1. New Mexico – New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, Mexico, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries later in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico. New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the stateNew Mexico – Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
2. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
3. Southwestern United States – The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico. The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave, yucca and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, also within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona. In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest, driest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest regionSouthwestern United States – Panoramic view of the southwestern United States.
4. Population density – Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to over 50 people per km2, thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, microstates, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood DensityPopulation density – Monaco in South Europe, currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world.
5. Hispanic – The term Hispanic broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain. It commonly applies to countries once colonized by the Spanish Empire in the Americas and Asia, particularly the countries of Latin America and the Philippines. It could be argued that the term should apply to all Spanish-speaking cultures or countries and it is difficult to label a nation or culture with one term, such as Hispanic, as the ethnicities, customs, traditions, and art forms vary greatly by country and region. The Spanish language and Spanish culture are the main traditions, the term Hispanic derives from Latin Hispanicus, the adjectival derivation of Latin Hispania and Hispanus/Hispanos, ultimately probably of Celtiberian origin. In English the word is attested from the 16th century, the words Spain, Spanish, and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately. Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule, in English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used. The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from different indigenous tribes. A number of men, such as Trajan, Hadrian. Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania, Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, and to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world and particularly the Americas. Spanish is used to refer to the people, nationality, culture, language, Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain. Hispania was the Roman name for the territory of the Iberian Peninsula. Initially, this territory was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, in 27 B. C, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania Baetica and Hispania Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. This division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms used to refer to the peninsula and this revival of the old Roman concept in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, and was first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote, the word Lusitanian, relates to Lusitania or Portugal, also in reference to the Lusitanians, possibly one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribes name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania, the terms Spain and the Spains were not interchangeable. Spain was a territory, home to several kingdoms, with separate governments, laws, languages, religions, and customs. Spain was not an entity until much later, and when referring to the Middle Ages. The term The Spains referred specifically to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, although colloquially and literally the expression King of Spain or King of the Spains was already widespread, it did not refer to a unified nation-stateHispanic – Pope Francis
6. Native Americans in the United States – In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes, bands, and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement. Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West, settler and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River. Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast AsiansNative Americans in the United States – Pushmataha
7. Mountains – A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain. Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, spacing and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, similarly, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions also include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, today, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic, fold, and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, crumple, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the USMountains – Mount Everest, the highest peak on Earth
8. Desert – A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation, about one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the regions where little precipitation occurs. Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation falls, by the temperature that prevails. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces, although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and this picks up particles of sand and dust and wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms. Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface, rocks are smoothed down, and the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits. The grains end up as level sheets of sand or are piled high in billowing sand dunes, other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones. These areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place, other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate, there may be underground sources of water in the form of springs and seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur, plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles, some annual plants germinate, bloom and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture. Animals need to cool and find enough food and water to survive. Many are nocturnal and stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day and they tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods and they then reproduce rapidly while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy. People have struggled to live in deserts and the surrounding lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available, the cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts, especially across the Sahara Desert, large numbers of slaves were also taken northwards across the SaharaDesert – Valle de la Luna (« Valley of the Moon ») in the Atacama Desert of Chile, the world's driest hot desert
9. Space Shuttle Columbia – Space Shuttle Columbia was the first space-rated orbiter in NASAs Space Shuttle fleet. It launched for the first time on mission STS-1 on April 12,1981, construction began on Columbia in 1975 at Rockwell Internationals principal assembly facility in Palmdale, California, a suburb of Los Angeles. It is also named after the Command Module of Apollo 11, Columbia was also the female symbol of the United States. After construction, the arrived at Kennedy Space Center on March 25,1979. Columbia was originally scheduled to lift off in late 1979, however the date was delayed by problems with both the SSME components, as well as the thermal protection system. On March 19,1981, during preparations for a ground test, workers were asphyxiated while working in Columbias nitrogen-purged aft engine compartment, resulting in two or three fatalities. Columbia spent 610 days in the Orbiter Processing Facility, another 35 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building, Columbia then undertook three further research missions to test its technical characteristics and performance. Its first operational mission, with a crew, was STS-5. At this point Columbia was joined by Challenger, which flew the next three missions, while Columbia underwent modifications for the first Spacelab mission. At that time the fleet was expanded to include Discovery. Columbia returned to space on January 12,1986, with the launch of STS-61-C, the missions crew included Dr. Franklin Chang-Diaz, as well as the first sitting member of the House of Representatives to venture into space, Bill Nelson. The next shuttle mission, STS-51-L, was undertaken by Challenger and it was launched on January 28,1986, ten days after STS-61-C had landed, and ended in disaster 73 seconds after launch. In the aftermath NASAs shuttle timetable was disrupted, and Columbia was not flown again until 1989, sTS-93, launched on July 23,1999, was the first U. S. space mission with a female commander, Lt. Col. Eileen Collins. This mission deployed the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Columbias final successful mission was STS-109, the fourth servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope. Its next mission, STS-107, culminated in the loss when it disintegrated during reentry. Consequently, President Bush decided to retire the Shuttle orbiter fleet by 2010 in favor of the Constellation program, the Constellation program was later cancelled with the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 signed by President Obama on October 11. Due to its weight, Columbia could not have used the planned Centaur-G booster, the retention of the internal airlock allowed NASA to use Columbia for the STS-109 Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, along with the Spacehab double module used on STS-107. The upgrade also involved replacing many of the white LRSI tiles on the surfaces with Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets that had been used on DiscoverySpace Shuttle Columbia – Columbia preparing for launch for STS-109 to repair the Hubble Space telescope. This was the final successful mission of Columbia before STS-107.
10. T-38 Talon – The Northrop T-38 Talon is a two-seat, twin-engined supersonic jet trainer. It was the worlds first supersonic trainer and is also the most produced, the T-38 remains in service as of 2017 in several air forces. The United States Air Force operates the most T-38s, in addition to training USAF pilots, the T-38 is used by NASA. The U. S. Naval Test Pilot School is the principal US Navy operator, pilots of other NATO nations fly the T-38 in joint training programs with USAF pilots. As of 2015, the T-38 has been in service for over 50 years with its original operator, in 1952 Northrop began work on a fighter project, the Fang, with shoulder-mounted delta wing and a single engine. The proposed General Electric J79 engine, weighing two tons, meant the resulting aircraft would be large and expensive. Schmued and chief engineer Welko Gasich decided on a small twin-engine hot-rod fighter, Northrop began its N-156 project in 1954, aiming for a small supersonic fighter jet capable of operating from the US Navys escort carriers. In the mid-1950s the USAF issued a General Operating Requirement for a supersonic trainer, Northrop officials decided to adapt the N-156 to this competition. The only other candidate was the version of the North American F-100 Super Sabre. However, Northrop officials convincingly presented life-cycle cost comparisons which could not be ignored, the first flew on 10 March 1959. The type was adopted and the first production examples were delivered in 1961, officially entering service on 17 March that year. When production ended in 1972,1,187 T-38s had been built, since its introduction, it is estimated that some 50,000 military pilots have trained on this aircraft. The USAF remains one of the few armed flying forces using dedicated supersonic final trainers, as most, such as the US Navy, the T-38 is of conventional configuration, with a small, low, long-chord wing, a single vertical stabilizer, and tricycle undercarriage. The aircraft seats a student pilot and instructor in tandem, and has intakes for its two engines at the wing roots. Its nimble performance has earned it the nickname white rocket, in 1962 the T-38 set absolute time-to-climb records for 3,000,6,000,9,000 and 12,000 meters, beating the records for those altitudes set by the F-104 in December 1958. The wings of both the T-38 and the F-5 family use conventional skin over spar-rib structure, in 2015,504 T-38s were still operational with the USAF, with many more in operation around the world. Most of the USAF variant aircraft have been converted to the T-38C through an upgrade program. Improvements include the addition of a HUD, GPS, INS, most jets have also received PMPT-38 Talon – T-38 Talon
