1. Peru – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in CuscoPeru – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
2. Norte Chico civilization – The Norte Chico civilization was a complex pre-Columbian era society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. The civilization flourished between the fourth and second millennia BC, with the formation of the first city generally dated to around 3500 BC, at Huaricanga, in the Fortaleza area. It is from 3200 BC onward that large-scale human settlement and communal construction become clearly apparent, since the early 21st century, it has been established as the oldest known civilization in the Americas. This civilization flourished at the confluence of three rivers, the Fortaleza, the Pativilca, and the Supe and these river valleys each have large clusters of sites. Further south, there are several associated sites along the Huaura River, the alternative name, Caral-Supe, is derived from the city of Caral in the Supe Valley, a large and well-studied Norte Chico site. Complex society in Norte Chico arose a millennium after Sumer in Mesopotamia, was contemporaneous with the Egyptian pyramids, in archaeological nomenclature, Norte Chico is a pre-ceramic culture of the pre-Columbian Late Archaic, it completely lacked ceramics and apparently had almost no visual art. The most impressive achievement of the civilization was its monumental architecture, including earthwork platform mounds. Archaeological evidence suggests use of technology and, possibly, the worship of common god symbols. Sophisticated government is assumed to have required to manage the ancient Norte Chico. Questions remain over its organization, particularly the influence of food resources on politics, in the late 1990s Peruvian archaeologists, led by Ruth Shady, provided the first extensive documentation of the civilization with work at Caral. Norte Chico has pushed back the horizon for complex societies in the Peruvian region by more than one thousand years, the Chavín culture, circa 900 BC, had long been considered the first civilization of the area. It is still cited as such in general works. The discovery of Norte Chico has also shifted the focus of research away from the areas of the Andes and lowlands adjacent to the mountains to the Peruvian littoral. Norte Chico is located in a area of the coast, approximately 150 to 200 km north of Lima, roughly bounded by the Lurín Valley on the south. It comprises four coastal valleys, the Huaura, Supe, Pativilca, the three principal valleys cover only 1,800 km², and research has emphasized the density of the population centers. The Peruvian littoral appears an improbable, even aberrant candidate for the development of civilization. It is extremely arid, bounded by two rain shadows, the region is punctuated by more than 50 rivers that carry Andean snowmelt. The radiocarbon work of Jonathan Haas et al, two dates of 3700 BC are associated with communal architecture, but are likely to be anomalousNorte Chico civilization – Caral panorama.
3. Inca Empire – The Inca Empire, also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru, the Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572, from 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the son of the sun, the Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old world. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, the Incan economy has been described as feudal, slave, socialist. The economy functioned largely without money and without markets, instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers. Taxes consisted of an obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food, the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, the four suyu. The four suyu were, Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu, Qullasuyu and Kuntisuyu, the name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu, the term Inka means ruler or lord in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire, probably numbering only 15,000 to 40,000. The Spanish adopted the term as a term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered, the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells a story of three caves. The center cave at Tampu Tuqu was named Qhapaq Tuqu, the other caves were Maras Tuqu and Sutiq Tuqu. Four brothers and four sisters stepped out of the middle cave and they were, Ayar Manco, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Awqa and Ayar Uchu, and Mama Ocllo, Mama Raua, Mama Huaco and Mama Qura. Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the Inca clans, Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live and they traveled for a long timeInca Empire – Inca Empire
4. Pre-Columbian era – For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are also in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, however, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50. In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a later date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were then very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of toolsPre-Columbian era – Hopewell mounds from the Mound City Group in Ohio
5. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
6. Viceroyalty of Peru – The Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima. The Viceroyalty of Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal, eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. From September 2,1564 to November 26,1569 he was viceroy of Peru. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, in 1544, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V named Blasco Núñez Vela Perus first viceroy, but the viceroyalty was not organized until the arrival of Viceroy Francisco Álvarez de Toledo. Toledo made a tour of inspection of the colony. He improved the safety in the viceroyalty with fortifications, bridges, still, Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera, 4th Count of Chinchón sent out the third expedition to explore the Amazon River, under Cristóbal de Acuña. Many Pacific islands were visited by Spanish ships in the sixteenth century and these included New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands and the Marquesas Islands by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira. These groups had the advantage of remote geography and river access from the mouth of the Amazon, meanwhile, the Spanish were barred by their laws from slaving of indigenous people, leaving them without a commercial interest deep in the interior of the basin. One famous attack upon a Spanish mission in 1628 resulted in the enslavement of 60,000 indigenous people, in fact as time passed they were used as a self funding occupation force by the Portuguese