1. Fiji – Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealands North Island. Fiji is an archipelago of more than 330 islands, of which 110 are permanently inhabited, the two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population of almost 860,000. The capital, Suva on Viti Levu, serves as Fijis principal cruise port, about three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levus coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres like Nadi or Lautoka. Viti Levus interior is sparsely inhabited due to its terrain, Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific due to an abundance of forest, mineral, and fish resources. Today, the sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry. The countrys currency is the Fijian dollar, Fijis local government, in the form of city and town councils, is supervised by the Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development. The majority of Fijis islands were formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago, today, some geothermal activity still occurs on the islands of Vanua Levu and Taveuni. Fiji has been inhabited since the second millennium BC, and was settled first by Austronesians and later by Melanesians, Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century, and, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji was a Crown colony until 1970, when it gained independence as a Commonwealth realm, a republic was declared in 1987, following a series of coups détat. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power, later in 2009, Iloilo was replaced as President by Ratu Epeli Nailatikau. After years of delays, an election was held on 17 September 2014. Bainimaramas FijiFirst party won with 59. 2% of the vote, Fijis main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name Fiji is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga. Its emergence can be described as follows, Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, and all their Manufactures, especially bark cloth and clubs, were highly valued and much in demand. They called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, and it was by this foreign pronunciation, Fiji, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. Feejee, the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, the first settlements in Fiji were started by voyaging traders and settlers from the west about 5000 years agoFiji – Ratu Tanoa Visawaqa
2. Island – An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, an island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, an island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge, examples are Singapore and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. There are two types of islands in the sea, continental and oceanic. The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland, Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua. There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology, continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earths mantle. Oceanic crust is also part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere. This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere, continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. A special type of island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable, oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, the few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean, one type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc. These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring, examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles, another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples, Iceland, which is the second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. A third type of oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the tectonic plate above itIsland – Atafu atoll in Tokelau
3. Continent – A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in size to smallest, they are, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, in geology, areas of continental crust include regions covered with water. Islands are frequently grouped with a continent to divide all the worlds land into geopolitical regions. Under this scheme, most of the countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean are grouped together with the continent of Australia to form a geopolitical region called Oceania. By convention, continents are understood to be large, continuous, discrete masses of land, many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated completely by water. Earths major landmasses all have coasts on a single, continuous World Ocean, the most restricted meaning of continent is that of a continuous area of land or mainland, with the coastline and any land boundaries forming the edge of the continent. From this perspective the edge of the shelf is the true edge of the continent. In this sense the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are part of Europe, while Australia, as a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa, extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australasian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This divides the land surface of Earth into continents or quasi-continents. The ideal criterion that each continent be a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions, of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica and Australia are completely separated from other continents by ocean. Several continents are defined not as absolutely distinct bodies but as more or less discrete masses of land, Asia and Africa are joined by the Isthmus of Suez, and North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama. In both cases, there is no separation of these landmasses by water. Both these isthmuses are very narrow compared to the bulk off the landmasses they unite, North America and South America are treated as separate continents in the seven-continent model. However, they may also be viewed as a continent known as America or the Americas. This viewpoint was common in the United States until World War II and this remains the more common vision in Latin American countries, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy and Greece, where they are taught as a single continent. The criterion of a landmass is completely disregarded if the continuous landmass of Eurasia is classified as two separate continents, Europe and AsiaContinent – The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo holding a globe showing Europa and Asia
4. Water – Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earths streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen, Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often refers also to its solid state or its gaseous state. It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, Water covers 71% of the Earths surface. It is vital for all forms of life. Only 2. 5% of this water is freshwater, and 98. 8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0. 3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, a greater quantity of water is found in the earths interior. Water on Earth moves continually through the cycle of evaporation and transpiration, condensation, precipitation. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land, large amounts of water are also chemically combined or adsorbed in hydrated minerals. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. There is a correlation between access to safe water and gross domestic product per capita. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the population will be facing water-based vulnerability. A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in developing regions of the world. Water plays an important role in the world economy, approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers, lakes, large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a variety of chemical substances, as such it is widely used in industrial processes. Water is also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, Water is a liquid at the temperatures and pressures that are most adequate for life. Specifically, at atmospheric pressure of 1 bar, water is a liquid between the temperatures of 273.15 K and 373.15 KWater – Water in three states: liquid, solid (ice), and gas (invisible water vapor in the air). Clouds are accumulations of water droplets, condensed from vapor-saturated air.
5. Atoll – An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. There may be coral islands/cays on the rim, the coral of the atoll often sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided partially beneath the water. The lagoon forms over the crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow. For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a slow enough to permit reef growth upwards and outwards to replace the lost height. The word atoll comes from the Dhivehi word atholhu, meaning an administrative subdivision, the distribution of atolls around the globe is instructive, most of the worlds atolls are in the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has no large groups of atolls, other than eight atolls east of Nicaragua that belong to the Colombian department of San Andres and Providencia in the Caribbean. Reef-building corals will thrive only in tropical and subtropical waters of oceans and seas. The northernmost atoll of the world is Kure Atoll at 28°24 N, the southernmost atolls of the world are Elizabeth Reef at 29°58 S, and nearby Middleton Reef at 29°29 S, in the Tasman Sea, both of which are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. The next southerly atoll is Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands Group, at this latitude coral reefs would not develop without the warming waters of the Gulf Stream. However, Bermuda is termed a pseudo-atoll because its general form, while there is no atoll directly on the equator, the closest atoll to the Equator is Aranuka of Kiribati, with its southern tip just 12 km north of the equator. In most cases, the area of an atoll is very small in comparison to the total area. Atoll islands are low lying, with their elevations less than 5 meters, measured by total area, Lifou is the largest raised coral atoll of the world, followed by Rennell Island. More sources however list as the largest atoll in the world in terms of land area Kiritimati, the remains of an ancient atoll as a hill in a limestone area is called a reef knoll. The second largest atoll by dry land area is Aldabra with 155 km², the largest atoll in terms of island numbers is Huvadhu Atoll in the south of the Maldives with 255 islands. In 1842, Charles Darwin explained the creation of coral atolls in the southern Pacific Ocean based upon observations made during a voyage aboard the HMS Beagle from 1831 to 1836. In time, subsidence carries the old volcano below the ocean surface, at this point, the island has become an atoll. Atolls are the product of the growth of marine organisms. Volcanic islands located beyond the water temperature requirements of hermatypic organisms become seamounts as they subside and are eroded away at the surfaceAtoll – Satellite picture of the Atafu atoll in Tokelau in the Pacific Ocean