11. Airplane – An airplane or aeroplane is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine or propeller. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and wing configurations, the broad spectrum of uses for airplanes includes recreation, transportation of goods and people, military, and research. Commercial aviation is a massive industry involving the flying of tens of thousands of daily on airliners. Most airplanes are flown by a pilot on board the aircraft, the Wright brothers invented and flew the first airplane in 1903, recognized as the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight. They built on the works of George Cayley dating from 1799, between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal also studied heavier-than-air flight. Following its limited use in World War I, aircraft continued to develop. Airplanes had a presence in all the battles of World War II. The first jet aircraft was the German Heinkel He 178 in 1939, the first jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952. The Boeing 707, the first widely successful commercial jet, was in service for more than 50 years. Aéroplane originally referred just to the wing, as it is a plane moving through the air, in an example of synecdoche, the word for the wing came to refer to the entire aircraft. In the United States and Canada, the airplane is used for powered fixed-wing aircraft. In the United Kingdom and most of the Commonwealth, the aeroplane is usually applied to these aircraft. Many stories from antiquity involve flight, such as the Greek legend of Icarus and Daedalus, and this machine may have been suspended for its flight. Some of the earliest recorded attempts with gliders were those by the 9th-century poet Abbas ibn Firnas, leonardo da Vinci researched the wing design of birds and designed a man-powered aircraft in his Codex on the Flight of Birds. In 1799, George Cayley set forth the concept of the airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion. Cayley was building and flying models of fixed-wing aircraft as early as 1803, in 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider LAlbatros artificiel pulled by a horse on a beach. Then Alexander F. Mozhaisky also made some innovative designs, in 1883, the American John J. Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider. Other aviators who made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher, sir Hiram Maxim built a craft that weighed 3.5 tons, with a 110-foot wingspan that was powered by two 360-horsepower steam engines driving two propellersAirplane – Boeing 737 -700 jet airliner
12. Rocket range – A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with seaport for ships or airport for aircraft. The word spaceport, and even more so cosmodrome, has traditionally used for sites that are capable of launching spacecraft into orbit around Earth or on interplanetary trajectories. Space stations and proposed future bases on the moon are sometimes called spaceports, the term rocket launch site is used for any facility from which rockets are launched. It may contain one or more launch pads or suitable sites to mount a transportable launch pad and it is typically surrounded by a large safety area, often called a rocket range or missile range. The range includes the area over which launched rockets are expected to fly, tracking stations are sometimes located in the range to assess the progress of the launches. Major spaceports often include more than one launch complex, which can be rocket launch sites adapted for different types of launch vehicles, for launch vehicles with liquid propellant, suitable storage facilities and, in some cases, production facilities are necessary. On-site processing facilities for solid propellants are also common, a spaceport may also include runways for takeoff and landing of aircraft to support spaceport operations, or to enable support of HTHL or HTVL winged launch vehicles. The first rockets to reach space were V-2 rockets launched from Peenemünde, after the war,70 complete V-2 rockets were brought to White Sands for test launches, with 47 of them reaching altitudes between 100 km and 213 km. The worlds first spaceport for orbital and human launches, the Baikonur Cosmodrome in southern Kazakhstan and it achieved the first orbital flight in October 1957. The exact location of the cosmodrome was initially held secret, guesses to its location were misdirected by a name in common with a mining town 320 km away. The Baikonur Cosmodrome achieved the first launch of a human into space in 1961, the launch complex used, Site 1, has reached a special symbolic significance and is commonly called Gagarins Start. Baikonur was the primary Soviet cosmodrome, and is widely used by Russia under a lease arrangement with Kazakhstan. In response to the early Soviet successes, the United States built up a major complex at Cape Canaveral in Florida. A large number of unmanned flights, as well as the early flights, were carried out at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. For the Apollo programme, an adjacent spaceport, Kennedy Space Center, was constructed and it has been the base for all Space Shuttle launches and most of their runway landings. For details on the complexes of the two spaceports, see List of Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island launch sites. The Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, is the major European spaceport, in October 2003 the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center achieved the first Chinese human spaceflight. The spacecraft, SpaceShipOne, was launched by an airplane taking off horizontallyRocket range – The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Gagarin's Start launch pad)
13. United States Army – The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784, the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed service, the Army is part of the Department of the Army. As a branch of the forces, the mission of the U. S. The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States, the United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S, the army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources, a number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills. The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–81 sometimes used the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, hitting where the British were weakest, to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776, with a decisive victory at Yorktown, and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates, State militias became the new nations sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Points arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops, were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant, and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides, the United States and Great Britain, returned to the status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict, the armys major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars to defeat the Seminoles and move them to OklahomaUnited States Army – Storming of Redoubt #10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States of America.
14. Otero County, New Mexico – Otero County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,797 and its southern boundary is the Texas state line. Otero County comprises the Alamogordo, NM Micropolitan Statistical Area, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,628 square miles, of which 6,613 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in New Mexico by area, lincoln National Forest White Sands National Monument As of the census of 2000, there were 62,298 people,22,984 households, and 16,801 families residing in the county. The population density was 9 people per square mile, there were 29,272 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile. 32. 16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,23. 30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was out with 29. 50% under the age of 18,9. 30% from 18 to 24,28. 60% from 25 to 44,21. 00% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.80 males, the median income for a household in the county was $30,861, and the median income for a family was $34,781. Males had an income of $27,657 versus $18,470 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,345, about 15. 60% of families and 19. 30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27. 90% of those under age 18 and 12. 80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,797 people,24,464 households, the population density was 9.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,992 housing units at a density of 4.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72. 7% white,6. 7% American Indian,3. 5% black or African American,1. 2% Asian,0. 2% Pacific islander,11. 5% from other races, and 4. 2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 34. 5% of the population, in terms of ancestry,13. 4% were German,8. 1% were English,8. 0% were Irish, and 4. 4% were American. The average household size was 2.51 and the family size was 3.05. The median age was 36.5 years, the median income for a household in the county was $39,615 and the median income for a family was $46,210Otero County, New Mexico – Otero County courthouse in Alamogordo
15. Tularosa Basin – The Tularosa Basin is a graben basin in the Basin and Range Province and within the Chihuahuan Desert, east of the Rio Grande in southern New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. The Tularosa Basin is located primarily in Otero County and it covers about 6,500 sq mi. It lies between the Sacramento Mountains to the east, and the San Andres and Oscura Mountains to the west, the basin stretches about 150 mi north-south, and at its widest is about 60 mi east-west. It is geologically considered part of the Rio Grande Rift zone, Tularosa Creek flows westward into the Tularosa Basin just north of the village of Tularosa. The distinct northwestern New Mexico Tularosa River is located in Catron County, hydrologically, the Tularosa Basin is an endorheic basin, as no water flows out of it. The basin is closed to the north by Chupadera Mesa and to the south by the Franklin, surface water that does not evaporate or soak into the ground eventually accumulates at playas, the largest of which is Lake Lucero at the southwest end of the White Sands dunes. The White Sands are a 710-km2 field of sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals. To the north of Lake Lucero are extensive alkali flats, which produce additional gypsum for wind deposition on the dunes, under US military protection, the first permanent settlement was established in 1862, when about 50 Hispanic farmers from the Rio Grande Valley moved to Tularosa. Grasslands and grazing The native grasslands in the Tularosa Basin were able to large herds in the wet years of the 1880s. When the Anglos first started running cattle, in some places, one cowboy estimated in 1889 that 85,000 head were mustered within the basin, but said that was “far too heavy a burden for the range” - or beyond its carrying capacity. Even within the White Sands Missile Range, where cattle grazing was eliminated in 1945, many areas that were historically known to be rich perennial grasslands are now xeric desert shrublands, with creosote bush— predominating. Applying the groundwater to the surface resulted in additional salts being dissolved and transported back down by groundwater recharge into the aquifer, by 2000, salts in the aquifer were recognized to be needed to be significantly reduced if existing levels of water use were to continue. The Tularosa Basin is in the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion, with the former Great Plains grassland habitat ecotones, because of the closed nature of the basin, a number of unique ecological niches have developed. A significant number of species are only found in the Tularosa Basin. These include the White Sands pupfish— and the Oscura Mountains chipmunk, while the Tularosa Basin lies primarily in New Mexican Otero County, it also extends into Doña Ana, Sierra, Lincoln, and Socorro Counties in New Mexico, and El Paso County in southwest TexasTularosa Basin – White gypsum sand and Yucca (Yucca elata) plants, in Tularosa Basin at White Sands National Monument.
