concerned Photographer. The exhibits led to his establishment in 1974 of the International Center of Photography in New York City, Capa served for many years as the director of the Center. Capa has published collections of his photographs including JFK for President. Capa also produced a book documenting the first 100 days of the Kennedy presidency, with fellow Magnum photographers including Henri Cartier-Bresson, Capa died in New York City on May 23,2008, of natural causes at the age of 90. Capas work is considered quite eclectic, capturing moments as large of scale as wars to everyday subtle gestures of life. In 1968 Capa published a book called The Concerned Photographer, as evidenced in his work, this title sums up his approach to photojournalism. He also took great interest in politics and documented the presidential campaigns of Adlai Stevenson and John F. Kennedy, Capa wrote forewords to several collections of his brothers photographs and was known to be protective of Robert Capas memory and reputationCornell Capa – portrait by Barbara Bordnick
23. Robert Capa – Robert Capa was a Hungarian war photographer and photo journalist, arguably the greatest combat and adventure photographer in history. Capa fled political repression in Hungary when he was a teenager, moving to Berlin and he witnessed the rise of Hitler, which led him to move to Paris, where he changed his name and became a photojournalist. During his career he risked his life numerous times, most dramatically as the only photographer landing with the first wave on Omaha Beach on D-Day and he documented the course of World War II in London, North Africa, Italy, and the liberation of Paris. His friends and colleagues included Irwin Shaw, John Steinbeck, Ernest Hemingway, in 1947, for his work recording World War II in pictures, U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower awarded Capa the Medal of Freedom. That same year, Capa co-founded Magnum Photos in Paris, the organization was the first cooperative agency for worldwide freelance photographers. Hungary has issued a stamp and a coin in his honor. He was born Endre Friedmann to the Jewish family of Júlia and Dezső Friedmann in Budapest and his mother, Julianna Henrietta Berkovits was a native of Nagy Kapos and Dezső Friedmann came from the Transylvanian village of Csucsa. At the age of 18, he was accused of alleged communist sympathies and was forced to flee Hungary. He moved to Berlin where he enrolled at Berlin University where he worked part-time as an assistant for income and then became a staff photographer for the German photographic agency. It was during that period that the Nazi Party came into power, which made Capa and he became romantically involved with Gerda Taro, a German-Jewish photographer who had also moved to Paris for the same reasons he did. He shared a darkroom with French photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson, with whom he would later co-found the Magnum Photos cooperative, Capa originally wanted to be a writer, however, he found work in photography in Berlin and grew to love the art. In 1933, he moved from Germany to Paris because of the rise of Nazism and its persecution of Jews and he changed his name to the more American-sounding name, Robert Capa, to avoid religious discrimination then common in France, which allowed him to find work more easily. Capas first published photograph was of Leon Trotsky making a speech in Copenhagen on The Meaning of the Russian Revolution in 1932. From 1936 to 1939, Capa worked in Spain, photographing the Spanish Civil War, along with Gerda Taro, his companion and professional photography partner, Taro died when the motor vehicle on which she was travelling collided with an out-of-control tank. She had been returning from a photographic assignment covering the Battle of Brunete and it was during that war that Capa took the photo now called The Falling Soldier, showing the death of a Republican soldier. The photo was published in magazines in France and then by Life magazine, in later years, there has been some dispute about the authenticity of the photo. Picture Post, a pioneering photojournalism magazine published in the United Kingdom, Capa accompanied then journalist and author Ernest Hemingway to photograph the war, which Hemingway would later describe in his novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls. Life magazine published an article about Hemingway and his time in Spain, in 2011 Trisha Ziff directed a film about those images, entitled, The Mexican SuitcaseRobert Capa – Capa on assignment in Spain, using an Eyemo 16mm movie camera. Image by Gerda Taro
24. Farkas Bolyai – Farkas Bolyai was a Hungarian mathematician, mainly known for his work in geometry. Bolyai was born in Bólya, a village near Hermannstadt, Grand Principality of Transylvania and his father was Gáspár Bolyai and his mother Krisztina Vajna. Farkas was taught at home by his father until the age of six when he was sent to the Calvinist school in Nagyszeben and his teachers recognized his talents in arithmetics and in learning languages. He learned Latin, Greek, Romanian, Hebrew and later also French, Italian, at the age of 12 he left school and was appointed as a tutor to the eight-year-old son of the count Kemény. This meant that Bolyai was now treated as a member of one of the families in the country. In 1790 Bolyai and his pupil both entered the Calvinist College in Kolozsvár where they spent five years, the professor of philosophy at the College in Kolozsvár tried to turn Bolyai against mathematics and towards religious philosophy. Bolyai, however, decided to go abroad with Simon Kemény on a trip in 1796 and began to study mathematics systematically at German universities first at Jena. In these times Bolyai became a friend of Carl Friedrich Gauss. He returned home to Kolozsvár in 1799 and it was there he met and married Zsuzsanna Benkő and where their son János Bolyai – later an even more famous mathematician than his father – was born in 1802. Soon thereafter he accepted a position for mathematics and sciences at the Calvinist College in Marosvásárhely. Bolyais main interests were the foundations of geometry and the parallel axiom and his main work, the Tentamen, was an attempt at a rigorous and systematic foundation of geometry, arithmetic, algebra and analysis. In this work, he gave iterative procedures to solve equations which he then proved convergent by showing them to be monotonically increasing and his study of the convergence of series includes a test equivalent to Raabes test, which he discovered independently and at about the same time as Raabe. He first dissuaded his son from the study of non-Euclidean geometry, further references on Farkas Bolyai Farkas Bolyai at the Mathematics Genealogy Project The Bolyai Memorial MuseumFarkas Bolyai – Farkas Bolyai
25. Dennis Gabor – Dennis Gabor CBE, FRS was a Hungarian-British electrical engineer and physicist, most notable for inventing holography, for which he later received the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics. Gabor was born as Günszberg Dénes, into a Jewish family in Budapest, in 1918, his family converted to Lutheranism. Dennis was the son of Günszberg Bernát and Jakobovits Adél. Despite having a background, religion played a minor role in his later life. In 1902, the family received permission to change their surname from Günszberg to Gábor and he served with the Hungarian artillery in northern Italy during World War I. At the start of his career, he analysed the properties of high voltage transmission lines by using cathode-beam oscillographs. Studying the fundamental processes of the oscillograph, Gabor was led to other devices such as electron microscopes. He eventually wrote his PhD thesis on Recording of Transients in Electric Circuits with the Cathode Ray Oscillograph in 1927, and worked on plasma lamps. In 1933 Gabor fled from Nazi Germany, where he was considered Jewish, during his time in Rugby, he met Marjorie Louise Butler, and they married in 1936. He became a British citizen in 1946, and it was working at British Thomson-Houston that he invented holography. He experimented with a heavily filtered mercury arc light source, however, the earliest hologram was only realised in 1964 following the 1960 invention of the laser, the first coherent light source. After this, holography became commercially available, Gabors research focused on electron inputs and outputs, which led him to the invention of re-holography. The basic idea was that for optical imaging, the total of all the information has to be used, not only the amplitude, as in usual optical imaging. In this manner a complete holo-spatial picture can be obtained, Gabor published his theories of re-holography in a series of papers between 1946 and 1951. Gabors work in this and related areas was foundational in the development of time–frequency analysis, in 1948 Gabor moved from Rugby to Imperial College London, and in 1958 became professor of Applied Physics until his retirement in 1967. In 1963 Gabor published Inventing the Future which discussed the three major threats Gabor saw to modern society, war, overpopulation and the Age of Leisure, the book contained the now well-known expression that the future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented. Reviewer Nigel Calder rephrased the concept as, The best way to predict the future is to invent it, others such as Alan Kay, Peter Drucker, and Forrest Shaklee who have used various forms of the quote have been incorrectly credited with coining it. Goldmark in many new schemes of communication and display, one of Imperial Colleges new halls of residence in Princes Gardens, Knightsbridge is named Gabor Hall in honour of Gabors contribution to Imperial CollegeDennis Gabor – Dennis Gabor