authorities in what was effectively a low level war of territorial conquest. In 1617, Francisco de Borja y Aragón divided the government of Río de la Plata into two, Buenos Aires and Paraguay, both dependencies of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Viceroy Borja y Aragón also established the Tribunal del Consulado, a special court, Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar reformed the fiscal system and stopped the interfamily rivalry that was bloodying the domain. Fernández de Cabrera suppressed an insurrection of the Uru and Mapuche Indians, viceroys had to protect the Pacific coast from French contraband and English and Dutch pirates. They expanded the naval forces, fortified the ports of Valdivia, Valparaíso, Arica and Callao and constructed city walls in Lima, nevertheless, the famous English privateer Henry Morgan took Chagres and captured and sacked the city of Panama in the early part of 1670. Also Peruvian forces repelled the attacks by Edward David, Charles Wager, the Peace of Utrecht allowed the British to send ships and merchandise to the fair at Portobello. In this period, revolts were common, around 1656, Pedro Bohórquez crowned himself Inca of the Calchaquí Indians, inciting the indigenous population to revolt. From 1665 until 1668, the rich mineowners José and Gaspar Salcedo revolted against the colonial government, the clergy were opposed to the nomination of prelates from Spain. Viceroy Diego Ladrón de Guevara had to take measures against an uprising of slaves at the hacienda of Huachipa de Lima, there were terrible earthquakes and epidemics, tooViceroyalty of Peru
7. Independence of Peru – Because of this the viceroy often had the support of the Lima oligarchy, who saw their elite interests threatened by popular rebellion and were opposed to the new commercial class in Buenos Aires. During the first decade 1800s Peru had been a stronghold for royalists, among the most important events during the war was the proclamation of independence of Peru by José de San Martín on July 28,1821. During the Peninsular War central authority in the Spanish Empire was lost, after success of the royalist armies, Abascal annexed Upper Peru to the viceroyalty, which benefited the Lima merchants as trade from the silver-rich region was now directed to the Pacific. Because of this, Peru remained strongly royalist and participated in the reforms implemented by the Cádiz Cortes. Peru was represented at the first session of the Cortes by seven deputies, therefore, Peru became the second to last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America, after Upper Peru. Peru eventually succumbed to patriot armies after the continental campaigns of José de San Martín. Some of the early Spanish conquistadors that explored Peru made the first attempts for independence from the Spanish crown and they tried to liberate themselves from the Viceroyalty, who governed for the king of Castile. Throughout the eighteenth century, there were several uprisings against colonial rule. Some of these uprisings became true rebellions and it is debated whether these movements should be considered as precedents of the emancipation that was led by chiefs, Peruvian towns, and other countries in the American continent. The independence of Peru was an important chapter in the Hispano-American wars of independence, the campaign of Sucre in Upper Peru concluded in April 1825, and in November of the same year Mexico obtained the surrender of the Spanish bastion of San Juan de Ulúa in North America. The Spanish strongholds in Callao and Chiloé in South America fell in January 1826, Spain renounced all their continental American territories ten years later in 1836 leaving very little of its vast empire intact. Despite the royalist tendencies of Peru, junta movements did emerge, there were two short-lived uprisings in the southern city of Tacna in 1811 and 1813. One significant movement, led by Natives in Huánuco, began on February 22,1812 and it involved various leaders, including curacas and township magistrates, but was suppressed within a few weeks. More enduring was the rebellion of Cuzco from 1814 to 1815, the rebellion began in a confrontation between the Constitutional Cabildo and the Audiencia of Cuzco over the administration of the city. Cabildo officials and their allies were arrested by the Audiencia, Criollo leaders appealed to retired brigadier Mateo Pumacahua, who was curaca of Chinchero, and decades earlier had been instrumental in suppressing the rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. Pumacahua joined the Criollo leaders in forming a junta on August 3 in Cuzco, in 1814, the first expedition was successful in reconquering Chile after winning the Battle of Rancagua. In 1817 following the royalist defeat in the Battle of Chacabuco, initially it was successful in the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, the expedition was finally defeated by José de San Martín in the Battle of Maipú. To begin the liberation of Peru, Argentina and Chile signed a treaty on February 5,1819 to prepare for the invasion, General José de San Martín believed that the liberation of Argentina wouldnt be secure until the royalist stronghold in Peru was defeatedIndependence of Peru – The Battle of Ayacucho Painting by Antonio Herrera Toro
8. Presidential system – A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. The United States, for instance, has a presidential system, the executive is elected and often titled president and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Presidential systems are numerous, but the following are true, The executive can veto legislative acts and, in turn. The veto is generally derived from the British tradition of royal assent in which an act of parliament can only be enacted with the assent of the monarch, the president has a fixed term of office. Members of the cabinet serve at the pleasure of the president, cabinet ministers or executive departmental chiefs are not members of the legislature. However, presidential systems often need legislative approval of executive nominations to the cabinet, judiciary, a president generally can direct members of the cabinet, military, or any officer or employee of the executive branch, but cannot direct or dismiss judges. The president can often pardon or commute sentences of convicted criminals, countries that feature a presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of president. For example, a dictator, who may or may not have been popularly or legitimately elected may be, likewise, leaders of one-party states are often called presidents. Most parliamentary republics have presidents, but this position is ceremonial, notable examples include Germany, India, Ireland, Israel. The title is used