16. Organ Mountains – The Organ Mountains are a rugged mountain range in southern New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks National Monument was declared a monument on May 21,2014. They lie 10 miles east of the city of Las Cruces, the Organ Mountains are near the southern end of a long line of mountains on the east side of the Rio Grandes rift valley. The range is contiguous with the San Andres Mountains to the north and the Franklin Mountains to the south. Whereas the San Andres and Franklin Mountains are both formed from west-dipping fault blocks of sedimentary strata, the Organ Mountains are made primarily of igneous rock. Their name reflects their similarity in appearance with pipes that would be part of a pipe organ, the Franklin Mountains are separated from the Organ Mountains by a 10-mile wide low area known as Anthony Gap. Much of this land is part of Fort Bliss. The Organ Mountains are made up of three sections, On the north end is a narrow ridge of vertically-jointed Tertiary granite called The Needles. This is the most picturesque section and includes the highest point in the range, on the south side of The Needles is a much wider section of extrusive igneous rock, mostly a purplish-gray rhyolite. This section forms the bulk of the range and reaches heights nearly as great as The Needles. This section is cut in half by Soledad Canyon, which extends west from the east side of the range, separated by a low ridge and Soledad Pass from Bar Canyon on the west side. The third portion of the Organ Mountains consists of the Bishops Cap Hills on the southwest side of the range and Rattlesnake Ridge on the southeast side of the range. This third section is much smaller and lower in elevation than the sections of the range. The Organ Mountains may be the most botanically diverse mountain range in New Mexico, several of these, including the Organ Mountains evening-primrose and smooth figwort, are endemic to the mountain range and occur only in small, scattered populations. The Organ Mountains also have surprisingly high diversity in ferns, with 30 of the 56 species reported for New Mexico occurring within it. The high diversity and endemism of the range makes the Organ Mountains a very rewarding destination for the botanically-inclined, the flora differs greatly between the three sections of the mountain range, with the two igneous sections sharing relatively few species with the southern limestone portions. The first documented climbs of Organ Mountain peaks were in the early 1890s, the most prominent of these was R. L Ingraham, whose Guide to Climbing in the Organ Mountains remains a definitive reference. Technical climbing began only in the late 1940s, with some ascents by a group of German rocket scientists brought here to work at the White Sands Proving Grounds directly after the fall of GermanyOrgan Mountains – The Organ Mountains seen from the west
17. San Andres Mountains – The San Andres Mountains are a mountain range in the southwestern U. S. state of New Mexico, in the counties of Socorro, Sierra, and Doña Ana. The range extends about 75 miles north to south, but are only about 12 miles wide at their widest, the highest peak in the San Andres Mountains is Salinas Peak, at 8,965 feet. Though nearly contiguous with the Organ Mountains to the south, the two are very distinct geologically and botanically, the Oscura Mountains to the north are separated from the San Andres Mountains by Mockingbird Gap and the much lower Little Burro Mountains. The San Andres Mountains are comparatively dry and do not support any extensive woodlands and they are mostly closed to the public, lying almost entirely within the restricted White Sands Missile Range. Gypsum deposits washed from these mountains are the source of the dunes in White Sands National Monument. Significant summits include, The biggest and best desert bighorn sheep habitat in New Mexico is in the San Andres Mountains, in the mid 1970s there were around 200 sheep in the refuge, however, in 1979, a scabies mite epizootic reduced the population from 200 to 75. Subsequent years brought further declines from scabies and other causes until the population consisted of one ewe in 1997, reintroduction of desert bighorn sheep occurred in 2002 and the herd has now about 80 members. San Andres Mountains New Mexico Tourism Department, as of December 9,2006, via Internet Archive San Andres MountainsSan Andres Mountains – Black and Bennett Mts. on the southeastern end of the San Andres Mountains
18. Sacramento Mountains – The Sacramento Mountains are a mountain range in the south-central part of the U. S. state of New Mexico, lying just east of Alamogordo in Otero County. From north to south, the Sacramento Mountains extend for 85 miles, the Rio Tularosa and the Rio Ruidoso separate the Sacramentos from Sierra Blanca and the Capitan Mountains. From this ridge the mountains slope gently down to the east, there are actually two unnamed highpoints of the range, both approx 9,695 ft. One is near Sunspot above Corral Canyon and FR64, the second highpoint is on the crest of Benson Ridge. The range is a wide east-dipping fault block, made up almost entirely of limestone, gypsum deposits washed from the range are a main source of the gypsum sand that makes up the dunes in White Sands National Monument. The Sacramento Mountains form the easternmost part of the rift system centered on the valley of the Rio Grande. Unlike the Sacramento Mountains, the neighboring Sierra Blanca is an extrusive igneous complex, most of the main section of the Sacramento Mountains are part of the Lincoln National Forest, though the northern part of the range is included in the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation. Evidence of Apache presence dates back to the fifteenth century, the range includes the town of Cloudcroft, a popular resort, the town of Ruidoso, also popular for recreation, lies on its northern edge. The range also includes the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak, midway down the western ridge, there are numerous hiking trails in the portion of the range that lies within the Lincoln National Forest, there is officially designated wilderness. The mountains are the home of the Sacramento prickly poppy, a federally listed endangered plant species, and the Sacramento Mountains thistle. Beach Mountains Chihuahuan Desert Guadalupe Mountains Jicarilla Mountains Franklin Mountains Organ MountainsSacramento Mountains – The western escarpment of the Sacramento Mountains, looking south from Dog Canyon.
19. Jornada del Muerto – As a geographic name, Jornada del Muerto is the desert region the Conquistadors had to cross to make it from Las Cruces, NM. to Soccoro, NM. The trail led northward from central Spanish colonial New Spain, present-day Mexico, the route later became a section of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. The Jornada del Muerto Desert ecoregion, in the Deserts and xeric shrublands Biome, is a wide and long stretch of desert landforms. The desert runs between the Oscura Mountains and San Andres Mountains on the east, and the Fra Cristóbal Range, the western mountains block access to the Rio Grande, the most reliable water source in the region. The Jornada del Muerto Desert remains almost entirely uninhabited and undeveloped to the present day, located just to the east of the southernmost region of the desert is the Jornada Basin LTER station, used for study of desert ecology, land management, plant physiology, and related topics. The Jornada del Muerto volcano and malpaís are located at the end of the deserts region. The Jornada del Muerto Volcano is a volcano, reaching an elevation of 5,136 ft. The volcanos lava flow created the large Jornada del Muerto malpaís lava field, about 10 by 15 miles, the Jornada del Muerto Volcano, erupted about 760,000 years ago. It produced a slow and viscous aa lava which has a rough surface. At the first crossing the Jornada del Muerto in 1598 they named the first pueblo they came to Socorro, in 1680, during the Pueblo Revolt the Spanish settlers were forced to retreat southward, along the Jornada del Muerto, together with Indians from the Isleta and Socorro Pueblos. Of the more than 2000 who left Socorro fewer than 1200 survived the crossing, in 1692, Diego de Vargas led a new group of settlers north across the Jornada del Muerto to resettle northern New Mexico. On horseback, the Jornada could be crossed in a couple of days, leaving the Paraje de Robledo, traveling 5 leagues, On this day, the twelfth of the month and the sixth of the journey, we came to the Jornada del Muerto. To prepare for it, a detour is made to seek the river at a place called San Diego and it is about half a league from the river. Barrels are brought for the purpose and these are filled with water for the people. On the morning of the thirteenth the horses were taken to the river to drink, somewhat later all the food for the journey was prepared, and at half past seven we left that post with considerable speed, stopping only to change horses. During this interval we ate what there was, and we traveled in this fashion until eight-thirty at night, on the fourteenth day of May, the eighth day of our journey, we made an early start. We reached the river at eleven‑thirty, the livestock were so thirsty that they ran to reach the water. After this fashion were the thirty leagues of this difficult stage traveled, homesteaders in the 1860s to 1920s tried to ranch in the Jornada del Muerto, digging wells for the cattleJornada del Muerto – Jornada del Muerto is the upper third of the image, oriented with the top to the northwest. The Tularosa Basin is the lower half of the image, with the dark streak of lava north of White Sands the Carrizozo Malpais. The Trinity atomic site is northwest of the Malpais. The forested Sacramento Mountains are to the right-east.
20. Atomic weapon – A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from small amounts of matter. The first test of a bomb released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10 million tons of TNT, a thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate a city by blast, fire. Nuclear weapons are considered weapons of destruction, and their use. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in nuclear warfare, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II, the bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 civilians and military personnel from acute injuries sustained from the explosions. The ethics of the bombings and their role in Japans surrender remain the subject of scholarly, since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for the purposes of testing and demonstration. Only a few nations possess such weapons or are suspected of seeking them, israel is also believed to possess nuclear weapons, though in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Italy, Turkey, Belgium and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states, south Africa is the only country to have independently developed and then renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons. Modernisation of weapons continues to occur, all existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is exclusively from fission reactions are commonly referred to as bombs or atom bombs. This has long noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom. The latter approach is considered more sophisticated than the former and only the approach can be used if the fissile material is plutonium. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself. The amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT, all fission reactions necessarily generate fission products, the radioactive remains of the atomic nuclei split by the fission reactions. Many fission products are highly radioactive or moderately radioactive. Fission products are the radioactive component of nuclear falloutAtomic weapon – The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of the Japanese city of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 rose some 11 miles (18 km) above the bomb's hypocenter.
21. Trinity site – Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon. It was conducted by the United States Army at 5,29 am on July 16,1945, the test was conducted in the Jornada del Muerto desert about 35 miles southeast of Socorro, New Mexico, on what was then the USAAF Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range. The only structures originally in the vicinity were the McDonald Ranch House and its ancillary buildings, a base camp was constructed, and there were 425 people present on the weekend of the test. The code name Trinity was assigned by J. Robert Oppenheimer, the test was of an implosion-design plutonium device, informally nicknamed The Gadget, of the same design as the Fat Man bomb later detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9,1945. The complexity of the design required a major effort from the Los Alamos Laboratory, the test was planned and directed by Kenneth Bainbridge. Fears of a fizzle led to the construction of a containment vessel called Jumbo that could contain the plutonium, allowing it to be recovered. A rehearsal was held on May 7,1945, in which 108 short tons of high explosive spiked with radioactive isotopes were detonated, the Gadgets detonation released the explosive energy of about 22 kilotons of TNT. Observers included Vannevar Bush, James Chadwick, James Conant, Thomas Farrell, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, Leslie Groves, Robert Oppenheimer, Geoffrey Taylor, and Richard Tolman. The test site was declared a National Historic Landmark district in 1965, the creation of nuclear weapons arose from scientific and political developments of the 1930s. The decade saw many new discoveries about the nature of atoms, the concurrent rise of fascist governments in Europe led to a fear of a German nuclear weapon project, especially among scientists who were refugees from Nazi Germany and other fascist countries. When their calculations showed that nuclear weapons were theoretically feasible, the British and these efforts were transferred to the authority of the U. S. Army in June 1942, and became the Manhattan Project. Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, Jr. was appointed its director in September 1942, the weapons development portion of this project was located at the Los Alamos Laboratory in northern New Mexico, under the directorship of physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The University of Chicago, Columbia University and the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, production of the fissile isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239 were enormous undertakings given the technology of the 1940s, and accounted for 80% of the total costs of the project. Uranium enrichment was carried out at the Clinton Engineer Works near Oak Ridge, theoretically, enriching uranium was feasible through pre-existing techniques, but it proved difficult to scale to industrial levels and was extremely costly. Only 0.71 percent of natural uranium was uranium-235, and it was estimated that it would take 27,000 years to produce a gram of uranium with mass spectrometers, plutonium is a synthetic element with complicated physical, chemical and metallurgical properties. It is not found in nature in appreciable quantities, until mid-1944, the only plutonium that had been isolated had been produced in cyclotrons in microgram amounts, whereas weapons required kilograms. In April 1944, physicist Emilio Segrè, the head of the Los Alamos Laboratorys P-5 Group and he discovered that, in addition to the plutonium-239 isotope, it also contained significant amounts of plutonium-240. The Manhattan Project produced plutonium in nuclear reactors at the Hanford Engineer Works near Hanford and this meant that the Thin Man bomb design that the laboratory had developed would not work properlyTrinity site – The Trinity explosion, 16 ms after detonation. The viewed hemisphere's highest point in this image is about 200 metres (660 ft) high.