26. John Charles Harsanyi – John Charles Harsanyi was a Hungarian-American economist and Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winner. He also made important contributions to the use of game theory, for his work, he was a co-recipient along with John Nash and Reinhard Selten of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics. Harsanyi was born on May 29,1920 in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Alice and Charles Harsanyi and his parents converted from Judaism to Catholicism a year before he was born. He attended high school at the Lutheran Gymnasium in Budapest, in high school, he became one of the best problem solvers of the KöMaL, the Mathematical and Physical Monthly for Secondary Schools. Founded in 1893, this periodical is generally credited with a share of Hungarian students success in mathematics. He also won the first prize in the Eötvös mathematics competition for school students. Although he wanted to study mathematics and philosophy, his father sent him to France in 1939 to enroll in engineering at the University of Lyon. However, because of the start of World War II, Harsanyi returned to Hungary to study pharmacology at the University of Budapest, as a pharmacology student, Harsanyi escaped conscription into the Hungarian Army which, as a person of Jewish descent, would have meant forced labor. However, in 1944 his military deferment was cancelled and he was compelled to join a labor unit on the Eastern Front. After the end of the war, Harsanyi returned to the University of Budapest for graduate studies in philosophy and sociology, then a devout Catholic, he simultaneously studied theology, also joining lay ranks of the Dominican Order. He later abandoned Catholicism, becoming an atheist for the rest of his life, Harsanyi spent the academic year 1947–1948 on the faculty of the Institute of Sociology of the University of Budapest, where he met Anne Klauber, his future wife. He was forced to resign the faculty because of openly expressing his anti-Marxist opinions, Harsanyi remained in Hungary for the following two years attempting to sell his familys pharmacy without losing it to the authorities. The two did not marry until they arrived in Australia because Klaubers immigration papers would need to be changed to reflect her married name, the two arrived with her parents on December 30,1950 and they looked to marry immediately. Harsanyi and Klauber were married on January 2,1951, neither spoke much English and understood little of what they were told to say to each other. Harsanyi later explained to his new wife that she had promised to better food than she usually did. Harsanyis Hungarian degrees were not recognized in Australia, but they earned him credit at the University of Sydney for a masters degree. Harsanyi worked in a factory during the day and studied economics in the evening at the University of Sydney, while studying in Sydney, he started publishing research papers in economic journals, including the Journal of Political Economy and the Review of Economic Studies. The degree allowed him to take a position in 1954 at the University of Queensland in BrisbaneJohn Charles Harsanyi – John Harsanyi
27. George de Hevesy – He also co-discovered the element hafnium. Hevesy György was born in Budapest, Hungary to a wealthy and ennobled family of Hungarian Jewish descent, grandparents from both sides of the family had provided the presidents of the Jewish community of Pest. His parents converted to Roman Catholicism, George grew up in Budapest and graduated high school in 1903 from Piarista Gimnázium. The familys name in 1904 was Hevesy-Bischitz, and Hevesy later changed his own, de Hevesy began his studies in chemistry at the University of Budapest for one year, and at the Technical University of Berlin for several months, but changed to the University of Freiburg. There he came in contact with Ludwig Gattermann, in 1906 he started his Ph. D. thesis with Georg Franz Julius Meyer, acquiring his doctorate in physics in 1908. In 1908 Hevesy got a position at the ETH Zürich, Switzerland, yet being independently wealthy, soon he worked with Fritz Haber in Karlsruhe, Germany, then with Ernest Rutherford in Manchester, England, where he also met Niels Bohr. Back at home in Budapest he was appointed professor in chemistry in 1918. In 1920 he settled in Copenhagen, in 1922 de Hevesy co-discovered the element hafnium. Mendeleevs periodic table in 1869 put the elements into a logical system. On the basis of Bohrs atomic model Hevesy came to the conclusion there must be a chemical element that goes there. The mineralogical museum of Norway and Greenland in Copenhagen furnished the material for the research, characteristic X-ray spectra recordings made of the sample indicated that a new element was present. Later, in 1943, this would earn Hevesy the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and this account has been disputed by the likes of Mansel Davies and Eric Scerri who attribute the prediction that element 72 would be a transition element to the chemist Charles Bury. Supported financially by the Rockefeller Foundation, Hevesy had a productive year. He developed the X-ray fluorescence analytical method, and discovered the Samarium alpha-ray, in 1924 Hevesy returned to Freiburg as Professor of Physical Chemistry, and in 1930 went to Cornell University, Ithaca as Baker Lecturer. Four years later he took up again his activities at Niels Bohrs Institute which he terminated in 1952, from 1943 he was domiciled in Stockholm and was an Associate of the Institute of Research in Organic Chemistry. In 1949 he was elected Franqui Professor in the University of Ghent, in his retirement, he remained an active scientific associate of the University of Stockholm. Hevesy was offered and accepted a job from the University of Freiburg and he placed the resulting solution on a shelf in his laboratory at the Niels Bohr Institute. After the war, he returned to find the undisturbed and precipitated the gold out of the acidGeorge de Hevesy – György de Hevesy
28. John von Neumann – John von Neumann was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, inventor, computer scientist, and polymath. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics, physics, economics, computing, and statistics. He published over 150 papers in his life, about 60 in pure mathematics,20 in physics, and 60 in applied mathematics and his last work, an unfinished manuscript written while in the hospital, was later published in book form as The Computer and the Brain. His analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA, also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939, on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932. During World War II he worked on the Manhattan Project, developing the mathematical models behind the lenses used in the implosion-type nuclear weapon. After the war, he served on the General Advisory Committee of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, along with theoretical physicist Edward Teller, mathematician Stanislaw Ulam, and others, he worked out key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb. Von Neumann was born Neumann János Lajos to a wealthy, acculturated, Von Neumanns place of birth was Budapest in the Kingdom of Hungary which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the eldest of three children and he had two younger brothers, Michael, born in 1907, and Nicholas, who was born in 1911. His father, Neumann Miksa was a banker, who held a doctorate in law and he had moved to Budapest from Pécs at the end of the 1880s. Miksas father and grandfather were both born in Ond, Zemplén County, northern Hungary, johns mother was Kann Margit, her parents were Jakab Kann and Katalin Meisels. Three generations of the Kann family lived in apartments above the Kann-Heller offices in Budapest. In 1913, his father was elevated to the nobility for his service to the Austro-Hungarian Empire by Emperor Franz Joseph, the Neumann family thus acquired the hereditary appellation Margittai, meaning of Marghita. The family had no connection with the town, the appellation was chosen in reference to Margaret, Neumann János became Margittai Neumann János, which he later changed to the German Johann von Neumann. Von Neumann was a child prodigy, as a 6 year old, he could multiply and divide two 8-digit numbers in his head, and could converse in Ancient Greek. When he once caught his mother staring aimlessly, the 6 year old von Neumann asked her, formal schooling did not start in Hungary until the age of ten. Instead, governesses taught von Neumann, his brothers and his cousins, Max believed that knowledge of languages other than Hungarian was essential, so the children were tutored in English, French, German and Italian. A copy was contained in a private library Max purchased, One of the rooms in the apartment was converted into a library and reading room, with bookshelves from ceiling to floor. Von Neumann entered the Lutheran Fasori Evangelikus Gimnázium in 1911 and this was one of the best schools in Budapest, part of a brilliant education system designed for the eliteJohn von Neumann – Excerpt from the university calendars for 1928 and 1928–1929 of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin announcing Neumann's lectures on axiomatic set theory and logics, problems in quantum mechanics and special mathematical functions. Notable colleagues were Georg Feigl, Issai Schur, Erhard Schmidt, Leó Szilárd, Heinz Hopf, Adolf Hammerstein and Ludwig Bieberbach.
