1. Quilon – Kollam or Quilon, formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of Kerala, India. The city is on the banks Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam has had a strong commercial reputation since the days of the Phoenicians and Romans. Fed by the Chinese trade, it was mentioned by Ibn Battuta in the 14th century as one of the five Indian ports he had seen during the course of his twenty-four year travels, desinganadus rajas exchanged embassies with Chinese rulers while there was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam. In the 9th Century, on his way to Canton, China, Marco Polo, the great Venetian traveller, who was in Chinese service under Kublai Khan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two East Syrian bishops Mar Sabor and Mar Proth, settled in Quilon with their followers. Two years later the Malabar Era began and Quilon became the city of the Malabar region ahead of Travancore. Kollam is a city on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake that took the title Gods Own Country without much demur. The braids of Ashtamudi Lake lie about 71 kilometres north of the state capital, the city hosts the administrative offices of Kollam district and is a prominent trading city for the state. The proportion of females to males in Kollam city is second highest among the 500 most populous cities in India, Kollam is the least polluted city in India. Four major trading centers/towns around Kollam are Kottarakara, Punalur, Paravur, There was also internal trade through the Punalur Pass connecting the ancient town to Tamil Nadu. The rail links later established to Tamil Nadu supported still stronger trade links, the factories processing marine exports and the processing and packaging of cashewnuts extended its trade across the globe. Kollam is the fourth most populous city in Kerala and the fifth largest in incorporated area and it is known for cashew processing and coir manufacturing. Ashtamudi Lake is considered the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is a prominent tourist destination at Kollam. The Kollam urban area includes towns such as Paravur in the south, Kundara in the east. Other important towns in the city suburbs are Eravipuram, Kottiyam, Kannanallur, Kollam appeared as Palombe in Mandevilles Travels, where he claimed it contained a Fountain of Youth. During the later stages of the rule of the Chera monarchy in Kerala, Kollam emerged as the point of trade. Kollam continues to be a business and commercial centre in the Southern Kerala. In 825 CE, the Malayalam calendar, or Kollavarsham, was created in Kollam at meetings held in the city, the present Malayalam calendar is said to have begun with the re-founding of the town, which was rebuilt after its destruction by a fireQuilon – From top clockwise: RP Mall in Downtown Kollam, Lighthouse in Tangasseri, British Residency in Asramam, Kollam Junction railway station and Kollam MEMU Shed, Aerial view of Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam Port, Asramam Adventure Park, Jalakeli Kendram near Kollam Beach
2. Malayalam – Malayalam /mʌləˈjɑːləm/ is a language spoken in India, predominantly in the state of Kerala. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and was designated as a Classical Language in India in 2013 and it was developed to the current form mainly by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century. Malayalam has official status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people, according to one theory, Malayalam originated from Middle Tamil in the 7th century. However, the current understanding proposes the separation of Malayalam from Proto-Dravidian in the pre-historic era, Malayalam incorporated many elements from Sanskrit through the ages. Before Malayalam came into being, Old Tamil was used in literature and courts of a region called Tamilakam, including present day Kerala state, silappatikaramit was written by Chera prince Ilango Adigal from Chunkaparra, and is considered a classic in Sangam literature. Modern Malayalam still preserves many words from the ancient Tamil vocabulary of Sangam literature, the earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, and later the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it. As Malayalam began to borrow words as well as the rules of grammar from Sanskrit. This developed into the modern Malayalam script, many medieval liturgical texts were written in an admixture of Sanskrit and early Malayalam, called Manipravalam. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries, the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. Due to its lineage deriving from both Tamil and Sanskrit, the Malayalam script has the largest number of letters among the Indian language orthographies, the Malayalam script includes letters capable of representing almost all the sounds of all Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages. Malayalam serves as a language on the islands including the Mahl-dominated Minicoy Island. The word Malayalam originated from the Sanskrit resp, Malayalam words malai or mala, meaning hill, and elam, meaning region. Malayalam thus translates as hill region and used to refer to the land of the Chera dynasty, the language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, and Mallealle. The word Malayalam originally meant only for the name of the region, Malayanma or Malayayma represented the language. With the emergence of modern Malayalam language, the name of the language started to be known by the name of the region, hence now, the word Malayanma is considered by some to represent the olden Malayalam language. The language got the name Malayalam during the mid 19th century, the origin of Malayalam, an independent offshoot of the proto-Dravidian language, has been and continues to be an engaging pursuit among comparative historical linguists. Together with Tamil, Toda, Kannada and Tulu, Malayalam belongs to the group of Dravidian languagesMalayalam – Cover page of Nasranikal okkekkum ariyendunna samkshepavedartham which is the first book to be printed in Malayalam in 1772.
3. City – A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses. Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty then asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the outputCity – 1908 map of Piraeus, the port of Athens, showing the grid plan of the city
4. Kerala – Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this also happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil, Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the landKerala – A houseboat near Alappuzha, Kerala
5. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entiretyIndia – Flag
6. Kollam district – Kollam district is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Keralas natural attributes, it is endowed with a coastline, a major Arabian Sea seaport. The district has many source of waterbodies, Kallada river is one among it and the east side land of river is EastKallada and the west side land is WestKallada. Kallada Boat race is one among the festival events of district. Even though it is a competition between two sides of river many boat clubs from various places even beyond the district use to participate in the event. Kollam is the capital of Keralas cashew industry, plains, mountains, lakes, lagoons and backwaters, forests, farmland and rivers make up the topography of the district. The area had trading relationships with Phoenicia and Ancient Rome and it covers 2,492 square kilometres, is the seventh-largest district in Kerala and is densely populated. It has the shortest coastal line among districts in Kerala, five major urban centres are, Kollam, Paravur, Punalur, Karunagapally, and Kottarakara. Sasthamkotta Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, is located in Kollam, two major rivers drain the district. Ashtamudi Lake and Paravur Lake are two important lakes in the district, Ashtamudi Lake covers 30 percent of total area of the district. Kollam is located on Ashtamudi Lake, Neendakara, a major fishing port in southern Kerala, is also located on this scenic lake. Edava and Nadayara Lakes are also located in Kollam district. The place is popular as Thangasseri. The lighthouse built at Quilon by the British in the year 1902 is visible as far as 13 miles in the sea, the lighthouse stands to an amazing height of 144 feet. The picturesque view of the sea from the place where the stands is breathtaking. In the vicinity lies the Portuguese Fort, the fort was built in the year 1517 and at present only a wall of the fort has escaped the assaults made by Time. Kollams temperature is almost steady throughout the year, the average temperature ranges from 25 to 32 degrees Celsius. Summer usually runs from March until May, the monsoon begins by June, Kollam receives an annual average rainfall of around 2,700 millimetresKollam district – From top: Paravur estuary, Light house and clock tower in Kollam city, 13 Ring bridge of Thenmala, Check dam across Kallada river
7. King Solomon – Solomon, also called Jedidiah, was, according to the Bible, Quran, hadith and Hidden Words a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel and a son of David, the previous king of Israel. The conventional dates of Solomons reign are circa 970 to 931 BC and he is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets, in the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. Solomon was, according to the Quran, a king of ancient Israel as well as the son of David, the Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem. It portrays him as great in wisdom, wealth, and power any of the previous kings of the country. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women, and ultimately turning away from Yahweh, Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. Solomon was born in Jerusalem, the second child of David and his wife Bathsheba. The first child, a son conceived adulterously during Uriahs lifetime, had died before Solomon was conceived as a punishment on account of the death of Uriah by Davids order. Solomon had three named full brothers through Bathsheba, Nathan, Shammua, and Shobab, besides six known older half-brothers through as many mothers, according to the First Book of Kings, when David was old, he could not get warm. So they sought a young woman throughout all the territory of Israel, and found Abishag the Shunammite. The young woman was very beautiful, and she was of service to the king and attended to him, while David was in this state, court factions were maneuvering for power. Solomon greatly expanded his military strength, especially the cavalry and chariot arms and he founded numerous colonies, some of which doubled as trading posts and military outposts. Trade relationships were a focus of his administration, Solomon is considered the most wealthy of the Israelite kings named in the Bible. Solomon also built the First Temple, beginning in the year of his reign. Solomon was the Biblical king most famous for his wisdom, in 1 Kings he sacrificed to God and prayed for wisdom. God personally answered his prayer, promising him great wisdom because he did not ask for self-serving rewards like long life or the death of his enemies. Perhaps the best known story of his wisdom is the Judgment of Solomon, Solomon easily resolved the dispute by commanding the child to be cut in half and shared between the twoKing Solomon – The Judgment of Solomon, 1617 by Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640)
8. Arabian Sea – The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India. Historically the sea has been known by names including the Erythraean Sea. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 and its depth is 4,652 metres. The Gulf of Aden is in the southwest, connecting the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, the Arabian Sea has been crossed by important marine trade routes since the third or second millennium BCE. Major seaports include Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai, the Port of Karachi and the Gwadar Port in Pakistan, other important ports include in India, Kandla Port, and Mormugao in Goa. The largest islands in the Arabian Sea include Socotra, Masirah Island, Astola Island, the Arabian Seas surface area is about 3,862,000 km2. The maximum width of the Sea is approximately 2,400 km, the biggest river flowing into the Sea is the Indus River. There are also the gulfs of Khambhat and Kutch on the Indian coast, the countries with coastlines on the Arabian Sea are Somalia, Djibouti, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Pakistan, India and the Maldives. There are several cities on the seas coast including Mumbai, Surat, Karachi, Gwadar, Pasni, Ormara, Aden, Muscat, Keti Bandar, Salalah, Duqm. International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Arabian Sea as follows, the Eastern limit of the Gulf of Aden. A line joining Ràs al Hadd, East point of Arabia, a line running from the South extremity of Addu Atoll, to the Eastern extreme of Ràs Hafun. The Western limit of the Laccadive Sea, by the time of Julius Caesar, several well-established combined land-sea trade routes depended upon water transport through the Sea around the rough inland terrain features to its north. Each major route involved transhipping to pack animal caravan, travel through country and risk of bandits. Later the kingdom of Axum arose in Ethiopia to rule a mercantile empire rooted in the trade with Europe via Alexandria, Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai is the largest port in the Arabian Sea, and the largest container port in India. The Port of Karachi is Pakistans largest and busiest seaport, handling about 60% of the nations cargo and it is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar, close to the main business district and several industrial areas. The geographic position of the places it in close proximity to major shipping routes such as the Strait of Hormuz. The history of the port is intertwined with that of the city of Karachi, several ancient ports have been attributed in the area including Krokola, Morontobara, Barbarikon (the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, and Debal. It warns sailors about whirlpools and advises them to safety in Kaurashi harbour if they found themselves drifting dangerouslyArabian Sea – Arabian Sea from space
9. Throne of Solomon – The Throne of Solomon is the throne of King Solomon in the Hebrew Bible, and is a motif in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Otherwise the throne is seen as either Davids or belonging to God himself, the design of the physical throne itself is described in 1 Kings 10, A Jewish tradition holds that the throne was removed to Babylon, then Ahasuerus sat on the throne of Solomon. Another tradition holds that six steps related to six terms for the earth, in religious tradition the Seat of Wisdom in Roman Catholic tradition is associated with Solomon, and in art, such as the Lucca Madonna, which portrays the Virgin sitting on the throne of Solomon. A Throne of Solomon was also among the Solomonic objects of the Byzantine Court at Constantinople, the throne of Solomon featured both in Islamic commentary, and art, including mosque decorationThrone of Solomon – A 1909 stamp of Ethiopia depicting the Throne of Solomon.