22. V-2 rocket – The V-2, technical name Aggregat 4, was the worlds first long-range guided ballistic missile. The V-2 rocket also became the first artificial object to cross the boundary of space with the launch of MW18014 on 20 June 1944. Research into military use of long range rockets began when the studies of graduate student Wernher von Braun attracted the attention of the German Army, a series of prototypes culminated in the A-4, which went to war as the V-2. Beginning in September 1944, over 3,000 V-2s were launched by the German Wehrmacht against Allied targets during the war, first London and later Antwerp and Liège. As Germany collapsed, teams from the Allied forces—the United States, the United Kingdom, Wernher von Braun and over 100 key V-2 personnel surrendered to the Americans. Eventually, many of the original V-2 team ended up working at the Redstone Arsenal, the US also captured enough V-2 hardware to build approximately 80 of the missiles. The Soviets gained possession of the V-2 manufacturing facilities after the war, re-established V-2 production, in the late 1920s, a young Wernher von Braun bought a copy of Hermann Oberths book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen. Starting in 1930, he attended the Technical University of Berlin, von Braun was working on his doctorate when the Nazi Party gained power in Germany. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger, arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, von Brauns thesis, Construction, Theoretical, and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket, was kept classified by the German Army and was not published until 1960. By the end of 1934, his group had launched two rockets that reached heights of 2.2 and 3.5 km. At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddards research, before 1939, German engineers and scientists occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Von Braun used Goddards plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat series of rockets, during 28–30 September 1939, Der Tag der Weisheit conference met at Peenemünde to initiate the funding of university research to solve rocket problems. By late 1941, the Army Research Center at Peenemünde possessed the essential to the success of the A-4. The four key technologies for the A-4 were large liquid-fuel rocket engines, supersonic aerodynamics, gyroscopic guidance, at the time, Adolf Hitler was not particularly impressed by the V-2, he pointed out that it was merely an artillery shell with a longer range and much higher cost. Hitler was sufficiently impressed by the enthusiasm of its developers, and needed a weapon to maintain German morale. The V-2s were constructed at the Mittelwerk site by prisoners from Mittelbau-Dora, the A-4 used a 74% ethanol/water mixture for fuel and liquid oxygen for oxidizer. The rocket reached a height of 80 km after shutting off the engine, the fuel and oxidizer pumps were driven by a steam turbine, and the steam was produced by concentrated hydrogen peroxide with sodium permanganate catalyst. Both the alcohol and oxygen tanks were an aluminium-magnesium alloy, the combustion burner reached a temperature of 2,500 to 2,700 °CV-2 rocket – Peenemünde Museum replica of V-2.
23. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD. The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthedGermany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
24. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of JapanWorld War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
25. Hermes project – The Hermes project, was started in response to Germanys rocket attacks in Europe. Project Hermes was to determine the needs of army field forces. Accordingly the Ordnance Department entered into a research and development contract with the General Electric Company on 20 November 1944 and this contract authorized the General Electric Company to seek the development of long-range missiles that could be used against both ground targets and high-altitude aircraft. General Electric was also to investigate ramjets, solid rocket motors, liquid propellant rocket engines, the contract also required the General Electric Company to develop remote control equipment, ground equipment, fire control devices, and homing devices. Hermes was the Armys second missile program, in May 1944 the Army contracted with the California Institute of Technologys Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratories to start the ORDCIT Project to research, test and develop guided missiles. Basically, this project covered every phase of technology with the exception of large-scale development and production of warheads. These many areas may be grouped within three general categories, namely, the A1 and A2 missiles, the A3 missiles, and all other Hermes missiles, in December 1944, Project Hermes was tasked with studying the V-2. Subjects which were to be addressed were, Project Hermess mandate created a need for an extensive area where missiles could be safely tested. The Army moved to create the White Sands Proving Grounds in south central New Mexico as a place to test the new missiles. When the U. S. Army captured the Peenemünde engineers, including Werner Von Braun, following the capture by American forces of the Mittelwerk V-2 factory, Special Mission V-2 swept in and scooped up enough components to assemble 100 V-2s. The components were removed to New Mexico. Three hundred rail cars of V-2 parts and documentation arrived at the White Sands Proving Grounds, for the next five years overhauling and manufacture of parts, assembly, modification and launching V-2 rockets would be the major part of Project Hermes. Many of the V-2 components were in poor condition or unusable, one-third of the panel members were General Electric scientists. The Hermes project was expanded to include testing of the V-2 sounding rockets, the first V-2 launch there was on April 16,1946 but reached only 3.4 miles altitude. The maximum altitude reached by a Project Hermes V-2 was 114 miles achieved by V-2 #17 on 17 December 1946, there were 58 standard V-2s,6 Bumper V-2s with a WAC Corporal second stage, and 4 drastically modified V-2s launched as Hermes IIs by Project Hermes. The last Hermes flight was by V-2 #60 on 29 October 1951, most photos of American V-2s show the common white and black markings. The first two flown were painted in yellow and black, others had combinations of white, black, silver and red. The last two fired by Project Hermes were black, white, and red with a big Buy Bonds logo and white, black, the Project Hermes V-2 program had achieved its objectivesHermes project – The first Hermes A-1 test rocket, fired at White Sands Proving Ground
26. Operation Paperclip – The primary purpose for Operation Paperclip was for the U. S. to gain a military advantage in the burgeoning Cold War, and later Space Race, between the U. S. and Soviet Union. The term “Overcast” was the name first given by the German scientists’ family members for the camp where they were held in Bavaria. In September 1945, the JCS established the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency to directly oversee Operation Overcast, president Truman formally approved Operation Paperclip in a secret directive, circulated on September 3,1946. Architecture Heinz Hilten and Hannes Luehrsen, material Science Claus Scheufelen and Rudolf Schlidt. Physics Gunter Guttein, Gerhard Schwesinger, Helmut Weickmann, and Friedwardt Winterberg, Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage, having failed to conquer the USSR with Operation Barbarossa, the Siege of Leningrad, Operation Nordlicht, and the Battle of Stalingrad. The failed conquest had depleted German resources, and its complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich against the Red Armys westward counterattack. The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, overnight, Ph. D. s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft, recorded the names of the cleared men to the Osenberg List. In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet, the list subsequently reached MI6, then U. S. Army Major Robert B. In Operation Overcast, Major Stavers original intent was only to interview the scientists, on May 22,1945, he transmitted to U. S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmess telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most important for Pacific war effort. Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, after capturing them, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany. Beginning on July 19,1945, the U. S, Joint Chiefs of Staff managed the captured ARC rocketeers under Operation Overcast. However, when the Camp Overcast name of the quarters became locally-known. Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press interviewed several of the scientists, early on, the United States created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee. This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific, military and industrial installations for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan, finding out what technology had passed on to Japan. Much U. S. effort was focused on Saxony and Thuringia, many German research facilities and personnel had been evacuated to these states, particularly from the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would limit U. S, there is no need to bring winter clothingOperation Paperclip – A group of 104 rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) at Fort Bliss, Texas
27. NASA – President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29,1958, disestablishing NASAs predecessor, the new agency became operational on October 1,1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data with various national and international such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. Since 2011, NASA has been criticized for low cost efficiency, from 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch a satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard, after the Soviet launch of the worlds first artificial satellite on October 4,1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 29,1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, a NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA, earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPAs early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA has conducted many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs throughout its history. Some missions include both manned and unmanned aspects, such as the Galileo probe, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter, the experimental rocket-powered aircraft programs started by NACA were extended by NASA as support for manned spaceflight. This was followed by a space capsule program, and in turn by a two-man capsule program. This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program, however, reduction of the perceived threat and changing political priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary space laboratory, to date, NASA has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets, and thirteen X-15 rocket flights above the USAF definition of spaceflight altitude,260,000 feet. The X-15 was an NACA experimental rocket-powered hypersonic research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force, the design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systemsNASA – 1963 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
28. White Sands Test Facility – NASA established WSTF on the White Sands Missile Range in 1963. WSTF services are available to NASA, the United States Department of Defense, other agencies, universities. WSTF is managed by the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, WSTF is located in the western foothills of the Organ Mountains, eleven miles east of Las Cruces, New Mexico. The primary mission of WSTF is to support NASAs Space Station program, Altitude Testing, The WSTF Large Altitude Simulation System provides altitude conditions equivalent up to 122,000 feet. Ambient Testing Fleet Leader Testing Unique Propulsion Test Expertise WSTF performs testing designed to better materials used in space flight. Standard Testing for DOT, ASTM and NASA, as well as ignition, WSTF laboratory facilities conduct hazardous fluid assessment, hypervelocity tests, and explosive hazard assessment. The High Energy Blast Facility performs explosive testing with solid, cryogenic, hypergolic propellants, Oxygen compatibility is a critical issue in space, aircraft, medical, and industrial applications. At WSTF, researchers investigate the effects of increased concentration on the ignition and burning of materials. Hazards analyses are performed on materials, components, and systems, training courses about design and operation of safe oxygen systems are provided by WSTF personnel under the auspices of ASTM. WSTF NASA Oxygen Systems The Propulsion Component Test Facility at WSTF is an International Space Station Depot Repair Facility, flight hardware assembly, repair, and acceptance testing for private aerospace manufacturers is performed. WSTF refurbished hypergolic propellant components for the Space Shuttle, handle advanced pyrovalve testing at two facilities, and perform failure investigations. Runways, navigational aids, runway lighting, and control facilities continuously stood ready as a backup Shuttle landing site, a second, similar system is currently in the planning stageWhite Sands Test Facility – White Sands Test Facility
