1. Scooter Braun – Scott Samuel Scooter Braun is an American talent manager and businessman. He owns two record labels, School Boy Records and Raymond-Braun Media Group, RBMG is a joint venture with R&B performer Usher. Three of the most prominent artists Braun represents are Justin Bieber, Ariana Grande, for School Boy Records, his represented acts include Psy, Carly Rae Jepsen, Tori Kelly and The Wanted among others. Braun was born to a Jewish family in New York City, to Ervin, the film won in regional and state competitions and then placed third overall. A member of Brauns family sent the film to Steven Spielbergs office, Braun has said Spielbergs response was one of the most inspirational moments in his life. Braun began his career by organizing parties while studying at Emory University in Atlanta, in 2002, Braun was hired to plan after-parties in each of the five cities on the Anger Management Tour, featuring Ludacris and Eminem. This launch into the world of hip-hop led Braun to producer Jermaine Dupri, Braun was 19 years old when Dupri asked him to join So So Def in a marketing position, and 20 when Dupri named him So So Defs executive director for marketing. Still in his year at Emory, Braun was working at So So Def. Some of his larger events included parties for the 2003 NBA All-Star Game, eventually Braun left So So Def to go on his private venture. Some report he was fired from the job after a dispute over the direction of the label, Braun first encountered Justin Bieber when he saw a video of a 12-year-old Bieber on YouTube, performing a song by Ne-Yo. Braun contacted Biebers mother, Pattie Mallette, who agreed to bring her son to Atlanta for a trial period. Eventually, Braun convinced them to move permanently from Canada to the United States, after further online success, Braun pitched Bieber to two successful artists, Usher and Justin Timberlake, both expressed interest. Eventually Ushers mentor, music executive L. A. Reid, under the agreement, the label would take a cut of all revenues generated by Bieber, including ticket sales and merchandising. The group also includes RBMG, a joint venture between Braun and Usher, School Boy Records had a special business arrangement with Universal Music Group and later on with Republic Records for distribution. One source close to Ariana Grande has said that the reasons behind her actions is that She thinks this is the best professional decision for her moving forward. In 2016, Scooter won the award for “Best Talent Manager” at the 3rd annual “International Music Industry Awards” presented by Shazam at the 12th annual MUSEXPO in Los Angeles. Braun appeared on the cover of Billboard in the August 11,2012 Forty Under Forty special issue titled Scooter Braun, Braun was featured on the Time 100 list for 2013. He also appeared a second time on the cover of Billboard in its April 20,2013, issue, alongside Guy Oseary, Braun was born in New York City to Conservative Jewish parents, Ervin and Susan BraunScooter Braun – Braun on stage at Tech Crunch Disrupt in 2010.
2. YouTube – YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—in February 2005, Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion, YouTube now operates as one of Googles subsidiaries. Unregistered users can watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos deemed potentially offensive are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old, YouTube earns advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. As of February 2017, there are more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, as of April 2017, the website is ranked as the second most popular site in the world by Alexa Internet, a web traffic analysis company. YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006, YouTubes early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. The domain name www. youtube. com was activated on February 14,2005, the first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo. The video was uploaded on April 23,2005, and can still be viewed on the site, YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005. Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. The site has 800 million unique users a month and it is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. The choice of the name www. youtube. com led to problems for a similarly named website, the sites owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to www. utubeonline. com, in October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13,2006. In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, according to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event. On March 31,2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface, Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented, We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter. In May 2010, YouTube videos were watched more than two times per dayYouTube – From left to right: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim
3. Usher (entertainer) – Usher Raymond IV is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actor. Born in Dallas, Texas but raised and lived in Chattanooga, Tennessee until moving to Atlanta, at the age of 12, his mother put him in local singing competitions, before catching the attention of a music A&R from LaFace Records. In 1994 he released his debut album, Usher. 8701 produced the number-one singles U Remind Me and U Got It Bad and it sold 8 million copies worldwide and won his first two Grammy Awards as Best Male R&B Vocal Performance in 2002 and 2003. Confessions established him as one of the musical artists of the 2000s decade. Bolstered by its four consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number one singles, Burn, Confessions Part II, and My Boo, it has been certified Diamond by the RIAA. Here I Stand and Raymond v. Raymond, debuted atop of the Billboard 200, the EP, Versus, also produced the Hot 100 top-five single DJ Got Us Fallin in Love. Looking 4 Myself, also debuted atop the Billboard 200 chart, Raymond v. Raymond and Looking 4 Myself received Grammy Awards for R&B singles There Goes My Baby and Climax. Hard II Love peaked at five of the Billboard 200 albums chart. Usher has sold 23.8 million albums and 38.2 million digital songs in the United States, to date, his worldwide sales stand at 43 million albums and 75 million records overall, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. Usher has won awards and accolades including 18 Billboard Music Awards and 8 Grammy Awards. Billboard also placed him at number 6 on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years, Usher has attained 9 US Hot 100 number-one singles. Considered an icon and sex symbol, he was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame, in 2008, he started his own record label Raymond-Braun Media Group, a joint venture with talent manager Scooter Braun that includes Canadian singer Justin Bieber. Usher was born in Dallas, Texas, the son of Jonetta Patton, from Tennessee, Usher spent the majority of his young life in Chattanooga, his father left the family when Usher was a year old. Usher grew up with his mother, then-stepfather, and half-brother, while in Atlanta, Usher attended North Springs High School. At age 10, Usher joined an R&B local quintet called the NuBeginnings, Usher recorded 10 songs with the group in 1991, and the ensuing album, Nubeginning Featuring Usher Raymond IV, was only made available regionally and by mail order. However, Patton took him out because, according to her, the album was re-released nationally in April 2002 by Hip-O Records. At age 13, Usher would meet A. J, alexander at local talent show in AtlantaUsher (entertainer) – Usher during the Division 1 launch party, 2010