10. Kollam – Kollam or Quilon, formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of Kerala, India. The city is on the banks Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam has had a strong commercial reputation since the days of the Phoenicians and Romans. Fed by the Chinese trade, it was mentioned by Ibn Battuta in the 14th century as one of the five Indian ports he had seen during the course of his twenty-four year travels, desinganadus rajas exchanged embassies with Chinese rulers while there was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam. In the 9th Century, on his way to Canton, China, Marco Polo, the great Venetian traveller, who was in Chinese service under Kublai Khan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two East Syrian bishops Mar Sabor and Mar Proth, settled in Quilon with their followers. Two years later the Malabar Era began and Quilon became the city of the Malabar region ahead of Travancore. Kollam is a city on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake that took the title Gods Own Country without much demur. The braids of Ashtamudi Lake lie about 71 kilometres north of the state capital, the city hosts the administrative offices of Kollam district and is a prominent trading city for the state. The proportion of females to males in Kollam city is second highest among the 500 most populous cities in India, Kollam is the least polluted city in India. Four major trading centers/towns around Kollam are Kottarakara, Punalur, Paravur, There was also internal trade through the Punalur Pass connecting the ancient town to Tamil Nadu. The rail links later established to Tamil Nadu supported still stronger trade links, the factories processing marine exports and the processing and packaging of cashewnuts extended its trade across the globe. Kollam is the fourth most populous city in Kerala and the fifth largest in incorporated area and it is known for cashew processing and coir manufacturing. Ashtamudi Lake is considered the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is a prominent tourist destination at Kollam. The Kollam urban area includes towns such as Paravur in the south, Kundara in the east. Other important towns in the city suburbs are Eravipuram, Kottiyam, Kannanallur, Kollam appeared as Palombe in Mandevilles Travels, where he claimed it contained a Fountain of Youth. During the later stages of the rule of the Chera monarchy in Kerala, Kollam emerged as the point of trade. Kollam continues to be a business and commercial centre in the Southern Kerala. In 825 CE, the Malayalam calendar, or Kollavarsham, was created in Kollam at meetings held in the city, the present Malayalam calendar is said to have begun with the re-founding of the town, which was rebuilt after its destruction by a fireKollam – From top clockwise: RP Mall in Downtown Kollam, Lighthouse in Tangasseri, British Residency in Asramam, Kollam Junction railway station and Kollam MEMU Shed, Aerial view of Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam Port, Asramam Adventure Park, Jalakeli Kendram near Kollam Beach
11. Portuguese people – Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and their predominant religion is Christianity, Portuguese people were a key factor to the Age of Exploration, discovering several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania, helping to pave the way for Globalization. There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a population of 10.34 million. A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Vimioso, all of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, some people from the former colonies have been migrating to Portugal since the 1900s. More recently, a number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians, Moldovans, Romanians and Russians. There is also a Chinese minority, in addition, there is a small minority Gypsies of about 40,000 people, Muslims about 34,000 people and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people. Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal lost to more than any West European country except Ireland. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, about 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese, significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in several countries. Portuguese Sephardic Jews are also in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, France, Venezuela, Brazil, in Brazil many of the colonists were also originally Sephardic Jews, who, converted, were known as New Christians. In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England states, in the Pacific, Hawaii has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years, Australia and New Zealand also have Portuguese communities. Canada, particularly Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940, argentina and Uruguay had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century. So has Chile where an estimated 50,000 descendants live, an estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the countrys African possessions gained independence in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to Brazil and South Africa. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Equatorial Guinea, in 1989 some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Germany, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United States. Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg, in areas such as Thetford and the crown dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 20% and 3% respectively. The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth and Westminster. The Portuguese diaspora communities still are very attached to their language, their culture and their national dishes, in colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th centuryPortuguese people – Portuguese men playing Fado
12. Dutch people – The Dutch, occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, Nederlanders—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a culture and speak the Dutch language. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at an early date. During the Republic the first series of large scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place, despite the small size of the Netherlands, the Dutch left behind a legacy in excess of their mere numbers. The traditional art and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of music, dances, architectural styles and clothing. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt, Vermeer and Van Gogh are held in high regard, the dominant religion of the Dutch is Christianity, although in modern times the majority is no longer religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism, agnosticism, atheism or individual spirituality, as with all ethnic groups the ethnogenesis of the Dutch has been a lengthy and complex process. The text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group, for Dutch national history, for Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire. Following the end of the period in the West around 500, with large federations settling the decaying Roman Empire. In the Low Countries, this began when the Franks, themselves a union of multiple smaller tribes. Eventually, in 358, the Salian Franks, one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance settled the areas Southern lands as foederati, Roman allies in charge of border defense. On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism and founded a number of kingdoms, however, the population make-up of the Frankish Empire, or even early Frankish kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia, was not dominated by Franks. Though the Frankish leaders controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part of the Empire, the current Dutch-French language border has remained virtually identical ever since, and could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks. The medieval cities of the Low Countries, which experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century, were instrumental in breaking down the already relatively loose local form of feudalism, as they became increasingly powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility. While the cities were of political importance, they also formed catalysts for medieval Dutch culture. The various city guilds as well as the necessity of water boards in the Dutch delta and it is also around this time, that ethnonyms such as Diets and Nederlands emerge. This process marked a new episode in the development of the Dutch ethnic group, as now political unity started to emerge, consolidating the strengthened cultural, despite their linguistic and cultural unity, and economic similarities, there was still little sense of political unity among the Dutch people. However, the centralist policies of Burgundy in the 14th and 15th centuries, at first violently opposed by the cities of the Low Countries, had a profound impact and changed thisDutch people
13. British people – British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown dependencies, and their descendants. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, although early assertions of being British date from the Late Middle Ages, the creation of the united Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 triggered a sense of British national identity. The notion of Britishness was forged during the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and the First French Empire, and developed further during the Victorian era, because of longstanding ethno-sectarian divisions, British identity in Northern Ireland is controversial, but it is held with strong conviction by unionists. Modern Britons are descended mainly from the ethnic groups that settled in the British Isles in and before the 11th century, Prehistoric, Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norse. The British are a diverse, multi-national and multicultural society, with regional accents, expressions. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them, the group included Ireland, which was referred to as Ierne inhabited by the different race of Hiberni, and Britain as insula Albionum, island of the Albions. The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands. Greek and Roman writers, in the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, name the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland as the Priteni, the origin of the Latin word Britanni. It has been suggested that name derives from a Gaulish description translated as people of the forms. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, the term Britannia persisted as the Latin name for the island, during the Middle Ages, and particularly in the Tudor period, the term British was used to refer to the Welsh people and Cornish people. At that time, it was the held belief that these were the remaining descendants of the ancient Britons. This notion was supported by such as the Historia Regum Britanniae. Wales and Cornwall, and north, i. e. Cumbria, Strathclyde and this legendary Celtic history of Great Britain is known as the Matter of Britain. The indigenous people of the British Isles have a combination of Celtic, Norse, Anglo-Saxon, oppenheimer continues that the majority of the people of the British Isles share genetic commonalities with the Basques, ranging from highs of 90% in Wales to lows of 66% in East Anglia. Oppenheimers opinion is that. by far the majority of male gene types in the British Isles derive from Iberia, ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham, Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales. The English had been unified under a single state in 937 by King Athelstan of Wessex after the Battle of Brunanburh. However, historian Simon Schama suggested that it was Edward I of England who was responsible for provoking the peoples of Britain into an awareness of their nationhood in the 13th centuryBritish people – Medieval tapestry showing King Arthur, a legendary ancient British ruler who had a leading role in the Matter of Britain, a national myth used as propaganda for the ancestral origins of the British Royal Family and their British subjects.