29. George Andrew Olah – George Andrew Olah was a Hungarian and American chemist. His research involved the generation and reactivity of carbocations via superacids, for this research, Olah was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1994 for his contribution to carbocation chemistry. He was also awarded the Priestley Medal, the highest honor granted by the American Chemical Society, cotton Medal for Excellence in Chemical Research of the American Chemical Society in 1996. Olah was born in Budapest, Hungary, on May 22,1927, to Magda and Gyula Oláh, from 1949 through 1954, he taught at the school as a professor of organic chemistry. Olahs pioneering work on carbocations started during his eight years with Dow, in 1971, Olah became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He then moved to the University of Southern California in 1977, at USC, Olah was a distinguished professor and the director of the Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute. Starting in 1980, he served as the Distinguished Donald P. Loker Professor of Chemistry and later became a distinguished professor in USCs School of Engineering. In 1994, Olah was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contribution to carbocation chemistry, in particular, Olahs search for stable nonclassical carbocations led to the discovery of protonated methane stabilized by superacids, like FSO3H-SbF5. The awards are selected and administered by the American Chemical Society, later in his career, his research shifted from hydrocarbons and their transformation into fuel to the methanol economy, namely generating methanol from methane. He joined with Robert Zubrin, Anne Korin, and James Woolsey in promoting a flexible-fuel mandate initiative. He married Judith Agnes Lengyel in 1949, and they had two children, George, born in Hungary in 1954, and Ronald, born in the U. S. in 1959, Olah died on March 8,2017, at his home in Beverly Hills, California. After his death, the Hungarian government said that the country has lost a great patriot, cotton Medal 1997 Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1997George Andrew Olah – George Olah
30. Hans Selye – János Hugo Bruno Hans Selye, CC, was a pioneering Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian origin. He conducted much important scientific work on the hypothetical non-specific response of an organism to stressors, although he did not recognize all of the many aspects of glucocorticoids, Selye was aware of their role in the stress response. Charlotte Gerson considers him the first to demonstrate the existence of biological stress, Selye was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary on 26 January 1907. He grew up in Komárom, Slovakia, and the Slovakian language university in town bears his name. In 1945, he joined the Université de Montréal where he had 40 assistants and he died on 16 October 1982 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He was a nominee to the Nobel prize for the first time in 1949, Selye was of Austro-Hungarian origin and Slovakian ethnicity. His last inspiration for general adaptation syndrome came from an experiment in which he injected mice with extracts of various organs. He at first believed he had discovered a new hormone, but was proved wrong when every irritating substance he injected produced the same symptoms. This, paired with his observation that people with different diseases exhibit similar symptoms and he later coined the term stress, which has been accepted into the lexicon of most other languages. Selye has acknowledged the influence of Claude Bernard and Walter Cannons homeostasis, Selye discovered and documented that stress differs from other physical responses in that stress is stressful whether one receives good or bad news, whether the impulse is positive or negative. He called negative stress distress and positive stress eustress, the system whereby the body copes with stress, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system, was also first described by Selye. He also pointed to a state, a resistance state. Later he developed the idea of two reservoirs of stress resistance, or alternatively stress energy, Selye wrote The Stress of Life, From Dream to Discovery, On Being a Scientist and Stress without Distress. He worked as a professor and director of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, in 1975 he created the International Institute of Stress, and in 1979, Dr. Selye and Arthur Antille started the Hans Selye Foundation. Later Selye and eight Nobel laureates founded the Canadian Institute of Stress, in 1968 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. He also helped RJ Reynolds to recruit other scientists, and there is evidence that industry lawyers helped with the wording and content of some of Selye’s later academic papers. Roger Guillemin Paola S. Timiras A Syndrome Produced by Diverse Nocuous Agents -1936 article by Hans Selye from The journal of neuropsychiatry, New York, McGraw-Hill,1956, ISBN 978-0070562127 Selye, H. Stress and disease. From Dream to Discovery, On being a scientist, New York, McGraw-Hill 1964, ISBN 978-0405066160 Hormones and ResistanceHans Selye – Bust of Hans Selye at Selye János University, Komárno, Slovakia
31. Ignaz Semmelweis – Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures. Described as the saviour of mothers, Semmelweis discovered that the incidence of puerperal fever could be cut by the use of hand disinfection in obstetrical clinics. Puerperal fever was common in hospitals and often fatal. He published a book of his findings in Etiology, Concept, Semmelweis could offer no acceptable scientific explanation for his findings, and some doctors were offended at the suggestion that they should wash their hands. In 1865, Semmelweis was committed to an asylum, where he died at age 47 of pyaemia, after being beaten by the guards, Ignaz Semmelweis was born on 1 July 1818 in Tabán, neighbourhood of Buda, Hungary, today part of Budapest. He was the child out of ten of the prosperous grocer family of József Semmelweis. His father was an ethnic German born in Kismarton, then part of Hungary, now Eisenstadt and he achieved permission to set up a shop in Buda in 1806 and, in the same year, opened a wholesale business for spices and general consumer goods. The company was named zum Weißen Elefanten in Meindl-Haus in Tabán, by 1810, he was a wealthy man and married Teréz Müller, daughter of the coach builder Fülöp Müller. Ignaz Semmelweis began studying law at the University of Vienna in the autumn of 1837 and he was awarded his doctorate degree in medicine in 1844. Maternity institutions were set up all over Europe to address problems of infanticide of illegitimate children and they were set up as gratis institutions and offered to care for the infants, which made them attractive to underprivileged women, including prostitutes. In return for the services, the women would be subjects for the training of doctors. Two maternity clinics were at the Viennese hospital, the First Clinic had an average maternal mortality rate of about 10% due to puerperal fever. The Second Clinics rate was lower, averaging less than 4%. This fact was known outside the hospital, Semmelweis was puzzled that puerperal fever was rare among women giving street births. To me, it appeared logical that patients who experienced street births would become ill at least as frequently as those who delivered in the clinic, the only major difference was the individuals who worked there. The First Clinic was the service for medical students, while the Second Clinic had been selected in 1841 for the instruction of midwives only. He excluded overcrowding as a cause, since the Second Clinic was always more crowded and he eliminated climate as a cause because the climate was the same. The breakthrough occurred in 1847, following the death of his good friend Jakob Kolletschka, kolletschkas own autopsy showed a pathology similar to that of the women who were dying from puerperal feverIgnaz Semmelweis – Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis, aged 42 in 1860 copperplate engraving by Jenő Doby