4. Atlanta – Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5,710,795 people, Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County, and a small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. In 1837, Atlanta was founded at the intersection of two lines, and the city rose from the ashes of the American Civil War to become a national center of commerce. Atlantas economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include logistics, professional and business services, media operations, Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlantas neighborhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the demographics, politics. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area, standing Peachtree, a Creek village located where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta. As part of the removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek ceded the area in 1821. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western, the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would then be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the zero milepost was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. A year later, the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as Terminus, and later as Thrasherville after a merchant who built homes. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed Marthasville to honor the Governors daughter, later, J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlantica-Pacifica, which was shortened to Atlanta. The residents approved, and the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29,1847, by 1860, Atlantas population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies, in 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on November 11,1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Armys March to the Sea by ordering Atlanta to be burned to the ground, sparing only the citys churches and hospitals. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was gradually rebuilt, due to the citys superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgias largest city, by 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the citys black colleges had established Atlanta as a center for higher education. In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, during the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades time, Atlantas population tripled as the city expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbsAtlanta – From top to bottom left to right: Atlanta skyline seen from Buckhead, the Fox Theatre, the Georgia State Capitol, Centennial Olympic Park, Millennium Gate, the Canopy Walk, the Georgia Aquarium, The Phoenix statue, and the Midtown skyline
5. Island Records – Island Records is a major record label that operates as a division of UMG Recordings, Inc. It was founded by Chris Blackwell, Graeme Goodall and Leslie Kong in Jamaica in 1959, Blackwell sold the label to PolyGram in 1989. Three Island labels exist in the world, Island UK, Island US, and Island Australia, current key people of Island Records include Island president Darcus Beese, OBE and MD Jon Turner. Partially due to the labels significant legacy, Island remains one of UMGs pre-eminent record labels, Island Records was founded in Jamaica on 4 July 1959 by Chris Blackwell, Graeme Goodall and Leslie Kong, and partially financed by Stanley Borden from RKO. Its name was inspired by the Harry Belafonte song Island in the Sun. Blackwell explained in 2009, “I loved music so much, I just wanted to get into it, or be as close to it as I could. ”Tom Hayes, the labels sales manager between 1965 and 1967, referred to the early period of the label in the UK as “organized chaos”. “My Boy Lollipop”, sung by Millie Small, was the labels first success in the UK, Blackwell explained in a 50-year-anniversary documentary that he was only interested in building long-term careers at that stage in time, rather than short-term projects. Suzette Newman has been a colleague of Chris Blackwells since working together in the early days of Island Records. Suzette Newman and Chris Salewicz were the editors for the book “The Story of Island Records, Blackwell relocated to England in May 1962 to garner greater levels of attention after the local Jamaican sound systems proved to be overwhelmingly successful. The vast majority of the artists who had signed to Blackwells fledgling label while he was in Jamaica agreed to allow the entrepreneur to release their music in the UK. While in England, Blackwell travelled throughout the city carrying his stock with him and he did not provide any copies to radio stations, as they would not play any of the Island music, the music was also not reviewed by the press. Meanwhile, Goodall left to start the Doctor Bird record label in 1965, Blackwell signed the Spencer Davis Group to the label. The group became popular and Island started their own independent series to spotlight UK rock talent. They signed artists like John Martyn, Fairport Convention, Free, by the late 1960s and early 1970s, they were a major label in England with artists like Roxy Music, King Crimson, Traffic, The Wailers, and many others. Blackwell had signed Bob Marley, and now Toots and the Maytals, in November 2016, Jackie Jackson described the formation of the group in a radio interview for Kool 97 FM Jamaica. Accompanied by Paul Douglas and Radcliffe Dougie Bryan in studio, Jackson explained, Were all original members of Toots, first it was Toots and the Maytals, three guys, Toots, Raleigh, and Jerry. …And then they were signed to Island Records, Chris Blackwell, and we were their recording band. One day we were summoned to Chris house, and he says, Alright gentleman, I think its timeIsland Records – Island Records
6. L.A. Reid – Antonio Marquis L. A. Reid is an American music executive, musician, songwriter, record producer, author and former television music competition judge. He is currently the chairman and CEO of Epic Records, a division of Sony Music Entertainment. Reid was also the founder and CEO of Hitco Music Publishing, based in New York, Reid first began his music career as a drummer, with his first appearance on record being with the Cincinnati funk rock outfit Pure Essence. Pure Essence released one solitary 45 in the mid-1970s and they later appeared on local FM rock radio station WEBNs second annual LP compilation, but the group was renamed Essence. Reid would experience more success when he became a member of the 1980s R&B band The Deele, best known for their 1988 hit Two Occasions. The band had broken up before the success of the single, the song peaked at number 10 on the Billboard Hot 100. After The Deele disbanded, Reid and band mate Kenneth Babyface Edmonds founded LaFace in 1989 through a joint venture with Arista Records, with funding from Arista Records creator Clive Davis. The label soon became one of the destinations for popular African-American entertainers who created Black Pop music that was easily accessible to both Urban and Top 40 radio formats. Reid signed 14-year-old Usher to the label, whose six album releases have sold 65 million units worldwide, other popular acts on the label during its peak include Toni Braxton, TLC, and Outkast. Both TLC and Toni Braxton went on to more than 65 million records each. Initially headquartered in Atlanta, the played a significant role in building the current landscape of the Atlanta music industry. Hitco Publishing Group With the belief that good songwriting is essential to the success of recording artists, Reid formed the Hitco Publishing Group in 1996 and he gave the future senior vice president of Island Def Jam Music Group his first position as an inter-level creative person at Hitco. In May 2000, Edmonds and Reid sold their remaining 50% stake in LaFace to parent company BMG, the label became an imprint of Arista Records, with Arista taking on sales, marketing, and promotional duties for its acts. At this time, Reid also succeeded his mentor Clive Davis as president of Arista Records, in 2000, LaFace was merged into Arista Records with Reid being promoted to president and CEO of Arista Records. In 1997 Reid was accepted to the Harvard Business School Advanced Management Program in preparation to become CEO of Arista Records in 2000, Reid signed his first unknown artist, pop/rocker Avril Lavigne, to Arista. Her debut album Let Go sold 6 million copies in the United States, as president of Arista Records, Reid brought the company great success by signing artists such as P. nk and Ciara. Outkasts Speakerboxxx/The Love Below also went on to sell 10 million copies and won a Grammy Award for Album of the year. Following the merger of Sony and BMG, L. A. Reid was released from his contract at Arista in 2004 and quickly became the chairman, Reid stepped down as Chairman/CEO of Island Def Jam in March 2011L.A. Reid – Reid at The X Factor in June 2011