14. Travancore – The Kingdom of Travancore (/ˈtrævəŋkɔər/, Malayalam, തിരുവിതാംകൂർ Thiruvithamkoor, was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, the official flag of the state was red with a dextrally-coiled silver conch shell at its center. In the early 19th century, the became a princely state of the British Empire. When the region was part of the Chera empire, it was known as Thiruvazhumkode. It was contracted to Thiruvankode, and anglicised by the English to Travancore. In course of time, the Ay kingdom, part of the Chera empire, which ruled the Thiruvazhumkode area, became independent, the Aayis controlled the land from present day Kollam district in the north, through Thiruvananthapuram district, all in Kerala, to the Kanyakumari district. There were two capitals, the one at Kollam and a subsidiary one at Thrippapur. The kingdom was also called Venad. Kings of Venad had, at times, travelled from Kollam and built residential palaces in Thiruvithamcode. By the time of King Marthanda Varma, the half of the kingdom had become dominant. During his reign, it absorbed the north and Thiruvithamcode or Travancore became the official name, Travancore was located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. Geographically, Travancore was divided into three distinct regions, the eastern highlands, the central midlands, and the western lowlands. Venad was a state at the tip of the Indian Subcontinent. Till the end of the 11th century AD, it was a principality in the Ay Kingdom. The Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith and their capital during the first Sangam age was in Aykudi and later, towards the end of the 8th century AD, was at Quilon. Though a series of attacks by the resurgent Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of the Ays, the dynasty was powerful till the beginning of the 10th century, when the Ay power diminished, Venad became the southernmost principality of the Second Chera Kingdom. An invasion of the Cholas into Venad caused the destruction of Kollam in 1096, however, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram, also fell in the subsequent Chola attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam. Thus the end of the Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of Venad, the history of Travancore began with Marthanda Varma, who inherited the kingdom of Venad, and expanded it into Travancore during his reignTravancore
15. Cashew – The cashew tree is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew nut and the cashew apple. It can grow as high as 14 m, but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m, has proved profitable, with earlier maturity. The cashew nut, often called a cashew, is widely consumed. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter, the shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications from lubricants to paints. The cashew apple is a reddish to yellow fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet. The species is native to northeastern Brazil. Major production of cashews occurs in Vietnam, Nigeria, India and its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree caju, which itself is derived from the Tupian word acajú, literally meaning nut that produces itself. The generic name Anacardium, originally from the Greek, refers to the location of the seed outside the core or heart of the fruit. A mid-seventeenth century ethnographic painting by Albert Eckhout, who accompanied Dutch governor-general Johan Maurits, the cashew tree is large and evergreen, growing to 14 m tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4–22 cm long and 2–15 cm broad. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower is small, pale green at first, then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7–15 mm long. The largest cashew tree in the covers a area around 7,500 m2, it is located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The fruit of the tree is an accessory fruit. What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped structure, a hypocarpium, that develops from the pedicel, called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as marañón, it ripens into a yellow and/or red structure about 5–11 cm long. It is edible, and has a sweet smell and a sweet taste. The pulp of the apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile. The true fruit of the tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The drupe develops first on the tree, and then the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple, within the true fruit is a single seed, which is often considered a nut, in the culinary senseCashew – Cashew
16. Cashew Export Promotion Council of India – It is headquartered in Mundakkal in the city of Kollam, Kerala. The Council serves as an intermediary between importers of cashew kernels and exporters who are members of the council, the council is also supposed to deal with any disputes on exports or imports arising on account of quality standards, breach of contractual obligations, etc. Cashew Export Promotion Council of India have offices in Kollam, Kochi, there are 238 registered cashew exporters in Cashew Export Promotion Council of India as members. In that, more than 200 exporters are based in Kollam, an examination of the records show that Kilikollur, a suburb of Kollam city, had the most cashew processing factories. India is on top nowadays in exporting cashew kernels and cashew nut shell liquid, foreign exchange earned by the country through export of cashew kernels during 2011–12 touched Rs.4,390 crore as per statistics of Cashew Export Promotion Council of India. 1.31 lakh tonnes of kernel were exported during 2011–12, united States of America is the biggest importer of cashew kernel from India. They are the biggest importer of CNSL from India, united Arab Emirates stood second in kernel import. CEPCI is expecting a rise in export, i. e.275,000 tonnes by 2020, the CEPC Laboratory and Technical Division was established by The Cashew Export Promotion Council of India in 1997. It is situated at Cashew Bhavan, Mundakkal, Kollam city, the lab is capable to do food products testing, water testing and other quality-based testing services. They also offer services to the food processing industry and field surveys. There is a plan to set up a facility and a cashew testing lab at the Kollam Port with the support of the Cashew Export Promotion Council. Analytical equipment Library Research facilities Microbiology Department Chemistry Department Biotechnology Department Kollam Cashew Kilikollur MundakkalCashew Export Promotion Council of India – CEPCI Headquarters at Mundakkal, Kollam city
17. Cashew business in Kollam – The Cashew business in Kollam is based in the eponymous city, which is known as the Cashew Capital of the World. Kollam is the largest processed cashew exporter in the world, as of 2011 there were more than 600 cashew processing units in the city. About 800,000 tonnes of raw cashews are imported to the city for processing every year, 80% of Indias export quality cashew kernels are prepared in Kollam. Cashews were first brought to India by the Portuguese, who planted them along the coasts of Goa to prevent erosion. Originally exported in oil cans, it was found that this method could lead to weevil infestation and this method, known as Vita Packing, is still in use today. The health benefits and value of cashew nut were discovered much later, the trees adapted very well to their new home, especially in Kerala and by the late 16th century cashew nuts had reached Kollam, then known as Quilon, a city under the control of the Portuguese. During the time of the Portuguese, Dutch and British in the Indian subcontinent, Quilon and its old port were major business hubs for Arabian, many of the cashew businesses in Kollam are family owned and run. India is the largest exporter of cashew kernels and cashew nut shell liquid, foreign exchange earned by the country through the export of cashew kernels during 2011-12 reached Rs.4,390 crore based on statistics from the Cashew Export Promotion Council of India. 131,000 tonnes of kernels were exported during 2011-12, 90% of these export quality cashew kernels are prepared in Kollam. CEPCI and the Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Limited work in Kollam city to promote exports of cashew kernels and they also protect the interest of workers and attempt to provide maximum employment to the industrys workers and give them statutory benefits such as minimum wages and bonuses. The industry provides a livelihood for about 600–700 thousand employees and farmers, in Kollam district alone there are more than 250,000 employees directly involved in the industry, which is about 10 per cent of the population of the district. 95 per cent of workers are women. There are more than 600 cashew processing units in Kollam with about 800,000 tonnes of raw cashews imported annually to the city for processing, an average of 130,000 tonnes of processed cashews are exported to various countries worldwide every year. As a result, Kollam is known as the Cashew Capital of the World, CEPCI is expecting a rise in exports to 275,000 tonnes by 2020, growth of 120 per cent over present exportsCashew business in Kollam – Nila Cashew packets displayed in a Supermarket at Paravur near Kollam. Nila Cashews is one among the popular Kollam based cashew exporters
18. MEMU – The Mainline Electric Multiple Unit or MEMU is a commuter rail system in India operated by the Indian Railway for semi-urban and rural areas. The first MEMU service in Bilaspur division of S E Railway started on 17-10-1995 in 1995-96 between Raipur-Durg-Bhatapara-Raipur-Bilaspur, first train was inaugurated by V. C. Shukla, the senior leader of Indian national congress. The system uses Mainline Electrical Multiple Units operating on Alternating Current drawn from over-head cables through the catenary system, MEMU trains are designed for semi-urban and rural areas, unlike EMU trains that are designed for urban and semi-urban areas. MEMU trains also have end vestibules not found on EMU trains, also, unlike EMU, MEMU trains have lavatories. Railway introduces passenger-friendly technology in MEMU trains, list of all MEMU trains operated by Indian Railways Indian Railways Fan Club Photo Gallery, MEMU MEMU/DEMU Electric/Diesel Multiple Unit Shuttle Trains - Railway EnquiryMEMU – Mainline Electric Multiple Unit
19. Kollam MEMU Carshed – Kollam MEMU Shed is a motive power depot facility for maintaining MEMU rakes, situated in the city of Kollam in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the four MEMU rake maintenance sheds serving the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways, presently,5 pairs of MEMU services are now running from Kollam Junction. The maintenance works of those rakes are regularly doing in Kollam MEMU shed, MEMU sheds in Kollam and Palakkad were proposed in 2008s Indian Railway Budget. The first announced MEMU shed for Kerala was in Kollam, Palakkad MEMU shed inaugurated on 1 January 2011. The Kollam MEMU shed was formally commissioned on 1 December 2013, Kollam MEMU Shed is the largest MEMU Shed in Kerala, which is equipped with most modern facilities. Kollam Kollam Junction railway station Kollam districtKollam MEMU Carshed – A MEMU train near Kollam MEMU shed
20. Theatre director – The directors function is to ensure the quality and completeness of theatre production and to lead the members of the creative team into realizing their artistic vision for it. If the production he or she is mounting is a new piece of writing or a translation of a play, in contemporary theatre, after the playwright, the director is generally the primary visionary, making decisions on the artistic concept and interpretation of the play and its staging. Different directors occupy different places of authority and responsibility, depending on the structure, Directors use a wide variety of techniques, philosophies, and levels of collaboration. In ancient Greece, the birthplace of European drama, the writer bore principal responsibility for the staging of his plays, the author-director would also train the chorus, sometimes compose the music, and supervise every aspect of production. The fact that the director was called didaskalos, the Greek word for teacher, a miniature by Jean Fouquet from 1460 bears one of the earliest depictions of a director at work. Holding a prompt book, the central figure directs, with the aid of a long stick, from Renaissance times up until the 19th century, the role of director was often carried by the actor-manager. This would usually be an actor in a troupe who took the responsibility for choosing the repertoire of work, staging it. This was the case for instance with Commedia dellArte companies and English actor-managers like Colley Cibber, the modern theatre director can be said to have originated in the staging of elaborate spectacles of the Meininger Company under George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. The management of large numbers of extras and complex stagecraft matters necessitated an individual to take on the role of overall coordinator. This gave rise to the role of the director in modern theatre, simultaneously, Constantin Stanislavski, principally an actor-manager, would set up the Moscow Art Theatre in Russia and similarly emancipate the role of the director as artistic visionary. The French regisseur is also used to mean a stage director. A more common term for theatre director in French is metteur en scène, post World War II, the actor-manager slowly started to disappear, and directing become a fully fledged artistic activity within the theatre profession. The director originating artistic vision and concept, and realizing the staging of a production, a cautionary note was introduced by the famed director Sir Tyrone Guthrie who said the only way to learn how to direct a play, is. To get a group of actors simple enough to allow you to let you direct them, most European countries nowadays know some form of professional directing training, usually at drama schools or conservatoires, or at universities. In the early days such programmes typically led to the staging of one major production in the third year. At the University of California, Irvine, Keith Fowler led for many years a programme based on the premise that directors are autodidacts who need as many opportunities to direct as possible. Under Fowler, graduate student directors would stage between five and ten productions during their residencies, with each production receiving detailed critiques. Directing is an artform that has grown with the development of theatre theory, with the emergence of new trends in theatre, so too have directors adopted new methodologies and engaged in new practicesTheatre director – A director providing instruction
21. Actor – Anyone who meets the eligibility requirements may apply for aid, which could vary from medical assistance, paying rent, or finding employment. Heros benefits are not meant to be a permanent crutch for needy creators, any granted aid is kept confidential. The Hero Initiative has two boards of directors, the Executive Board and the Fund Disbursement Board, former board members include founders Pat McCallum, editor-in-chief of Wizard Magazine, and Mike Richardson, publisher and founder of Dark Horse Comics. They are George Pérez, Roy Thomas, Charlie Novinskie, Dennis ONeil, John Romita Sr. the charity is currently supported by Dark Horse Comics, Dynamic Forces, Image Comics, Marvel Entertainment, Top Cow Productions, and Wizard Entertainment. The Hero Initiative utilizes many methods of fundraising, foremost is their annual art auction, auctioning donated original comics art-work at fan conventions. Year-long, they sell donated art and special edition comics at conventions, artists, writers, and publishers are invited to donate work, and fans are invited to donate money directly to the fund. ACTOR also sells a green Excelsior, wrist-band similar in design to the Livestrong wristband. The Hero Initiative was formerly known as A Commitment to Our Roots, or ACTOR, while the original name of the organization reflected the charitys goal, the acronym that resulted, ACTOR, more often confused people unfamiliar with the organization. 2006, George Pérez, John Romita, Sr.2007, Joe Kubert 2008, Nick Cardy 2009, Neal Adams 2010, Walt Simonson 2011, Stan Lee 2012, John Romita, Jr. The award recognizes one person in each year who demonstrates particular generosity and integrity in support of the overall comic book community. It debuted at the 2010 Harvey Awards ceremony held at the Baltimore Comic-ConActor – The Hero Initiative
22. Communist Party of India (Marxist) – The Communist Party of India is a communist party in India. The party emerged from a split from the Communist Party of India in 1964, the CPI was formed at the Seventh Congress of the Communist Party of India held in Calcutta from 31 October to 7 November 1964. The strength of CPI is concentrated in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, as of 2016, CPI is leading the state governments in Tripura and Kerala. It also leads the West Bengal Left Front, as of 2014, CPI claimed to have 10,48,678 members. The highest body of the party is the Politburo, CPI emerged from a division within the Communist Party of India. The undivided CPI had experienced a period of upsurge during the following the Second World War. The CPI led armed rebellions in Telangana, Tripura, and Kerala, however, it soon abandoned the strategy of armed revolution in favour of working within the parliamentary framework. In 1950 B. T. Ranadive, the CPI general secretary, under the government of the Indian National Congress party of Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India developed close relations and a strategic partnership with the Soviet Union. The Soviet government consequently wished that the Indian communists moderate their criticism towards the Indian state, moreover, the Indian National Congress appeared to be generally hostile towards political competition. In 1959 the central government intervened to impose Presidents Rule in Kerala, simultaneously, the relations between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China soured. In the early 1960s the Communist Party of China began criticising the CPSU of turning revisionist, Sino-Indian relations also deteriorated, as border disputes between the two countries erupted into the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The basis of difference in opinion between the two factions in CPI was ideological – about the assessment of Indian scenario and the development of a party programme. This difference in opinion was also a reflection of a difference at international level on ideology between the Soviet and Chinese parties. The alleged right wing inside the party followed the Soviet path, whereas the faction of CPI which later became CPI referred to this as a revisionist approach of class collaboration. It was this ideological difference which later intensified, coupled with the Soviet-Chinese split at the international level, hundreds of CPI leaders, accused of being pro-Chinese, were imprisoned. Thousands of Communists were detained without trial and those targeted by the state accused the pro-Soviet leadership of the CPI of conspiring with the Congress government to ensure their own hegemony over the control of the party. In 1962 Ajoy Ghosh, the secretary of the CPI. After his death, S. A. Dange was installed as the party chairman and this was an attempt to achieve a compromiseCommunist Party of India (Marxist) – AKG Bhavan, the CPI(M) national headquarters in Delhi 28°37′53.6″N 77°12′17.9″E / 28.631556°N 77.204972°E / 28.631556; 77.204972.