32. Charles Simonyi – Charles Simonyi, son of Károly Simonyi, is a Hungarian-born American computer programmer, businessman, and space tourist. He was head of Microsofts application software group, where he oversaw the creation of Microsofts flagship Office suite of applications and he now heads his own company, Intentional Software, with the aim of developing and marketing his concept of intentional programming. In April 2007, aboard Soyuz TMA-10, he became the space tourist. In March 2009, aboard Soyuz TMA-14, he made a trip to the International Space Station. His estimated net worth is US$1.4 billion, Simonyi was born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Károly Simonyi, a professor of electrical engineering at the Technical University of Budapest. While in secondary school he worked part-time as a watchman at a computer laboratory in early 1960s. He took an interest in computing and learned to program one of the laboratorys engineers. By the time he left school, he had learned to develop compilers and he presented a demonstration of his compiler to the members of a Danish computer trade delegation. In 2006 he said when he was young his dream was, “to get out of Hungary, go to the West and be free. ”At the age of 17, Simonyi left Hungary on a short-term visa but did not return. He subsequently moved to the United States in 1968 to attend the University of California, Berkeley and he and Lampson developed Bravo, the first WYSIWYG document preparation program, which became operational in 1974. During this time he received his Ph. D. in computer science from Stanford University in 1977 with a dissertation on a project management technique he called meta-programming. This approach sought to defeat Brooks law by scaling programming through a formalization of communication among programmers, in the 1992 book Accidental Empires, Robert X. Cringely gave this description, Simonyis dissertation was an attempt to describe a more efficient method of organizing programmers to write software. The metaprogrammer was the designer, decision maker, and communication controller in a development group. Individual progammers were allowed to make no decisions about the project. All they did was write the code as described by the metaprogrammer, a programmer with a problem or a question would take it to the metaprogrammer, who could come up with an answer or transfer the question to another programmer. Simonyi remained at PARC until 1981, in 1981, at Metcalfes suggestion, he visited Bill Gates at Microsoft who suggested Simonyi start an applications group at Microsoft with the first application being a WYSIWYG word processor. At Microsoft, Simonyi built the organization and applications of what became its most profitable products, Word and Excel, for the applications, Simonyi pursued a strategy called the revenue bomb, whereby the product ran on a virtual machine that was ported to each platform. The resulting applications were highly portable, although Microsofts focus and IBMs standardization on MS-DOS eventually made portability less important, Simonyi introduced to Microsoft the techniques of object-oriented programming that he had learned at XeroxCharles Simonyi – Charles Simonyi
33. Edward Teller – Edward Teller was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who was born in Hungary, and is known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, although he claimed he did not care for the title. He made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics, spectroscopy, Teller also made contributions to Thomas–Fermi theory, the precursor of density functional theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules. Teller emigrated to the United States in the 1930s, and was an member of the Manhattan Project. During this time he made a push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos Laboratory superior J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and was both its director and associate director for many years and he was a vigorous advocate of Ronald Reagans Strategic Defense Initiative. Strangelove in the 1964 movie of the same name, ede Teller was born on January 15,1908, in Budapest, Hungary, into a Jewish family. His parents were Ilona, a pianist, and Max Teller, raised in a Jewish family, he later on became an agnostic. Religion was not an issue in my family, he wrote, indeed. My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions and my family celebrated one holiday, the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted. Yet my father said prayers for his parents on Saturdays and on all the Jewish holidays, the idea of God that I absorbed was that it would be wonderful if He existed, We needed Him desperately but had not seen Him in many thousands of years. Like Einstein and Feynman, Teller was a late talker and he developed the ability to speak later than most children but became very interested in numbers, and would calculate large numbers in his head for fun. Teller left Hungary in 1926, partly due to the discriminatory numerus clausus rule under Miklós Horthys regime, the political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller. When he was a student, his right foot was severed in a streetcar accident in Munich, requiring him to wear a prosthetic foot. Werner Heisenberg said that it was the hardiness of Tellers spirit, rather than stoicism, Teller graduated in chemical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, and received his Ph. D. in physics under Werner Heisenberg at the University of Leipzig. Tellers dissertation dealt with one of the first accurate quantum mechanical treatments of the molecular ion. In 1930 he befriended Russian physicists George Gamow and Lev Landau, Tellers lifelong friendship with a Czech physicist, George Placzek, was also very important for his scientific and philosophical development. It was Placzek who arranged a stay in Rome with Enrico Fermi in 1932Edward Teller – Teller in 1958 as Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
34. Eugene Wigner – Eugene Paul E. P. Wigner, was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, engineer and mathematician. Wigner and Hermann Weyl were responsible for introducing group theory into physics, along the way he performed ground-breaking work in pure mathematics, in which he authored a number of mathematical theorems. In particular, Wigners theorem is a cornerstone in the formulation of quantum mechanics. He is also known for his research into the structure of the atomic nucleus, in 1930, Princeton University recruited Wigner, along with John von Neumann, and he moved to the United States. Wigner was afraid that the German nuclear weapon project would develop an atomic bomb first, during the Manhattan Project, he led a team whose task was to design nuclear reactors to convert uranium into weapons grade plutonium. At the time, reactors existed only on paper, and no reactor had yet gone critical, Wigner was disappointed that DuPont was given responsibility for the detailed design of the reactors, not just their construction. In later life, he became more philosophical, and published The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences, Wigner Jenő Pál was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary on November 17,1902, to middle class Jewish parents, Elisabeth and Anthony Wigner, a leather tanner. He had a sister, Bertha, known as Biri, and a younger sister Margit, known as Manci. He was home schooled by a teacher until the age of 9. During this period, Wigner developed an interest in mathematical problems, at the age of 11, Wigner contracted what his doctors believed to be tuberculosis. His parents sent him to live for six weeks in a sanatorium in the Austrian mountains, Wigners family was Jewish, but not religiously observant, and his Bar Mitzvah was a secular one. From 1915 through 1919, he studied at the grammar school called Fasori Evangélikus Gimnázium. Religious education was compulsory, and he attended classes in Judaism taught by a rabbi, a fellow student was János von Neumann, who was a year behind Wigner. They both benefited from the instruction of the mathematics teacher László Rátz. In 1919, to escape the Béla Kun communist regime, the Wigner family briefly fled to Austria, partly as a reaction to the prominence of Jews in the Kun regime, the family converted to Lutheranism. Wigner explained later in his life that his decision to convert to Lutheranism was not at heart a religious decision. On religious views, Wigner was an atheist, after graduating from the secondary school in 1920, Wigner enrolled at the Budapest University of Technical Sciences, known as the Műegyetem. He was not happy with the courses on offer, and in 1921 enrolled at the Technische Hochschule Berlin and he also attended the Wednesday afternoon colloquia of the German Physical SocietyEugene Wigner – Eugene Wigner
35. Endre Ady – Endre Ady was a Hungarian poet. Ady was born in Érmindszent, Szilágy County and he belonged to an impoverished Calvinist noble family. Endre was the second of three children, the eldest, a girl named Ilona, died at an early age. Between 1892-1896, Ady attended the Calvinist College in Zalău, on 22 March 1896, he published his first poem in the Zalău newspaper Szilágy. He later studied law at the Reformed College in Debrecen, after finishing his studies, he became a journalist. He published his first poems in a volume called Versek in 1899 and he soon grew tired of Debrecen and moved to Nagyvárad, a city with a rich cultural life. In articles written in 1902 for the local newspaper Nagyváradi Napló, perhaps unwittingly, master Fadrusz has carved a satire, he wrote, referring to the opening of the Wesselényi Monument. Working as a journalist and spending time with like-minded people broadened his horizons and he published a new collection of poems in 1903, but remained relatively unknown. The turning point came in August 1903 when he met Adél Brüll, Léda became his muse, his love for her and his visit to Paris, where he followed her, helped him to develop his talent. He visited Paris seven times between 1904 and 1911, when he returned after his first visit, he moved to Budapest and began work for the newspaper Budapesti Napló, where he published more than 500 articles and many poems. Being interested in politics, Ady became a member of the radical group Huszadik Század, in 1906 he published his third book of poetry, Új versek, which is a landmark in literature and marks the birth of modern Hungarian poetry. His fourth collection, Vér és arany, brought him real success, in 1906 Ady decided to leave the country and went to Paris again. In 1907, he had to leave his job at Budapesti Napló, in 1908, the first issue of a new periodical called Nyugat published a poem and an essay by Ady. He worked for this periodical for the rest of his life, also in 1908 in Nagyvárad, he was one of the founders of a literary circle called A Holnap. The circle published an anthology of poems of Ady and others including Mihály Babits, Gyula Juhász, the poems of this anthology met with disapproval and incomprehension. Many people attacked the anthology for containing erotic poems, Ady disliked his name being linked with other poets, who he thought were jumping on his bandwagon. He wrote a story, The duk-duk affair, in which he mocked those who were following the trend he was setting. Ady was an editor and leading figure of Nyugat, an important journal of Hungarian literature the paper and he also wrote political articles for other journals criticizing the political situation of the timeEndre Ady – Endre Ady