7. One Time (song) – One Time is the debut single of Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber. It is the first single released from his debut EP, My World and it was first solicited to mainstream and rhythmic radio on May 18,2009. It was released via download in the United States and Canada on July 7,2009. An acoustic version of the song, called the My Heart Edition was released to iTunes on December 22,2009, the song, moderately paced with R&B, pop, and hip-hop influences, is an ode to young love. The song received positive reviews critics, commending its production, vocals. The song was a success, reaching the top twenty in Canada, US, Germany, United Kingdom, France and New Zealand. The single has been certified Platinum in Canada and the United States, the accompanying music video portrays Bieber at a house party, and features his mentor, Usher and hometown friend, Ryan Butler. As of March 2017, the video had been viewed over 510 million times on the video-sharing website YouTube, Bieber performed the song in a number of live appearances including The Dome, The Next Star, and Dick Clarks New Years Rockin Eve with Ryan Seacrest. Before they produced and wrote Biebers debut they had penned several hits, including Beyoncés Single Ladies, Mariah Careys Obsessed, Fabolouss Throw It In the Bag, One Time was produced by Stewart and production duo The Movement, while Harrell provided vocal recording and production. The Movement also received writing credits for the song as did Thabiso Nkhereanye, Bieber recorded the song at RedZones Triangle Sound Studios in Savannah, Georgia a few hours away from Biebers then current home of Atlanta, Georgia. Bieber also recorded some of the track at The Boom Boom Room in Burbank, mixing was done in Atlanta at Silent Sound Studios by Jaycen-Joshua Fowler and Dave Pensado. One Time is described to be in a slow groove. Washington Post called the track, along with Love Me modest club tracks, about. com described it as a solid midtempo beat. The song is composed in the key of C♯ minor, the song is moderately paced, and the introduction and outro are sung in a sing-and-tell format with Bieber repetitively voicing the line Me plus you/Imma tell you one time. Bieber goes into the middle eight the backing is not as much indistinguishable from the rest of the song, however Lamb criticized the song for being too generic, and that Bieber had little room to show his voice. Billboards Michael Menachem called the song a pop song that also taps into a prevalent teen hip-hop aesthetic. He also compared Bieber to Brown on the track, and said that brings to mind vocal debut on Run It. in 2005. Unlike Lamb, Menachem said the song gave Biebers vocals plenty of room to shine as he breaks into the chorusOne Time (song) – "One Time"
8. My World (EP) – My World is the debut extended play by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber. It was released on 17 November 2009, by Island Records, the album is considered the first half of a two-piece project, later being supplemented by his debut studio album My World 2.0. Its music incorporates pop and R&B styles, and lyrically discusses teen romance, upon its release, My World received generally favorable reviews from music critics, who complimented its production. It debuted at six on the US Billboard 200 with first-week sales of 137,000 copies. In doing so, it became the release for a new artist in 2009, though it was topped the following week by I Dreamed a Dream by Susan Boyle. Upon the release of My World 2.0 in March 2010, Less than two months after its release, the record was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for sales exceeding one million copies. Internationally, the extended play attained similar success and it debuted atop the Canadian Albums Chart, where it was later certified double platinum. It additionally attained double platinum recognition in the United Kingdom, two singles were released from My World, both of which became international successes. Its lead single One Time reached the top twenty in five countries singles charts, while its follow-up One Less Lonely Girl peaked within the top ten in Canada, the promotional singles Love Me and Favorite Girl peaked in the top forty of the US Billboard Hot 100. The project was promoted through television appearances and the My World Tour in 2010. On February 12,2016, the EP was released on vinyl for the first time, Bieber first began his career through YouTube, posting videos of his performances in singing competitions for family members who could not attend. As his popularity on the website grew, he was discovered by his eventual manager Scooter Braun and he provided him with an audition for L. A. Reid of Island Records, and signed a recording contract in October 2008. In April 2009, after recording his debut single One Time, Usher described Bieber as a phenomenon and definitely a priority for me. Bieber later described the title as the only way could really describe it. When recording My World, Bieber expressed a desire to grow as an artist and have fans grow with, musically, the project incorporates pop and R&B styles, similar to the catalogs of Michael Jackson, Stevie Wonder, Chris Brown, Usher, and Ne-Yo. Entertainment Weekly described the record as featuring sugary puppy-love ballads and dinky dance-pop confections, Bieber looked to address a variety of lyrical themes, which he described as songs that teens can relate to and just stuff that happens in everyday life. The introductory track One Time discusses an admiration of a female, Favorite Girl shares a similar sentiment, describing the object of his affection as his prized possession. The ballad Down to Earth was inspired by the divorce of Biebers parents, Bigger details an aspiration to work past the difficulties a relationship experiencesMy World (EP) – Bieber performing in Bogor, Indonesia during his My World Tour, 2010.
9. RIAA certification – In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets. Certification is not automatic, for an award to be made, the audit is conducted against net shipments after returns, which includes albums sold directly to retailers and one-stops, direct-to-consumer sales and other outlets. Presently, an American RIAA-certified Gold record is a single or album that has sold 500,000 units, the award was launched in 1958, originally, the requirement for a Gold single was one million units sold and a Gold album represented $1 million in sales. In 1975, the requirement of 500,000 units sold was added for Gold albums. Reflecting growth in sales, the Platinum award was added in 1976 for albums selling one million units. The Multi-Platinum award was introduced in 1984, signifying multiple Platinum levels of albums, in 1989, the sales thresholds for singles were reduced to 500,000 for Gold and 1,000,000 for Platinum, reflecting a decrease in sales of singles. In 1992, RIAA began counting each disc in a set as one unit toward certification. Reflecting additional growth in sales, the Diamond award was instituted in 1999 for albums or singles selling ten million units. Because of these changes in criteria, the sales level associated with a particular award depends on when the award was made, Nielsen SoundScan figures are not used in RIAA certification, the RIAA system predates Nielsen SoundScan and includes sales outlets Nielsen misses. Prior to Nielsen SoundScan, RIAA certification was the only audited and this system has allowed, at times, for record labels to promote an album as Gold or Platinum simply based on large shipments. For instance, in 1978 the Sgt, peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band soundtrack shipped platinum but was a sales bust, with two million returns. Similarly, all four albums by the members of Kiss simultaneously shipped Platinum that same year. A similar discrepancy between shipments and sales was reported with The Lion King soundtrack, multi-disc albums are counted once for each disc within the album if it is over 100 minutes in length or is from the vinyl era. Pink Floyds The Wall and The Beatles White Album, both vinyl-era, are also counted double even though their running times are under the minimum requirement. Since 2000, the RIAA also awards Los Premios de Oro y De Platino to Latin albums which are defined by the RIAA as a type of product that features at least 51% of content in Spanish, the thresholds were 100,000 units and 200,000 units. All Spanish-language albums certified prior to 2008 were updated to match the current certification at the time, la Bomba by Bolivian group Azul Azul is the only single to receive a Latin certification based on shipments before the creation of the Latin digital singles awards in 2013. The Disco de Diamante award was introduced after the RIAA updated the thresholds for Latin certifications in December 20,2013, the Disco de Diamante is awarded to Latin albums that have been certified 10× Platinum. The thresholds were previously 1,000,000 units and 2,000,000 units, when the RIAA changed the certification standards to match retail distribution in August 2006, all Platinum and Multi-Platinum awards for a digital release were withdrawnRIAA certification – A platinum award for the album GHV2 of Madonna.