23. Theatre – The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence, the specific place of the performance is also named by the word theatre as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre, there are connections between theatre and the art forms of ballet, opera and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated, participation in the city-states many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture, Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama, tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play, the origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus. The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10, the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics, the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, the origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institution alised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysias competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE, official records begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced. More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics, Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the surviving plays of Aristophanes. New Comedy is known primarily from the papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyrs themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal companions, often engaging in drunken revelryTheatre – Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, in 1899
24. Mukesh (actor) – Mukesh is an Indian film actor, producer, and politician known for his work in Malayalam cinema. Hes best known for his comic-oriented roles, Mukesh is the current Member of the Legislative Assembly representing the Kollam constituency of Kerala state. Mukesh made his debut in the film Balloon and he gained prominence for both his comedy and drama centred roles. Mukeshs role as Gopalakrishnan in Ramji Rav Speaking saw a rebirth in his career, a youthful, funny, and fraudulent young man who had to go against the law due to lifes pressures and circumstances. This period saw the shift of Mukesh as a lead actor, especially due to the box-office success of In Harihar Nagar. This led to a series of comedy films such as Innathe Programme, Ennodishtam Koodamo, Ammayane Sathyam, Poochakkaru Mani Kettum, Malappuram Haji Mahanaya Joji. Post-2000s, Mukesh went into another shift of his career and he started doing more character roles. Some of them being Chronic Bachelor, Sethurama Iyer CBI, Udayananu Tharam, Rasathanthram, Vinodayathra, Naalu Pennungal, in 2007, Mukesh turned to production as well. He formed Lumiere Film Company along with Sreenivasan and their first venture Katha Parayumpol was a commercial success. Their second film Thattathin Marayathu was a success as well. In 2009, he made a comeback through To Harihar Nagar in his evergreen role Mahadevan. In 2014, he won the Kerala Film Critics Award for his performance in English, Mukesh was born to theater artist and actor O. Madhavan and Vijayakumari, who is also an actress, at Kollam, Kerala. He has two sisters, Sandya Rajendran and Jayasree, Rajendran is also a film actor. He had his education from Infant Jesus School Kollam and pursued B. Sc from Sree Narayana College. He holds LLB from Government Law College, Thiruvananthapuram and he acted in dramas before entering movie industry. He was married to South Indian film actress Saritha and they have two sons Shravan, Tejas, sravan is pursuing M. B. B. S at Ras Al Khaima University Dubai and Thejas is pursuing his undergraduate degree from Victoria University of Wellington New Zealand. Later, Mukesh married dancer Methil Devika on 24 October 2013 and she worked as lecturer in the Department of Post-graduate Studies and at the Research Department, Kerala Kalamandalam Deemed University, Kerala. He was elected to Kerala Legislative Assembly from Kollam constituency in Kerala assembly election 2016 Mukesh began his career through the movie Balloon in 1982, in 1985, he acted in Mutharamkunnu P. O. directed by Sibi Malayil, with a script by Sreenivasan and story by JagadeeshMukesh (actor) – Mukesh at Mazhavil Manorama 2013
25. O. Madhavan – O. Madhavan was an Indian theatre director and actor. He was one of the members of the Communist Party of India in Kerala. He is considered as one of the masters of the theatre. He was the founder of the drama company Kalidasa Kala Kendram. He won the Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor in 2000 for his role in the film Sayahnam and his wife, Vijayakumari, is an actress herself and his son Mukesh an actor. He also has two daughters, Sandhya Rajendran and Jayasree, sandhyas Husband, E. A. Rajendran is also a film and television actor. 2000 Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor - Sayahnam Kalam Marunnu Viyarppinte Vila Doctor Kattupookkal, lonachan Oru Sundariyude Kadha Sayahnam Actor O. Madhavan passes awayO. Madhavan – O. Madhavan
26. Kollam Junction railway station – Kollam Junction railway station is a junction station situated in the city of Kollam in Kerala, India. It is the second largest railway station in Kerala in terms of area and is one of the oldest railway stations in the state, indias second longest railway platform is situated at Kollam railway station. Kollam Junction lies on Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram trunk line and it is an A-class station operated by the Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways and comes under the Thiruvananthapuram railway division. The annual passenger revenue of Kollam railway station is ₹60.44 crore and 23,350 is the daily ridership through this station. Kollam was the city in Kerala to be connected to the nascent Indian Railway. The idea of a link from Tirunelveli to Kollam, then the trading capital of the Travancore Kingdom was first conceived in 1873. The line was sanctioned by the Madras Presidency in 1899 and a survey completed in 1900, the railway line was built jointly by South Indian railway, Travancore state and the Madras Presidency. Kollams railway station was built in 1904 by Sree Moolam Tirunal Rama Varma and it was the ruler’s desire to create a rail link between Kollam, the then commercial capital of his State and Madras. The meter gauge line from Kollam to Punalur was inaugurated on 1 June 1904, the Kollam-Sengottai railway line was inaugurated on 26 November 1904. The meter gauge line was extended to Chala at Trivandrum via Paravur and Varkala. The meter gauge line from Kollam was extended to Ernakulam via Kottayam on 6 January 1958. The meter gauge lines between Kollam and Ernakulam were converted to broad gauge in 1975 and inaugurated on 13 September 1976, the broad gauge conversion between the Punalur and Kollam sections was inaugurated on 12 May 2010. There was once a 2.4 kilometres meter gauge line connecting Quilon Junction, during the inauguration of the Kollam-Punalur meter gauge line in 1904, parts of locomotives which were to be used for Quilon-Schencottah line were shipped to Quilon Port from Tuticorin Port. They were assembled at the Ashramam Maidan, which was an open ground, the line was laid to carry these locomotives to the main station. The line was dismantled in 2000 to allow for town expansion, there are a total of 17 tracks in the Kollam railway station,2 lines are passing through the MEMU shed. The station has 6 platforms for handling long distance, passenger, the platform 1 is divided into two sections. Platform 1A handles the trains to Punalur-Sengottai line and platform 1 handles trains towards Trivandrum Central, the platform 1 and 1A together have a length of 1,180.5 m making them together the second longest railway platform in India. The station has a MEMU shed which is situated near to Platform 1A, an FCI godown owned and operated by Food Corporation of India is also situated near Kollam junction.68 crore, for Mainline Electric Multiple Unit rakesKollam Junction railway station – From Top: Entrance of Kollam Junction Railway Station, A MEMU train at Kollam railway station, Foot over bridge, Name board of the station, Kollam MEMU Shed building
27. Neendakara – Neendakara is a village in Kollam district 9 km north of Kollam city in Kerala, India. It is Kollam districts intermediate fishing port, Neendakara is 30 km north of Paravur. In Malayalam, Neendakara means a long bank, the headquarters of the Indo-Norwegian Fisheries Community project, established in 1953, was based in Neendakara until 1961, when the site was handed over to the Government of KeralaNeendakara – St. Sebastian's Church in Neendakara, Kollam
28. Malabar Coast – The Malabar Coast is a long and narrow coastline on the south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, the term Malabar Coast is also sometimes used to refer to the entire Indian coast from the western coast of Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Kanyakumari. The coast runs south of Goa to Kanyakumari on Indias southern tip. Indias southeastern coast is called the Coromandel Coast, the Malabar Coast is also sometimes used as an all-encompassing term for the entire Indian coast from Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Kanyakumari. It is flanked by the Arabian Sea on the west and the Western Ghats on the east, the southern part of this narrow coast is referred to as the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests. The Malabar Coast, throughout recorded history from about 3000 BC, had been a trading center in commerce with Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Jerusalem. Its most famous ports were Naura, Balita, Kochi, Calicut, and Mangalore, the Oddeway Torre settlement, which have served as centers of the Indian Ocean trade, for centuries. During Ming Chinas treasure voyages in the early 15th century, Admiral Zheng Hes fleet often landed at the Malabar Coast, Malabar Portuguese Empire Portuguese India Dutch Malabar Coromandel CoastMalabar Coast – Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala.