in parliamentary republics with an executive presidency. In a full-fledged presidential system, a president is chosen directly by the people or indirectly by the party to be the head of the executive branch. Presidential governments make no distinction between the positions of head of state and head of government, both of which are held by the president, a few countries have powerful presidents who are elected by the legislature. These executives are titled president, whereas in practice they are similar to prime ministers, other countries with the same system include Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, and Suriname. By contrast, national presidents are figurehead heads of state, like constitutional monarchs, such symbolic presidents can be directly elected by the people or indirectly by a legislative vote. Only a few nations, such as Ireland, have a popularly elected ceremonial president, subnational governments, usually states, may be structured as presidential systems. All of the governments in the United States use the presidential system. On a local level, many cities use Council-manager government, which is equivalent to a parliamentary system, some countries without a presidential system at the national level use a form of this system at a subnational or local level. Supporters generally claim four basic advantages for presidential systems, Direct elections — in a presidential system and this makes the presidents power more legitimate than that of a leader appointed indirectlyPresidential system – Presidential republics with a full presidential system.
9. Representative democracy – Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Representative democracy is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies and it arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness, representatives voting on behalf of the people allows for a monetary benefit as there is lessened use of polling stations, vote counters, etc. The government is responsible for paying for the wages of the representatives. This system of governance is also time efficient as decisions can be made by a select few and it is a system in which people elect their lawmakers, who are then held accountable to them for their activity within government. It has been described by political theorists including Robert A Dahl, Gregory Houston. In it the power is in the hands of the representatives who are elected by the people in elections. Representatives are elected by the public, as in elections for the national legislature. Elected representatives may hold the power to other representatives, presidents, or other officers of the government or of the legislature. The constitution may also provide for some deliberative democracy or direct popular measures, however, these are not always binding and usually require some legislative action—legal power usually remains firmly with representatives. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him, their opinion, high respect, their business, unremitted attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to theirs, and above all, ever, and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own. But his unbiassed opinion, his judgment, his enlightened conscience, he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any man. These he does not derive from your pleasure, no, nor from the law and they are a trust from Providence, for the abuse of which he is deeply answerable. Your representative owes you, not his only, but his judgment. The Roman Republic was the first government in the world to have a representative government. In Britain, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for holding two famous parliaments, the first, in 1258, stripped the King of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution led to the creation of a new Constitution of the United States in 1787Representative democracy – Countries designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom House's 2015 survey "Freedom in the World", covering the year 2014.
10. Republic – It is a government where the head of state is not a monarch. Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology, composition, in the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition, today referred to as humanism, is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect, Republics became more common in the Western world starting in the late 18th century, eventually displacing absolute monarchy as the most common form of government in Europe. In modern republics, the executive is legitimized both by a constitution and by popular suffrage, for instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government. The term originates as the Latin translation of Greek word politeia, cicero, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publica and it was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as republic. The term politeia can be translated as form of government, polity, or regime, and is therefore not always a word for a specific type of regime as the modern word republic is. And also amongst classical Latin, the term republic can be used in a way to refer to any regime. In medieval Northern Italy, a number of city states had commune or signoria based governments, in the late Middle Ages, writers, such as Giovanni Villani, began writing about the nature of these states and the differences from other types of regime. They used terms such as libertas populi, a free people, the terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology. To describe non-monarchical states writers, most importantly Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin phrase res publica. While Bruni and Machiavelli used the term to describe the states of Northern Italy, which were not monarchies, the term can quite literally be translated as public matter. It was most often used by Roman writers to refer to the state and government, in subsequent centuries, the English word commonwealth came to be used as a translation of res publica, and its use in English was comparable to how the Romans used the term res publica. Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, likewise, in Polish, the term was translated as rzeczpospolita, although the translation is now only used with respect to Poland. Presently, the term republic commonly means a system of government which derives its power from the rather than from another basis. After the classical period, during the Middle Ages, many cities developed again. The modern type of itself is different from any type of state found in the classical world. Nevertheless, there are a number of states of the era that are today still called republicsRepublic – Vaishali was the capital of the Vajjian Confederacy, an early republic.