6. Islet – An islet is a very small island. As suggested by its origin as islette, an Old French diminutive of isle, use of the term implies small size, but little attention is given to drawing an upper limit on its applicability. Cay or Key – an islet formed by the accumulation of sand deposits atop a reef Motu – A reef islet formed by broken coral and sand. River island – A small islet within the current of a river, rock – A rock, in the sense of a type of islet, is an uninhabited landform composed of rock, lying offshore, and having at most minimal vegetation. Sandbar – An exposed sandbar is another type of islet, Sea stack – A thin, vertical landform jutting out of a body of water. Skerry – A small rocky island, usually defined to be too small for habitation, subsidiary islets – A more technical application is to small land features, isolated by water, lying off the shore of a larger island. Likewise, any emergent land in an atoll is called an islet. Tidal island – Often small islands lie off the mainland of an area, being connected to it in low tide. In the Caribbean and West Atlantic, islets are often called cays or keys, rum Cay in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys off Florida are examples of islets. In the Channel Islands, they are identified by the suffix -hou from the Norse -holm. In Scotland and Ireland, they are often called inches, from the Gaelic innis, which originally meant island, in Ireland they are often termed skerries. In and around Polynesia, islets are widely known by the term motu, in and around the River Thames in England, small islands are known as aits or eyots. One long-term dispute over the status of such an islet was that of Snake Island, there are thousands of islets on Earth, approximately 24,000 islands and islets in the Stockholm archipelago alone. The following is a list of example islets from around the world, Islands or Rocks, Is that the Real Question. The Treatment of Islands in the Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries, in Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore, Alfred H. A. The Law of the Sea Convention, US Accession and GlobalizationIslet – Bangchuidao Island in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China is a typical rock islet
7. Skerry – A skerry is a small rocky island, usually defined to be too small for human habitation, it may simply be a rocky reef. A skerry can also be called a low sea stack, the term skerry is derived from the Old Norse sker, which means a rock in the sea. The Old Norse term sker was brought into the English language via the Scots language word spelled skerrie or skerry. In Scottish Gaelic, it appears as sgeir, e. g. Sula Sgeir, in Irish as sceir, in Welsh as sgeri, a skerry may have vegetative life such as moss and small, hardy grasses. They also, in areas of the world, are rested upon by animals such as seals or birds. Skerries are most commonly formed at the outlet of fjords where submerged glacially formed valleys at right angles to the coast join with other cross valleys in a complex array. By this channel one can travel through a protected passage almost the entire 1,600 km route from Stavanger to North Cape, the Blindleia is a skerry-protected waterway that starts near Kristiansand in southern Norway, and continues past Lillesand. The inside passage provides a route from Seattle, Washington to Skagway. Yet another such skerry-protected passage extends from the Straits of Magellan north for 800 km along the west coast of the South American continent, the Swedish coast along Bohuslän is likewise guarded by skerries. Even the east coast of Sweden, in the Baltic Sea, has many big skärgårdar, the southwestern coast of Finland also has a great many skerries, so many, in fact, that they form an archipelago. This area is experiencing post-glacial rebound that connects the islands as they break sea level, revealing till deposits. The skerries exist as small islands before uplift of adjacent terrain changes the classification of this landform into a tombolo. The most southerly skerries are perhaps the Skrap Skerries off South GeorgiaSkerry – Skerry outside Krøttøy in Harstad municipality, Norway
8. River island – A river island or river archipelago is any landmass or fluvial landform within a river. The term towhead implies a little islet or sandbar within a river having a grouping or thicket of trees, many rivers, if wide enough, can house considerably large islands. The term towhead was popularised by Mark Twains Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, in England, a river island in the Thames is referred to as an ait. Majuli in India is recognised by Guinness Book of World Records as Worlds Largest River Island, note, Includes some river islands that also have an ocean coastRiver island – The river island Sihoť, Bratislava (Slovakia)
9. Ait – An ait or eyot is a small island. It is especially used to refer to river islands found on the River Thames, aits are typically formed by the deposit of sediment in the water, which accumulates over a period of time. An ait is characteristically long and narrow, and may become a permanent island, however, aits may also be eroded, the resulting sediment is deposited further downstream and could result in another ait. A channel with numerous aits is called a braided channel, although not common in 21st-century English, ait or eyot appears in J. R. R. Tolkiens Lord of the Rings, Charles Dickens Bleak House, and Thackerays Vanity Fair. Joyce Cary used eyot in The Horses Mouth – Sun was in the bank, salmon trout above soaking into wash blue. River whirling along so fast that its skin was pulled into wrinkles like silk dragged over the floor, ruffling under the silk-like muscles in a nervous horse. Ruffling under my grief like ice and hot daggers, more recently, eyot was used by Terry Pratchett in the first of the Discworld books, The Colour of Magic. It also appears in The Popes Rhinoceros by Lawrence Norfolk, steampunk author G. D. Falksen uses eyot in the first chapter of Blood in the Skies. Islands in the River Thames ShoalAit – Bush Ait on the River Thames in Berkshire
10. Archipelago – An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi-, in Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Archipelago was the proper name for the Aegean Sea and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands. It is now used to refer to any group or, sometimes. Archipelagos may be isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago, archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs generated by subduction zones or hotspots, but may also be the result of erosion, deposition, and land elevation. Depending on their origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as oceanic islands, continental fragments. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin, continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement. Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Maldives, the Bahamas, Greece, Hawaii, the largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed. ArchipelagoArchipelago – The Ksamil Archipelago in Albania.
11. Continental island – An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, an island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, an island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge. Example, Singapore and its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, there are two main types of islands in the sea, continental and oceanic. The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland, Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua. There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology, continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earths mantle. Oceanic crust is also part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere. This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere, continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. A special type of island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable, oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, the few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean, one type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc. These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring, examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles, another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples, Iceland, which is the second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. A third type of oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the tectonic plate above itContinental island – Atafu atoll in Tokelau
12. Oceanic island – An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, an island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, an island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge. Example, Singapore and its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, there are two main types of islands in the sea, continental and oceanic. The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland, Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua. There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology, continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earths mantle. Oceanic crust is also part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere. This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere, continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. A special type of island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable, oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, the few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean, one type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc. These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring, examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles, another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples, Iceland, which is the second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. A third type of oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the tectonic plate above itOceanic island – Atafu atoll in Tokelau
13. Artificial island – An artificial island or man-made island is an island that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means. Artificial islands may vary in size from small islets reclaimed solely to support a single pillar of a building or structure, early artificial islands included floating structures in still waters, or wooden or megalithic structures erected in shallow waters. The largest artificial island, René-Levasseur Island, was formed by flooding of two adjacent reservoirs, the people of Langa Langa Lagoon and Lau Lagoon in Malaita, Solomon Islands built about 60 artificial islands on the reef including Funaafou, Sulufou and Adaege. The people of Lau Lagoon build islands on the reef as these provided protection against attack from the people who lived in the centre of Malaita and these islands were formed literally one rock at a time. A family would take their canoe out to the reef which protects the lagoon and then dive for rocks, bring them to the surface and then return to the selected site and drop the rocks into the water. Living on the reef was also healthier as the mosquitoes, which infested the coastal swamps, were not found on the reef islands, the Lau people continue to live on the reef islands. Many artificial islands have built in urban harbors to provide either a site deliberately isolated from the city or just spare real estate otherwise unobtainable in a crowded metropolis. An example of the first case is Dejima, created in the bay of Nagasaki in Japans Edo period as a center for European merchants. During the isolationist era, Dutch people were banned from Nagasaki. One of the most well-known artificial islands is the Île Notre-Dame in Montreal, the Venetian Islands in Miami Beach, Florida, in Biscayne Bay added valuable new real estate during the Florida land boom of the 1920s. When the bubble that the developers were riding burst, the bay was left scarred with the remnants of their failed project, the concrete pilings from the project still stand as another development boom roared around them,80 years later. In 1969, the Flevopolder in the Netherlands was finished, as part of the Zuiderzee Works and it has a total land surface of 970 km², which makes it by far the largest artificial island by land reclamation in the world. The island consists of two polders Eastern Flevoland and Southern Flevoland, together with the Noordoostpolder, which includes some small former islands like Urk, the polders form Flevoland, the 12th province of the Netherlands that almost entirely consists of reclaimed land. The Pearl-Qatar is in the north of the Qatari Capital Doha, home to a range of residential, commercial, qanat Quartier is designed to be a Virtual Venice in the Middle East. Dubai is home to several artificial island projects and they include the Palm Islands projects, and The World, The Universe and the Dubai Waterfront. Of all these, only the Palm Jumeirah is complete and inhabited so far, also, the Burj Al Arab is on its own artificial island. The Universe, Palm Jebel Ali, Dubai Waterfront, and Palm Deira are on hold, China has conducted a land reclamation project which had built at least seven artificial islands in the South China Sea totaling 2000 acres in size by mid 2015. One artificial island built on Fiery Cross Reef near the Spratly Islands is now the site of a barracks, lookout towerArtificial island – Reef Island off North Malaita.