29. Mar Sabor and Mar Proth – In 825 AD, the seaport of Quilon was part of the Venad Kingdom. The then ruling monarch, Iyyanadikal Thiruvadikal, welcomed the monks on their arrival and showered them with special privileges, maruvan Sapir Iso built the Nilalkkal ashram near St. Thomas Church in Chayal, he died and buried in Chayal ashram. The start of the Malayalam era, also referred to as Kollavarsham, is associated with Kollam, the era was started by these East Syrian Saints who settled in Korukeni Kollam, near to the present Kollam. The start of the ME has been dated to 825 AD and it also signified the independence of Malabar from the Cheraman Perumals. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two Nestorian bishops Mar Sapor and Mar Peroz, settled in Quilon with their followers. Two years later the Malabar Era began and Quilon undoubtedly became the city of the Malabar region including Travancore. Tradition says that st. M. G. S and this was the period when the Cera-Pandya conflict was developing in the south. The foundation of Kollam in 825 A. D. must have coincided with victory of Chera in the Vel province. This incident reveals the practical wisdom of the rulers and throws light on the motivations of men who promoted ideas of religion. The Syrian Christian Monks who took advantage of the situation were equally clever, in the absence of materials for a detailed history, it is difficult to ascertain whether Mar Abo was a or missionary. Perhaps he was both at the time and there was no inherent contradiction between the two roles. ”This means that they did not remain as a separate group but rather they intermarried with the Hindus of Kerala. “The deity of the Tarsa Church was referred to the tevar. ”When they arrived on the Malabar Coast, Quilon, Angamaly, Kaduthuruthy and Cranganore had the largest population of Saint Thomas Christians in Kerala. Giovanni Empoli, who came to Quilon in 1503, estimated there were more than three thousand St. Thomas Christians in Quilon alone. Mar Sapor writes, the forgiving Miseha who saved me from persecution, though the Synod of Diamper in 1599 proclaimed Mar Sabor and Mar Proth heretics, the Christians of Malankara respected them. According to decisions of Synod of Diamper these saints of Malankara Nazranis were considered as schismatics, Mar Sabor gained the necessary rights from the local ruler of Kadamattom to build a church there. He established the church in the forest regions of Kadamattom in the 40th year of Kollam Era and he stayed there at first in a small home with a mother and a son. Afterwards he left for Thevalakara to visit an influential and reputed Nambuthiri family who were traditional ophthalmologists to the families in the adjoining area. This family is known as Thevalakara Vaidyan family and most of their members retain the surname VaidyanMar Sabor and Mar Proth – Kottakkavu Sliva, the Persian cross founded by Mar Sabor and Mar Proth, is preserved at Kottakkavu Mar Thoma Syro-Malabar Pilgrim Center, North Paravur.
30. Chera dynasty – The Cheras were the principal ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India. Along with the Ay kingdom and the Ezhimala kingdom, they formed the kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Common Era. The origins of the dynasty are unclear and it is understood that they were speakers of Proto-Tamil-Malayalam while some being practitioners of literary writing in Old Tamil. In fact, most of their history is reconstructed from the body of known as the Sangam literature written in Old Tamil around the 3rd century CE. While Pliny and Ptolemy refer to the Cheras as Calobotras, the Periplus refers to them as the Keprobotras, the earliest Sanskrit works which refer to the Cheras and Kerala is probably the Aitreya Aranyaka. It refers to the land as Chera-pada - and as one of the three peoples who did not follow some ancient injunctions, there are also brief references by Katyanana, Edicts of Ashoka, Patanjali and Kautilya though Panini does not mention of the land. However, it is the Tamil works collectively known as the Sangam literature that form the most important sources for a detailed history of the Cheras. These works roughly span the period 100 CE to 300 CE, among them, the most important sources for the Cheras are the Pattittupattu, the Agananuru, the Purananuru and the Silappatikaram. The exact antiquity of the Chera dynasty is difficult to establish, however, based on the travellers accounts and the Sangam literature, it can be confirmed that they were already existing around the 4th century BCE. The Sangam literature describes a line of Chera rulers. It records the names of the kings, the princes, the internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled and a connected account of the history of the period is an area of research. Uthiyan Cheralathan, Nedum Cheralathan and Senguttuvan Chera are some of the referred to in the Sangam poems. Senguttuvan Chera, the most celebrated Chera king, is famous for the legends surrounding Kannagi, the exact location of the Chera capital has been subject to some speculation. The Chera capital has been called, Vanchi and Karur in several works and this has led to several theories identifying the Chera capital in places called Karur in both Kerala and Tamil Nadu. However, it is clear that the capital was near the famous port known as Muziris. Pliny refers to Muziris as the Chera capital, while the author of the Periplus identifies the capital to be a couple of away from the mouth of the river at Muziris. Ptolemy who identifies the capital as Karoura gives a location that is very close to Muziris as well. The Cheras also seem to have battles with other neighbouring dynasties such as the Pallavas, the RashtrakutasChera dynasty – Extent of Chera kingdom
31. Kollam Port – Kollam Port is one of Indias 20 major ports situated 4 kilometres from Downtown Kollam. It is the second largest port in Kerala by volume of cargo handled, located on the south west coast of India, under the name of Quilon Port it became one of the countrys most important trade hubs from the ninth to the seventeenth centuries. It was founded by Mar Abo at Thangasseri in 825 as an alternative to reopening the inland sea port near Backare, also known as Nelcynda and Tyndis to the Romans and Greeks and Thondi to the Tamils. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822, the Chinese traders were one of the oldest foreign communities to settle in Kollam. That was the period when Kollam evolved as a trade center. In January 2014, the port trust discovered thousands of Chinese coins and stone age weapons at Kollam Port, revealing the historic background and this was the first discovery of such a quantity of artifacts at a port in India. Archaeologists believe that a city lies on the seabed of current Kollam Port. Today, ships frequently anchor at the port for shipping operations as well for urgent repairs when required, chief Minister Oommen Chandy launched the Coastal Shipping Project at Kollam Port on 9 November 2013 while passenger ships began operations in 2014. The first container ship, MV Suryamukhi arrived at Kollam port as part of the coastal shipping project on 18 January 2014, major shipping companies are now showing interest in the port to commence shipping operations. The companies have plans to choose the port as an intermediate base, at present, about four companies have assured their frequent presence at the port. Sooryamukhi, the ship of Kerala State Maritime Development Corporation has sailed to Mudra Port in Gujarat to load tiles. The Great Sea Shipping Company will also berth at the port soon, after modernization of the port, the first foreign ship anchored in the port on 4 April 2014. Now it is proven that huge ships can easily operate from Kollam Port. The tugs MT Chaliyar and MT Kerala along with a new German made Rs.12 crore crane are used for the operations in the port. The wharf at Kollam Port is 177 metres in length and 12 metres wide with a draught of 6.5 metres. The wharf is protected from the waves by a 2,100 metres seaboard breakwater, the length of the wharf will be increased to 200 metres in due course. In 2007, Kollam Port handled about 500,000 tonnes of cargo, several major modernization projects have been proposed for Kollam with Maladives port in order to transform it into the port city of Kerala. Projects already planned are some of the largest ever mooted for the state, a face lift of the Maruthadi-Iravipuram area will be carried out by the government as part of the Kollam Port City project and will include facilities for sports, fishing, tourism and entertainmentKollam Port – Kollam Port as seen from Thangassery
32. Tharisapalli plates – The inscription describes the gift of a plot of land to the Syrian Church at Tangasseri near Quilon, along with several rights and privileges to the Syrian Christians led by Mar Sapir Iso. The Tharisappalli copper plates are one of the important historical inscriptions of Kerala, the grant was made in the presence of important officers of the state and the representatives of trade corporations or merchant guilds. It also throws light on the system of taxation that prevailed in early Venad, as several taxes such as a tax, sales tax. It also testifies to the policy of religious toleration followed by the rulers of ancient Kerala. There are two sets of plates as part of document, and both are incomplete. The first set documents the land while the details the attached conditions. The signatories signed the document in the Hebrew, Pahlavi, the Tharisappalli copper plates are kept at Poolatheen Aramana of Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church K. Sivasankaran Nair, Venadinte Parinamam, D C Books,2005Tharisapalli plates – References 
33. Paravur, Kollam – Paravur, or South Paravoor, is a town and a municipality in the Kollam district of the Indian state of Kerala. The lakes and sea coast of Paravur attract visitors and foreigners with the attraction the interconnection of Paravur Kayal. Paravur lies 21 kilometres from Kollam by road and can be reached within 15 minutes by train from Kollam Junction, Paravur Municipality consists of Kottapuram, Koonayil, Thekkumbhagam, Chillakkal, Perumpuzha, Nedungolam, Pozhikara, Maniyamkulam, Kurumandal, Kottamoola, Attinpuram & Kochalummoodu. Paravur Municipality is a Grade-II Municipality of Kerala, Paravur is located at 8.78 N76 E. It has an elevation of 10 metres. Paravur,21 kilometers from the Kollam, is a skirt of land stretching in between the backwaters and the sea. The famous Varkala beach is a mere 12 kilometres drive from here, there is an elevation of 6 metres above sea level, extending to 16 metres on the inland. As of 2011 India census, Paravur has a population of 43,739, males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Paravur has an literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59. 5%, male literacy is 81%. In Paravur, 10% of the population are under 6 years of age, total number of households are 9,155. Pozhikara was the headquarters of Paravur. Remnants of the old fort, Thaana and Anchalappees still remain, a mint of the erstwhile Travancore Kingdom for printing and punching their currencies was once situated at Paravur. Paravur panchayat was formed in 1936 as one of the four panchayats sanctioned by Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer, the others were Boothapandi, Nedumangadu, and Perumbavoor. The so formed Paravur panchayat included nine territories-Thekkumbhagam, Kottappuram, Kongal, Pozhikara, Kurumandal, Koonayil, Kalakkode, Bhoothakkulam, sree Ramavarma koyi thampuram from Kilimanoor Palace was the first executive officer of the panchayat. The first election for Paravur panchayat was held in 1942 and Sri Achuthan Pillai became the first elected panchayat president, later Paravur became a Municipality on May 1,1988. For the first seven years it was ruled by special officers, in 1995 after the first Municipal election, Smt. Bhanumati became the first Municipal Chairperson, in April 2016, over 100 people were killed in a fireworks explosion at a local temple in the town. There are so many important roads in Paravur, connecting Kollam city and neighbouring towns like Varkala, Chathannoor, Parippally, PoothakkulamParavur, Kollam – From top: Paravur railway station, Paravur Lake(Kaayal), Aayiravilli Temple Festival, Pulimuttu in Paravur Pozhikara