11. Administrative divisions of Peru – The administrative divisions of Peru have changed from time to time, since the nation gained independence from Spain in the early 19th century. The old territorial subdivisions have split or merged due to several reasons, the most common ones being the need for decentralization, Peru was divided into 24 departments until the creation of the regions in 2002. These regions are governed by Regional Governments, many people still use the old departamentos term when referring to the current regions of Peru, although it is now obsolete. The departments were identical to todays regions, with the exception of two new regions, before the 2002 changeover, the province of Lima was part of the Lima department, and the city of Callao had the special status of Provincia Constitucional. A failed attempt to divide the country into autonomous regions had previously been made during the 1980s under the government of Alan García. In the dry Andean area, many districts have fewer than 3,500 inhabitants, in some cases, their populations have decreased in comparison to the days when they were founded. Districts that are located at high altitudes tend to be scarcely populated. These districts usually are large in area, but they have little available land for use. Many basic government services do not reach all residents of these due to their difficult geography. Many such districts lack financial means to govern their whole jurisdictions, a similar pattern can be observed in many districts located in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest. Once important settlements created during the era of colonization, they now do not offer much space for agriculture, deeper into the jungle, the districts of the selva alta have higher populations living in geographically large districts. Districts located outside the colonized area have very low populations. All over the country, many districts have higher populations than the minimum required by law and these districts are old centers of civilization, they tend to be smaller in area with high population densities since pre-Hispanic times. Districts in the Chala tend to be mid-sized, except in low-density areas such as the Sechura desert and part of the Southern coast. All have gained large populations due to emigration from other regions of the country, districts with a population of more than 10000 inhabitants should ideally be subdivided, particularly if they are also large in area, as is the case in part of the Amazon rainforest. Settlement can happen quickly and boundaries of districts are not modified. This is less of a problem in the coast where communication is easier, however, reaching to large populations remain a problem in this area. Perus territory, according to the Regionalization Law which was passed on November 18,2002, is divided into 26 units,25 regions, the regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districtsAdministrative divisions of Peru
12. Andes – The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They are a range of highlands along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities, such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the worlds second-highest after the Tibetan plateau and these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate, the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes. The Andes are the worlds highest mountain range outside of Asia, the highest mountain outside Asia, Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is farther from the Earths center than any other location on the Earths surface, the worlds highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated, the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means east as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word cordel, meaning rope, the Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Andes are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate. In the south, the Andes share a boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, from a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography. The Andes Mountains also contain large quantities of iron ore located in mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines, the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile, the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively. The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau, the specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the Arica ElbowAndes – Aerial photo of a portion of the Andes between Argentina and Chile
13. Amazon basin – The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 and it is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia, with a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world. The Amazon River rises in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its tributary the Marañón River in Peru. It is usually considered to be the second longest river in the world, however, a team of Brazilian scientists has claimed that the Amazon is the longest river in the world. It covers about 6,400 km before draining into the Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon and its tributaries form the largest volume of water. The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches, the highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 m. The Amazon basin formerly flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia, Ecuador and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the roof canopy by plants. The ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here, orchids and bromeliads exploit trees and other plants to get closer to the sunlight. They grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites, species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include Brazil nut, rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon and its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot, capybara and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin, the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the family, to which the Guianan cock-of-the-rock belong. Birds such as toucans, and hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the cliffs of the Amazon RiverAmazon basin – Aerial view of part of the Amazon rainforest.
