Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. 92% of the lives in the south-west corner of the state. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, york was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831, Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890, and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today its economy relies on mining and tourism.
The state produces 46% of Australias exports, Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, the total length of the states eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km of coastline, including 7,892 km of island coastline, the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. Most of the state is a low plateau with an elevation of about 400 metres, very low relief. This descends relatively sharply to the plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile, even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, molybdenum, the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate and herbicides.
These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations, the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora, large areas of the states wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and it was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world
2. Top End
The Top End contains both of the Territorys cities and one of its major towns, Darwin and Katherine. The well-known town of Alice Springs is located south, in the arid southern part of the Northern Territory. The rivers that form the wetlands include the South and East Alligator Rivers, Mary River, the climate is tropical monsoon with a wet and dry season, bringing the highest rainfall in northern Australia. Temperatures do not fluctuate widely throughout the year, there are a number of islands off the Top End coast including the Tiwi Islands, and Groote Eylandt as well as many smaller ones. The sandstone plateau area of the ecoregion is a rich centre of biodiversity supporting a unique heathland flora. Much of the Top End is within the Arnhem Land tropical savanna ecoregion, which to the south merges into the semi-arid mulga scrubland, the transition is gradual, and the demarcation line that divides the Top End from the centre is arbitrary. This area is home to unique wildlife, the rivers and estuaries are home to large populations of both saltwater and freshwater crocodiles, as well as bull sharks and dugongs.
Endemic species of the Top End include the Woodwards wallaroo, Oenpelli python, chestnut-quilled rock-pigeon, Arnhem Land rock rat, other reptiles include frill-necked lizards and large monitor lizards. Snakes include the python, death adder, water python. The plateau is home to many of these endemics, especially invertebrates, the offshore islands are home to unique subspecies of some of this wildlife. The landscape is preserved and most of the area is traditionally managed by Aboriginal land trusts, including Kakadu, which is Australias largest national park. Although some populations have declined, there have no major extinctions of wildlife in this area. Darwin, though, is a city and a base for agriculture and mining. Also there was a large trade in that area which has mostly settled down. Top End travel guide from Wikivoyage
Thomas Baines was an English artist and explorer of British colonial southern Africa and Australia. Born in Kings Lynn, Baines was apprenticed to a painter at an early age. In 1855 Baines joined Augustus Gregorys 1855–1857 Royal Geographical Society sponsored expedition across northern Australia as official artist, the expeditions purpose was to explore the Victoria River district in the north-west and to evaluate the entire northern area of Australia in terms of its suitability for colonial settlement. In 1858 Baines accompanied David Livingstone along the Zambezi, and was one of the first white men to view Victoria Falls, in 1869 Baines led one of the first gold prospecting expeditions to Mashonaland in what became Rhodesia. From 1861 to 1862 Baines and James Chapman undertook an expedition to South West Africa, chapmans Travels in the Interior of South Africa and Baines Explorations in South-West Africa, provide a rare account of different perspectives on the same trip. Baines made some of the drawings for the engravings illustrating Alfred Russel Wallaces 1869 book The Malay Archipelago, in 1870 Baines was granted a concession to explore for gold between the Gweru and Hunyani rivers by Lobengula, leader of the Matabele nation.
Thomas Baines died in Durban in 1875, Baines is today best known for his detailed paintings and sketches which give a unique insight into colonial life in southern Africa and Australia. Many of his pictures are held by the National Library of Australia, National Archives of Zimbabwe, National Maritime Museum, Brenthurst Library, there are numerous paintings at the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town. Thomas Baines, Explorations in South-West Africa, being an account of a journey in the years 1861 and 1862 from Walvisch Bay, on the Western Coast to Lake Ngami, Thomas Baines, The gold regions of south eastern Africa. Wallis, The northern goldfields diaries of Thomas Baines, fay Jaff, They came to South Africa. Wallis, Thomas Baines, his life and explorations in South Africa and Australia, russell Braddon, Thomas Baines and the North Australian Expedition. Jane Carruthers and Marion Arnold, The life and work of Thomas Baines, historic Houses Trust, Cape Town, halfway to Sydney 1788–1870, treasures from The Brenthurst Library Johannesburg.
William Barry Lord lavishly illustrated by Thomas Baines Shifts and Expedients of Camp Life and Exploration Thomas Baines of Kings Lynn, serialised in The Kings Lynn News and Norfolk County Press published between 12 March and 10 September 1898. Transcribed copies are in the Kings Lynn Library, and Museum, towards a socio-cultural history of Southern Africa
The Jim Jim Falls area is registered on the Australian National Heritage List. The waterfall descends from an elevation of 259 metres above sea level via one drop that ranges in height between 140 and 200 metres into a pool within the creek. The falls are located near the boundary of the national park and 28 kilometres south of Jabiru. In the dry season, access from the Kakadu Highway is possible via a 60-kilometre gravel road, during much of this period the falls dry up and do not flow. In the wet season when the falls are at their most spectacular and it is believed that 140 million years ago much of Kakadu was under a shallow sea. The prominent escarpment wall formed sea cliffs and the Arnhem Land plateau formed a land above the sea. Today the escarpment, which rises to 330 metres above the plains, extends over 500 kilometres along the side of the national park. It varies from cliffs in the Jim Jim Falls area to stepped cliffs. Department of Natural Resources, The Arts and Sport, tourist Information Kakadu National Park Google Map Map of Kakadu National Park with major camp sites
Tasmania is an island state of the Commonwealth of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, and the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 519,100, just over forty percent of which resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, Tasmanias area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2. Though an island state, due to an error the state shares a land border with Victoria at its northernmost terrestrial point, Boundary Islet. The Bishop and Clerk Islets, about 37 km south of Macquarie Island, are the southernmost terrestrial point of the state of Tasmania, the island is believed to have been occupied by Aboriginals for 40,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Tasmanian Aboriginals were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831 and led to more than three years of law, cost the lives of almost 1100 Aboriginals and settlers.