14. Key Biscayne – Key Biscayne is an island located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States, between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay. It is the southernmost of the islands along the Atlantic coast of Florida. The key is connected to Miami via the Rickenbacker Causeway, originally built in 1947, the northern portion of Key Biscayne is home to Crandon Park, a county park. The middle section of the consists of the incorporated Village of Key Biscayne. The southern part of the island is now protected as Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, adjacent to Biscayne National Park, there is no hard bedrock near the surface of the island, only layers of weak shelly sandstone to depths of 100 feet or more. The coastal transport of sand southward ends at Key Biscayne, in the 1850s Louis Agassiz noted that outh of Cape Florida no more silicacious sand is to be seen. Geologists believe that the island emerged around 2000 BCE, soon after the sea level stopped rising, Key Biscayne is elongated in the north-south direction, tapering to a point at each end. It is approximately 5 miles long and 1 to 2 miles wide, the northern end of the island is separated from another barrier island, Virginia Key, by Bear Cut. The southern end of the island is Cape Florida, only Soldier Key, approximately 200 by 100 yards wide, lies between Key Biscayne and the Ragged Keys. The Cape Florida Channel and Bear Cut are the deepest natural channels into Biscayne Bay and they provided the only access for ocean-going vessels to Biscayne Bay until artificial channels were dredged starting early in the 20th century. In 1849 the island had a sandy beach on the east side. The average elevation of the island is less than five feet above sea level, people from Key Biscayne are known as Key Rats. Key Biscayne is located at 25°41′25″N 80°9′54″W, the first known indigenous inhabitants of Key Biscayne were Tequestas. Shells, bones and artifacts found on the island indicate extensive use of it by the Tequesta, a large community appeared to inhabit the island between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago. In 1992 Hurricane Andrew scoured much of the vegetation from the end of Key Biscayne. An archaeological survey of the ground found evidence of extensive habitation. Juan Ponce de León charted Key Biscayne on his first mission to the New World in 1513 and he christened the island Santa Marta and claimed it for the Spanish Crown. He reported that he found a water spring on the islandKey Biscayne – Map of Key Biscayne
15. Miami-Dade County, Florida – Miami-Dade County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Florida. It is the southeasternmost county on the U. S. mainland, according to a 2015 census report, the county had a population of 2,693,117, making it the most populous county in Florida and the seventh-most populous county in the United States. It is also Floridas third-largest county in terms of land area, Miami-Dade County is included in the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county is home to 34 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas, southern Miami-Dade County includes the Redland and Homestead areas, which make up the agricultural economy of Miami. Agricultural Redland makes up one third of Miami-Dade Countys inhabited land area, and is sparsely populated. The western portion of the county extends into the Everglades National Park and is populated only by a Miccosukee tribal village, East of the mainland in Biscayne Bay is also Biscayne National Park and the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves. The earliest evidence of Native American settlement in the Miami region came from about 12,000 years ago, the first inhabitants settled on the banks of the Miami River, with the main villages on the northern banks. The Tequesta Indians fished, hunted, and gathered the fruit and roots of plants for food and they buried the small bones of the deceased with the rest of the body, and put the larger bones in a box for the village people to see. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle, Juan Ponce de León was the first European to visit the area in 1513 by sailing into Biscayne Bay. His journal records that he reached Chequescha, a varianth of Tequesta and it is unknown whether he came ashore or made contact with the natives. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his men made the first recorded landing when they visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566 while looking for Avilés missing son, shipwrecked a year earlier. Spanish soldiers led by Father Francisco Villarreal built a Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River a year later, after the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fend themselves from European-introduced diseases like smallpox. By 1711, the Tequesta sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana, Cuba, the Cubans sent two ships to help them, but Spanish illnesses struck and most of the Indians died. The first permanent European settlers arrived in the early 19th century, people came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida Reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River, at about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, during which Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians, most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing almost a total loss of population in Miami, after the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, William English, re-established a plantation started by his uncle on the Miami River. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the bank of the Miami RiverMiami-Dade County, Florida – Downtown Miami
16. Florida – Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet. Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near StFlorida – St. Augustine is the oldest city in the U.S., established in 1565 by Spain.
17. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
18. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa. The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in later maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the otherAtlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
19. Biscayne Bay – Biscayne Bay is a lagoon that is approximately 35 miles long and up to 8 miles wide located on the Atlantic coast of South Florida, United States. It is usually divided for purposes of discussion and analysis into three parts, North Bay, Central Bay, and South Bay and its area is 428 square miles. The drainage basin covers 938 square miles, discovered by Ponce de Leon, he landed there and was originally named Santa Marta. The North Bay of the Biscayne Bay lies between Miami Beach barrier island and Miami on the mainland, however, water quality has steadily improved since regular monitoring began in 1979. North Bay accounts for only 10% of the area of the bay. Central Bay is the largest part of the bay and it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Safety Valve. It has been adversely affected primarily by bulkheading, urban runoff discharged by canals, South Bay is nearly as large as Central Bay, and is the least affected by human activities, although it also suffers from the loss of natural fresh water flow. South Bay is separated from the Straits of Florida by the northernmost of the Florida Keys and it is connected to Florida Bay through a few small channels. Construction began on July 22,1912, although the cost of the project was initially $75,000, the construction project faced delays and cost overruns. The budge was partially completed in 1913, the bridge was hailed as the longest wooden vehicle bridge in the world, and opened up the area as a luxury winter resort and playground. The bridge terminated at the Dixie Highway, built by Carl G. Fisher, the bridge was a toll bridge, in 1920, the toll was reduced from 20 cents each way to 15 cents one way. The bridge was torn down in 1925 and replaced with the more substantial Venetian Causeway the next year, in 1925, Biscayne Point was created in Miami Beachs north end. In 1929, a third causeway crossed Biscayne Bay at Normandy Isle, the Julia Tuttle Causeway was built in 1959. Other causeways are the John F. Kennedy and Broad causeways, the Card Sound Bridge connects the mainland in the Homestead, Florida area to the northern part of Key Largo. In 1975, the bay was designated as an aquatic preserve. The aquatic preserve spans the entirety of Biscayne Bay from Oleta River in the north to Card Sound in the south, with the exception of the part of the bay. A second preserve was added off of Cape Florida on Key Biscayne. These two preserves are now managed by the state of Florida under the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves, seven remaining houses of Biscayne Bays Stiltsville settlement are now within the boundaries of this National Park which was established in 1980Biscayne Bay – View of Southern Biscayne Bay showing the Downtown Miami skyline in the background, November 2014.