29. Little Joe II – It was named after a similar rocket designed for the same function in Project Mercury. Launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, it was the smallest of four launch rockets used in the Apollo program, man-rating of the Apollo launch escape system was planned to be accomplished at minimum cost early in the program. The rockets predecessor, Little Joe, had used in testing the launch escape system for the Mercury spacecraft from 1959–60. The program was planned to be conducted at the U. S. Air Force Eastern Test Range at Cape Kennedy. Launch Complex 36 at White Sands Missile Range, previously used for Redstone missile tests, was selected as the most suitable for meeting schedule. White Sands also allowed land recovery which was costly and complicated than the water recovery that would have been required at the Eastern Test Range or at the NASA Wallops Island facility. The program was conducted under the direction of the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas, with joint participation by the contractors for the launch vehicle. The White Sands Missile Range administrative, range, and technical organizations provided the facilities, resources and these included range safety, radar and camera tracking, command transmission, real-time data displays, photography, telemetry data acquisition, data reduction, and recovery operations. Little Joe II was a single-stage, solid-propellant rocket which used a booster motor developed for the Recruit rocket, and it could fly with a variable number of booster and sustainer motors, but all were contained within a single airframe. Fabrication of the parts for the first vehicle started in August 1962. There was an original fixed-fin configuration and a version using flight controls. The vehicle was sized to match the diameter of the Apollo spacecraft service module, aerodynamic fins were sized to assure that the vehicle was inherently stable. The structural design was based on a weight of 220,000 pounds. The structure was designed for sequential firing with a possible 10-second overlap of four first-stage. Sustainer thrust was provided by Algol solid-propellant motors, versatility of performance was achieved by varying the number and firing sequence of the primary motors required to perform the mission. Recruit rocket motors were used for booster motors as required to supplement lift-off thrust, a simplified design, tooling, and manufacturing concept was used to limit the number of vehicle components, reduce construction time, and hold vehicle cost to a minimum. Because overall weight was not a factor in the design, over designing of primary structural members greatly reduced the number. The Little Joe II launch vehicle proved to be acceptable for use in this programLittle Joe II – Launch of Apollo A-002 escape system test on the third Little Joe II
30. Launch escape system – The tower and rocket are jettisoned from the space vehicle in a normal flight at the point where it is either no longer needed, or cannot be effectively used to abort the flight. These have been used on the Mercury, Apollo, and Soyuz capsules, the crew are seated in ejection seats as used in military aircraft, each crewmember returns to Earth with an individual parachute. Such systems are effective in a range of altitudes and speeds. These have been used on the Vostok and Gemini capsules, the system is typically controlled by a combination of automatic rocket failure detection, and a manual backup for the crew commanders use. Escape systems have not proven to be practical for more complex designs such as the Space Shuttle. The idea of using a rocket to remove the capsule from a vehicle was developed by Maxime Faget in 1958. The system, using the tower on the top of the capsule to house rockets, was first used on a test of the Project Mercury capsule in March 1959. Historically, LESes were used on American Mercury and Apollo spacecraft, both designs used a solid-fuel rocket motor. The Mercury LES was built by the Grand Central Rocket Company in Redlands, Apollo used a design that had many similarities to the Mercury system. Launch Escape Systems continue to be used on the Russian Soyuz, the SpaceX-designed Dragon V2 uses a liquid fueled launch abort system integrated to the capsule to minimize spacecraft costs. The LES may be used while the vehicle is still on the launch pad. The Soviet Vostok and American Gemini spacecraft both use of ejection seats. The European Space Agencys Hermes and the Soviet Buran spaceplanes would also have use of them if they had ever flown with crews. As shown by Soyuz T-10a, an LES must be able to carry a crew compartment from the pad to a height sufficient for its parachutes to open. Consequently, they must make use of large, powerful solid rockets, the Soyuz launch escape system is called CAC or SAS, from the Russian/transliterated Russian Система Аварийного Спасения or Sistema Avariynogo Spaseniya, meaning emergency rescue system. Under NASAs Commercial Crew Development program Blue Origin has been awarded $3.7 million for development an innovative pusher LAS, also under NASAs CCDev program, SpaceX was awarded $75 million for the development of their own version of a pusher LAS. Its Dragon V2 spacecraft will use its SuperDraco engines during an abort scenario. Although often referred to as an arrangement since it lacks a towerLaunch escape system – Apollo LES pad abort test with boilerplate crew module.
31. Apollo program – Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon, Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968. It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration, Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a lifeboat for these functions, Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit, Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program returned 842 pounds of rocks and soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moons composition. The program laid the foundation for NASAs subsequent human spaceflight capability, Apollo also spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. The Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration in early 1960, while the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth orbital mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts. Possible missions included ferrying crews to a station, circumlunar flights. The program was named after the Greek god of light, music, and the sun by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who later said that I was naming the spacecraft like Id name my baby. Silverstein chose the name at home one evening, early in 1960, in July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program to industry representatives at a series of Space Task Group conferences. Preliminary specifications were laid out for a spacecraft with a mission module cabin separate from the module. On August 30, a feasibility study competition was announced, and on October 25, meanwhile, NASA performed its own in-house spacecraft design studies led by Maxime Faget, to serve as a gauge to judge and monitor the three industry designs. In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Beyond military power, Kennedy used aerospace technology as a symbol of prestige, pledging to make the US not first but, first and, first if. Despite Kennedys rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president and he knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing. On April 12,1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space, Kennedy was circumspect in his response to the news, refusing to make a commitment on Americas response to the SovietsApollo program – Buzz Aldrin (pictured) walked on the Moon with Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, July 20–21, 1969
32. Space Shuttle program – When its mission was complete, the orbiter would re-enter the Earths atmosphere and land like a glider at either the Kennedy Space Center or Edwards Air Force Base. The Shuttle is the only winged manned spacecraft to have achieved orbit and landing, and its missions involved carrying large payloads to various orbits, providing crew rotation for the space station, and performing service missions. The orbiter also recovered satellites and other payloads from orbit and returned them to Earth, the stalled plans for a U. S. space station evolved into the International Space Station and were formally initiated in 1983 by U. S. The first experimental orbiter Enterprise was a glider, launched from the back of a specially modified Boeing 747. The Space Shuttle program finished with its last mission, STS-135 flown by Atlantis, in July 2011, the Space Shuttle program formally ended on August 31,2011. Since the Shuttles retirement, many of its duties are performed by an assortment of government. The European ATV Automated Transfer Vehicle supplied the ISS between 2008 and 2015, classified military missions are being flown by the US Air Forces unmanned space plane, the X-37B. Crew service to the ISS is currently provided by the Russian Soyuz while work on the Commercial Crew Development program proceeds, for missions beyond low Earth orbit, NASA is building the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. Before the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969, NASA began early studies of space shuttle designs, in 1969, President Richard Nixon formed the Space Task Group, chaired by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew. Smaller goals included a variety of vehicles for moving spacecraft around in orbit. Presenting the plans to Nixon, Agnew was told that the administration would not commit to a Mars mission and he was then told to select one of the two remaining proposals. During early shuttle development there was debate about the optimal shuttle design that best balanced capability, development cost. Ultimately the current design was chosen, using a reusable winged orbiter, reusable solid rocket boosters, the shuttle program was formally launched on January 5,1972, when President Nixon announced that NASA would proceed with the development of a reusable space shuttle system. The prime contractor for the program was North American Rockwell, the company responsible for building the Apollo Command/Service Module. The contractor for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters was Morton Thiokol, for the tank, Martin Marietta. All Space Shuttle missions were launched from the Kennedy Space Center, the weather criteria used for launch included, but were not limited to, precipitation, temperatures, cloud cover, lightning forecast, wind, and humidity. The Shuttle was not launched under conditions where it could have been struck by lightning, the first fully functional orbiter was Columbia, built in Palmdale, California. It was delivered to Kennedy Space Center on March 25,1979, Challenger was delivered to KSC in July 1982, Discovery in November 1983, Atlantis in April 1985 and Endeavour in May 1991Space Shuttle program – Space Shuttle program
33. White Sands Missile Range – White Sands Missile Range is a United States Army military testing area of almost 3,200 sq mi in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico. Just seven days later, the first atomic bomb test, code named Trinity was exploded at Trinity Site, designated historic sites on WSMR land include, Trinity Site, Selected in November 1944 for the Trinity nuclear test conducted on 16 July 1945. White Sands V-2 Launching Site, A V-2 static test firing was 15 March 1946, the White Sands Test Center headquartered at the WSMR Post Area has branches for Manned Tactical Systems & Electromagnetic Radiation and conducts missile testing and range recovery operations. White Sands Hall of Fame, which inducts members such as the first range commander, Col. Harold Turner,1972 DoD Centers for Countermeasures, which evaluate precision guided munitions and other devices in electronic counter- and counter-countermeasures environments. 1963 NASA White Sands Test Facilitys ground station for Tracking and Data Relay Satellites, the North Oscura Peak facility of the AFRL Directed Energy Directorate 1930, Robert Goddard began rocket testing in New Mexico. 1940s, When the range was formed, ranchers land was leased and, in the 1970s, 1941-12, Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range established near the West Texas Bombardier Triangle. 1941-12, Executive Order No.9029 canceled grazing leases on the newly established Alamogordo Bombing, 1942-07, Goddards rocket research group moved from Roswell, New Mexico, to Annapolis, Maryland. 1944-02, War Department and the Corps of Engineers Ordnance Department teams looked for a US missile test site, 1945-07-13, McDonald Ranch House, Manhattan Project location for the final assembly of the prototype Fat Man plutonium bomb. 1945-07-16, Trinity test of the bomb, the first nuclear weapon tested in the world. 1945-02-20, The Secretary of War approved establishment of WSPG, 1945-04-01, The first Private F launch was at WSPG. 1945-06-25, WSPG construction began with drilling of water wells, 1945-07, First of 300 railroad cars of German V-2 components began to arrive at Las Cruces, New Mexico. 1945-09, The blockhouse at Army Launch Area 1 was completed, 1945-09-16, First WAC Corporal test firing. 1945-11, GE contractors began to identify, sort, and reassemble V-2 components in Building 1538,1946,35 of the Operation Paperclip scientists from Germany were working at WSPG. 1946-05-26, The 4th U. S. V-2 launch was tracked by two AN/MPQ-2 stations,1946 summer, New WSPG quarters were completed and the Medical Detachment and 3 batteries moved from Ft Bliss. 1946-09, First static firing of a Nike missile was at WSPG,1947, A merging of military areas established the New Mexico Joint Guided Missile Test Range. 1947-11-14, The USAFs Alamogordo Guided Missile Test Base on the range had its first GAPA missile launch, 1948-05 to 1949-4, First six flight attempts for the Project Bumper two-stage V-2 SRBM/WAC Corporal two-stage research vehicles as the worlds first high-speed multistage rockets to be launched. 1949, German scientists transferred from New Mexico to Alabama 1949-07, 1951-07, The AGMTB became a sub-base of Floridas Air Force Missile Test Center until 31 August 1952. 1951-08-22, Broomstick Scientists in a unit of the 9393 Technical Service Unit conducted their first launch, 1952-05, An additional 40 mi ×117 mi was set aside for the Alamogordo bombing range, White Sands proving ground, and the Fort Bliss antiaircraft rangeWhite Sands Missile Range – The site of the 1945 Trinity explosion became part of WSMR.