36. Ferenc Kazinczy – Ferenc Kazinczy was a Hungarian author, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Magyar language and literature at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. He was born at Érsemjén, in the county of Bihar, in 1784 Kazinczy became subnotary for the county of Abaúj, and in 1786 he was nominated inspector of schools at Kassa. Although, upon the accession of Leopold II, Kazinczy, as a non-Catholic, was obliged to resign his post at Kassa and he not only assisted Raday in the establishment and direction of the first Magyar dramatic society, but enriched the repertoire with several translations from foreign authors. His Hamlet, which first appeared at Kassa in 1790, is a rendering from the German version of Schröder. In 1828 he took a part in the conferences held for the establishment of the Hungarian academy. He died of cholera at Széphalom and he also edited the works of Sándor Báróczi and of the poet Zrinyi, and the poems of Dayka and of John Kis. A collected edition of his works, consisting for the most part of translations, was published at Pest, 1814-1816 and his original productions, largely made up of letters, were edited by Joseph Bajza and Francis Toldy at Pest, 1836-1845, in 5 vols. Editions of his poems appeared in 1858 and in 1863, in 1873, a neo-classicistic memorial hall and graveyard was built in Széphalom for his memory, based on the plans of the architect Miklós Ybl. Today it belongs to the Ottó Herman Museum, the Museum of the Hungarian Language is intended to be built here, whose cornerstone has been laid in the park. Tövisek és virágok 1811. Poétai episztola Vitkovics Mihályhoz 1811. Ortológus és neológus nálunk és más nemzeteknél 1819 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name neededFerenc Kazinczy – Ferenc Kazinczy
37. Gabriel Bethlen – Gabriel Bethlen was Prince of Transylvania from 1613 to 1629) and Duke of Opole from 1622 to 1625. He was also King-elect of Hungary from 1620 to 1621, Gabriel was the elder of the two sons of Farkas Bethlen and Druzsiána Lázár. Gabriel was born in his fathers estate, Marosillye, on 15 November 1580, Farkas Bethlen was a Hungarian nobleman who lost his ancestral estate, Iktár, due to the Ottoman occupation of the central territories of the Kingdom of Hungary. Stephen Báthory, Prince of Transylvania, granted Marosillye to him, Druzsiána Lázár was descended from a Székely noble family. Both Farkas Bethlen and his wife died in 1591, leaving their two sons, Gabriel and Stephen, orphaned, the brothers were put under the guardianship of their maternal uncle, András Lázár. They lived in the Lázár Castle in Szárhegy in Székely Land for years, Gabriels court historian, Gáspár Bojti Veres, described Lázár as a grumpy and fierce soldier who did not care much about their formal education. Gabriel also mentioned in the letter that he decided to visit the court in Gyulafehérvár. Modern historians try to reconstruct the events of Gabriels youth based on sources completed decades later. One of the sources is Gabriels own letter from 1628, in which he stated that Stephen Bocskai had raised him. Gabriel also stated that Bocskai was his kin, based on these sources, modern historians assume that Bocskai boosted Gabriels career in Sigismund Báthorys court, but no contemporaneous document mentioned his presence in the princes retinue. Sigismund Báthory joined the anti-Ottoman Holy League of Pope Clement VIII, according to historian József Barcza, Gabriel gained his first direct experience of warfare fighting against the Ottomans in the Battle of Giurgiu in Wallachia in 1595. Sigismund Báthory regretted his abdication and returned to Transylvania in August 1598 and he sent Bocskai to Prague to start negotiations with Rudolph in January 1599. According to a theory, Gabriel Bethlen accompanied Bocskai to Prague. Historian József Barcza also says, Gabriel must have realized around that time that the Habsburg monarchs were unable to defend Transylvania against the Ottomans, Gabriel himself stated that he visited Prague in the retinue of Sigismund Báthory at an unspecified date. Gabriel supported Andrew Báthory, who mounted the throne with Polish assistance after Sigismund again abdicated in 1599, michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, broke into Transylvania and defeated Andrew in the Battle of Sellenberk on 8 October 1599. Gabriel received wounds in the battle and his wounds healed slowly, michael the Brave was expelled from Transylvania by Rudolphs commander, Giorgio Basta. During the following years, Transylvania was regularly pillaged both by Bastas unpaid mercenaries, and by Ottoman and Crimean Tatar troops, Gabriel and his brother, Stephen, divided their inherited estates, with Gabriel receiving Marosillye. Their agreement also refers to the situation, mentioning the possibility that either pagan or some godless prince or the governor would seize Gabriels propertyGabriel Bethlen – Gabriel Bethlen.
38. Stephen Bocskay – Stephen Bocskai or Bocskay was Prince of Transylvania and Hungary from 1605 to 1606. He was born to a Hungarian noble family and his fathers estates were located in the eastern regions of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, which developed into the Principality of Transylvania in the 1570s. He spent his youth in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian, Bocskais career started when his underage nephew, Sigismund Báthory, became the ruler of Transylvania in 1581. He became a member of the council and the royal council. After the Diet of Transylvania declared Sigismund of age in 1588, Sigismund made Bocskai captain of Várad in 1592. Bocskai signed the treaty about the membership of Transylvania in the Holy League on Sigismunds behalf in Prague on 28 January 1595 and he led the Transylvanian army to Wallachia which had been occupied by the Ottomans. The Christian troops liberated Wallachia and defeated the retreating Ottoman army in the Battle of Giurgiu on 29 September 1595, after a series of Ottoman victories, Sigismund Báthory abdicated in early 1598. The commissioners of Maximilians successor, Rudolph, took possession of Transylvania, Bocskai persuaded Sigismund to return, but Sigismund again abdicated in March 1599. The new prince, Andrew Báthory, confiscated Bocskais estates in Transylvania proper, Andrew Báthory was dethroned by Michael the Brave of Wallachia. During the following period of anarchy, Bocskai was forced to stay in Prague for months and he rose up against Rudolph after his secret correspondence with the Grand Vizier, Lala Mehmed Pasha, was captured in October 1605. Bocskai hired Hajdús and defeated Rudolphs military commanders and he expanded his authority over Transylvania proper, the Partium and the nearby counties with the support of the local noblemen and burghers who had been also stirred up by Rudolphs tyrannical acts. Bocskai was elected prince of Transylvania on 21 February 1605, the Ottomans supported him, but his partisans thought that the Ottomans intervention threatened the independence of Royal Hungary. To put an end to the war, Bocskai and Rudolphs representatives signed the Treaty of Vienna on 23 June 1606. Rudolph acknowledged Bocskais hereditary right to rule the Principality of Transylvania, the treaty also confirmed the Protestant noblemen and burghers right to freely practise their religion. In his last will, Bocskai emphasized that only the existence of the Principality of Transylvania could secure the status of Royal Hungary within the Habsburg Empire. Stephen was the sixth or seventh child of György Bocskai and Krisztina Sulyok and his father was a Hungarian nobleman whose inherited estates were located in Bihar and Zemplén Counties. Stephens mother was related to the influential Török and Héderváry families, one of her two sisters was the wife of István Dobó. Ferdinand I, King of Hungary, made Dobó Voivode of Transylvania in 1553, György Bocskai accompanied Dobó to Transylvania and received new estates in the province from FerdinandStephen Bocskay – Stephen Bocskai