10. Billboard Hot 100 – The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales, radio play and online streaming, the weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is available on a real-time basis. A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesdays, as of the issue for the week ending on April 15,2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,061 different number one hits. The current number one song is Shape of You by Ed Sheeran, prior to 1955, Billboard did not have a unified, all-encompassing popularity chart, instead measuring songs by individual metrics. At the start of the era in 1955, three such charts existed, Best Sellers in Stores was the first Billboard chart, established in 1936. This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country, Most Played by Jockeys was Billboards original airplay chart. It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio disc jockeys, Most Played in Jukeboxes ranked the most played songs in jukeboxes across the United States. On the week ending November 12,1955, Billboard published The Top 100 for the first time, the Top 100 combined all aspects of a singles performance, based on a point system that typically gave sales more weight than radio airplay. The Best Sellers In Stores, Most Played by Jockeys and Most Played in Jukeboxes charts continued to be published concurrently with the new Top 100 chart. The week ending July 28,1958 was the publication of the Most Played By Jockeys and Top 100 charts. On August 4,1958, Billboard premiered one main all-genre singles chart, the Hot 100 quickly became the industry standard and Billboard discontinued the Best Sellers In Stores chart on October 13,1958. The Billboard Hot 100 is still the standard by which a songs popularity is measured in the United States, the Hot 100 is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by Nielsen Soundscan and streaming activity provided by online music sources. There are several component charts that contribute to the calculation of the Hot 100. Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with Arbitron listener data. Hot Singles Sales, the top selling singles compiled from a sample of retail store, mass merchant and internet sales reports collected, compiled. The chart is released weekly and measures sales of commercial singles. With the decline in sales of singles in the USBillboard Hot 100 – The Billboard logo
11. My World 2.0 – My World 2.0 is the debut studio album by Canadian singer-songwriter Justin Bieber. It was released on March 19,2010, by Island Records and it is considered the second half of a two-piece project, being supplemented by his debut extended play My World. The record follows in the vein of My World, incorporating pop and R&B styles, lyrically, it discusses teen romance and coming of age situations. Upon its release, My World 2.0 received generally favorable reviews from music critics and it debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 with first-week sales of 283,000 copies. In doing so, Bieber became the youngest solo male artist to top the chart since Stevie Wonder in 1963, with My World peaking at number five that week, he became the first artist to occupy two top-five positions since Nelly in 2004. When the album sold more copies in its week, it became the first album since The Beatles 1 to debut at number one. Bieber also had his second number one album in Canada, and in its second week the album peaked at number one in Ireland, Australia. It also charted in the top ten of fifteen other countries, Bieber supported the album with his very first headlining tour, the My World Tour. The album was preceded by the single, Baby, featuring Ludacris, which was released on January 18,2010. Somebody to Love impacted radio as the second single on April 20,2010. The album received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Pop Vocal Album at the 2011 ceremony. In 2009, in an interview with Billboard at the Z100 Jingle Ball, Bieber said that people do not want to wait over a year and half for new music, and it was decided best to give it in parts. In an interview with the Houston Chronicle, Bieber stated, I wanted to do something that was a bit more R&B. I just wanted to be able to show my vocal abilities, in a piece with The New York Times Bieber stated that most of the production took place in Atlanta, and confirmed collaborating again with Tricky Stewart and The-Dream. Bieber said, that he was hoping that the album would be better, considering that My World was his first time in a studio. The album has been described as edgier and more mature than its predecessor, Bieber stated, I wanted to do something that was a little bit more R&B and that could reach out to everyone. I just wanted to be able to show my vocal abilities, sara Anderson of AOL Music commented that his sophomore release also showcases pop-y and hip-hop fused tracks. The record has also said to mine vintage teen-pop themesMy World 2.0 – My World 2.0
12. Baby (Justin Bieber song) – Baby is a song by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber. It was released as the single from the latter half of Biebers debut album. It was available for download on January 18,2010. The song received airplay directly after release, officially impacting mainstream, the song is uptempo R&B, blending together dance-pop and hip-hop elements, while using influences of doo-wop music. The song has received reviews from critics who complimented the songs effective lyrics and chorus, and commended Ludacris part. The accompanying music video takes place in a mall/bowling-alley setting, the video features several cameos such as Drake, Lil Twist and Tinashe, in which Bieber chases after a girl. As of May 2013, the song has sold 3.9 million digital downloads in the United States, the official music video is the eighteenth most-viewed video all-time on YouTube, and is also, as of 2017, the YouTube video with the most dislikes. It had been the most-viewed from July 12,2010 until November 24,2012, Bieber performed the song several times, including Saturday Night Live, and the ninth season of American Idol. Bieber also performed a rendition of the remix version with Drake at the 2010 Juno Awards. The official remix in the United Kingdom features British hip-hop artist Chipmunk, when asked how the collaboration initially came about, Bieber said, both live in Atlanta. I met him a year prior to this and we figured it was a collaboration for him. Bieber first premiered the song performing on MuchMusic on December 28,2009, a few days before the release of the single, Bieber posted an acoustic version of the song to his YouTube with his guitarist Dan Kanterr, similar to the way he did with Favorite Girl. Billboard said that, Bieber delivers his characteristically clean vocals with conviction, My first love broke my heart for the first time / and Im like, baby, baby, baby, I thought youd always be mine. Also in a review of the acoustic version Bill Lamb of About. com said that I think the vocals here will convince some that Justin Bieber really does have the vocal chops. The song is upbeat, featuring Biebers R&B vocals over a backdrop containing a dance infused beat, full of keyboard. The song is composed in the key of E♭ major with Biebers vocal range spanning from the low-note of G3 to the high-note of C5. Lyrically, Biebers lines explain his distress over his lost love, the chorus features the distinct and repetitive baby, baby, baby, ohhhh hook. A famous section of the song plays Baby, Baby baby oh and it is the catchphrase of the song that identifies the songBaby (Justin Bieber song) – "Baby"