14. Developing country – Also, the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country. The term developing describes a currently observed situation and not a dynamic or expected direction of progress, since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. There is criticism of the use of the developing country. The term implies inferiority of a country or undeveloped country compared with a developed country. It assumes a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan. An alternative measurement that has suggested is that of gross national happiness. Countries on the boundary between developed and developing are often categorized under the newly industrialized countries. In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data, nobody has ever agreed on a definition for these terms in the first place. Various terms are used for whatever is not a developed country, terms used include less developed country or less economically developed country, and for the more extreme, least developed country or least economically developed country. But according to the United Nations Statistics Division, There is no established convention for the designation of developed, the World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. These are set each year on July 1, economies were divided according to 2016 GNI per capita using the following ranges of income, Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$1,025 or less. Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$1,026 and US$4,035, upper middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$4,036 and US$12,475. High income countries had GNI per capita above US$12,476 and this may be by absolute numbers or country ranking. The UN has developed the Human Development Index, an indicator of the above statistics. The UN sets Millennium Development Goals from a blueprint developed by all of the countries and leading development institutions. There is an association between low income and high population growth. The terms utilized when discussing developing countries refer to the intent, other terms sometimes used are less developed countries, least economically developed countries, underdeveloped nations or Third World nations, and non-industrialized nations. Conversely, developed countries, most economically developed countries, First World nations and that is, LEDCs are the poorest subset of LDCsDeveloping country – developing economies according to the IMF
15. Human Development Index – The Human Development Index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the level is higher. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, while the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that the IHDI is the actual level of human development, and the HDI can be viewed as an index of potential human development. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Reports Office of the United Nations Development Programme, nobel laureate Amartya Sen, utilized Haqs work in his own work on human capabilities. The following three indices are used,1, Life Expectancy Index = LE −2085 −20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI22.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS15 Fifteen is the maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a degree in most countries. Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. Finally, the HDI is the mean of the previous three normalized indices, HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II3. Standard of living, as indicated by the logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report, the formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on March 21,2017, below is the list of the very high human development countries, = increase. The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed relative to the ranking in the 2015 report, the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index is a measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data. Countries in the top quartile of HDI with a missing IHDI, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Kuwait. The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on December 14,2015, below is the list of the very high human development countries, = increase. The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed relative to the ranking in the 2014 report, the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index is a measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account. Note, The green arrows, red arrows, and blue dashes represent changes in rank, the rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI dataHuman Development Index – Mahbub ul Haq
16. Multiethnic society – A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations. This is in contrast to a state, where a single nation accounts for the bulk of the population. Depending on the definition of nation, a state might also be multicultural or multilingual. Historical multinational states that have split into multiple sovereign states include Austria-Hungary, British India, Czechoslovakia, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union. Some analysts have described the European Union as a state or a potential one. Many attempts have been made to define what a state is. One complicating factor is that it is possible for members of a group that could be considered a nation to identify two different nationalities simultaneously. As Ilan Peleg wrote in Democratizing the Hegemonic State, One can be a Scot and a Brit in the United Kingdom, a Jew and an American in the United States, an Igbo and a Nigerian in Nigeria. One might find it hard to be a Slovak and a Hungarian, an Arab and an Israeli, a Breton and a Frenchman. A state may also be a society, and a society has people belonging to more than one ethnic group. By some definitions of society and homogeneous, virtually all national societies are multiethnic. Sujit Choudhry therefore argues that he age of the ethnoculturally homogeneous state, the CIA World Factbook provides a list of the ethnic makeup of every country in the world. Whether Canada should be described as multinational is a topic in academia. The current policy of the government is that Canada is bilingual—English. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada voted in favor of Government Business No,11, which states that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. Since 2010, under the presidency of Evo Morales, Bolivia has been defined as a plurinational state. Many Asian countries recognize multiple ethnic groups, India has more than 2,000 ethnic groups, and every religion is represented, as are four major language families. Each state and union territory of India has one or more languagesMultiethnic society – Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH); Republika Srpska (RS); and Brčko District (BD).