34. Santa Fe, New Mexico – Santa Fe is the capital of the state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of Santa Fe County and this area was occupied for at least several hundred years by indigenous peoples who built villages. The city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is known as the oldest state capital city in the United States, Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012. It is the city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The citys full name when founded was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the area of Santa Fe was originally occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900, the river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway, as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, Santa Fe remained Spains provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Louis, when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis, the citys status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it claimed Santa Fe as part of the portion of Texas along the Rio Grande. In 1841, a military and trading expedition set out from Austin. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled Spain 1776. This showed that New Mexico had received munitions and other support under Mexican rule, some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote, I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported, the country around it is barrenSanta Fe, New Mexico – Santa Fe's Downtown Area
35. Republican Party (United States) – The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution, there have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one party. The Republican Partys current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats more progressive platform, further, its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense, deregulation, and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. As of 2017, the GOP is documented as being at its strongest position politically since 1928, in addition to holding the Presidency, the Republicans control the 115th United States Congress, having majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. The party also holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures, the main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil, the first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20,1854, in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jeffersons Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 6,1854, in Jackson and it oversaw the preserving of the union, the end of slavery, and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861–1877. The Republicans initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, with the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states, early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan free labor, free land, free men, which had been coined by Salmon P. Chase, a Senator from Ohio. Free labor referred to the Republican opposition to labor and belief in independent artisans. Free land referred to Republican opposition to the system whereby slaveowners could buy up all the good farm land. The Party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power, Lincoln, representing the fast-growing western states, won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The partys success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s and those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the system, the Half-Breeds led by Chester A. Arthur pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883. The Republicans supported the pietistic Protestants who demanded Prohibition, nevertheless, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmersRepublican Party (United States) – Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican U.S. President (1861–1865).
36. Hector Balderas – Hector H. Balderas Jr. is an American attorney, former prosecutor, and politician who is currently serving as the New Mexico Attorney General. In 2006 Balderas became the youngest statewide Hispanic elected official in the nation when he won his first race for State Auditor at the age of 33, before that Balderas served as a State Representative in the New Mexico Legislature from 2004 to 2006. Balderas also serves as the treasurer of the National Association of Latino Elected Officials. In an article published November 17,2014, Balderas was identified as one of seven Democratic state executive officials who could gain national prominence by leading the party to a national comeback. Steve Terrell at the Santa Fe New Mexican wrote on May 16,2015 that Balderas and he was the top vote-getter of all statewide candidates last year, pulling 1,565 more votes than Governor Susana Martinez. Balderas was raised in Wagon Mound, New Mexico, a village in Mora County and he is the son of a Mexican father and was raised by his single mother in Wagon Mound. Balderas attended Wagon Mound High School and participated in TRIO Upward Bound, while attending the University of New Mexico School of Law, Balderas served as the Council Chair of the Graduate and Professional Student Association. From 2002 to 2003 Balderas served as an Assistant District Attorney for Bernalillo County, between 2003 and 2006 he was a special prosecutor for domestic violence cases in the 4th Judicial District of New Mexico. Balderas ran for a seat in the New Mexico House of Representatives in 2004, defeating the Democratic incumbent in the primary election, Balderas also sponsored “truthful interrogations” legislation which gained national recognition as one of the most significant reforms to the criminal justice system. Balderas was nationally recognized alongside then-State Senator Barack Obama of Illinois for passing legislation that requires police to record their in-house interrogations with suspected killers and he was re-elected in 2010 and earned the second-highest number of votes of any of New Mexico’s Democratic statewide candidates. Balderas was a candidate for the US Senate seat in 2012 held by retiring Democrat Jeff Bingaman and he lost the Democratic primary to Martin Heinrich. Treasurer Board Member, National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials, there are 24 members on the board of directors. Recipient of the 2011 Conservation Voters New Mexico Sunshine Award, Balderas was recognized for his steadfast work as State Auditor in rooting out fraud and corruption, and shining sunlight on the operations of state government. According to CVNM, his work has resulted in millions of dollars of savings. Recipient of the 2010 recipient John F. Kennedy New Frontier Award and he is the first New Mexican to receive the annual award. Recognized by Hispanic Business Magazine in 2007 as one of the nation’s 100 most influential Hispanics, New Mexico State Bar Association 2006 Outstanding Young Lawyer Award. In 2010, Hector Balderas was awarded the Liberty and Justice Award by the New Mexico Hispanic Bar Association for his contributions to empowerment for Hispanics in education, Balderas and his wife Denise have three children, Hector III, Arianna and Mariola. Balderas is a special needs advocate and frequent participant in the New Mexico Special Olympics annual torch run and he also has two siblings and is a practicing CatholicHector Balderas – Hector Balderas
37. Tim Eichenberg – Tim Eichenberg is an American politician from the state of New Mexico. A member of the Democratic Party, he serves as the State Treasurer of New Mexico, Eichenberg was elected as the treasurer for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, in 1974. He served for two terms, reelected in 1976, in 2004, Eichenberg served as the property tax director for the New Mexico Taxation and Revenue Department during the gubernatorial tenure of Bill Richardson. In his position, he supercvised the work of all New Mexico County Assessors, Eichenberg served in the New Mexico State Senate, taking office in 2009 and served for two terms. He served on the Public Affairs and Judiciary Committees, in 2010, Eichenberg carried the NM Governmental Conduct Act, establishing a code of ethics for all state government employees. Though he initially filed to run for reelection in 2012, he withdrew from the race on June 5,2012 to help ailing family members, Eichenberg was elected as 30th State Treasurer of New Mexico in 2014. Prior to running, Eichenberg was employed as a Real Estate Broker and Property Tax Consultant for New Mexico Property Tax Consultants in Albuquerque, in 2015, Eichenberg was recognized in the Top 100 of global investors ranked by Sovereign Wealth Quarterly. Eichenberg was raised in Albuquerque, New Mexico and he attended Albuquerque Public Schools and graduated from the University of New Mexico. Eichenberg and his wife, Sandra, have two children and two dogs. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus and has served on the Boards for the National Kidney Foundation, in 1994, Eichenberg was charged with a misdemeanor for illegally carrying a firearm in Travis County, Texas. Inadvertently, he carried a handgun in his carry-on luggage while attempting to board a plane in AustinTim Eichenberg – U.S. Senators
38. Tim Keller (politician) – Timothy M. Tim Keller, New Mexico State Auditor, is an American politician and Democratic State Auditor and former member of the New Mexico Senate, representing Senate District 17. The district is located in the Southeast of Albuquerque, New Mexico, Keller was born and raised in Albuquerque. His father was a founder of Union Savings Bank and his mother was a school teacher and homemaker. After graduation from the University of Notre Dame, he co-founded a social enterprise, Digital Divide Data, DDD now also works in Laos and Kenya and has more than 1000 employees. The organization was ranked by Fast Company magazine as a global Top Innovator, prior to that, Keller worked as an investment banker with Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette where he focused on energy technology corporate finance. After completing his M. B. A. at the Harvard Business School, Keller later worked in the community, volunteering for groups that foster economic opportunities in Albuquerques Southeast Heights. Keller has served on the boards of New Mexico Private Equity Funds, the Open Hands Foundation, the Asian American Association, Keller was elected in 2008 to represent the people of New Mexico Senate District 17. In the 49th Legislative Session, Keller introduced 30 pieces of legislation passing 8,4 of which were signed into law by Governor Bill Richardson, Keller is viewed by New Mexico Democrats as a potential future statewide candidate. Term as Majority Whip, In December 2012, Keller was elected to the New Mexico State Senate leadership as Majority Whip, Keller announced in spring 2013 that he would seek the office of State Auditor. He ran on a platform of transparency and good government policies that would stop fraud, waste, during the election, Keller released a TV commercial that received national attention for being one of the most innovative and entertaining political ads of this cycle. On November 4,2014 Keller was elected State Auditor, defeating Robert Aragon, as State Auditor, Keller focuses on helping government work better by providing transparency and accountability for government spending, informing policy choices, and tackling fraud, waste and abuse. Special Investigations - As State Auditor, Keller has worked to safeguard New Mexican’s tax dollars and shine a light on cases of fraud, waste, the GAO is focused on bringing transparency and accountability to the agencies that receive and spend public money. The GAO aims to make the important information buried in the 900+ audits and financial reports that New Mexico state, local business is losing out on more than $500 million due to government agencies contracting with out of state companies. The largest percentage of leaves the state from the IT, health and medical. On the other hand, architecture and engineering sectors in state received 91% of the tax dollars spent last year, State CAFR- Following an over year late release, New Mexico’s FY13 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, troublingly, reported millions of unaccounted for funds. Auditor Keller immediately launched an audit of the CAFR to ensure all New Mexican’s tax dollars are utilized to their fullest extent, money on the Sidelines Report- Auditor Keller announced the “Money on the Sidelines” report which found 4.5 billion unused state funds. This report, the first of its kind from the Auditor’s office, is meant as a tool to help the Governor’s office, NM State Auditor Timothy M. Keller at New Mexico LegislatureTim Keller (politician) – Tim Keller