20. Bar (landform) – Often it refers to those submerged ridges, banks, or bars that rise near enough to the surface of a body of water as to constitute a danger to navigation. Shoals are also known as sandbanks, sandbars, or gravelbars, two or more shoals that are either separated by shared troughs or interconnected by past and or present sedimentary and hydrographic processes are referred to as a shoal complex. The term shoal is also used in a number of ways that can be similar or quite different from how it is used in the geologic, geomorphic. Shoals are characteristically long and narrow ridges and they can develop where a stream, river, or ocean current promotes deposition of sediment and granular material, resulting in localized shallowing of the water. Marine shoals also develop either by the in place drowning of barrier islands as the result of sea level rise or by the erosion. Shoals can appear as a coastal landform in the sea, where they are classified as a type of bank, or as fluvial landforms in rivers, streams. A shoal–sandbar may seasonally separate a smaller body of water from the sea, such as, Marine lagoons Brackish water estuaries Freshwater seasonal stream and river mouths and deltas. They are typically composed of sand, although they could be of any matter that the moving water has access to and is capable of shifting around. Wave shoaling is the process when surface waves move towards shallow water, such as a beach, they slow down, their wave height increases and this behavior is called shoaling, and the waves are said to shoal. The waves may or may not build to the point where they break, depending on how large they were to begin with, in particular, waves shoal as they pass over submerged sandbanks or reefs. This can be treacherous for boats and ships, shoaling can also diffract waves, so the waves change direction. For example, if waves pass over a bank which is shallower at one end than the other. Thus the wave fronts will refract, changing direction like light passing through a prism, refraction also occurs as waves move towards a beach if the waves come in at an angle to the beach, or if the beach slopes more gradually at one end than the other. Sandbars, also known as a trough bars, form where the waves are breaking, sometimes this occurs seaward of a trough. Sand carried by the moving bottom current is deposited where the current reaches the wave break. Other longshore bars may lie further offshore, representing the point of even larger waves. A harbor or river bar is a sedimentary deposit formed at an entrance or river mouth by. Where beaches are suitably mobile, or the river’s suspended and/or bed loads are large enough, deposition can build up a sandbar that completely blocks a river mouth and damming the riverBar (landform) – Sandbar between St Agnes and Gugh on the Isles of Scilly, off the coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
21. Miami Beach, Florida – Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. It was incorporated on March 26,1915, the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami, as of the 2010 census, Miami Beach had a total population of 87,779. It has been one of Americas pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century, in 1979, Miami Beachs Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels, apartments, mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North. The movement to preserve the Art Deco Districts architectural heritage was led by interior designer Barbara Capitman. Miami Beach is governed by a mayor and six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election. The mayor serves for terms of two years with a limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon, a city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city, the City Clerk and the City Attorney are also appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son, Henry and Charles Lum, the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at approximately 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, water, and a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked, Collins family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort. This effort got underway in the years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers. Until then, the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, there were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Browns Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, and eliminating native growth almost everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensiveMiami Beach, Florida – Southern portion of Miami Beach with downtown Miami in background
22. Miami, Florida – Miami is a seaport city at the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Florida and its Atlantic coast. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Miamis metro area is the eighth-most populous, Miami is a major center, and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international trade. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha−World City in the World Cities Study Groups inventory, in 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States in terms of finance, commerce, culture, entertainment, fashion, education, and other sectors. It ranked 33rd among global cities, in 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami Americas Cleanest City, for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, and citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, Miami is nicknamed the Capital of Latin America and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the U. S. with over 300 high-rises, Downtown Miami is home to the largest concentration of international banks in the United States, and many large national and international companies. The Civic Center is a center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the Cruise Capital of the World, has been the number one cruise port in the world. It accommodates some of the worlds largest cruise ships and operations, Metropolitan Miami is the major tourism hub in the American South, number two in the U. S. after New York City and number 13 in the world, including the popular destination of Miami Beach. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes, the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River, in 1566 the explorer, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, claimed it for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in 1567, Spain and Great Britain successively controlled Florida, and Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress, the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as the major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle, a local citrus grower. The Miami area was known as Biscayne Bay Country in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness, the area was also characterized as one of the finest building sites in Florida. The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miamis growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the regionMiami, Florida – From top, left to right: Skyline of Downtown, Freedom Tower, Villa Vizcaya, Miami Tower, Virginia Key Beach, Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, AmericanAirlines Arena, PortMiami, the Moon over Miami
23. Rickenbacker Causeway – The Rickenbacker Causeway connects Miami, Florida, United States to the barrier islands of Virginia Key and Key Biscayne across Biscayne Bay. The Causeway is a road, owned and operated by Miami-Dade County. Automobiles traveling southbound from Miami pay a toll of US$1.75 as of April 1,2013, tolls are collected via Sunpass, C-Pass transponders or cash are no longer accepted. Talk of a bridge to Key Biscayne, inspired by the bridges connecting Miami to Miami Beach, the northern two-thirds of Key Biscayne was owned by William John “W. J. ” Matheson, who had established a coconut plantation on the island. Later in 1926 the City of Coral Gables incorporated with Key Biscayne included in its boundaries, there were dreams of a bridge to the island, making Key Biscayne the seaside resort for Coral Gables that Miami Beach had become for Miami. Obstacles to the project soon appeared, in March 1926 the U. S. government auctioned off some lots on Key Biscayne that had been retained when the rest of the island was transferred to the State of Florida. The Mathesons wanted to have title to all of their land. They ended up paying US$58,055 for a total of 6.84 acres of land, then, on September 18,1926, the Great Miami Hurricane crossed over Key Biscayne on its way to Miami. While no lives were lost on the island, most of the buildings on Key Biscayne were destroyed or badly damaged, D. P. Davis was not able to meet his end of the contract, he declared bankruptcy and then disappeared en route to Europe by ship. The Florida Land Boom was over, as were plans for a bridge, William Matheson died in 1930, leaving the island to his children. There was a flurry of interest in 1939, when the U. S. Navy approved a proposal to develop Virginia Key as an air base, there was even talk of putting an air base on the north end of Key Biscayne, as well. In 1940 William Mathesons heirs donated 808.8 acres of land on the end of Key Biscayne to Dade County to be used as a public park. The county commissioner who negotiated the gift, Charles H. Crandon, had offered for the county to build a causeway to Key Biscayne in exchange for the land donation. Planning for the air and sea complex on Virginia Key was still proceeding, the Attack on Pearl Harbor and the entry of the United States into World War II stopped all work on the causeway and the development of Virginia Key. After the war Crandon pushed on with the project and he got financier Ed Ball to buy six million dollars worth of bonds financing the construction of the causeway. Land for the plaza and the causeway entrance was bought from the estate of James Deering. In November 1947 the Rickenbacker Causeway –1.2 miles of bridges and 2.7 miles of roadway on fill – finally opened, in the late 1960s and 1970s the sites along the Rickenbacker Causeway continued to increase in popularity. After increasing in the mid 1960 because of the American television series Flipper, attendance to the Miami Seaquarium soared in 1968 when it started to display Hugo, shortly afterward, Planet Ocean, a themed tourist attraction, opened its doorsRickenbacker Causeway – Most of the Rickenbacker as seen from Downtown Miami