17. Indigenous peoples in Peru – Indigenous cultures developed here for thousands of years. The first Spanish explorers called the peoples of the Americas indios, or Indians. The term is used today, although it is sometimes thought to have a derogatory connotation. In 2014, the 13,248,943 indigenous people in Peru formed about 45% of the population of Peru. Those peoples living in the Andes and to the west were dominated by the Inca Empire and it developed many cities, building major temples and monuments with techniques of highly skilled stonemasonry. Many survivors had unions with Spanish and their descendants were gradually assimilated into the general mestizo Peruvian population and they have adopted the use of firearms and other manufactured items, and trade goods at a remove from mainstream Peruvian society. These indigenous groups maintain cultural identities and practices that keep them distinct from majority Hispano-Peruvian society, the Interethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Rainforest is the primary indigenous rights organization in Peru defending the interests of indigenous people in Peru. Its current president is Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, migrants from that first wave are thought to have reached Peru in the 6th millennium BCE, probably entering the Amazon basin from the northwest. The sites, located 100 miles north of Lima, developed a trade between coastal fisherman and cotton growers and built monumental pyramids around the 30th century BCE. During the pre-Columbian era, the peoples who dominated the territory now known as Peru spoke languages of three groupings, Quechua in the highlands, Jivaroan, and Tsimané. The peoples had different social and organizational structures, and distinct languages and cultures, of the 29,248,943 estimated total population of Peru, the indigenous people represent about 45%. 97. 8% are Andean and 2. 1%, Amazonian, other sources indicate that the indigenous people comprise 31% of the total population. In the Amazonian region, there more than 65 ethnic groups classified into 16 language families, after Brazil in South America and New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean, Peru is believed to have the highest number of uncontacted tribes in the world. After the arrival of Spanish soldiers in Peru, local people began dying in great number from Eurasian infectious diseases that were chronic among the invaders and these spread by contact across the New World by indigenous peoples along trading routes, often years ahead of direct contact with the invaders. As the natives have no immunity, they suffered high fatalities in epidemics of the new diseases. Later more people died because of the treatment of the conquerors, they were killed in battle, forced from their lands. Many indigenous people refused to be enslaved, retreating into the backlands, or if captured, from the earliest years, Spanish soldiers and colonists intermarried with the indigenous women. The Spanish officers and elite married into the Inca elite, a sizeable portion of the Peruvian population is mixto, of indigenous and European ancestry, speaking Spanish, generally Roman Catholic, and assimilated as the majority cultureIndigenous peoples in Peru – Dancers at Qoyllur Rit'i, an indigenous festival in Peru
18. Quechuan languages – Quechua /ˈkɛtʃwə/, also known as runa simi, is an indigenous language family, with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America. Derived from an ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Approximately 13% of Peruvians speak Quechua and it is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire, and was disseminated by the colonizers throughout their reign. Quechua had already expanded across wide ranges of the central Andes long before the expansion of the Inca Empire, the Inca were one among many peoples in present-day Peru who already spoke forms of Quechua. In the Cusco region, Quechua was influenced by languages such as Aymara. The Cuzco variety of Quechua developed as quite distinct, in similar ways, diverse dialects developed in different areas, related to existing local languages, when the Inca Empire ruled and imposed Quechua as the official language. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in the 16th century and it was officially recognized by the Spanish administration and many Spanish learned it in order to communicate with the local peoples. Clergy of the Catholic Church adopted Quechua to use as the language of evangelization, given its use by the Catholic missionaries, the range of Quechua continued to expand in some areas. In the late 18th century, colonial officials ended administrative and religious use of Quechua, the Crown banned even loyal pro-Catholic texts in Quechua, such as Garcilaso de la Vegas Comentarios Reales. Despite a brief revival of the immediately after the Latin American nations achieved independence in the 19th century. Gradually its use declined so that it was mostly by indigenous people in the more isolated. Nevertheless in the 21st century, those speaking Quechua language speakers number 8 to 10 million people across South America, the oldest written records of the language are by missionary Domingo de Santo Tomás, who arrived in Peru in 1538 and learned the language from 1540. He published his Grammatica o arte de la lengua de los indios de los reynos del Perú in 1560. In 1975 Peru became the first country to recognize Quechua as one of its official languages, the major obstacle to the usage and teaching of Quechua is the lack of written materials in that language, such as books, newspapers, software, and magazines. The Bible has been translated into Quechua and is distributed by certain missionary groups, Quechua, along with Aymara and the minor indigenous languages, remains essentially a spoken language. In recent years, Quechua has been introduced in intercultural education in Bolivia, Ecuador. Even in these areas, the governments are reaching only a part of the Quechua-speaking populations, some indigenous people in each of the countries are having their children study in Spanish for the purposes of social advancement. Radio Nacional del Perú broadcasts news and agrarian programs in Quechua for periods in the mornings, Quechua and Spanish are now heavily intermixed in much of the Andean region, with many hundreds of Spanish loanwords in QuechuaQuechuan languages – Quechua