39. Wheeler Peak (New Mexico) – Wheeler Peak is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is located northeast of Taos and south of Red River in the part of the state. It lies in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost subrange of the Rocky Mountains, the peaks elevation is 13,167 feet. Formerly named Taos Peak, after the town of Taos, New Mexico. Just north of Wheeler Peak is Mount Walter, at 13,141 feet it is the second highest named summit in New Mexico, but it is not usually considered an independent peak as it has only about 53 feet of topographic prominence. It is sometimes mistaken for Wheeler Peak, since it is along the route to Wheeler. Lake Fork Peak at 12,881 feet lies just across Williams Lake, Taos Ski Valley lies to the northwest of Wheeler Peak, while both the town of Taos and Taos Pueblo are about 15 miles to the southwest. Wheeler Peak is the focus of the 19, 661-acre Wheeler Peak Wilderness area in the Carson National Forest, much of the mountain area just south of the peak is on Taos Pueblo land. Some 48,000 acres was returned to the pueblo from the Carson National Forest in 1970, the standard route on Wheeler Peak is along the north ridge. The route starts at the lot for Taos Ski Valley. It then turns south and winds its way among minor peaks and small valleys to gain Wheeler Peak from the north and this is a practical route, even in winter, due to low avalanche exposure. An alternate route is to south from Taos Ski Valley to Williams Lake. Another alternate route is to begin from the ski resort of Red River. From the town of Red River drive 6.4 miles south on NM578, from the parking area Wheeler peak is about 7 miles on Forest Trail 91. This route passes two lakes, Lost Lake and Horseshoe Lake. Wheeler Peak has a register as do many major western peaks. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of U. S. states by elevation Wheeler PeakWheeler Peak (New Mexico) – Wheeler Peak
40. Colfax County, New Mexico – Colfax County is a county in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,750 and it is south from the Colorado state line. This county was named for Schuyler Colfax, seventeenth Vice President of the United States under U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant, Colfax County is the home of Philmont Scout Ranch. Colfax County was originally part of Taos County, one of the nine counties created by the New Mexico Territory in 1852. In 1859, the part of Taos County, including all of the territory of Colfax County, was split off to form Mora County. Colfax County was established on January 25,1869 from the part of Mora County. The original county seat was the mining town of Elizabethtown. By 1872, when the rush in Elizabethtown had died down. Cimarron was on the coach route along the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail. The Colfax County Courthouse in Cimarron is a structure in the Cimarron Historic District. In 1881, the county moved from Cimarron to Springer, on the former Atchison, Topeka. The Colfax County Courthouse in Springer was the site of one of the last important shoot-outs in the Colfax County War and this former courthouse, which is on the National Register of Historic Places is now a museum devoted to the Santa Fe Trail. The eastern portions of Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel counties were severed to form Union County in 1893, after a referendum and a bitter legislative fight, the county seat moved from Springer to Raton in 1897. Raton was an important coal-mining town, and was also a railroad center, the citizens of Raton raised $8000 to pay one third of the costs of a new courthouse. That courthouse was replaced in 1932 by the current Colfax County Courthouse, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,768 square miles, of which 3,758 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. A large portion of the County lies in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, geography ranges from prairies, to pinon forests, to alpine meadows. The County contains numerous parks, ski resorts, national forests, scenic vistas. The population density was 4 people per square mile, there were 8,959 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mileColfax County, New Mexico – Colfax County Courthouse in Raton
41. United States Census, 2010 – The 2010 United States Census, is the twenty-third and currently most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the day used for the census, was April 1,2010. As part of a drive to increase the accuracy,635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed, participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25,2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, more than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15,2010, the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1,2010. The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%, from April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called non-response follow-up. In December 2010, the Census Bureau delivered population information to the president for apportionment, personally identifiable information will be available in 2082. The Census Bureau did not use a form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, the 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions, How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1,2010. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1,2010 that you did not include in Question 1, mark all that apply, Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number. What is Person 1s age and Person 1s date of birth, is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else, the form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey. The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a basis will receive the survey each year. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples, however, the final form did not contain a separate same-sex married couple optionUnited States Census, 2010 – President Obama completing his census form in the Oval Office on March 29, 2010.
42. List of U.S. states by date of statehood – A state of the United States of America is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Americans are citizens of both the republic and of the state in which they reside, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government. Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia use the term rather than state in their full official names. Each state has its own constitution grounded in principles, and government consisting of executive, legislative. All states and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented by two Senators, while Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, article IV, Section 3, Clause 1 of the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, each new state has been admitted on an equal footing with the existing states. The following table is a list of all 50 states and their dates of statehood. These states are presented in the order in which each ratified the 1787 Constitution, the date of admission listed for each subsequent state is the official date set by Act of Congress. The Second Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation for ratification by the states on November 15,1777. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1,1781, on March 4,1789, the general government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the present Constitution. SList of U.S. states by date of statehood – U.S. states by date of admission to the Union 1776–1790 1791–1799 1800–1819 1820–1839 1840–1859 1860–1879 1880–1899 1900–1912 1959
43. United States Senate – The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was also a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other. They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, therefore, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislaturesUnited States Senate – United States Senate
44. Martin Heinrich – Martin Trevor Heinrich /ˈhaɪnˌrɪk/ is an American politician and businessman, the junior United States Senator for New Mexico, in office since 2013. A native of Cole Camp, Missouri, Heinrich lived much of his adulthood in New Mexico, specifically Albuquerque, as a member of Democratic Party, Heinrich was the U. S. Representative for New Mexicos 1st congressional district from 2009 to 2013, Heinrich won the Senate seat vacated by retiring Senator Jeff Bingaman in 2012. Heinrich was mentioned as a nominee for vice president in 2016 under Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton. However, Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia was later selected for the ticket, Martin Trevor Heinrich was born in Fallon, Nevada, a town located in the states western portion, not far from Reno and the state capital of Carson City. Heinrich is the son of Shirley A. a seamstress, raised as a Lutheran, Heinrich and his parents are of German ancestry. Now based in Albuquerque, Heinrich grew up in the town of Cole Camp, Missouri, located near Missouris fifth largest city, Heinrich was educated and went to local public schools in Cole Camp, then moved to nearby Columbia in 1989 to attend the University of Missouri. After a brief stint doing mechanical drawings, Heinrich worked as an AmeriCorps fellow in New Mexico, from 1996 to 2001, he served as executive director of the Cottonwood Gulch Foundation, a New Mexico non-profit organization dedicated to educating young people on natural science and the environment. In 2002, Heinrich founded his own public affairs consulting firm, Heinrich served on the Albuquerque City Council from 2003 to 2007, which included one term as city council president in 2006. As a city councilman, he stated that his goals were to reduce crime, raise the minimum wage and he also advocated the use of wind and solar power. In February 2006, he was appointed by Governor Bill Richardson to be the states Natural Resources Trustee,2008 In 2008, Heinrich filed papers to run in New Mexicos 1st congressional district, based in Albuquerque. He originally planned to challenge five-term Republican incumbent Heather Wilson, in the general election, Heinrich faced Bernalillo County Sheriff Darren White, whom Heinrichs campaign focused on linking to President George W. Bush. Heinrich also called for independence and an end to the war in Iraq. He defeated White, 56%-44%, carrying three of the five counties, Bernalillo, Sandoval, and Valencia. White won Santa Fe and Torrance counties, upon his swearing in on January 3,2009, he became the first Democrat to represent the district. 2010 Heinrich was challenged by Republican Jon Barela, who told Politico he did not believe Heinrich reflected the district, saying he was too far left on budget and spending issues. Heinrich was elected to a term, defeating Barela 52%-48%. Barela won Santa Fe, Torrance, and Valencia counties, on January 14,2009, Heinrich was elected to a six-month term as class president by the House Democratic freshmenMartin Heinrich – Martin Heinrich