13. My World Tour – The My World Tour was the debut concert tour by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber. It is Biebers first concert tour which supports his two-part debut album My World, the tour was officially announced on March 16,2010, a week before My World 2.0 was released. Rising Sony recording artist Jasmine Villegas joined the tour as opening act for the second leg, the first leg of the tour is estimated to have grossed $35.6 million post inflation. The tour made a total of $53,341,886 worldwide, the tour was officially announced on March 16,2010, a week before the release of his second studio album, My World 2.0. In an interview with the Houston Chronicle, when asked about what fans could expect on the tour, Bieber stated, there are going to be some cool tricks, some electronic things that havent been seen before, for sure. All concerts were filmed for venue projection because of the audience in back rows. The concert in New York City, United States on August 31,2010 was filmed with different cameras and lots of angles for Biebers 3D movie, the October 8,2011 concert in São Paulo, Brazil was filmed with different cameras and angles professionally. Later, this concert was broadcast on television in Brazil but some songs are skipped, Justin Bieber, News, Tickets for My World TourMy World Tour – Promotional poster for the tour
14. My Worlds Acoustic – My Worlds Acoustic is the first remix album by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber. It was released on November 26,2010 and was sold exclusively at Walmart retail stores. The album features nine versions of songs from his debut extended play, My World. The new versions of the songs were produced by Biebers music director, Dan Kanter, his vocal producer Kuk Harrell, internationally, the set is included as a part of the compilation album, My Worlds, The Collection, which included songs from the previous two releases. My Worlds Acoustic was released to iTunes, on February 8,2011, according to Bieber, he wanted to release the album for the naysayers who critiqued his actual singing ability. The singer said that he wanted to have an acoustic album, although labeled as an acoustic album, the songs still include subtle usages of electronic sounds such as synthesizers. The album received favorable reviews from critics, however most critics were not satisfied that the album was not genuinely acoustic. In Canada, the song debuted at five, and later peaked at number four on the Canadian Albums Chart. My Worlds Acoustic debuted at seven on the US Billboard 200, selling 115,000 copies in its first week. On October 18,2010, Bieber announced on his Twitter plans for an album in time for the holiday season. Days later, on October 24,2010, he revealed that the album was set for release on November 26,2010. The singer said he wanted to do the set because the Electronic Music production sometimes drowns out your voice and takes away from the singer, over the synths. According to Kyle Anderson of MTV News the album might not have been just another project, in the same interview he confirmed that Baby and other My World 2.0 songs were re-recorded, as well as a new song. It was later confirmed that the song was a song entitled. According to Bieber, the song is a gift to his fans, vocally, Biebers vocals are sung in a lower key compared to previous singles. Bieber plays guitar on the album, along with his guitarist, the new versions of the other songs on the album were produced by Kanter, Biebers vocal producer Kuk Harrell, and also producer Rob Wells. The video premiered during Game 3 of the 2010 World Series, and in the clip, Bieber performed Pray for the first time at the 2010 American Music Awards. The performance opened with Bieber sitting playing the piano while singing, midway through the performance Bieber arose from the piano and took center stage, he was accompanied by a choir singing background vocalsMy Worlds Acoustic – My Worlds Acoustic
15. Justin Bieber: Never Say Never – Justin Bieber, Never Say Never is a 2011 3-D concert film centering on singer Justin Bieber. It was released in the United States, Canada and Africa on February 11,2011, a sequel to Never Say Never was released on December 25,2013 entitled Justin Biebers Believe. The film follows the pop star Justin Bieber during 10 days counting down to what is considered his biggest performance, that of August 31,2010 in Madison Square Garden and it shows footage of the performances during this period from his My World Tour. The main people around Bieber, being like family and good friends to him, are interviewed, various instances of praying together before a show are shown. The film also includes a visit Bieber made to his hometown while being in Canada for the tour and he is scolded for having damaged his voice while having fun with his old friends. Reluctantly he accepts the postponement of a performance in Syracuse and he is not allowed to speak for some days, and thus recovers enough to do the next performance, at MSG. Also included are some stories and old videos of Biebers childhood and he was raised by his mother but also had a very special bond with his maternal step-grandfather. The latter still gets emotional about the time that Bieber and his moved to Atlanta. The website also reported that the film, described as a feature biopic would be directed by the Academy Award-winning An Inconvenient Truths director Davis Guggenheim, the untitled film was said to also include performances from Biebers My World Tour throughout. Biebers manager Scooter Braun and Island Def Jam president L. A. Reid were tapped to produce, after the report was published by Deadline, Bieber confirmed the news on his official Twitter account, and verified that it would be released around February 11,2011. In a following tweet, Bieber stated that the performances for the film would be set to take place at Madison Square Garden on the tour. On August 4,2010, Deadline reported that Guggenheim had dropped out of the position for the film. After the future of the film was up in the air for a few days, on August 13,2010, it was reported that Step Up 3D director Jon Chu was recruited to direct the film. On directing the film, Chu stated that he jumped at the opportunity to tell a story with honesty and heart, as most people did not know that Bieber had a true underdog story. Chu went on to say that he hoped to tell his story in a compelling, genuine way, in another interview, Chu said that the movie was for fans and non-fans alike, commenting, were gonna tell the underdog story of where he came from. He later explained that it was fascinating due to Biebers story had much to do with the digital lifestyle, such as using YouTube. On the type of film, Chu said Theres not going to be acted-out scenes and its not your typical concert film and its not going to be a biopic, but it is about his life. The contest lasted for twenty-four hours, on August 31,2010, filming took place at his concert at Madison Square Garden for scenes for the film, and Bieber donned white and purple attire, his tour colorsJustin Bieber: Never Say Never – Theatrical release poster
16. Under the Mistletoe – Under the Mistletoe is the first Christmas album and second studio album by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber. It was released on November 1,2011, by Island Records, on August 25,2011, Bieber announced that he would be releasing his first Christmas album and second studio album later in 2011. Manager Scooter Braun and vocal producer Kuk Harrell confirmed a week later that Bieber had collaborated with Sean Kingston, later that month, it was announced that Boyz II Men, Usher, and The Band Perry were also collaborating with Bieber on the album. On September 30,2011, Bieber released the album cover. On October 4,2011, Mariah Carey revealed that she, justins version of the song Santa Claus Is Coming To Town samples the song I Want You Back by the Jackson 5. The albums first single Mistletoe, was written and produced with The Messengers, the album debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, shipping 210,000 units during its opening week. Under the Mistletoe is Justin Biebers third number-one album and third platinum selling album following Never Say Never and it was also the first Christmas album by a male artist to debut at number-one. Bieber also became the first solo artist to have three albums before his 18th birthday. For all of 2011, the album totaled 1,245,000 copies in US sales, according to Nielsen SoundScan, as of December 2015, the album had sold 1,510,000 copies in the United States. The album also debuted within the top 10 in Spain, Australia, Norway, and the NetherlandsUnder the Mistletoe – Under the Mistletoe