19. Indigenous languages of the Americas – Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of language families, as well as many language isolates. Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made and this scheme is rejected by nearly all specialists. According to UNESCO, most of the indigenous American languages in North America are critically endangered, the most widely spoken indigenous language is Southern Quechua, with about 6 to 7 million speakers, primarily in South America. Thousands of languages were spoken by various peoples in North and South America prior to their first contact with Europeans and these encounters occurred between the beginning of the 11th century and the end of the 15th century. Several indigenous cultures of the Americas had also developed their own writing systems, after pre-Columbian times, several indigenous creole languages developed in the Americas, based on European, indigenous and African languages. The European colonizers and their states had widely varying attitudes towards Native American languages. In Brazil, friars learned and promoted the Tupi language, as a result, indigenous American languages suffered from cultural suppression and loss of speakers. Many indigenous languages have become endangered, but others are vigorous. Several indigenous languages have been official status in the countries where they occur. In other cases official status is limited to regions where the languages are most spoken. Although sometimes enshrined in constitutions as official, the languages may be used infrequently in de facto official use, examples are Quechua in Peru and Aymara in Bolivia, where in practice, Spanish is dominant in all formal contexts. In North America and the Arctic region, Greenland in 2009 adopted Kalaallisut as its official language. In the United States, the Navajo language is the most spoken Native American language, the US Marine Corps recruited Navajo men, who were established as code talkers during World War II, to transmit secret US military messages. Neither the Germans nor Japanese ever deciphered the Navajo code, which was a using the Navajo language. Today, governments, universities, and indigenous peoples are continuing to work for the preservation and revitalization of indigenous American languages, in American Indian Languages, The Historical Linguistics of Native America, Lyle Campbell lists several hypotheses for the historical origins of Amerindian languages. These proliferated in the New World, notes, Extinct languages or families are indicated by, †. The number of members is indicated in parenthesesIndigenous languages of the Americas – Yucatec Maya writing in the Dresden Codex, ca. 11–12th century, Chichen Itza
20. Carancas Impact Event – The Carancas impact event refers to the fall of the Carancas chondritic meteorite on September 15,2007, near the village of Carancas in Peru, close to the Bolivian border and Lake Titicaca. The impact created a crater and scorched earth around its location, a local official, Marco Limache, said that boiling water started coming out of the crater, and particles of rock and cinders were found nearby, as fetid, noxious gases spewed from the crater. Surface impact occurred above 3,800 m, after the impact, villagers who had approached the impact site grew sick from a then-unexplained illness, with a wide array of symptoms. Two days later, Peruvian scientists confirmed that there had indeed been a meteorite strike, at that point, no further information on the cause of the mystery illness was known. At 11,40,14 local time on 15 September 2007, the impact created a crater larger than 4.5 m deep,13 m wide, with visibly scorched earth around the impact site. A local official, Marco Limache, said that boiling water started coming out of the crater, the crater size was given as 13.80 by 13.30 m, with its greatest dimensions in an east-west direction. The fireball had been observed by the locals as strongly luminous with a smoky tail, the object moved in a direction toward N030E. The small seismic shock of the impact shattered the windows of the health center 1-kilometer away. A smoke column was formed at the site that lasted several minutes, one villager was as close as 100 m from the impact site. He fell from his bicycle but was not injured, a small building 120 m from the impact site did not suffer much either besides roof damage from flying debris. Soon after the impact, over 600 villagers visited the site and some began to fall ill from unexplained causes, including symptoms of dermal injuries, nausea, headaches, diarrhea and vomiting. On 20 September, Peruvian scientists confirmed that there had been a meteorite strike, Impact crater specialists have called the impact unusual, and have stated that the meteorite was at least 3 m in diameter before breaking up. According to cosmochemist Larry Grossman of the University of Chicago, the aerial lights, the loud noise and explosive impact originally led Peruvians to think that Chile had launched an attack. A report from three geologists at Peru’s Geophysics Institute was released on Thursday 20 September, astrophysicist Jose Ishitsuka confirmed that there had been a meteorite strike. They detected iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium — elements characteristic of the composition of meteorites. The quantitative proportions of silicon, aluminium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, INGEMMET of Peru released internally on September 21 a report on the Carancas meteorite fall. The release of the document to the public was delayed for one week, kamacite occurs naturally only in meteorites. The official classification of the Carancas meteorite, accepted by the Meteoritical Society, was done by a team of working at the University of ArizonaCarancas Impact Event – 27.70g fragment of the Carancas meteorite fall recovered several days after the fall. The scale cube is 1cm 3
