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Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈnʒə/ (About this sound listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə, /-ziə/ -zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndonesia]),[lacks stress] officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [rɛpublik ɪndonesia]),[lacks stress] is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), Indonesia is the world's 14th largest country in terms of land area and the 7th largest in terms of combined sea and land area, with over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Austronesian and Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, contains more than half of the country's population.

Indonesia's republican form of government includes an elected parliament and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have special status, its capital is Jakarta, which is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity, the country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan, Singapore and India.

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Sitti Nurbaya and Samsulbari in Batavia.png

Sitti Nurbaya: Kasih Tak Sampai is an Indonesian novel by Marah Rusli that was published by Balai Pustaka in 1922. It follows two star-crossed teenage lovers from Padang, the titular Sitti Nurbaya and her childhood friend Samsulbahri (pictured), who must struggle against the rich miser Datuk Meringgih. Influenced by the cultures of the west Sumatran Minangkabau and the Dutch colonials, the novel is generally considered one of the most important works of Indonesian literature, inspiring numerous other Indonesian writers. It is taught as a classic of Indonesian literature; this has led to it being "read more often in brief synopsis than as an original text by generation after generation of Indonesian high school students". Described as "a monument to the struggle of forward-thinking youth", it features themes of colonialism, forced marriage, and modernity. It has been adapted as a soap opera twice. (Read more...)

Selected biography

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Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist known for independently proposing a theory of evolution due to natural selection. Wallace did extensive fieldwork in the Malay Archipelago 1854 to 1862; in the area he identified the Wallace Line that divides the Indonesia into two distinct parts, one in which animals closely related to those of Australia are common, and one in which the species are largely of Asian origin. He was considered the 19th century's leading expert on the geographical distribution of animal species and is sometimes called the "father of biogeography". Wallace was also a prolific author who wrote on both scientific and social issues; his account of his adventures and observations during his explorations in Indonesia and Malaysia, The Malay Archipelago, was one of the most popular and influential journals of scientific exploration published during the 19th century. (Read more...)

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Original music score for Indonesia's national anthem, "Indonesia Raya"

Creator: Wage Rudolf Supratman; Scan: Arsonal; License: Public domain

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