34. Cantonment Maidan – Cantonment Maidan or Peeranki Maidan or Peeringee Maidan is a historical ground, closely associated with the social and political history of Kerala. It is situated at the portion of Old Quilon town. It hosts the exhibitions, party meetings and citys main cultural. Cantonment Maidan is situated at the east of old Quilon city, two hundred years back, the maidan extended over a sizeable area of East Kollam. There were no railway connectivity in South Kerala then, in 1809, the local militia and the Army of Travancore stationed around Kollam attacked the British Garrison at the Cantonment Maidan on the heels of Velu Thampi Dalawa. The British force led by Col. Chalmers proved victorious in six hours lasted war. All the insurrectionist who participated in the war were court-martialled and got hanged at the maidan, apart from this, Cantonment Maidan has been the venue for many significant events. A compromise meeting was held here in 1915 as part of Pulayar-Nair Revolt at Perinad, also called the Kallumala Agitation, a statue of Ayankali can be seen at the maidan. Mahatma Gandhi addressed the people here On October 11,1927, historic Chingam 17 Struggle happened at Cantonment Maidan on September 2,1938 in which six people were killed in firing by the British police. As per the History of Modern Kollam penned by journalist late V. Lakshmanan, the four identified among them were Asramam Lakshmanan, Ayathil Balakrishna Pillai, Kolloorvila Moideenkunju, and Kureepuzha Kochukunju. Thousands marched from Polayathode to Chinnakkada led by state leaders, including Kumbalathu Sankupillai. Police arrested the speakers and opened fire at the gathering, British Police used to exhibit five cannons at the adjacent park accounts for the name Peeringee Maidan, by which name this ground was earlier called. These cannons were used for firing at the patriots of the land is now kept at the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum in Kollam city. The present Armed Reserve Camp is situated at the old Cantonment ground, Kollam Asramam Maidan Polayathode Chinnakada Sree Narayana College, KollamCantonment Maidan – An Exhibition going on at Cantonment Maidan
35. Tangasseri – Tangasseri or Thangassery is a heavily populated beach area on the shores of the Arabian Sea in Kollam city, Kerala, India. Tangasseri is located about 5 kilometres from the city centre and 71 kilometres from Thiruvananthapuram, archaeologists recently discovered Chinese coins and other artefacts along the coast, which reveal the historic background of the location. Kollam Port makes Tangasseri an important place on the world maritime map, in 1502, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a trading centre in Tangasseri and the area soon became a major centre for the pepper trade. In the wars with the Moors and Arabs that followed, the ancient church of St Thomas was destroyed, tangasseris St Thomas Fort, built by the Portuguese in 1517, was destroyed in the subsequent wars with the Dutch. In 1661, the Dutch took possession of the city, the remains of both the Dutch and Portuguese forts can still be seen in Tangasseri. In the 18th century, the kingdom of Travancore first conquered Kollam, Tangasseri remains an Anglo-Indian settlement in character, though there are few Anglo-Indians in the population. The Infant Jesus Church in Tangasseri, an old Portuguese-built church, the old cathedral was demolished and replaced by a new cathedral at a cost of around ₹4.5 crore, it was consecrated and blessed on 3 December 2005. The metallic cross on the top is one of the largest crosses in India, Tangasseri is a picturesque seaside village with a three kilometre long beach on which stands a 144 feet tall lighthouse—a silent sentinel warning seamen since 1902 of the treacherous reefs. There are also ruins of Portuguese and Dutch forts and 18th century churches, the fishery harbour at Tangasseri is a basin for traditional fishermen, achieved by the construction of two breakwaters. The length of the breakwater is 2100 m and of the leeward breakwater 550 m. This provides sufficient beach length for landing facilities for all operational craft, Tangasseri is home to Keralas oldest schools, Mount Carmel Convent Anglo-Indian Girls High School and Infant Jesus School Kollam. Official website A brief history of TangaserriTangasseri – Tangasseri Gate
36. Portuguese Empire – The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire. It existed for almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002, the first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal, it would eventually expand across the globe, in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the secret design. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts, by 1571, a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and South Asia. This commercial network and the trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth. Though the realms continued to be administered separately, the Council of Portugal ruled the country and its empire from Madrid. As the King of Spain was also King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain, the Dutch Republic, England, and France. With its smaller population, Portugal was unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts. Eventually, Brazil became the most valuable colony of the era until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century. The third era represents the stage of Portuguese colonialism after the decolonization of the Americas of the 1820s. The colonial possessions had been reduced to the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, the disastrous 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Macau was returned to China in 1999, the origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. There were several motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese, the decision was taken to hold it while exploring along the Atlantic African coast. At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast, under his sponsorship, soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached and started to be settled producing wheat to export to Portugal. Fears of what lay beyond Cape Bojador, and whether it was possible to return once it was passed, were assuaged in 1434 when it was rounded by one of Infante Henrys captains, Gil Eanes. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to further along the coastPortuguese Empire – The Conquest of Ceuta, in 1415, was led by Henry the Navigator, and initiated the Portuguese Empire.
37. Dutch Malabar – Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Portuguese Quilon, and ended with the occupation of Malabar by the British in 1795. They possessed military outposts in 11 locations, Alleppey, Ayacotta, Chendamangalam, Pappinivattom, Ponnani, Pallipuram, Cranganore, Chetwai, Cannanore, Cochin, and Quilon. The Dutch virtually ruled Malabar for a period of over 130 years, the Kingdom of Cochin was under the complete influence of the Dutch and the king was a mere puppet of the Dutch East India Company. They enlarged the Royal Palace built by the Portuguese at Mattancheri for the King of Cochin, in 1744, an impressive country house, later called Bolgatty Palace, was erected on Bolghatty Island for the Dutch Governors. The Dutch contributed a work called Hortus Indicus Malabaricus on the medicinal properties of Malabar plants. In Cochin, the Dutch established an orphanage for poor European children, although also motivated by the lucrative pepper trade on Malabar, the primary aim for the Dutch in capturing the coast from the Portuguese was to secure Dutch Ceylon from Portuguese invasions. After failed attempts to capture the main Portuguese fort of Goa in 1604 and 1639, in 1650s the Dutch possessed only the unfortified factories at Kayamkulam and Cannanore. They took Quilon on 29 December 1658, but it was reconquered by the Portuguese on 14 April 1659. It was agreed that Calicut, the most powerful ruler in Malabar, according to the treaty between the two parties, Fort Cranganore was to be made over to Calicut after its successful capture. Van der Meyden dispersed a Nair detachment sent to stop his advance on the way, the Portuguese made no attempt to resist and fled by the backwaters. On March 21, Rijckloff Van Goens signed a treaty with the chief of Paliyam on a ship anchored off the coast. Dutch forces soon landed and attacked the palace of the queen at Mattanceri, subsequently, the queen was taken as a prisoner. Later in December 1661, Portuguese Quilon was captured by a Dutch expedition under Rijckloff Van Goens and this is often regarded as the beginning of the Dutch presence in Malabar. On January 3,1662 Van Goens was joined by the Calicut army in a siege of Fort Cranganore in the tropical heat, after a fortnight, the fort surrendered, and the Dutch demolished the structure with the exception of the bastion, where they stationed a garrison. A new treaty was now signed between Calicut and Van der Meyden, Calicut agreed to cede Fort Cranganore and Vypin to the Dutch after the capture of the Portuguese fort at Cochin. The allies moved towards Cochin and marched upon the palace of the Raja on 5 February 1662, the raja was killed in the subsequent battle along with two of his juniors. The Dutch installed another prince on the throne and proceeded to besiege the Portuguese fort, Cochin and the chief of Paliyam provided supplies to the Dutch, who faced heroic Portuguese resistance during the prolonged siege. The Native rulers of Porca and Cembakasseri kept the besieged supplied with provisions, though disrupted by monsoon rains and the deaths of the ruler of Calicut and important Dutch officers, the garrison finally capitulated on January 8,1663Dutch Malabar – Quilon rulers submit to the Dutch at Quilon
38. 4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502) – The 4th Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1502 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of D. Vasco da Gama. It was Gamas second trip to India, along the way, in East Africa, the 4th Armada established a Portuguese factory in Mozambique, made contact and opened trade with the gold entrepot of Sofala and extorted tribute from Kilwa. Once in India, the set about attacking Calicut shipping and disrupting trade along much of the Malabar Coast. But the ruling Zamorin of Calicut refused to accede to Portuguese demands, the 4th Armada left without bringing the Zamorin to terms and leaving matters unresolved. Before departing, the established a crown factory in Cannanore and left behind a small patrol under Vicente Sodré. The Second India Armada, commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral, had arrived in Portugal in the summer of 1501 in a terrible shape, ship and human losses were tremendous, its mission objectives failed. By the time this news was received, the 3rd India Armada under João da Nova had already departed, a commercial expedition unequipped to deal with the hostile turn of events in the Indian Ocean. As a result, King Manuel I of Portugal ordered a new fleet to be assembled, the command of the 4th Armada was offered to Pedro Álvares Cabral. But various factions in the Portuguese court and the Casa da India, opposed Cabrals appointment, however, Cabral had his own political supporters that could not be ignored. Finding this condition an unacceptable affront, Cabral withdrew his name in a huff, Manuel I immediately appointed Vasco da Gama himself as captain-major. The intrigues behind the appointment have been variously told, by some accounts, the initial offer to Cabral was a pro forma gesture to palliate his faction rather than an earnest offer. In other words, the never had any intention of letting Cabral lead the expedition. But that he had made a promise to Cabral and could not break it, on this hint, Gama produced a royal letter, promising Gama a determining role in any future India expedition, and demanded command of the expedition for himself. The king was caught between two commitments - honoring the letter to Gama, or his appointment to Cabral, hearing of the kings quandary, Cabral voluntarily withdrew his name to graciously allow Manuel I to honor his letter. But some later authors have interpreted the accounts differently, that King Manuel I was wholly behind Cabral, the vintena would continue until 1522. The 4th Armada was composed of 20 ships and between 800 and 1800 men, the Armada was originally envisaged as two squadrons -15 ships under the admiral to head to India,5 under the vice-admiral designated to patrol the mouth of the Red Sea. The exact composition of the three squadrons differs in the various accounts, the following list of ships should not be regarded as authoritative, but a tentative list compiled from various conflicting accounts. The list of names is from Gaspar Correias Lendas da Índia4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502) – The 4th India Armada (1502) From Memorias das Armadas