24. Crandon Park – Crandon Park is a 808-acre urban park in metropolitan Miami, occupying the northern part of Key Biscayne. It is connected to mainland Miami via the Rickenbacker Causeway, the land Crandon Park occupies was once part of the largest coconut plantation in the United States, operated by William John Matheson and his heirs. In 1940 the Matheson family donated 808.8 acres of their land to Dade County for a public park, in return, county commissioner Charles H. Crandon promised that the county would build a causeway to Key Biscayne. World War II delayed construction, but the causeway opened in 1947, at one time Crandon Park also included a zoo, occupying 48 acres of the park. The first animals in the zoo, including lions, an elephant. Some Galapagos tortoises, monkeys and pheasants were added from the Matheson plantation, other animals were added, including a white Bengal tiger. In 1981 the Crandon Park Zoo was moved from the park to a location south of Miami, the park is more than 800 acres in size, and has two miles of beach on the Atlantic Ocean side. Crandon Boulevard extends from the end of the Rickenbacker Causeway through the length of the park, providing access to the Village of Key Biscayne and Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park. The park has a variety of facilities, including a marina, a course, the Tennis Center at Crandon Park, a family amusement center, picnic shelters. There is parking for more than 3,000 vehicles in the park, part of the park is set aside as the Bear Cut Preserve, a designated natural Environment Study Area. Guided tours through the preserve are available, the Marjory Stoneman Douglas Biscayne Nature Center, also known as Biscayne Nature Center, is located at the north end of Crandon Park. Features include natural history exhibits, demonstration lab classroom facilities, a visual presentation room. The center is a project of Miami-Dade County Public Schools, Miami-Dade County Parks and Recreation Department, notes Bibliography Crandon Park - official site Marjory Stoneman Douglas Biscayne Nature Center - official siteCrandon Park – View West from on the beach, showing many of the coconut palm trees
25. Key Biscayne, Florida – Key Biscayne is an island town in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The population was 12,344 at the 2010 census, Key Biscayne lies south of Miami Beach and east of Miami. The village is connected to Miami via the Rickenbacker Causeway, originally built in 1947, because of its low elevation and direct exposure to the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually among the first Miami areas to be evacuated before an oncoming hurricane. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 1.4 square miles. 1.3 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The village is bordered on the north by Crandon Park, Miami-Dade County park, on the south by Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and on the west by Biscayne Bay. The northern two-thirds of the island had been operated as the largest coconut plantation in the continental United States during the first half of the 20th century. In 1940 the Matheson family donated over 800 acres of their land to Dade County for a park in exchange for a commitment that the county would build a causeway to the island. The remaining Matheson property, stretching across the middle of the island, was sold off to developers. Starting in 1951, the Mackle Construction Company offered new homes on the island for US$9,540, post Office contract branch was opened, the Community Church started holding services in an old coconut-husking shed, and the Key Biscayne Elementary School opened in 1952. The southern third of Key Biscayne, which included Cape Florida, was owned by James Deering and, after his death, by his brother Charles, in 1948 José Manuel Áleman, a Cuban politician in exile, bought the Cape Florida property from the Deering estate. After Áleman died in 1951, his widow, Elena Santeiro Garcia and this strip included a canal that had been dug by William Matheson in the 1920s, and which extended from the bay across most of the island. The land north of this canal was developed as part of what is now the Village of Key Biscayne, Garcia sold the Cape Florida property in 1966 to the state of Florida. This land became Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, which opened January 1,1967, bebe Rebozo, owner of the Key Biscayne Bank, was indicted for laundering a $100,000 donation from Howard Hughes to the Nixon election campaign. President Kennedy and Nixon met for the first time after the 1960 Election loss by Nixon in an oceanfront villa at the old Key Biscayne Hotel. Plans for the Watergate break-in at Democratic headquarters were discussed at the Key Biscayne Nixon compound and, as the Watergate scandal unfolded, Nixon visited Key Biscayne more than 50 times between 1969 and 1973. The area was incorporated as a new municipality in 1991 - the first new city in Miami-Dade County in over fifty years. Rafael Conte was elected the first mayor along with members of the founding Village Council including Clifford Brody, Mortimer Fried, Michael Hill, Luis Lauredo, Joe Rasco, the municipalitys first manager was C. Samuel Kissinger and the first clerk was Guido InguanzoKey Biscayne, Florida – Map of Key Biscayne
26. Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park – Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area occupies approximately the southern third of the island of Key Biscayne, at coordinates 25°40′25″N 80°09′34″W. The park includes the Cape Florida Light, the oldest standing structure in Greater Miami, in 2005 the park was ranked as having the 8th best beach in the country, and in 2013 Forbes ranked it at 7th. The park is named in honor of Bill Baggs, editor of The Miami News from 1957 until his death in 1969 and he worked to protect the land from development, to preserve some of the key in its natural state, and was also a civil rights activist. In the early 1820s, some 300 American slaves reached the Bahamas, aboard 27 sloops, the US National Park Service is working with the Bahamas, particularly the African Bahamanian Museum and Research Center in Nassau, to develop interpretive programs at Red Bays, Andros. The park has more than a mile of sandy Atlantic beachfront, the park has such amenities as picnicking areas and youth camping. It also has a center, a museum with interpretive exhibits. No Name Harbor, a harbor in the park, is used for anchorage. Florida state parks are open between 8 a. m. and sundown every day of the yearBill Baggs Cape Florida State Park
27. Biscayne National Park – Biscayne National Park is a U. S. National Park located in southern Florida, south of Miami. The park preserves Biscayne Bay and its barrier reefs. Ninety-five percent of the park is water, and the shore of the bay is the location of a mangrove forest. The park covers 172,971 acres and includes Elliott Key, the islands farther north in the park are transitional islands of coral and sand. The offshore portion of the park includes the northernmost region of the Florida Reef, Biscayne National Park protects four distinct ecosystems, the shoreline mangrove swamp, the shallow waters of Biscayne Bay, the coral limestone keys and the offshore Florida Reef. The shoreline swamps of the mainland and island margins provide a nursery for larval and juvenile fish, molluscs, the bay waters harbor immature and adult fish, seagrass beds, sponges, soft corals, and manatees. The keys are covered with tropical vegetation including endangered cacti and palms, Offshore reefs and waters harbor more than 200 species of fish, pelagic birds, whales and hard corals. Sixteen endangered species including Schaus swallowtail butterflies, smalltooth sawfish, manatees, Biscayne also has a small population of threatened American crocodiles and a few American alligators. The people of the Glades culture inhabited the Biscayne Bay region as early as 10,000 years ago before rising sea levels filled the bay. The Tequesta people occupied the islands and shoreline from about 4,000 years before the present to the 16th century, Reefs claimed ships from Spanish times through the 20th century, with more than 40 documented wrecks within the parks boundaries. While the parks islands were farmed during the 19th and early 20th centuries, their rocky soil, in the early 20th century the islands became secluded destinations for wealthy Miamians who built getaway homes and social clubs. Honeywells guesthouse on Boca Chita Key was the areas most elaborate private retreat, following the Cuban Revolution of 1959, Elliott Key was used as a training ground for infiltrators into Fidel Castros Cuba by the Central Intelligence Agency and by Cuban exile groups. Originally proposed for inclusion in Everglades National Park, Biscayne Bay was cut from the park to ensure Everglades establishment. Through the 1960s and 1970s, two fossil-fueled power plants and two power plants were built on the bay shores. A backlash against development led to the 1968 designation of Biscayne National Monument, the preserved area was expanded by its 1980 re-designation as Biscayne National Park. The park is used by boaters, and apart from the parks visitor center on the mainland, its land. Biscayne National Park comprises 172,971 acres in Miami-Dade County in southeast Florida, the parks eastern boundary is the ten-fathom line of water depth in the Atlantic Ocean on the Florida Reef. The parks western boundary is a fringe of property on the mainland, the only direct mainland access to the park is at the Convoy Point Visitor Center, adjacent to the park headquartersBiscayne National Park – Sunset at Biscayne National Park