39. Matthias Corvinus – Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I, was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490. After conducting several military campaigns, he was elected King of Bohemia in 1469 and he was the son of John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary, who died in 1456. In 1457, Matthias was imprisoned along with his brother, Ladislaus Hunyadi. Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed, causing a rebellion that forced King Ladislaus to flee Hungary, after the King died unexpectedly, Matthiass uncle Michael Szilágyi persuaded the Estates to unanimously proclaim Matthias king on 24 January 1458. He began his rule under his uncles guardianship, but he took control of government within two weeks. As king, Matthias waged wars against the Czech mercenaries who dominated Upper Hungary and against Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, in this period, the Ottoman Empire conquered Serbia and Bosnia, terminating the zone of buffer states along the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary. Matthias signed a treaty with Frederick III in 1463, acknowledging the Emperors right to style himself King of Hungary. The Emperor returned the Holy Crown of Hungary with which Matthias was crowned on 29 April 1464, in this year, Matthias invaded the territories that had recently been occupied by the Ottomans and seized fortresses in Bosnia. He soon realized he could expect no aid from the Christian powers. Matthias introduced new taxes and regularly collected extraordinary taxes and these measures caused a rebellion in Transylvania in 1467, but he subdued the rebels. The next year, Matthias declared war on George of Poděbrady, the Hussite King of Bohemia, and conquered Moravia, Silesia, and Lausitz, but he could not occupy Bohemia proper. The Catholic Estates proclaimed him King of Bohemia on 3 May 1469, instead, they elected Vladislaus Jagiellon, the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland. A group of Hungarian prelates and lords offered the throne to Vladislauss younger brother Casimir, having routed the united troops of Casimir IV and Vladislaus at Breslau in Silesia in late 1474, Matthias turned against the Ottomans, who had devastated the eastern parts of Hungary. He sent reinforcements to Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia, in 1476, Matthias besieged and seized Šabac, an important Ottoman border fort. He concluded a treaty with Vladislaus Jagiellon in 1478, confirming the division of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown between them. Matthias waged a war against Emperor Frederick and occupied Lower Austria between 1482 and 1487, Matthias patronized art and science, his royal library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was one of the largest collections of books in Europe. With his patronage, Hungary became the first country to embrace the Renaissance from Italy, as Matthias the Just, the monarch who wandered among his subjects in disguise, he remains a popular hero of Hungarian folk tales. Matthias was born in Kolozsvár on 23 February 1443 and he was the second son of John Hunyadi and his wife, Elisabeth SzilágyiMatthias Corvinus – Matthias Corvinus
40. Lajos Kossuth – With the help of his talent in oratory in political debates and public speeches, Kossuth emerged from a poor gentry family into regent-president of Kingdom of Hungary. As the most influential contemporary American journalist Horace Greeley said of Kossuth, “Among the orators, patriots, statesmen, exiles, he has, living or dead, no superior. ”Kossuths powerful English and American speeches so impressed and touched the most famous contemporary American orator Daniel Webster, that he wrote a book about Kossuths life. He was widely honored during his lifetime, including in Great Britain, Kossuths bronze bust can be found in the United States Capitol with the inscription, Father of Hungarian Democracy, Hungarian Statesman, Freedom Fighter, 1848–1849. Kossuth was born in Monok, Kingdom of Hungary, a town in the county of Zemplén. His father, László Kossuth, belonged to the nobility, had a small estate and was a lawyer by profession. László Kossuth had two brothers and one sister, the House of Kossuth originated from the county of Turóc. They acquired the rank of nobility in 1263 from King Béla IV, the mother of Lajos Kossuth, Karolina Weber was born to a Lutheran family of partial German descent, living in Upper Hungary. His mother raised the children as strict Lutherans, as a result of his mixed ancestry, and as was quite common during his era, he spoke three languages - Slovak, Hungarian and German. Kossuth studied at the Piarist college of Sátoraljaújhely and one year in the Calvinist college of Sárospatak, aged nineteen, he entered his fathers legal practice. He was popular locally, and having been appointed steward to the countess Szapáry and he was subsequently dismissed on the grounds of some misunderstanding in regards to estate funds. Shortly after his dismissal by Countess Szapáry, Kossuth was appointed as deputy to Count Hunyady at the National Diet, the Diet met during 1825–1827 and 1832–1836 in Pressburg, then capital of Hungary. Only the upper aristocracy could vote in the House of Magnates, however, at the time, a struggle to reassert a Hungarian national identity was beginning to emerge under leaders such as Wesselényi and the Széchenyis. In part, it was also a struggle for economic and political reforms against the stagnant Austrian government, Kossuths duties to Count Hunyady included reporting on Diet proceedings in writing, as the Austrian government, fearing popular dissent, had banned published reports. The high quality of Kossuths letters led to their being circulated in manuscript among other liberal magnates, readership demands led him to edit an organized parliamentary gazette, spreading his name and influence further. Orders from the Official Censor halted circulation by lithograph printing, distribution in manuscript by post was forbidden by the government, although circulation by hand continued. In 1836, the Diet was dissolved, Kossuth continued to report, covering the debates of the county assemblies. The newfound publicity gave the national political prominence. Previously, they had had little idea of each others proceedings and his embellishment of the speeches from the liberals and reformers enhanced the impact of his newslettersLajos Kossuth – Lajos Kossuth
41. Ferenc Nagy – Ferenc Nagy was a Hungarian politician of the Smallholders Party. He was a Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary from 29 November 1945 to 5 February 1946, Nagy was reported to be of peasant origins. Later he served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 4 February 1946 to 31 May 1947 and he was elected in 1946, in Hungarys first democratic election. As prime minister, he resisted attempts by the Hungarian Communist Party to gain control of the government. He refused attempts by the Communists to become a puppet of a Soviet backed police state and he gave up the premiership in return for his son and 300,000 Swiss francs. Subsequently he was granted asylum in the United States, Nagy documented his life and political career in The Struggle behind the Iron Curtain, published by MacMillan in 1948. The struggle behind the Iron Curtain, the statesman in the free world and in communism. Audiobook on tape, Lectures, speeches, English, Ferenc Nagy, a Hungarian agrar-democrat in the first half of the 20th Century. Nagy Ferenc miniszterelnök, visszamelékezések, tanulmányok, cikkek, a film clip Longines Chronoscope with Ference Nagy is available at the Internet Archive Speech by Ferenc Nagy on 23 March 1968, discussing America and the future of East Central Europe. Audio recording from The University of Alabamas Emphasis Symposium on Contemporary IssuesFerenc Nagy – Ferenc Nagy
42. Imre Nagy – Imre Nagy was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian Peoples Republic on two occasions. Nagy was born in Kaposvár, to a peasant family and was apprenticed to a locksmith. His father, József Nagy was a servant, a county worker, and was later post assembly worker. He enlisted in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I and served on the Eastern Front and he was taken prisoner in 1915. He became a member of the Russian Communist Party and joined the Red Army, Nagy returned to Hungary in 1921. In 1930 he travelled to the Soviet Union and rejoined the Communist Party and he was engaged in agricultural research, but also worked in the Hungarian section of the Comintern. He was expelled from the party in 1936 and later worked for the Soviet Statistical Service, rumours that he was an agent of the Soviet secret service surfaced later, begun by Hungarian party leader Károly Grósz in 1989, allegedly in an attempt to discredit Nagy. There is evidence, however, that Nagy did serve as an informant for the NKVD during his time in Moscow, after the Second World War, Nagy returned to Hungary. He was the Minister of Agriculture in the government of Béla Miklós de Dálnok and he distributed land among the peasant population. In the next government, led by Tildy, he was the Minister of Interior, at this period he played an active role in the expulsion of the Hungarian Germans. In the communist government, he served as Minister of Agriculture and he was also Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary 1947–1949. After two years as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Peoples Republic of Hungary, during which he promoted his New Course in Socialism, Nagy fell out of favour with the Soviet Politburo. He was deprived of his Hungarian Central Committee, Politburo and all other Party functions, Nagy became Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Peoples Republic of Hungary again, this time by popular demand, during the anti-Soviet revolution in 1956. Soon he moved toward a multiparty political system, when the revolution was crushed by the Soviet invasion of Hungary, Nagy, with a few others, was given sanctuary in the Yugoslav Embassy. In spite of a safe conduct of free passage by János Kádár, on 22 November, Nagy was arrested by the Soviet forces as he was leaving the Yugoslav Embassy and taken to Snagov. Subsequently, the Soviets returned Nagy to Hungary, where he was charged with organizing the overthrow of the Hungarian peoples democratic state. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and his trial and execution were made public only after the sentence had been carried out. According to Fedor Burlatsky, a Kremlin insider, Nikita Khrushchev had Nagy executed, american journalist John Gunther described the events leading to Nagys death as an episode of unparalleled infamyImre Nagy – Imre Nagy
