Portal:Mountains

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Introduction

Appalachian Mountains
Mount Ararat, as seen from Armenia.

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level. These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing.

The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).

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Selected mountain-related landform

A nunatak (from Inuit nunataq) is an exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within (or at the edge of) an ice field or glacier. They are also called glacial islands. Examples are natural pyramidal peaks. When rounded by glacial action, smaller rock promontories may be referred to as rognons.

The word is of Greenlandic origin and has been used in English since the 1870s. Read more...

Selected mountain range

The Mandara Mountains looking north-east from Jimeta/Yola.

The Mandara Mountains are a volcanic range extending about 190 km (about 120 mi) along the northern part of the Cameroon-Nigeria border, from the Benue River in the south () to the north-west of Maroua in the north (). The highest elevation is the summit of Mount Oupay, at 1,494 m (4,900 ft) above sea level ().

The region is densely populated, mainly by speakers of Chadic languages, including both the Mofu and the Kirdi ethnic groups. Read more...

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Tomb of King Alyattes at Bin Tepe in Lydia, modern Turkey, built circa 560 BCE. It is "one of the largest tumuli ever built", with a diameter of 360 meters and a height of 61 meters.

A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus.

Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. Read more...

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Breslauer Hütte (2,844 m) in the Ötztal Alps, Austria

A mountain hut (also known as alpine hut, mountain shelter, mountain refuge, mountain lodge, and mountain hostel) is a building located high in the mountains, generally accessible only by foot, intended to provide food and shelter to mountaineers, climbers and hikers. Mountain huts are usually operated by an Alpine Club or some organisation dedicated to hiking or mountain recreation.

Mountain huts can provide a range of services, starting with shelter and simple sleeping berths. Some, particularly in remote areas, are not staffed, but others have staff which prepare meals and drinks and can provide other services, including providing lectures and selling clothing and small items. Mountain huts usually allow anybody to access their facilities, although some require reservations. Read more...

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The east face of the Matterhorn. Toni Valeruz made the first ski descent of the face on 60+ degree slopes on 14 May 1975, from the Shoulder of the Hörnli Ridge.

Extreme skiing is performed on long, steep (typically from 45 to 60+ degrees, or grades of 100 to 170 percent) slopes in mountainous terrain. The French coined the term 'Le Ski Extreme' in the 1970s. The first practitioners include Swiss skier Sylvain Saudan, who invented the "windshield wiper" turn in the mid-1960s, and in 1967 made the first descents of slopes in the Swiss, French and Italian Alps that were previously considered impossible. Saudan's 'first descent' in America was at Mt. Hood March 3, 1971. Early American practitioners include Bill Briggs, who descended Grand Teton on June 16, 1971. The Frenchmen Patrick Vallençant, Jean-Marc Boivin and Anselme Baud and the Italians Stefano De Benedetti and Toni Valeruz were among those who further developed the art and brought notoriety to the sport in the 1970s and 1980s.

The key North American skiers who popularized the sport include: Doug Coombs, Shane McConkey, Seth Morrison, Glen Plake and Scot Schmidt, all considered among the top extreme skiers in the world during their prime. Read more...

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Topics

Shivling
Eruption of Pinatubo 1991

Flora and fauna

Climbing in Greece
Georg Winkler.jpg

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