28. High island – In geology, a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin. The term can be used to such islands from low islands. Volcanic islands normally arise above a so-called hotspot and this hampers or hinders human settlement on many low islands. Atoll Low island Volcanic arc Micronesian culture, High island and low island cultures at Britannica. comHigh island – Moorea, a high island of volcanic origin where the central island is still prominent.
29. Barrier island – Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast. They usually occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen and they are subject to change during storms and other action, but absorb energy and protect the coastlines and create areas of protected waters where wetlands may flourish. A barrier chain may extend uninterrupted for over a hundred kilometers, excepting the tidal inlets that separate the islands, the longest and widest being Padre Island of Texas. The length and width of barriers and overall morphology of barrier coasts are related to parameters including tidal range, wave energy, sediment supply, sea-level trends, the amount of vegetation on the barrier has a large impact on the height and evolution of the island. Chains of barrier islands can be found along approximately thirteen percent of the worlds coastlines and they display different settings, suggesting that they can form and be maintained in a variety of environmental settings. Numerous theories have been given to explain their formation, lower shoreface The shoreface is the part of the barrier where the ocean meets the shore of the island. The barrier island body itself separates the shoreface from the backshore, characteristics common to the lower shoreface are fine sands with mud and possibly silt. Further out into the ocean the sediment becomes finer, the effect from the waves at this point is weak because of the depth. Bioturbation is common and many fossils can be found here, middle shoreface The middle shore face is located in the upper shoreface. The middle shoreface is strongly influenced by wave action because of its depth, closer to shore the grain size will be medium size sands with shell pieces common. Since wave action is heavier, bioturbation is not likely, upper shoreface The upper shore face is constantly affected by wave action. This results in development of sedimentary structures because of the constant differing flow of waves. Foreshore The foreshore is the area on land between high and low tide, like the upper shoreface, it is constantly affected by wave action. Cross bedding and lamination are present and coarser sands are present because of the energy present by the crashing of the waves. The sand is very well sorted. Backshore The backshore is always above the highest water level point, the berm is also found here which marks the boundary between the foreshore and backshore. Wind is the important factor here, not water, during strong storms high waves and wind can deliver and erode sediment from the backshore. Dunes The dunes are typical of an island, located at the top of the backshoreBarrier island – Outer barrier in Long Island.
30. Island country – An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands. As of 2011,46 of the 193 UN member states are island countries, the percentage of island countries that are democratic is higher than that of continental countries. Historically they have been prone to political stability than their continental counterparts. Island countries have often been the basis of maritime conquest and historical rivalry between other countries, Island countries are more susceptible to attack by large, continental countries due to their size and dependence on sea and air lines of communication. Many island countries are vulnerable to predation by mercenaries and other foreign invaders. Many island countries rely heavily on fish for their supply of food. Some are turning to renewable energy—such as wind power, hydropower, geothermal power, some island countries are more affected than other countries by climate change, which produces problems such as reduced land use, water scarcity and sometimes even resettlement issues. Some low-lying island countries are slowly being submerged by the water levels of the Pacific Ocean. Climate change also impacts island countries by causing natural disasters such as cyclones, hurricanes, flash floods. In 2011, the Center for Climate Change Law held a conference attended by 272 registrants from 39 island nations titled Legal Issues for Threatened Island Nations, many island countries rely heavily on imports and are greatly affected by changes in the global economy. The dominant industry for many countries is tourism. Island countries are small with low populations, although some, like Indonesia. Some island countries are centred on one or two islands, such as the United Kingdom, Trinidad and Tobago, New Zealand, Cuba, Bahrain, Singapore, Malta. Others are spread out over hundreds or thousands of islands, such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Seychelles. Geographically, the country of Australia is considered a continental landmass rather than an island, in the past, however, it was considered an island country for tourism purposes and is still often referred to as suchIsland country – Island countries in the world
31. Island ecology – Island ecology is the study of island organisms and their interactions with each other and the environment. Islands account for nearly 1/6 of earth’s total land area, yet the ecology of island ecosystems is vastly different from that of mainland communities and their isolation and high availability of empty niches leads to increased speciation. As a result, island ecosystems comprise 30% of the biodiversity hotspots, 50% of marine tropical diversity. The diversity of species on islands is highly impacted by human activities such as deforestation and introduction of exotic species, in response, ecologists and managers are directing attention towards conservation and restoration of island species. Because they are simple systems, islands provide an opportunity to study processes of extinction that can be extrapolated to larger ecosystems, Islands are attractive sites for ecological research because they provide clear examples of evolution in action. They show interesting patterns of colonization, adaptation, and speciation, Islands are surrounded by water, and may or may not exist as part of a continental land mass. Oceanic islands arise due to activity or reef growth, and usually subside over time due to erosion. When islands emerge, they undergo the process of succession as species colonize the island. New species cannot immigrate via land, and instead must arrive via air, water, as a result, organisms with high dispersal capabilities, such as plants and birds, are much more common on islands than are poorly dispersing taxa like mammals. However, some mammals are present on islands, presumably from swimming or riding on natural “rafts” that are washed away from the mainland, of the species that arrive, only some will be able to survive and establish populations. As a result, islands have fewer species than mainland habitats, Island populations are small and exhibit low genetic variability, but are isolated from the predators and competitors that they initially evolved with. This can lead to a process called ecological release, where a species is released from its ancestral community interactions, in response to these changing ecological pressures, island species can become much more docile than their mainland counterparts, and may grow larger or smaller. Some of these adaptations are reflected in charismatic island species such as the giant tortoise, Komodo dragon. After immigration, birds, and some reptiles or mammals, tend to larger and predatory. For mammals, small species will increase in size and large species will decrease in size and this is referred to as the “island rule, ” and is suggested to minimize energy expenditure. The formation of new islands and their isolation from the mainland provides many unoccupied niches for species to adapt to, since immigration of predators and competitors is limited, many organisms are able to persist in these new niches. This results in an occurrence of endemism, where species are unique to a localized area. For example, 50% of endemic bird areas are found on islands, endemism is often the result of adaptive radiationIsland ecology – The Komodo dragon is an example of island gigantism.