39. St Thomas Fort, Tangasseri – St. Thomas Fort also known as Tangasseri Fort, is a ruined fort located in the beach town of Tangasseri on the shores of the Arabian Sea in the city of Kollam, Kerala, India. It is located around 5 kilometres from the city center of Kollam and 71 kilometres from the state capital Thiruvananthapuram, Tangasseri was associated with the Chinese trade from the first millennium AD and later colonised by the Portuguese, Dutch and the British to become the gold village. According to Historians, Captain Rodriguez came to Quilon and was appointed as the captain of the factory and trade, St. Thomas Fort was built by the Portuguese under Afonso de Albuquerque for the protection of the newly developed trade. In 1505 the Portuguese established a port here, and in 1518 established its sovereignty through the construction of Fort St. Thomas. Later in 1661 the town and the fort were handed over to the Dutch who made it the capital of Dutch Malabar, the Dutch occupied the fort for several years. In 1795, the British East India Company took possession of the fort, in 1823 Fort St. Thomas accepted a lease by Travancore from the British Government for a period of twenty years. Fort St. Thomas was originally around 20 feet tall, today, the remains of the fort, popularly known as Tangasseri fort remain facing the beach. The government of India has taken over the fort and it is being considered an historical landmark, restoration of the fort is ongoing. At present, the fort is managed by the Archaeological Survey of India, mining rampant at Tangasseri fort Tangaserri a brief historySt Thomas Fort, Tangasseri – Front View of St Thomas Fort
40. Kollam Cantonment – Kollam Cantonment is a residential neighbourhood in the city of Kollam. It arose as a cantonment of the British Raj in the 17th century and it is now a thickly populated area of the city of Kollam. Some of the important business centres, shopping complexes and Government offices are located here, Kollam Junction railway station is also located near to cantonment area. City of Kollam was a trade hub in British India. Kollam Port was a flourishing and favorite port of Phoenicians, Arabs, old Quilon city was conquered by Portuguese, Dutch and British people during 16th to 18th centuries. The garrison was situated at the Cantonment Maidan during those daysKollam Cantonment – Bhima Jewellers situated at Kollam Cantonment area
41. Christianity in India – Christianity is Indias third-largest religion according to the census of 2011, with approximately 27.8 million followers, constituting 2.3 percent of Indias population. Old legends say that Christianity was introduced to India by Thomas the Apostle, Christians are found all across India and in all walks of life, with major populations in parts of South India, the Konkan Coast, and Northeast India. Indian Christians have contributed significantly to and are represented in various spheres of national life. They include former and current chief ministers, governors and chief election commissioners, Indian Christians have the highest ratio of women to men among the various religious communities in India. Christianity in India has different denominations, the state of Kerala is home to the Saint Thomas Christian community, an ancient body of Christians, who are now divided into several different churches and traditions. They are Eastern Syrian Saint Thomas Christian churches, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, the Christian Church runs thousands of educational institutions and hospitals which have contributed significantly to the development of the nation. Roman Catholicism was first introduced to India by Portuguese, Italian, most Christian schools, hospitals, primary care centres originated through the Roman Catholic missions brought by the trade of these countries. Evangelical Protestantism was later spread to India by the efforts of British, American, German, even though Christians are a significant minority, they form a major religious group in three states of India - Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland. Other states with historic Christian population like Goa and Kerala, there the number, still Christianity is widespread across India and is present in all states. Two ancient testimonies exist about the mission of Saint Bartholomew in India and these are of Eusebius of Caesarea and of Saint Jerome. Both these refer to this tradition while speaking of the visit of Pantaenus to India in the 2nd century. Many of these Jews presumably spoke Aramaic like St. Thomas, also a Jew by birth and this is a plausible reference to the earliest Indian churches which are known to have used the Syriac New Testament. Pantaenus evidence thus indicates that Syriac-speaking Christians had already evangelised parts of India by the late 2nd century. An early 3rd-century Syriac work known as the Acts of Thomas connects the tradition of the apostle Thomas Indian ministry with two kings, one in the north and the other in the south, the year of his arrival is widely disputed due to lack of credible records. The apostles ministry resulted in many conversions throughout this northern kingdom, including the king. The Acts of Thomas identifies his second mission in India with a kingdom ruled by King Mahadwa and he reputedly preached to all classes of people and had about seventeen thousand converts, including members of the four principal castes. According to legend, St. Thomas attained martyrdom at St. Thomas Mount in Chennai and is buried on the site of San Thome Cathedral and it is now declared an international St. Thomas pilgrim center. The colony of Syrian Christians established at Kodungallur may be the first Christian community in South India for which there is a written recordChristianity in India – A Peutinger Table 's depiction of Muziris near the tip of India where St. Thomas is believed to have landed in 52 A.D.
42. Christianity in Kerala – Christianity is the third-most practised religion in Kerala, accounting for 18% of the population according to the Indian census. Although a minority, the Christian population of Kerala is proportionally larger than that of India as a whole. A significant portion of the Indian Christian population resides in the state, other main places where churches were built are Angamaly, AD300 Ambhazhakkad and other parts of kerala. The medieval historian Pius Malekandathil believes these were adopted and privileges won during the beginning of the Brahmin dominance of medieval Kerala. Some writers believe that the original converts would have included the Jews already present in Kerala at that time, Church, Fort Kochi, built in 1503 C. E. is the oldest European church, declared as a National Monument in India. St. George Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Edathua, St. Antonys Latin Catholic Church, Kaloor, Kochi. St. Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Church Kattachira, Kayamkulam St. Josephs Latin Catholic Shrine, Kannamaly, Kochi Holy Cross chapel, Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Arakuzha, estd. 999 Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Kuravilangadu St. Marys Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Athirampuzha, benedict Vadakkekara, Origin of Christianity in India, Media House, Delhi,2007. ISBN 81-7495-258-6. Agur C. M. Church History of Travancore, Madras,1903 Reprint, Asian Educational Services, visvanathan Susan, The Christians of Kerala, Oxford University Press, Delhi1993,1999. George Menachery, The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, SARAS, George Menachery, Ollur, Vol. I1982, Vol. II1973, Vol. III2009. George Menachery, Ollur, Vol. I The Nazranies 1998, C. I. Issac, The Evolution of Christian Church in India, DK Printworld, New Delhi, ISBN 978-81-7255-056-1Christianity in Kerala – Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Arakuzha was founded in 999
43. Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon – The Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon or Kollam is the first Catholic diocese in India in the state of Kerala. The diocese, which covers an area of 1,950 km². and it was first erected on 9 August 1329, and was re-erected on 1 September 1886. It belongs to the province of Trivandrum. As of 2013 the bishop was Stanley Roman, according to tradition, St. Thomas the Apostle established seven churches along the southern part of west coast of India, and Quilon is the second in the list of the above seven churches. John of Monte Corvino, a member of the Societas Peregrinantium Pro Christo on his way to China, landed in Quilon in 1291, the Venetian traveller Marco Polo who visited India in 1292 testified to the presence of a Christian community in Quilon. Since the latter half of the 13 th century, Quilon became the centre of missionary expeditions. Franciscan and Dominican Missionaries in the 13 th and 14 th centuries visited Quilon, by a separate bull, tah goes Venerabili Fratri Jordano, the same Pope, on 21 August 1329 appointed the French or Catalan Dominican friar Jordanus Catalani as the first Bishop of Quilon. The ancient diocese of Quilon had extensive jurisdiction over modern nations of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Jordanus Catalani arrived in Surat in 1320. After his ministry in Gujarat he reached Quilon in 1323 and he not only revived Christianity but also brought hundreds to the Christian fold. He might have come again to Quilon as the bishop in 1330 to build the church at Quilon, George happened to be the patron saint of the Catalans, besides being popular among other Christian communities on the Malabar coast. His book Mirabilia Descripta is a work on plants, animals and the people of India and of other countries in Asia. This book is considered to be a chronicle of its time written around 1327. The first Latin Bishop of Quilon was received with jubilation by the faithful of Quilon. He brought a message of good wishes from the Pope to the local rulers, as the first bishop in India, he was also entrusted with the duty of spiritual nourishment of the Christian community in Calicut, Mangalore, Thane and Baruch. In the year 1348 John De Marignoli, the Papal Legate to China on his way back to Rome sojourned here for 14 months, with the martyrdom of the first Latin Bishop, the See of Quilon remained vacant. There was a gap with regard to ecclesiastical administration in India till the Portuguese landed here in 1498 AD. It follows from the Friar Jordanus tradition that Catholicism – not just Christianity – is deep rooted in Quilon and it is now settled that Latin Catholicism was brought to Kerala in the early fourteenth century by this Catalan or Occitan speaking Dominican. It is now evident that while Bishop Jordanus introduced Latin Catholicism, in the 1340s, an Italian friar called Marignolli called on Kollam and still found a Catholic church that he mentions as Saint George of the Latins, probably built by JordanusRoman Catholic Diocese of Quilon – New cathedral of Quilon at Tangasseri
44. Quilon Aerodrome – Quilon Aerodrome or Kollam Airport was an aerodrome in the city of Kollam in the former state of Travancore, now in Kerala, India. During the 1920s, there were no other civil aerodromes in the kingdoms of Cochin, Travancore, with the 1932 commissioning of Trivandrum International Airport in the state capital 57 kilometres to the south, the aerodrome fell into disuse and came to be known as the Asramam Maidan. The landing strip of the aerodrome was strengthened with red soil from the adjoining hills because the local loose soil was unsuitable for the purpose. There were no buildings in the aerodrome, however, a concrete pad for parking aircraft was built. The aerodrome was under the control of the Public Works Department, the aerodrome was also used for training operations. These were stopped when an accident involving an aircraft at the boundary of the aerodrome, resulted in the death of the pilot. During 2009 -2012, local authorities made plans to revive the aerodrome for an academy with a 4,000 foot runway for light aircraft. Trivandrum International Airport Cochin International Airport Calicut International Airport Kannur International Airport Aranmula International Airport List of airports in IndiaQuilon Aerodrome – Quilon Aerodrome Kollam Airport കൊല്ലം വിമാനനിലയം