43. Bertalan Szemere – Szemere was born in Vatta into a poor noble family. His father was Major László Szemere, his mother was Erzsébet Karove, Szemere studied in Miskolc, Késmárk and Sárospatak. He was interested in writing poems and his works were published in the periodical Felső-Magyarországi Minerva and he was influenced by Ferenc Kölcsey and Mihály Vörösmarty. In 1832 Szemere graduated as a jurist and started to work as an apprentice in Pressburg and became a member of the Parliamentary Young Members Group, after he finished his pupillage, Szemere went back to Borsod where he was elected as an honorary notary public. In 1835 Szemere travelled around the world and visited amongst other places Berlin, Amsterdam, Dublin, Lausanne, Paris, during his visit Szemere realised that Hungary was less developed than he thought. Szemere also saw other countries prejudice about Hungary, Szemere wrote down his experience, and how foreign institutions developed and worked. He published his diary, Utazás külföldön in 1840, even though Szemere finished it in 1839, he couldnt publish it then because of censorship. Szemeres diary made him famous and he became a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, between 1841 –1847 Szemere was a judge in Borsod county. Szemere became a congressman with László Palóczy in Pressburg, Szemere was one of the most important leaders of the Opposition 1843 –1866 and 1847 –1848 Diet. In the 1847 –1848 Diet Szemere also became the recorder, in 1848 Szemere was the Home Secretary of the Batthyány Government. Szemeres task was to set up the new parliament and he started the governments official newspaper, the Közlöny. In the Hungarian Military Association he was responsible for justice, from 1848 Szemere was responsible for Upper-Hungary as a politician, therefore he was at Miskolc to reorganize the Upper-Tisza Legion, which had retreated after Franz Schliks attack. From 2 May 1849 Szemere was Home Secretary and Prime Minister alongside Regent Lajos Kossuth, the Government ended martial law and worked on the emancipation from serfdom. On 29 July 1849 they accepted the act which provided free language use for ethnic groups in local administration and education. The governments aim was to win the support of the groups for the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. After the Hungarian surrender at Világos Szemere buried the Holy Crown of Hungary, the Sceptre and he escaped to Turkey, and later emigrated to Paris. In 1851 the Austrian Empire sentenced him to death in absentia, Szemere supported the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and because of this his relationship with Kossuth became worse. Szemere attacked the Hungarian Revolutions leaders in his pamphlet and in another work, during his emigration Szemere wrote a travelogue Utazás keletenBertalan Szemere – Bertalan Szemere Szemere Bertalan
44. Vilmos Nagy of Nagybaczon – Vilmos Nagy de Nagybaczon, was a commanding general of the Royal Hungarian Army, Minister of Defence, a military theorist and historian. Commissioned lieutenant in 1905 after graduating from the Budapest Ludovica Military Academy, graduated in 1912 from the Imperial War College. In retirement, Vilmos Nagy lived under very modest circumstances and recognition was denied until the 1990s, the honour was accepted by his grandchildren, Mrs. András Fáy and Mrs. Károly Nagy. On the 120th anniversary of his birth in 2004, Nagybaczon in Transylvania also dedicated a plaque in his honour. On 9 September 2006, with a guard of honour present. József Károlyfalvi, The Presbyiterian General, The Military and Political career of Vilmos Nagy of Nagybaczon Sándor Szakály, The Hungarian Military Elite 1938–1945Vilmos Nagy of Nagybaczon – Vilmos Nagy
45. Michael Curtiz – Michael Curtiz was a Hungarian-born American film director, recognized as one of the most prolific directors in history. He directed classic films from the silent era and numerous others during Hollywoods Golden Age, Curtiz was already a well-known director in Europe when Warner Bros. invited him to Hollywood in 1926, when he was 38 years of age. He had already directed 64 films in Europe, and soon helped Warner Bros. become the movie studio. He directed 102 films during his Hollywood career, mostly at Warners, James Cagney and Joan Crawford won their only Academy Awards under Curtizs direction. He put Doris Day and John Garfield on screen for the first time, and he made stars of Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, and Bette Davis. He himself was nominated five times and won twice, once for Best Short Subject for Sons of Liberty and he introduced to Hollywood a unique visual style using artistic lighting, extensive and fluid camera movement, high crane shots, and unusual camera angles. He was versatile and could handle any kind of picture, melodrama, comedy, love story, film noir, musical, war story, Western, or historical epic. He always paid attention to the human interest aspect of story, stating that the human. Curtiz helped popularize the swashbuckler with films such as Captain Blood. He directed many dramas which today are considered classics, Angels with Dirty Faces, The Sea Wolf, Casablanca. He directed leading musicals, including Yankee Doodle Dandy, This Is the Army and White Christmas, Curtiz was born Mihaly Kertesz to a Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary in 1886, where his father was a carpenter and his mother an opera singer. Curtiz had a lower to middle-class upbringing and he recalled during an interview that his familys home was a cramped apartment, where he had to share a small room with his two brothers and a sister. Many times we are hungry, he added, after graduating high school, he studied at Markoszy University, followed by the Royal Academy of Theater and Art, in Budapest, before beginning his career. Curtiz became attracted to the theater when he was a child in Hungary and he built a little theater in the cellar of his house when he was 8 years old, where he and five of his friends reenacted plays. They set up the stage, with scenery and props, after he graduated college at age 19, he took a job as an actor with a traveling theater company where he began working as one their traveling players. From that job, he became a pantomimist with a circus for a while and they played Ibsen and Shakespeare in various languages, depending on what country they were in. They performed throughout Europe, including France, Hungary, Italy and Germany and he had various responsibilities, We had to do everything—make bill posters, print programs, set scenery, mend wardrobe, sometimes even arrange chairs in the auditoriums. Sometimes we traveled in trains, sometimes in stage coaches, sometimes on horseback, sometimes we played in town halls, sometimes in little restaurants with no scenery at allMichael Curtiz – Michael Curtiz
46. John Garfield – John Garfield was an American actor who played brooding, rebellious, working-class characters. He grew up in poverty in Depression-era New York City, in the early 1930s, he became a member of the Group Theater. In 1937, he moved to Hollywood, eventually becoming one of Warner Bros. stars, called to testify before the U. S. Congressional House Committee on Un-American Activities, he denied communist affiliation and refused to name names, some have alleged that the stress of this incident led to his premature death at 39 from a heart attack. Garfield is acknowledged as a predecessor of such Method actors as Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift, in early infancy, a middle name—Julius—was added, and for the rest of his life those who knew him well called him Julie. His father, a presser and part-time cantor, struggled to make a living. When Garfield was five, his brother Max was born and their mother never fully recovered from what was described as a difficult pregnancy. She died two years later, and the boys were sent to live with various relatives, all poor, scattered across the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens. Several of these lived in tenements in a section of East Brooklyn called Brownsville. At school, he was judged a poor reader and speller and he would later say of his time on the streets there, that he learned all the meanness, all the toughness its possible for kids to acquire. His father remarried and moved to the West Bronx, where Garfield joined a series of gangs, much later, he would recall, Every street had its own gang. Thats the way it was in poor sections and he soon became a gang leader. At this time, people started to notice his ability to mimic well-known performers and he also began to hang out and eventually spar at a boxing gym on Jerome Avenue. At some point, he contracted fever, causing permanent damage to his heart. After being expelled three times and expressing a wish to quit school altogether, his parents sent him to P. S,45, a school for difficult children. It was under the guidance of the schools principal—the noted educator Angelo Patri—that he was introduced to acting, noticing Garfields tendency to stammer, Patri assigned him to a speech therapy class taught by a charismatic teacher named Margaret ORyan. She gave him acting exercises and made him memorize and deliver speeches in front of the class and, as he progressed, ORyan thought he had natural talent and cast him in school plays. She encouraged him to sign up for a citywide debating competition sponsored by the New York Times, to his own surprise, he took second prizeJohn Garfield – Garfield in 1942