32. List of fictional islands – Below is a list of islands that have been invented for films, literature, television, or other media. G. Wells story by that name, altis, a fictional Mediterranean island in the 2013 video game, ARMA3. Altruria, from the novel A Traveler from Altruria by William Dean Howells Amity Island, from the book and film Jaws Angel Island, le Guins Earthsea books August Bank Holiday Island, a fictional Commonwealth nation featured in the Goodies, found between Easter Island and Christmas Island. In the Commonwealth Games, August Bank Holiday Island won and took over the Commonwealth Nations. Avalon, from Arthurian legend Azkaban, island prison in the Harry Potter series Back Cup, a fictional island in the Bahamas, hideout of the pirate Ker Karraje in Jules Vernes novel Facing the Flag. Bali Hai, the island in South Pacific and Tales of the South Pacific Balamb Island, from Final Fantasy VIII Banoi. Battle Frontier, from Pokémon Emerald Beer Island, a land where Linux power management works reliably. Berk, of the movie How to Train Your Dragon Big Surf Island, Island of the Blue Dolphins, from the book by Scott ODell. k. a. Clanbronwyn, an island off the coast of Anglesey in the adventure game Trilbys Notes Cobra Island. Sovereign nation of Cobra from G. I Joe comics, coral Island, from the boys book by R. M. Nos hideout in the first James Bond movie. Crusoeland, another name for Atoll K Danger Island, This island was the setting of a series on The Banana Splits Adventure Hour Dargenk Island. Dazhi Island, from the novel The Return of the Condor Heroes by Jinyong Death Queen Island, deist, from Final Fantasy II Delfino Isle, from the Nintendo Gamecube game Super Mario Sunshine Demonreach, from The Dresden Files. Demonreach is the name Harry Dresden gave to an island in Lake Michigan, Destiny Islands, from the video game Kingdom Hearts Devon Island, from James A. Micheners novel Chesapeake Dinobot Island, The Transformers Dinosaur Island, The island where the Dinosaurs live. Dolphin Island, in the novel by Arthur C. Clarke Donkey Kong Island, from the computer game Donkey Kong Dr. Fearing Island, island site of base in the Tom Swift. It features in San Sombrèro, A Land of Carnivals, Cocktails, forsaken Fortress, an island in the Nintendo Gamecube game, The Legend of Zelda, The Wind Waker. Fibber Island, an island in a They Might Be Giants song. Slump Gilligans Island, from the eponymous TV series Goblin Island, island settled by the goblins from space lyrically conjured by Melodic Death Metal band Nekrogoblikon Gont, le Guins Earthsea books Goon Island, from Goonland, a Popeye the Sailor cartoon. Popeye rescues his Pappy being held prisoner by the Goons on the island, grand Nixon Island, from Marvel Comics Gravett Island, the destination of escape pods from the USS Enterprise-E starship in the movie Star Trek, First ContactList of fictional islands – Map of "Lincoln Island" from The Mysterious Island.
33. List of island countries – This is a list of island countries. An island is a mass that is surrounded by water. Many island countries are spread over an archipelago, as is the case with the Federated States of Micronesia, others consist of a single island, such as Nauru, or part of an island, such as Haiti. Although Australia is designated as a continent, it is referred to as an island. Some declared island countries are not universally recognized as politically independent, some states, such as Taiwan, officially claim to hold continental territories but are de facto limited to control over islands. In 1809, part of the Labrador Peninsula was transferred to Newfoundland from Lower Canada, in other words, before 1809, Newfoundland was an island colony. From 1809 onwards, the Colony of Newfoundland and, since 1907, the Dominion of Newfoundland had been an island plus LabradorList of island countries – Countries fully on islands
34. List of islands by area – This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than 2,500 km2 and several other islands over 500 km2, sorted in descending order by area. For comparison, continents are also shown, although the continental landmasses listed below are not normally called islands, they are, in fact, land entirely surrounded by water. In effect, they are enormous islands and are here for that reason. The figures are approximations and are for the mainland only. Although an island is, in general, any mass that is completely surrounded by water. Placing Australia in the latter category makes Greenland the largest island and this section of the list might not be complete, but covers almost all of the islands in the world over 1,000 km2. The area of some Antarctic islands is uncertain and this section of the list is not complete, although it should cover all European islands over 500 km2 and most islands of other continents. Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyList of islands by area – A size comparison of the smallest continent (Australia) and the largest island (Greenland). South of the Australian mainland is Tasmania, itself being the 26th largest island.
35. List of islands in lakes – A lake island is any landmass within a lake. It is a type of inland island, Lake islands may form a lake archipelago. Lake islands may form in numerous ways and they may occur through a build-up of sedimentation as shoals, and become true islands through changes in the level of the lake. They may also have formed through earthquake, meteor, or volcanic activity, in the latter case, crater or caldera islands exist, with new volcanic prominences in lakes formed in the craters of larger volcanoes. Other lake islands include ephemeral beds of floating vegetation, and islands artificially formed by human activity, Lakes may sometimes form in the circular depressions of volcanic craters. These craters are typically circular or oval basins around the vent or vents from which magma erupts, a large volcanic eruption sometimes results in the formation of a caldera, caused by the collapse of the magma chamber under the volcano. If enough magma is ejected, the chamber is unable to support the weight of the volcano, and a roughly circular fracture. The centre of the volcano within the ring fracture collapses, creating a ring-shaped depression, long after the eruption, this caldera may fill with water to become a lake. If volcanic activity continues or restarts, the centre of the caldera may be uplifted in the form of a resurgent dome, where the impact crater is complex, a central peak emerges from the floor of the crater. If a lake is present, this central peak may break the surface as an island. In other cases, other processes may have caused only a ring-shaped annular lake to remain from an impact. The worlds largest impact crater island is René-Levasseur Island, in Lake Manicouagan, the Sanshan Islands of Lake Tai, China, are also examples of impact crater islands, as are the islands in Canadas Clearwater Lakes, and the Slate Islands of Lake Superior, also in Canada. Sollerön Island in Siljan Lake, Sweden, and an island in Lake Karakul. The term floating island is used for accumulations of vegetation free-floating within a body of water. Due to the lack of currents and tides, these are frequently found in lakes than in rivers or the open sea. Artificial or man-made islands are constructed by human activity rather than formed by natural means. They may be created by humans, enlarged from existing islands or reefs, formed by joining small existing islands. Artificial islands have a history, dating back to the crannogs of prehistoric Britain and IrelandList of islands in lakes – Island Martana in Lake Bolsena, Italy.