45. Tom Udall – Thomas Stewart Tom Udall /ˈjuːˌdɔːl/ is the senior United States Senator from New Mexico and a member of the Democratic Party. A member of the Udall family, he is the son of Stewart Udall, the nephew of Mo Udall, and he is the current dean of New Mexicos Congressional Delegation. Udall was born in Tucson, Arizona, to Ermalee Lenora and Stewart Udall, two of his maternal great-grandparents were Swiss. He attended Prescott College and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1970, in 1975, he graduated from Downing College, Cambridge in England with a Bachelor of Law degree. That fall, he enrolled in the University of New Mexico School of Law, Udall then served as a law clerk to Chief Judge Oliver Seth of the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. His subsequent legal career included appointments as Assistant U. S. Attorney in the division and Chief Counsel to the New Mexico Department of Health. In 1982, Udall ran for Congress in the newly created 3rd district, based in the capital, Santa Fe. He lost the Democratic primary to Bill Richardson, from 1990 to 1999 he served as Attorney General of New Mexico. Udall ran for Congress again in 1998 in the 3rd district against incumbent Bill Redmond, Redmond was a conservative Republican representing a heavily Democratic district, and the 3rds partisan tilt helped Udall defeat Redmond with 53 percent of the vote. He was reelected four times with no substantive opposition, including an unopposed run in 2002. As a U. S. Representative, Tom Udall was a member of both the centrist New Democrat Coalition and the more liberal Congressional Progressive Caucus and he was a member of the United States House Peak oil Caucus, which he co-founded with Representative Roscoe Bartlett of Maryland. In November 2007, Udall announced he would run for the Senate seat held by retiring six-term incumbent Republican Pete Domenici, potential Democratic rival Albuquerque Mayor Martin Chavez dropped out, handing Udall the nomination. New Mexicos other two members of the House, 1st and 3rd districts Heather Wilson and Steve Pearce, ran in the Republican primary, Pearce won the Republican nomination, and lost to Udall, who won 61 percent of the vote. While Udall ran for Senate in New Mexico, his younger first cousin, Congressman Mark Udall and their double second cousin, incumbent Gordon Smith of Oregon, also ran for reelection. Both Udalls won and Smith lost, Udall has voted with his party 97 percent of the time since he was first elected to the U. S. Senate. Udall was one of the first members of Congress to publicly express concern about the possibility of NSA overreach, on March 19,2013, Udall introduced into the Senate the Sandia Pueblo Settlement Technical Amendment Act, a bill that would transfer some land to the Sandia Pueblo tribe. Also during the 113th Congress, Udall introduced an amendment to the Constitution that would allow limits on outside spending in support of political candidates. The Amendment won the approval of the Senate Judiciary Committee on a 10-8 vote in July 2014, in March 2015 Udall sponsored Senate bill 697, the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, a bill to amend and reauthorize the Toxic Substances Control ActTom Udall – Tom Udall
46. United States House of Representatives – The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries also saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the HouseUnited States House of Representatives – United States House of Representatives
47. Steve Pearce (politician) – Stevan Edward Steve Pearce is an American politician who has been the U. S. Representative for New Mexicos 2nd congressional district since 2011 and he is a member of the Republican Party. He previously held the seat from 2003 to 2009 and was an Assistant Minority Whip and he is currently the only Republican in the New Mexico Congressional Delegation. Pearce was born in Lamesa in Dawson County in west Texas but reared in Hobbs, New Mexico and he attended college at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, having earned a Bachelor of Business Administration in economics. Afterward, he received a Master of Business Administration from Eastern New Mexico University in Portales, while at New Mexico State University, Pearce was elected president of the student body. He served in the Vietnam War as a C-130 pilot in the United States Air Force, Pearce flew over 518 hours of combat flight and 77 hours of combat support. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and two Air Medals, as well as seven other military medals and four exceptional service awards, upon returning to the United States, Pearce was assigned to the Strategic Air Command at Blytheville Air Force Base, Arkansas. He was honorably discharged from the U. S. Air Force with the rank of Captain. Pearce and his wife owned and operated Lea Fishing Tools, a services company in Hobbs, New Mexico. Pearce was elected to the New Mexico House of Representatives in 1996 and re-elected in 1998 and he was elected as Republican Caucus Chairman and served on the Appropriations Committee. He ran for the United States Senate in the held by longtime incumbent Democrat Jeff Bingaman. He lost in the Republican primary to former third district U. S, congressman Bill Redmond 60% to 22%. 2002 Eleven term incumbent Republican U. S, Representative Joe Skeen decided to retire. In the Republican primary, Pearce ran and won the five candidate field with a plurality of 35% and his closest challenger was rancher and businessman Edward R. Tinsley, owner of the K-Bobs Steakhouse, who got 27%. Coincidentally, both Pearce and Tinsley were reared in the small West Texas city of Lamesa in Dawson County, in the general election, Pearce defeated Democratic State Senator John Arthur Smith 56% to 44%. 2004 Pearce won re-election to a second term against Democratic State Representative Gary King 60% to 40%,2006 Pearce won re-election to a third term against Democratic pastor Al Kissling 59% to 40%. 2008 Pearce ran for the open Senate seat of retiring six term Republican US Senator Pete Domenici and he did not run for reelection to the 2nd District, making New Mexicos 2nd District an open seat race. Democratic business owner Harry Teague defeated Republican restaurateur Edward R. Tinsley 56% to 44%,2010 On August 1,2009, Pearce announced his intention to take back his former congressional seatSteve Pearce (politician) – Steve Pearce
48. List of U.S. state mottos – All of the United States 50 states have a state motto, as do the District of Columbia and three US territories. A motto is a phrase intended to describe the general motivation or intention of an organization. State mottos can sometimes be found on state seals or state flags, some states have officially designated a state motto by an act of the state legislature, whereas other states have the motto only as an element of their seals. The motto of the United States itself is In God We Trust, proclaimed by Congress, the motto E Pluribus Unum was approved for use on the Great Seal of the United States in 1782, but was never adopted as the national motto through legislative action. South Carolina has two mottos, both of which are in Latin. Kentucky, and Vermont also have two mottos, one in Latin and the other in English, north Dakota has three, two in English and one in Latin. All other states and territories have one motto, except Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. English and Latin are the languages for state mottos, used by 25 and 24 states and territories. Seven states and territories use another language, of each language is only used once. Eight states and two territories have their mottos on their quarter, thirty-eight states and four territories have their mottos on their state seals. The dates given are, where possible, the earliest date that the motto was used in an official sense, some state mottos are not official but are on the official state seal, in these cases the adoption date of the seal is given. The earliest use of a current motto is that of Puerto Rico, Johannes est nomen ejus, list of U. S. state nicknames Works cited Shearer, Benjamin F. Shearer, Barbara S. State Names, Seals, Flags, and Symbols, mottoes of the 50 States from Netstate. com State mottos from State Symbols USAList of U.S. state mottos – Eureka, the motto of California on its state seal
49. Crescit eundo – The Great Seal of the State of New Mexico is the official seal of the U. S. State of New Mexico and was adopted in 1913. When New Mexico became a state in 1912, the Legislature named a Commission for the purpose of designing a state seal, in June 1913, the Commission, which consisted of Governor William C. That seal is still in use today as the seal of New Mexico. The great seal of the state shall be a disc bearing the coat of arms, the Mexican eagle and the American bald eagle. New Mexico was settled by Spanish colonists as part of New Spain, as such, symbols and customs of Mexico grew up in New Mexico as well. The Mexican eagle grasps a snake in its beak and cactus in its talons, Mexico adopted this symbolic image when it was under Spanish administration, and New Mexico identified with it as well. On the seal, it symbolizes that New Mexico still holds on to its Spanish, Mexican, the Mexican eagle is small and shielded by the larger American eagle, which grasps arrows in its talons, its wings outstretched with its watchful eyes guarding the Mexican eagle. This configuration is meant to show the change of sovereignty in 1846 between Mexico and the United States and it also symbolizes Americas dominant yet delicate protection of New Mexico and its heritage and culture. Originally, New Mexicos territorial seal was engraved with MDCCCL to commemorate the date New Mexico was organized as a territory, but after it was admitted as a state, the commission decided that that was a better date to use on the seal. They decided against using Roman numerals, believing it was too pretentious, Great Seal of the State of New Mexico. The official motto of New Mexico is Crescit eundo, translated from Latin, it means It grows as it goes and has been criticized for appearing strange or even nonsensical at first hearing. However, the effect is more clear if one considers it within the context of its source in the epic poem De Rerum Natura by first-century B. C. Here, it refers to an increasing in strength as it moves across the sky. The motto was first used in 1882, when acting Territorial Secretary William G. Ritch added the Latin phrase Crescit eundo to an early 1860s version of the territorial seal. In 1887, Ritchs version of the seal, including the words Crescit eundo, was adopted by the legislature as part of the official New Mexico Territory seal and coat of arms. When New Mexico became a state in 1912, the Legislature appointed a commission to settle on a design for a state seal. As it turned out, the commission recommended the territorial seal to be continued as the state seal, New Mexicos first seal was designed shortly after the organization of the Territorial Government, in 1851. The original seal has long disappeared, possibly as part of the artifacts placed into the cornerstone of the Soldiers Monument in the Santa Fe PlazaCrescit eundo