47. Sir Alexander Korda – Sir Alexander Korda was a Hungarian-born British film producer and director. He first worked in Hollywood during the transition to talkies, from 1926 to 1930, the change led to divorce from his first wife, popular Hungarian actress María Corda, who could not make the transition because of her strong accent in English. From 1930, Korda became a figure in the British film industry, the founder of London Films and the owner of British Lion Films. Korda was the first filmmaker to have been officially knighted, the elder brother of filmmakers Zoltan and Vincent, Korda was born Sándor László Kellner to a Jewish family in Pusztatúrpásztó in what is now Hungary, where he worked as a journalist. After the death of his father Korda began writing film reviews to support his family, Korda changed his family name from Kellner to Korda—from the Latin phrase sursum corda which means lift up your hearts. Korda became an important film figure through his film magazines Pesti Mozi, Mozihét and this led to invitations to write film screenplays. Kordas first film script was for Watchhouse in the Carpathians, when the First World War broke out, Korda was excused from military service in the Austrian Army because of his bad eyesight. Korda went to work at the Pedagogical Studio in Budapest and co-directed three films with Gyula Zilahy, Korda established a film company named Corvin Film, building it into one of the largest in Hungary. After his release, he left Hungary for Austria, and never returned to his country of birth, during the next eleven years, Korda made films in several countries, working in Vienna, Berlin, London and Paris before moving to Hollywood in 1940. He worked closely with artists on his films, including his Hungarian friend, painter. After leaving Hungary, Korda accepted an invitation from Count Alexander Kolowrat to work for his company Sascha-Film in the Austrian capital Vienna. Korda worked alongside Kolowrat, who had attracted several leading Hungarian and German directors into his employment, on the 1920 historical epic The Prince, the film was a major international success and inspired Korda with the idea of making international films with global box office appeal. Kordas next two films, Masters of the Sea and A Vanished World, were both nautical-set adventures based on Hungarian novels. By that stage, Korda had grown irritated with Kolowrats interference with his work and left Sascha to make an independent film, Samson and Delilah, the film was made on a lavish scale, with large crowd scenes. The lengthy shooting schedule lasted 160 working days, the film was not a success. Unable to find backing for his film projects, Korda left Vienna. Korda raised funding for the melodrama The Unknown Tomorrow, with backing from Germanys biggest film company, UFA, Korda returned to Vienna to make Everybodys Woman. While there, he work on his next film, the historical Tragedy in the House of HabsburgSir Alexander Korda – Alexander Korda
48. Peter Lorre – Peter Lorre was an Austro-Hungarian-American actor. In Austria, he began his career in Vienna before moving to Germany where he had his breakthrough, first on the stage, then in film in Berlin in the late 1920s. Lorre caused a sensation in the German film M, in which he portrayed a serial killer who preys on little girls. Because he was Jewish, he left Germany after 1933 and his first English-language film was Alfred Hitchcocks The Man Who Knew Too Much made in Great Britain. Eventually settling in Hollywood, he became a featured player in many Hollywood crime. In his initial American films, Mad Love and Crime and Punishment, he continued to play murderers, but he was then cast playing Mr. Moto, from 1941 to 1946 he mainly worked for Warner Bros. The first of these films at Warners was The Maltese Falcon and this was followed by Casablanca, the second of the nine films in which Lorre and Greenstreet appeared. Lorres other films include Frank Capras Arsenic and Old Lace and Disneys 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner, his later career was erratic. Lorre was the first actor to play a James Bond villain as Le Chiffre in a TV version of Casino Royale, some of his last roles were in horror films directed by Roger Corman. Lorre was born László Löwenstein on 26 June 1904, the first child of Jewish couple Alajos Löwenstein and his parents had recently moved there following his fathers appointment as chief bookkeeper at a local textile mill. Alajos Löwenstein also served as a lieutenant in the Austrian army reserve, lászlós mother died when he was only four years old, leaving Alajos with three very young sons, the youngest only a couple of months old. He soon married his wifes best friend Melanie Klein, with whom he had two more children, however, Lorre and his stepmother never got along, and this colored his childhood memories. At the outbreak of the Second Balkan War in 1913, anticipating that this would lead to a larger conflict and he was serving on the Eastern Front during the winter of 1914–1915 before being put in charge of a prison camp due to heart trouble. Lorre began acting on stage in Vienna aged 17, where he worked with Viennese Art Nouveau artist and he then moved to the German town of Breslau, and later to Zürich. In the late 1920s, the moved to Berlin, where he worked with German playwright Bertolt Brecht, including a role in Brechts Mann ist Mann. The actor became much better known after director Fritz Lang cast him as child killer Hans Beckert in M, a film reputedly derived from the Peter Kürten case. Lang said that he had Lorre in mind while working on the script, the director believed that the actor gave his best performance in M and that it was among the most distinguished in film history. Sharon Packer observed that Lorre played the loner, schizotypal murderer with raspy voice, bulging eyes, in 1932, Lorre appeared alongside Hans Albers in the science fiction film F. P.1 antwortet nicht about an artificial island in the mid-AtlanticPeter Lorre – (1946)
49. Emeric Pressburger – Emeric Pressburger was a Hungarian British screenwriter, film director, and producer. Imre József Pressburger was born in Miskolc, in the Kingdom of Hungary and he was the only son of Kálmán Pressburger, estate manager, and his second wife, Kätherina. He attended a boarding-school in Temesvár, where he was a pupil, excelling at mathematics, literature. He then studied mathematics and engineering at the Universities of Prague, Pressburger began a career as a journalist. After working in Hungary and Germany he turned to screenwriting in the late 1920s, the rise of the Nazis forced him to flee to Paris, where he again worked as screenwriter, and then to London. He later said, worst things that happened to me were the consequences of events beyond my control. The best things were exactly the same, Pressburger entered Britain in 1935 on a stateless passport, once he decided to settle, he changed his name to Emeric in 1938. In England he found a community of Hungarian film-makers who had fled the Nazis, including the influential Alexander Korda, owner of London Films. There he met film director Michael Powell, and they worked together on The Spy in Black and their partnership would produce some of the finest British films of the period. On 24 June 1938, Pressburger married Ági Donáth, the daughter of Andor Donáth, a general merchant and his daughter Angelas two sons both became successful film-makers, Andrew Macdonald as a producer on films such as Trainspotting, and Kevin Macdonald as an Oscar-winning director. Kevin has written a biography of his grandfather, and a documentary about his life, Pressburger became a British citizen in 1946. He was made a Fellow of BAFTA in 1981, and a Fellow of the BFI in 1983, Pressburger was a diffident and private person who, at times, particularly later on in his life, could be hypersensitive and prone to bouts of melancholia. He loved French cuisine, enjoyed music, and possessed a sense of humour. In appearance he was short, wore glasses, and had a sagacious and he was a keen supporter of Arsenal F. C. a passion he developed soon after arriving in Britain. From 1970 he lived in Aspall, Suffolk and he died in a home in nearby Saxtead on 5 February 1988, due to the complications of old age. He is interred in the cemetery of Our Lady of Grace Church and his is the only grave in that Church of England graveyard with a Star of David. 1943, Oscar winner for 49th Parallel as Best Writing, Original Story 1943, Oscar nominated for 49th Parallel as Best Writing, shared with Rodney Ackland 1943, Oscar nominated for One of Our Aircraft Is Missing for Best Writing, Original Screenplay. Shared with Michael Powell 1948, Won Danish Bodil Award for A Matter of Life, shared with Michael Powell 1948, Nominated for The Red Shoes for Venice Film Festival Golden LionEmeric Pressburger – Pressburger in Paris