36. Private island – A private island is a disconnected body of land wholly owned by a single private citizen or corporation. Although this exclusivity gives the owner substantial control over the property, private islands remain under the jurisdiction of national and sometimes local governments. Compared to property on the mainland, a property has much more restricted access. Livestock has often kept on islands, because an island is a natural enclosure, preventing the escape of cattle. There are many thousands of uninhabited islands in the world with potential for development of tourist resorts or private recreational use. Commercial development of uninhabited islands can raise ecological concerns, as many have a fragile environment, some islands can be bought undeveloped, while others already have roads and/or houses. Islands are also available for rent, some celebrities have their own private islands. Virtually all islands in the world are claimed and governed by national government. That nations laws apply, and any attempt by the owner to claim sovereignty would generally be unrealistic, since 1992 a number of cruise lines have acquired “private islands” to offer their customers exclusive beach experiences. Such islands were developed to have restaurants and perhaps additional attractions such as parasailing, waterparks, zip lines, horseback riding, spas. Some islands have piers, others are reached by tender, the purchase of an island allows the cruise line to achieve greater control over the venue and to influence the quality of experience of their passengers. Certain private islands may be used not only by the line that bought the property. Prices tend to be lower in Nova Scotia, parts of Michigan and Maine, and parts of Central America, and higher in Europe, the Bahamas, islands with amenities have higher market value and are not sold as frequently. Some are available for travelers to rent, a trend which increased in the 2000s with economic recession making it difficult for some owners to maintain them. In the 2000s, the United States housing bubble increased the cost-per-acre for private islands, the effect was fueled by the advent of the Internet, which provided greater access to island inventories. Conservation groups efforts to restrict development reduced the supply of private islands in the market, Southeast Asia has numerous islands, with Indonesia being an archipelago of 17,000 islands and the Philippines having around 7,100. Real estate laws restrict foreigners ability to buy property in the geographical area, private islands that are available in Southeast Asias real estate market are also prohibitively costly due to being in high demand by hotel developers. Developments address these difficulties by selling private islands that have villas and neighbor islands that have high-end hotels, Europe has hundreds of thousands of islands many of which are privately ownedPrivate island – A private island with a summer cottage in Finnish Lakeland, Finland.
37. Naajaat – Naajaat is a settlement in the Qaasuitsup municipality in northwestern Greenland. Former spellings include Naujât, Naujat, and Naajat, located on a small island of the same name, the settlement has 54 inhabitants as of July 2011. Naajaat is located within Upernavik Archipelago, a vast archipelago of islands on the coast of northeastern Baffin Bay. The population of Naajaat has been stable over the last two decadesNaajaat – Naajaat
38. Naajaat Island – Naajaat Island is a small island in the Qaasuitsup municipality in northwestern Greenland, home to the Naajaat settlement. Naajaat Island is located in Tasiusaq Bay, in the South-Central part of Upernavik Archipelago, the inner waterways of the bay separate it from Innaarsuit Island in the west, and from the mainland Qassersuaq Peninsula in the southeast. The island is part of a group of larger skerries, trailed by Naajaat Kangilleq in the northeast. The narrow channels between the three islands provide good harbourage for the settlementNaajaat Island – Naajaat settlement on the eastern coast
39. Greenland – Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Kujalleq, Qaasuitsup and it also retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, Nuuk, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it GrœnlandGreenland – Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle ages).
40. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014
41. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea – The Convention, concluded in 1982, replaced four 1958 treaties. UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year after Guyana became the 60th nation to ratify the treaty, as of June 2016,167 countries and the European Union have joined in the Convention. It is uncertain as to what extent the Convention codifies customary international law, there is, however, a role played by organizations such as the International Maritime Organization, the International Whaling Commission, and the International Seabed Authority. All waters beyond national boundaries were considered international waters, free to all nations, in the early 20th century, some nations expressed their desire to extend national claims, to include mineral resources, to protect fish stocks, and to provide the means to enforce pollution controls. Other nations were quick to follow suit, between 1946 and 1950, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador extended their rights to a distance of 200 nautical miles to cover their Humboldt Current fishing grounds. Other nations extended their territorial seas to 12 nautical miles, by 1967, only 25 nations still used the old 3-mile limit, while 66 nations had set a 12-nautical-mile territorial limit and eight had set a 200-nautical-mile limit. As of 28 May 2008, only two countries use the 3-mile limit, Jordan and Palau. That limit is used in certain Australian islands, an area of Belize, some Japanese straits, certain areas of Papua New Guinea. In 1956, the United Nations held its first Conference on the Law of the Sea at Geneva, in 1960, the United Nations held the second Conference on the Law of the Sea, however, the six-week Geneva conference did not result in any new agreements. Generally speaking, developing nations and third world countries participated only as clients, allies, or dependents of the United States or the Soviet Union, with no significant voice of their own. The issue of varying claims of territorial waters was raised in the UN in 1967 by Arvid Pardo of Malta, in an attempt to reduce the possibility of groups of nation-states dominating the negotiations, the conference used a consensus process rather than majority vote. With more than 160 nations participating, the conference lasted until 1982, the resulting convention came into force on 16 November 1994, one year after the 60th state, Guyana, ratified the treaty. The convention introduced a number of provisions, the convention set the limit of various areas, measured from a carefully defined baseline. The areas are as follows, Internal waters Covers all water, the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Foreign vessels have no right of passage within internal waters, territorial waters Out to 12 nautical miles from the baseline, the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Fishing, polluting, weapons practice, and spying are not innocent, Nations can also temporarily suspend innocent passage in specific areas of their territorial seas, if doing so is essential for the protection of its security. Archipelagic waters The convention set the definition of Archipelagic States in Part IV, a baseline is drawn between the outermost points of the outermost islands, subject to these points being sufficiently close to one another. All waters inside this baseline are designated Archipelagic Waters, the state has sovereignty over these waters, but subject to existing rights including traditional fishing rights of immediately adjacent statesUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea – Logo of the Convention
42. United Nations – The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict, at its founding, the UN had 51 member states, there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, the UNs mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization participated in actions in Korea and the Congo. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military, the UN has six principal organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Trusteeship Council. UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, the UNs most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UNs work, the organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have also been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UNs effectiveness have been mixed, some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France, four Policemen was coined to refer to four major Allied countries, United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China, which emerged in the Declaration by United Nations. Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries, the term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto, the foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. During the war, the United Nations became the term for the Allies. To join, countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis, at the later meetings, Lord Halifax deputized for Mr. Eden, Wellington Koo for T. V. Soong, and Mr Gromyko for Mr. Molotov. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the UN, and the facility was completed in 1952. Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi—is designated as international territory, the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-GeneralUnited Nations – 1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states.