17. American Music Awards of 2010 – The 38th American Music Awards were held November 21,2010, at the Nokia Theatre in Los Angeles, California. The awards recognized the most popular artists and albums from 2010s music list, nominees were announced on October 12,2010. Justin Bieber was nominated for, and won, four awards, usher and Eminem both won two awards, the former was nominated for three and the latter, five. The nominees for the 38th American Music Awards were announced on October 12,2010 by Demi Lovato, the ceremony was watched by 11.6 million viewers and received a 4.3 preliminary rating in the 18–49 demographic. This marked the lowest-ever ratings for the ceremony, with coming from NBC Sunday Night Football. American Music Awards of 2010 at the Internet Movie DatabaseAmerican Music Awards of 2010 – Eminem
18. Best New Artist – The Grammy Award for Best New Artist has been awarded since 1959. Years reflect the year in which the Grammy Awards were handed out, the award was not presented in 1967. The official guidelines are as follows, For a new artist who releases, during the Eligibility Year, note that this is not necessarily the first album released by an artist. It is sometimes asserted, with varying degrees of sincerity, that winning the award is a curse, as several award winners were never able to duplicate the success they experienced in their debut year. This viewpoint was expressed by former Starland Vocal Band member Taffy Danoff in a 2002 interview for VH1s 100 Greatest One Hit Wonders, so that was basically the kiss of death and I feel sorry for everyone whos gotten it since. The category is also notable for being the one of its kind in which a Grammy Award was vacated. This occurred in 1990 after it was revealed winners Milli Vanilli did not contribute their own vocals on their debut album, the award was revoked, but was not handed out to another artist. Of the 54 awards presented in the category since its inception, the honor has been presented to 25 solo female artists,18 duos or groups, between 1997 and 2003, all the winners were solo female artists. Also, from 1993 to 2005, no winner was a male artist. In 2006, John Legend broke this trend, which started with Marc Cohn in 1992. Only four artists have won both Best New Artist and Album of the Year in the year, Bob Newhart in 1961, Christopher Cross in 1981, Lauryn Hill in 1999. Of all the winners, only three have been country artists, in 1997, LeAnn Rimes became the first country artist to win the award. She was followed by Carrie Underwood in 2007 and Zac Brown Band in 2010, additionally,2017 marked the first time that two country artists were nominated in this category in the same year. 1984 marked the first time all of the nominees were from outside of the United States. Over the years, the eligibility rules for this category have changed several times, in 2010, Lady Gagas exclusion from the Best New Artist category caused the Recording Academy to change eligibility requirements for the next ceremony. She was ineligible for the nomination because her hit Just Dance had been nominated in 2008, the new rule stated that an artist can be nominated as long as that artist has not previously released an entire album and has subsequently not won a Grammy. To be eligible in the category of Best New Artist, the artist, duo, or group, Must have released a minimum of five singles/tracks or one album, but no more than 30 singles/tracks or three albums. May not have entered into this more than three times, including as a performing member of an established groupBest New Artist – The Beatles members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George Harrison (clockwise from top left)
19. Best Pop Vocal Album – The honor was first presented in 1968 at the 10th Grammy Awards as Best Contemporary Album to The Beatles for Sgt. The category was discontinued until 1995 where it emerged with the new name Best Pop Album. In 2001, the became known as Best Pop Vocal Album. According to the category description guide for the 52nd Grammy Awards, kelly Clarkson and Adele are the only artists to win the award twice. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year, billboard 200 Grammy Award for Best Pop Instrumental Album List of popular music genres Official site of the Grammy AwardsBest Pop Vocal Album – The Beatles, the 1968 award-winning band for Best Contemporary Album.
20. 53rd Grammy Awards – The 53rd Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 13,2011, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. They were broadcast on CBS with a rating of 26.6 million viewers, barbra Streisand was honored as the MusiCares Person of the Year two nights prior to the telecast on February 11. Nominations were announced on December 1,2010 and a total of 109 awards were presented, most of the awards were presented during the pre-telecast, which took place at the Los Angeles Convention Center next to the Staples Center, where the main telecast took place. The eligibility period was September 1,2009 to September 30,2010, for the third year, nominations were announced on prime-time television as part of The GRAMMY Nominations Concert Live. – Countdown to Musics Biggest Night a one-hour special broadcast live on CBS from Club Nokia at L. A. Live, arcade Fire won Album of the Year for The Suburbs becoming the first indie act to do so, and surprising many viewers and critics. Baba Yetu composed and arranged by Christopher Tin won Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist, is the first Grammy given to a piece of written for a Video Game. Esperanza Spalding was awarded Best New Artist, Lady Antebellum won five awards including Record of the Year and Song of the Year for Need You Now. Other multiple winners include, David Frost, John Legend, Lady Gaga, Jay-Z, the Black Keys, Eminem, Herbie Hancock, Alicia Keys, The Roots, Christopher Tin and BeBe Winans won two awards each. The television broadcast of the 53rd Grammy Awards marked the last awards show for the Grammys executive producer, John Cossette, dre, Eminem, Havoc, Emile Haynie, Jim Jonsin, Just Blaze, Mr. Luke, Kuk Harrell, Max Martin, Stargate, C. Power – Kanye West Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group On to the Next One – Jay Z & Swiss Beatz Shutterbugg – Big Boi & Cutty Fancy – Drake, T. I. & Swizz Beatz My Chick Bad – Ludacris & Nicki Minaj Lose My Mind – Young Jeezy & Plies Best Rap/Sung Collaboration Empire State of Mind – Jay-Z & Alicia Keys Nothin on You – B. o. Battle Studies Michael H. Luke California Gurls – Katy Perry Featuring Snoop Dogg For Your Entertainment – Adam Lambert Hungover – Ke$ha Kiss n Tell – Ke$ha Magic – B. o. o. Johnson, surround mix engineer, Keith O. Daugherty, Metropolis Symphony, Deus Ex Machina Mark Donahue, John Hill & Dirk Sobotka, engineers Have You Ever Been53rd Grammy Awards – 53rd Annual Grammy Awards