45. Ashtamudi Lake – Ashtamudi Lake, in the Kollam District of the Indian state of Kerala, is the most visited backwater and lake in the state. It possesses a unique ecosystem and a large palm-shaped water body. Ashtamudi means eight coned in the local Malayalam language, the name is indicative of the lakes topography with its multiple branches. The lake is called the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is well known for its houseboat. Ashtamudi Wetland was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation, along both banks of the lake and its backwater canals, coconut groves and palm trees interspersed with towns and villages are seen. Kollam, is an important historic city located on the right bank of the lake. Boat cruises are operated by the Kollam Boat Club from Kollam to Alappuzha providing transport access to other towns. Luxury houseboats also operate on the lake, the boat journey is an 8-hour trip, winds through lakes, canals and water bound villages, and gives complete exposure to the beauty of the backwaters of Ashtamudi Lake. Chinese fishing nets, called cheena vala in Malayalam, are used by local fisherman and are a common sight along the waterway, the lake is the source of livelihood for people living close by from fishing, coconut husk retting for coir production and inland navigation services. In 2014, Clam Governing Council of Ashtamudi lake became the first Marine Stewardship Council certified fishery in India for their sustainable clam fishing, the lake and the life on its shores have inspired many artists and writers. It has been the subject of poems by the renowned poet Thirunalloor Karunakaran who was born. Quilon or Kollam and inevitably the Ashtamudi lakes importance is claimed to be dated to the days of the Phoenicians, ibn Batuta, during his 24-year sojourn in the 14th century, is reported to have mentioned about the Quilon port as one of the five ports for Chinese trade. Links with Persia, Chinese mandarin in 1275 AD, Portuguese in 1502 AD, velu Thampi is credited with organizing the rebellion against the British from this place. National Highway 47 passes through the lake not only from Quilon. Southern Railways network of metre gauge and broad gauge lines connects with Quilon, the metre gauge train journey from Quilon to Chennai via Madurai is stated to offer a picturesque journey. Ferry services operate daily to Alleppey and boats operate to all villages located in the canals of the backwater system, the boat jetty is located at about 3 km away from the railway station. Famous Paravur estuary and backwaters are just 21 kilometer away from Ashtamudi, Kallada River is a major river discharging into the Ashtamudi Lake. The Kallada river, which originates near Ponmudi from the Kulathupuzha hills Western Ghats is formed by the confluence of three rivers, viz, with a maximum depth of 21 ft at the confluence, it is Kerala’s deepest estuaryAshtamudi Lake – View on a bank of the Lake
46. Asramam Maidan – The Asramam Maidanam or Ashramam Maithanam is an urban park, or maidhanam, in the city of Kollam, in Kerala, India. At 72 acres, it is the largest open space within Kerala Municipal Corporation limits, the maidan is considered as one of the green lungs of the city and regularly hosts the citys main cultural and sports events. It holds an adventure park childrens park, picnic village, British Residency, Asramam Maidan was used as an aerodrome during the British Raj. Chartered flights, mainly using Avro aircraft, would land and take off from Quilon Aerodrome, the aerodrome was primarily used by VIPs from Madras en route to Thiruvananthapuram, who after landing at Quilon, would proceed to Thiruvananthapuram by car. Quilon Aerodrome was also used for flying training, during one such training exercise, an aircraft hit a tree on the boundary of the aerodrome, killing the pilot and the trainee. Training operations were stopped after the accident, but civilian aircraft continued to use the aerodrome, because of the loose soil in the Asramam area, the landing and take-off areas were prepared by bringing huge quantities of red laterite soil from the hilly areas. The aerodrome had strong barbed wire fencing round it, with two points, one at the south and the other at the north. There were no buildings in the aerodrome, not even a shed and it was here that the passengers alighted and boarded the plane. Planes used to land sometimes once in two months, the airport then came under the control of Kerala Public Works Department. Residents of Asramam knew in advance about the arrival of planes, because the PWD authorities, on getting information about a coming arrival, after the commissioning of Thiruvananthapuram airport and its development, Quilon Aerodrome went into decline, and finally, planes stopped arriving there. The aerodrome remained fenced off for a long time, later, the fence was destroyed and its granite stumps pilfered. The only reason the maidan was not encroached upon was that it was a government property. Now there are two large helipads at the maidan, Kollam Fest Kollam Fest is an international event with focus on art, culture, trade, and tourism. The event, organised by the Kollam City Corporation, was aimed at presenting the history, Kollam Pooram Kollam Pooram is one of the most colorful festivals of Kerala, attracting a large number of people from all parts of the state. The Kollam Pooram, organised in connection with the festival of the Asramam Sri Krishnaswamy Temple, is held annually at the Asramam Maidan in the month of April. The festival has now assumed the status of a national festival, Cricket matches Asramam Maidan is a regular ground for the Kerala Cricket Associations matches, which are held almost all year round. Following a preliminary inspection by a team of experts, in 2009 plans were drawn up for the construction of an airstrip, supporters of the project said that the school would increase the importance of the city. The government of Kerala has decided to preserve the Asramam Maidan, the Corporation of Kollam has been sanctioned Rs.52 lakhs in the 2017-18 financial years budget for constructing cycle track around the Asramam maidanAsramam Maidan – Asramam Maidan, Kollam
47. Estuaries of Paravur – The Paravur Estuaries are a group of estuaries in Paravur, India, near the South-Western coast of Kollam district, Kerala. Paravur is one among the 4 municipal towns in Kollam district, the place is known for its natural beauties, backwater locations, white-sand beaches and concentration of temples. Paravur is a land of beaches, backwaters & estuaries, the Paravur landmasss three sides are surrounded by water bodies - Paravur Lake, Nadayara Lake and the Arabian Sea. Paravur Lake is the body of water in the town area. The peninsula of Paravur is one of the most visited areas in Kollam district, both north and south tips of Paravur town have peninsulas and estuaries. Pozhikara is to the north and Thekkumbhagam is to the south of Paravur, one more estuary mouth is in Pozhikara, which is very close to Pozhikara Devi Temple, which has breached in 2014 under the supervision of Water Resources Department, after a long gap of 14 years. The estuaries can be reached by travelling through Kollam-Paravur Coastal Road, the 600 hectare Polachira Wetland is also close to Paravur. Paravur backwaters on both the north and south ends have Pozhi, both meet the Arabian Sea in the districts beach faces. There is an artificial tidal-regulator in the bridge at Pozhikara estuarine area. Paravur Lake is a lake in Paravur, Kerala, India, although it is small, with an area of only 6.62 km², it is the end point of the Ithikkara River and part of the system of lakes and canals that make up the Kerala Backwaters. It has been connected to Edava and Ashtamudi Kayal as part of the Trivandrum - Shoranur canal system since the late 19th centuryEstuaries of Paravur – Boating at Paravur Lake
48. Islands of Kollam – City of Kollam or Quilon is known as Prince of Arabian Sea, situated on the banks of Arabian Sea and Ashtamudi Lake. A major portion of Kollam Municipal Corporation area is occupied by Ashtamudi Lake and it is the most visited backwater and lake of Kerala, with a unique wetland ecosystem, a palm-shaped large water body, next only to the Vembanad estuary ecosystem of the state. Ashtamudi means eight coned in the language of Malayalam. This name is indicative of the topography, a lake with multiple branches. The lake is called the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala. This lake is famous for House Boat and Backwater Resorts. All the Islands in Kollam are situated in Ashtamudi Lake, there are so many Islands in Ashtamudi Lake. Munroe Island and Chavara Thekkumbhagom are the most important among these islands, Islands are the eye-catching factors as well as the beauty of Lake Ashtamudi. Most of these islands are potential tourism spots in the state, even Indian Railways also planning to develop one of the islands in Kollam for a tourism project. There are big as well as small islands which are inhabited and uninhabited by human beings, the important islands in Kollam areIslands of Kollam – Five star hotel 'The Raviz' in Kollam is situated in one of the island like structures near Thevally
49. Kallada River – The Kallada River is one of two major rivers that flow through the Kollam District of Kerala, India. This River is formed by three Rivers, viz. Kulathupuzha, Chendurni and Kalthuruthy which join near Parappar in Thenmala by the side of the Trivandrum-Shencottah road and it travels for 121 km, flowing through Punalur, Pathanapuram, Kunnathur and Kallada before ending at Ashtamudi Lake. The Palaruvi Falls also feeds Kallada river, the Chalikkari Aar also joins Kallada a little downstream. These two rivers flows westward and falls into the Ashtamudi Lake, for a good part of its initial course, the river flows in parallel with the Kollam - Shenkottai commercial highway. At Punalur, a bridge was constructed across this by the Travancore Maharaja in British Style. This is still preserved as an archeological marvel. The end point of river is the Ashtamudi Kayal. The river bed is rocky and it is difficult to swim. There are huge rocks, deep pits and other obstructions in the river, in modern times, the Thenmala dam is built on this river. This is an irrigation dam mainly aimed at providing water to the regions throughout the year. Kallada Boat Race is one of the most famous boat races held in South Kerala, the boat race is an annual event which happens 28 days after Onam. Almost all the snake boats take part in this event. This boat race is held on the Muthiraparambu-Karuvathrakadavu course of the Kallada River and this year it will be conducted on the 23rd of September. Kallada river has a place in history along with major rivers. It is believed that Paleolithic people lived around this river in the Thenmala region and this was around 10,000 years ago. Untouched by the onslaught of administrative modernization, there are areas in both villages. Uppoodu, ullurup are a few to name, the virtues of the word called kinship, define itself here better than anywhere else. Hence this Mill was closed in 1987, the project was planned to irrigate net cultivable command area of 61630 Ha. During the course of execution few canals including Kayamkulam Branch canal were dropped, head works is completed during 1986Kallada River – Kallada River
50. Kollam Beach – Kollam Beach, also known as Mahatma Gandhi Beach, is a beach at Kollam city in the Indian state of Kerala. Kollam Beach is the first Beach Wedding Destination in Kerala, the beach also features a park of international standard, the Mahatma Gandhi Park, which was inaugurated on 1 January 1961 by the then Vice President of India, Zakir Hussain. Kollam beach is one among the few beaches in Kerala with a lifeguard outpost, lifeguards were stationed at the beach from 2005. As of July 2015 Kovalam, Varkala and Kollam are the beaches in south Kerala with lifeguard outposts. Kollam Port is one of the oldest and most important ports for the cashew trade on the Malabar Coast of the Arabian Sea. As of 2010, Kollam Port was the second largest port in Kerala after Cochin Port, Kollam was once a favourite settlement of the Portuguese, the Dutch and the English in succession before Independence. The port is protected by the Tangasseri Breakwater, extending about 1.1 miles south-south east of Tangasseri Point, the exotic location and backwaters makes Kollam Beach one of Keralas most popular tourist attractions. On 22 June 2014, construction started on a marine aquarium at Kollam Beach. The Harbour Engineering Department is constructing the aquarium at the side of the beach on behalf of Kollam Municipal Corporation. The foundation stone for the project was laid in March and is expected to complete by December 2014 and it will be a single storey aquarium with 40 large tanks to hold a diverse collection of marine life and will be an added attraction for visitors to Kollam beach. The 144-foot Tangasseri lighthouse built in 1902 is a landmark at the beach. Ruins of Portuguese / Dutch forts and 18th-century churches near the port remain as a memento of the Portuguese, presidents Trophy Boat Race Kollam pooram Kovalam Paravur Thekkumbhagam VarkalaKollam Beach – Kollam Beach, Quilon