The near-destruction of Tasmanias Aboriginal population has been described by historians as an act of genocide by the British. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed and the year the state received permission to change its name to Tasmania. In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia, the state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemens Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the name was shortened to Van Diemens Land by the British. It was officially renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856, Tasmania was sometimes referred to as Dervon, as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879. The colloquial expression for the state is Tassie, Tasmania is colloquially shortened to Tas, especially when used in business names and website addresses.
TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state, the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago, much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the worlds largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains, the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are mostly dolerite. Mount Wellington above Hobart is an example, showing distinct columns known as the Organ Pipes
Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the class Holothuroidea. They are used in fresh or dried form in various cuisines, in some cultural contexts the sea cucumber is thought to have medicinal value. The creature and the product are commonly known as bêche-de-mer in French, trepang in Indonesian, namako in Japanese, balatan in Tagalog. In Malay, it is known as the gamat, most cultures in East and Southeast Asia regard sea cucumbers as a delicacy. A number of dishes are made with sea cucumber, and in most dishes it has a slippery texture, common ingredients that go with sea cucumber dishes include winter melon, kai-lan, shiitake mushroom, and Chinese cabbage. Sea cucumbers destined for food are traditionally harvested by hand from small watercraft and they are dried for preservation, and must be rehydrated by boiling and soaking in water for several days. They are mainly used as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine soups or stews, many commercially important species of sea cucumber are harvested and dried for export for use in Chinese cuisine as 海参 （hai shen in sound）.
The fishing of the species known as bêche-de-mer is regulated by state. Five other species are targeted in the states bêche-de-mer harvest, these are Holothuria noblis, Holothuria whitmaei, Thelenota ananas, Actinopyga echninitis, in the far north of Queensland, sea cucumber are harvested from the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea. Targeted species include Holothuria noblis, Holothuria whitmaei and H. scabra, divers are supplied air via hose or hookah from the surface and collect their catch by hand, diving to depths of up to 40 m. The largest American species is Holothuria floridana, which abounds just below low-water mark on the Florida reefs, there are plans to harvest this species for the overseas market. The Asian market for sea cucumber is estimated to be US$60 million, the dried form accounts for 95% of the sea cucumber traded annually in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia and Japan. It is typically used in Chinese cuisines, the biggest re-exporters in the trade are China, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
Of the 650 species of sea cucumbers, just 10 species have commercial value, in 2013, the Chinese government cracked down on the purchasing of sea cucumbers by officials as their expensive price tag could be seen as a sign of opulence. In Japan, sea cucumber is eaten raw, as sashimi or sunomono, and its intestine is eaten as konowata. The dried ovary of sea cucumber is eaten, which is called konoko or kuchiko, Sea cucumbers are considered non-kosher by some Jewish sources. Both a fresh form and a form are used for cooking, though its preparation is complex due to its taste being entirely tasteless. For these reasons, it is the most difficult ingredient to prepare well, much of the preparation of sea cucumber goes into cleaning and boiling it, stewing it in meat broths and extracts to infuse each sea cucumber with flavour
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Western New Guinea, formerly known as Irian Jaya, is the Indonesian part of the island of New Guinea, lying to the west of the nation of Papua New Guinea. The territory is considered to include smaller nearby islands including Biak, the region is predominantly dense forest where numerous traditional tribes live such as the Dani of the Baliem Valley, although the majority of the population live in or near coastal areas. The largest city in the region is Jayapura, the official and most commonly spoken language is Indonesian. Estimates of the number of languages in the region range from 200 to over 700, with the most widely spoken including Dani, Ekari. The predominant religion is Christianity followed by Islam, the main industries include agriculture, oil production, and mining. The territory has been part of Indonesia since May 1963, human habitation is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago. The Netherlands claimed the region and commenced work in the nineteenth century.
The region was annexed by Indonesia in the 1960s, following the 1998 commencement of reforms across Indonesia and other Indonesian provinces received greater regional autonomy. In 2001, Special Autonomy status was granted to Papua province, although to date, implementation has been partial, the region was administered as a single province until 2003, when it was split into the provinces of Papua and West Papua. Speakers align themselves with a political orientation when choosing a name for the half of the island of New Guinea. West Papua, which is not the name for the western half of the island, is preferred by ethnic Papuans. The region has had the names of Netherlands New Guinea, West New Guinea, West Irian, Irian Jaya. Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid considered his use of the name Papua in 2002 as a concession to the West Papuans. Since 2003, western New Guinea has had two provinces, the province of West Papua on the west, and the province of Papua on the east and administrators refer to the province when they say West Papua, independence activists mean the whole of western New Guinea.
The region is 1,200 kilometres from east to west and 736 kilometres from north to south and it has an area of 420,540 square kilometres, which equates to approximately 22% of Indonesias land area. The border with Papua New Guinea mostly follows the 141st meridian east, the island of New Guinea was once part of the Australian landmass and lie on the Sahul. The collision between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific plate resulting in the Maoke Mountains run through the centre of the region and are 600 km long and 100 km across. The range includes about ten peaks over 4,000 metres, including Puncak Jaya, Puncak Mandala, the range ensures a steady supply of rain from the tropical atmosphere
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century