21. Justin Bieber – Justin Drew Bieber is a Canadian singer and songwriter. After a talent manager discovered him through his YouTube videos covering songs in 2008 and signed to RBMG, Bieber released his debut EP, My World and it was certified Platinum in the U. S. He became the first artist to have seven songs from a record chart on the Billboard Hot 100. Bieber released his first full-length studio album, My World 2.0 and it debuted at or near number one in several countries, was certified triple Platinum in the U. S. and contained his single Baby. He released his studio album, Under the Mistletoe, in November 2011. Bieber released his studio album, Believe, in 2012. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in November 2015, spawning three number one singles, What Do You Mean and his U. S. album and singles sales total 44.7 million. He has sold an estimated 100 million records, making him one of the world’s best-selling music artists, Bieber has won numerous awards, including the American Music Award for Artist of the Year in 2010 and 2012. In his career, he has won one Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song Where Are Ü Now at the 2016 ceremony. He has been listed four times by Forbes magazine among the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world in 2011,2012, Bieber also became the first artist to surpass 10 billion total video views on Vevo. Bieber was born on March 1,1994, in London, Ontario, at St Josephs Hospital and he is the only child of Jeremy Jack Bieber and Patricia Pattie Mallette. Pattie raised her son with the help of her mother, Diane and his mother is of French-Canadian descent, his paternal great-grandfather was of German ancestry, and his other roots are English, Scottish and Irish. He has also claimed that he has some undetermined Aboriginal Canadian ancestry, through Jeremy, Bieber has two younger half-siblings, Jazmyn and Jaxon. Pattie worked a series of low-paying office jobs, raising Bieber as a mother in low-income housing. Bieber has maintained contact with his father, Bieber attended a French-language immersion elementary school in Stratford, the Jeanne Sauvé Catholic School. Growing up, he learned to play the piano, drums, guitar and he graduated from high school in Stratford, Ontario, the St. Michael Catholic Secondary School in 2012 with a 4.0 GPA. In early 2007, aged 12, Bieber sang Ne-Yos So Sick for a singing competition in Stratford and was placed second. Mallette posted a video of the performance on YouTube for their family and she continued to upload videos of Bieber singing covers of various R&B songs, and Biebers popularity on the site grewJustin Bieber – Bieber at the 2012 NRJ Music Awards
22. Justin Bieber: Never Say Never (film) – Justin Bieber, Never Say Never is a 2011 3-D concert film centering on singer Justin Bieber. It was released in the United States, Canada and Africa on February 11,2011, a sequel to Never Say Never was released on December 25,2013 entitled Justin Biebers Believe. The film follows the pop star Justin Bieber during 10 days counting down to what is considered his biggest performance, that of August 31,2010 in Madison Square Garden and it shows footage of the performances during this period from his My World Tour. The main people around Bieber, being like family and good friends to him, are interviewed, various instances of praying together before a show are shown. The film also includes a visit Bieber made to his hometown while being in Canada for the tour and he is scolded for having damaged his voice while having fun with his old friends. Reluctantly he accepts the postponement of a performance in Syracuse and he is not allowed to speak for some days, and thus recovers enough to do the next performance, at MSG. Also included are some stories and old videos of Biebers childhood and he was raised by his mother but also had a very special bond with his maternal step-grandfather. The latter still gets emotional about the time that Bieber and his moved to Atlanta. The website also reported that the film, described as a feature biopic would be directed by the Academy Award-winning An Inconvenient Truths director Davis Guggenheim, the untitled film was said to also include performances from Biebers My World Tour throughout. Biebers manager Scooter Braun and Island Def Jam president L. A. Reid were tapped to produce, after the report was published by Deadline, Bieber confirmed the news on his official Twitter account, and verified that it would be released around February 11,2011. In a following tweet, Bieber stated that the performances for the film would be set to take place at Madison Square Garden on the tour. On August 4,2010, Deadline reported that Guggenheim had dropped out of the position for the film. After the future of the film was up in the air for a few days, on August 13,2010, it was reported that Step Up 3D director Jon Chu was recruited to direct the film. On directing the film, Chu stated that he jumped at the opportunity to tell a story with honesty and heart, as most people did not know that Bieber had a true underdog story. Chu went on to say that he hoped to tell his story in a compelling, genuine way, in another interview, Chu said that the movie was for fans and non-fans alike, commenting, were gonna tell the underdog story of where he came from. He later explained that it was fascinating due to Biebers story had much to do with the digital lifestyle, such as using YouTube. On the type of film, Chu said Theres not going to be acted-out scenes and its not your typical concert film and its not going to be a biopic, but it is about his life. The contest lasted for twenty-four hours, on August 31,2010, filming took place at his concert at Madison Square Garden for scenes for the film, and Bieber donned white and purple attire, his tour colorsJustin Bieber: Never Say Never (film) – Theatrical release poster
23. RealD Cinema – RealD 3D is a digital stereoscopic projection technology made and sold by RealD. It is currently the most widely used technology for watching 3D films in theatres, worldwide, RealD 3D is installed in more than 26,500 auditoriums by approximately 1,200 exhibitors in 72 countries as of June 2015. RealD 3D cinema technology is a polarized 3D system that uses circularly polarized light to produce stereoscopic image projection, the advantage of circular polarization over linear polarization is that viewers are able to tilt their head and look about the theater naturally without seeing double or darkened images. However, as other systems, any significant head tilt will result in incorrect parallax. The high-resolution, digital cinema grade video projector alternately projects right-eye frames and left-eye frames, the projector is either a Texas Instruments Digital Light Processing device or Sonys reflective LCOS. A push-pull electro-optical liquid crystal modulator called a ZScreen is placed immediately in front of the lens to alternately polarize each frame. It circularly polarizes the frames clockwise for the eye and counter-clockwise for the left eye. The audience wears circularly polarized glasses that have oppositely polarized lenses that ensures each eye sees only its designated frame, in RealD Cinema, each frame is projected three times to reduce flicker, a system called triple flash. The source video is produced at 24 frames per second per eye. A silver screen is used to maintain the light polarization upon reflection, the result is a 3D picture that seems to extend behind and in front of the screen itself. 3D systems for movies using polarized light cause a significant loss of brightness due to the inherent filter absorption. This results in less than 25% of the light reaching the eyes of the viewer. Conversely, in a standard 2D system, the only significant cause of loss is absorption by the white screen. RealD estimates the viewer sees about 35% of the light when viewing RealD 3D when compared to a similarly projected 2D image on a white screen. These glasses cannot be used as sunglasses despite their dark tint because their effect on nearby radiation can be somewhat different and this means they might not block such wavelengths at all. Such 3D glasses might have warnings on their packaging that they not work as sunglasses. Some viewers of 3D movies complain of headaches or nausea during or after viewing and these problems can be caused by the viewer tilting his or her head, making it harder for the brain to fuse the two images. It can also be caused by rapid transitions in the movie scenes of very different depthRealD Cinema – RealD glasses.
24. Documentary – A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. Documentary has been described as a practice, a cinematic tradition. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film and he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de lhistoire and La photographie animée. Both were published in 1898 in French and among the written works to consider the historical. Matuszewski is also among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect, the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as a factual film which is dramatic. Others further state that a documentary stands out from the types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion. Documentary practice is the process of creating documentary projects. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of journalism, advocacy, early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event. They were single-shot moments captured on film, a train entering a station and these short films were called actuality films, the term documentary was not coined until 1926. Many of the first films, such as made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons, the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and a half, using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States, in May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations, Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. These and five other of Doyens films survive, all these short films have been preserved. I must say I forgot those works and I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me, unfortunately, not many scientists have followed your way. Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th centuryDocumentary – This 16 mm spring-wound Bolex "H16" Reflex camera is a popular entry level camera used in film schools.
25. Deadline.com – Deadline. com, official name Deadline Hollywood, and previously known as news blog Deadline Hollywood Daily, is an online magazine founded by Nikki Finke in 2006. Owned by Jay Penske since 2009, it is a brand of the Penske Media Corporation, the site is updated several times a day, with the infotainment industry as its focus. Finke began writing her LA Weekly column Deadline Hollywood in June 2002, in 2009, she sold DHD to Mail. com Media for a reported seven-figure payday, under an agreement by which she would hire an additional writer but remain the sites editor. In September 2009, the URL was changed to deadline. com, in November 2013, Finke left Deadline after a year-long disagreement between herself and Penske, who had bought Variety, a competing trade magazine and website. In 2010, Nikki Finke hired Variety reporter Mike Fleming Jr. Finke remained the editor of Deadline Hollywood, official website About Deadline. com at PMCDeadline.com – Deadline.com
26. Paramount Pictures – Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor contracted 22 actors and actresses and these fortunate few would become the first movie stars. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, in 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company. It is the last major film studio headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles. Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company, hungarian-born founder, Adolph Zukor, who had been an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed mainly to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, and Zukor was on his way to success and its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth, which starred Sarah Bernhardt. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish, the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with virtually no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film. Hodkinson and actor, director, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies, Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor, until this time, films were sold on a statewide or regional basis which had proved costly to film producers. Also, Famous Players and Lasky were privately owned while Paramount was a corporation, in 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, and Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, and merged the three companies into one, with only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its Paramount Pictures soon dominated the business. It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, the driving force behind Paramounts rise was Zukor. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg and they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation, three years later, because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max, the Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957, Paramount was also one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as talkies, and in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of ParisParamount Pictures – Logo used as of 2012
27. Academy Award – The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people. The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, however, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture. The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see also § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronzeAcademy Award – Academy Awards
28. Davis Guggenheim – Philip Davis Guggenheim is an American film and television director and producer. His credits include NYPD Blue, ER,24, Alias, The Shield, Deadwood, since 2006, Guggenheim is the only filmmaker to release three different documentaries that were ranked within the top 100 highest-grossing documentaries of all time. He was born Philip Davis Guggenheim in St. Louis, Missouri, United States and his father was Jewish and his mother was Episcopalian. He graduated from the Potomac School, from Sidwell Friends School, Guggenheim joined the HBO Western drama Deadwood as a producer and director for the first season in 2004. The series was created by David Milch and focused on a town in the American West. Guggenheim directed the episodes Deep Water, Reconnoitering the Rim, Plague, Guggenheim left the crew at the end of Season 1. The pilot episode of The Unit was directed by Guggenheim, the documentary, An Inconvenient Truth, was produced and directed by Davis Guggenheim. An Inconvenient Truth won the Academy Award in 2007 for Best Documentary Feature, the film, released in 2006, featured Former U. S. Vice President Al Gore and his international slideshow on global warming, guggenheims goal was to shine a bright light a subject that critics brushed off as nothing more than an exaggeration or a hoax. Then-Candidate for President Barack Obamas biographical film, which aired during the Democratic National Convention in August 2008, was directed by Guggenheim. The Guggenheim-directed Obama infomercial, which was broadcast on October 29,2008, was executed with high standards of cinematography, in 2012, he released The Road Weve Traveled, a 17-minute short film on the president. Davis Guggenheim directed and was a producer of the 2009 pilot for Melrose Place. His brother-in-law Andrew Shue starred on the 1990s version of the series, in 2008, he released It Might Get Loud, a documentary that glimpses into the lives of guitarists Jimmy Page, The Edge, and Jack White. Guggenheims 2010 documentary Waiting for Superman, a film about the failures of American public education sparked controversy, Guggenheim knew his film would lead to this and said, I know people will say this movie is anti-this or pro-that. But it really is all about trying to find great schools. This film received the Audience Award for best documentary at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival and its public release was in September 2010. A documentary film about the band U2 directed by Guggenheim titled From the Sky Down opened the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival in September, in 2013, he directed a 30-minute documentary The Dream is Now. It tells the stories of undocumented youth and their families who are desperate to earn their citizenship in the country theyve ever called homeDavis Guggenheim – Davis Guggenheim
29. Island Def Jam – The Island Def Jam Music Group was an American record label group formed in 1998 by combining the operations of 14+ record labels including Island Records, Def Jam Recordings, and Mercury Records. In 2011, Motown Records was split from The Universal/Motown Records Group, on April 1,2014, Universal Music announced that Island Def Jams operations would be split between three entities, Island Records, Motown Records, and Def Jam Recordings. Despite being a new organization, Island Def Jam quickly made a name for itself in the music industry, the label gained notoriety for its untraditional and innovative approach when it came to breaking new artists, creating joint ventures, acquisitions, internet marketing, etc. IDJ had a great A&R team that oversaw chart-topping talent such as Jay-Z, Bon Jovi, DMX, Elton John and these savvy business moves are the reason IDJ prospered. In 2000, IDJMG announced that they would be launching Def Jam Germany and this move expanded urban music into a global phenomenon. In 2001, Island Def Jam created a label, Lost Highway Records. The label operated as an imprint of IDJs Mercury Records division, in Summer 2001, Island Def Jam acquired a controlling interest in the legendary rock label, Roadrunner Records. In December 2004, Island Def Jam acquired the remaining 50% interest in Roc-A-Fella Records, in 2011, Motown Records became an imprint of The Island Def Jam Music Group. In April 2014, UMG announced that Island Def Jam would cease to exist, IDJs operations were split up/separated between its flagship labels, Island Records, Def Jam Recordings, and Motown Records. Today, The Island Def Jam Music Group continues to one of the most impressive music catalogues in history. Chocolate City Records Artium Recordings Desert Storm Records Disturbing Tha Peace GOOD Music Radio Killa Records The IncIsland Def Jam – The Island Def Jam Music Group