21. Meteorite – When the object enters the atmosphere, various factors like friction, pressure, and chemical interactions with the atmospheric gases cause it to heat up and radiate that energy. It then becomes a meteor and forms a fireball, also known as a shooting/falling star, meteorites that survive atmospheric entry and impact vary greatly in size. For geologists, a bolide is a large enough to create a crater. Meteorites that are recovered after being observed as they transit the atmosphere or impact the Earth are called meteorite falls, all others are known as meteorite finds. As of April 2016, there were about 1,140 witnessed falls that have specimens in the worlds collections, there are more than 38,660 well-documented meteorite finds. Modern classification schemes divide meteorites into groups according to their structure, chemical and isotopic composition, meteorites smaller than 2 mm are classified as micrometeorites. Extraterrestrial meteorites are such objects that have impacted other celestial bodies and they have been found on the Moon and Mars. Meteorites are always named for the places they were found, usually a town or geographic feature. In cases where many meteorites were found in one place, the name may be followed by a number or letter, the name designated by the Meteoritical Society is used by scientists, catalogers, and most collectors. Most meteoroids disintegrate when entering the Earths atmosphere, usually, five to ten a year are observed to fall and are subsequently recovered and made known to scientists. Few meteorites are large enough to create large impact craters, instead, they typically arrive at the surface at their terminal velocity and, at most, create a small pit. Large meteoroids may strike the ground with a significant fraction of their escape velocity, the kind of crater will depend on the size, composition, degree of fragmentation, and incoming angle of the impactor. The force of such collisions has the potential to cause widespread destruction, the most frequent hypervelocity cratering events on the Earth are caused by iron meteoroids, which are most easily able to transit the atmosphere intact. In contrast, even relatively large stony or icy bodies like small comets or asteroids, up to millions of tons, are disrupted in the atmosphere, and do not make impact craters. Although such disruption events are uncommon, they can cause a concussion to occur. Very large stony objects, hundreds of meters in diameter or more, weighing tens of millions of tons or more, can reach the surface and cause large craters, such events are generally so energetic that the impactor is completely destroyed, leaving no meteorites. Several phenomena are well documented during witnessed meteorite falls too small to produce hypervelocity craters, various colors have been reported, including yellow, green, and red. Flashes and bursts of light can occur as the object breaks up, explosions, detonations, and rumblings are often heard during meteorite falls, which can be caused by sonic booms as well as shock waves resulting from major fragmentation eventsMeteorite – The Hoba meteorite in Namibia is the largest known intact meteorite, 2.7 metres long and 60 tonnes weight.
22. Impact event – An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects. Impact events have physical consequences and have found to regularly occur in planetary systems, though the most frequent involve asteroids. Impact craters and structures are dominant landforms on many of the Solar Systems solid objects and present the strongest empirical evidence for their frequency, Impact events appear to have played a significant role in the evolution of the Solar System since its formation. Notable impact events include the Chicxulub impact,66 million years ago, throughout recorded history, hundreds of Earth impacts have been reported, with some occurrences causing deaths, injuries, property damage, or other significant localised consequences. One of the best-known recorded impacts in modern times was the Tunguska event, the Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 impact provided the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects, when the comet broke apart and collided with Jupiter in July 1994. Impact events have been a plot and background element in science fiction, Impact structures are the result of impact events on solid objects and, as the dominant landforms on many of the Systems solid objects, present the most solid evidence of prehistoric events. Small objects frequently collide with Earth, there is an inverse relationship between the size of the object and the frequency of such events. The lunar cratering record shows that the frequency of impacts decreases as approximately the cube of the craters diameter. Asteroids with a 1 km diameter strike Earth every 500,000 years on average, large collisions – with 5 km objects – happen approximately once every twenty million years. The last known impact of an object of 10 km or more in diameter was at the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago, the energy released by an impactor depends on diameter, density, velocity, and angle. The diameter of most near-Earth asteroids that have not been studied by radar or infrared can generally only be estimated within about a factor of 2 based on the asteroid brightness, the density is generally assumed because the diameter and mass are also generally estimates. The minimum impact velocity on Earth is 11 km/s with asteroid impacts averaging around 17 km/s, the most probable impact angle is 45 degrees. Stony asteroids with a diameter of 4 meters enter Earths atmosphere approximately once per year. Asteroids with a diameter of 7 meters enter the atmosphere about every 5 years with as much energy as the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. These ordinarily explode in the atmosphere and most or all of the solids are vaporized. However, asteroids with a diameter of 20 m, and which strike Earth approximately twice every century, the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor was estimated to be about 20 m in diameter with an airburst of around 500 kilotons, an explosion 30 times the one over Hiroshima. Much larger objects may impact the solid earth and create a crater, objects with a diameter less than 1 m are called meteoroids and seldom make it to the ground to become meteorites. Although no human is known to have been killed directly by an impact, in 2005 it was estimated that the chance of a single person born today dying due to an impact is around 1 in 200,000Impact event – A major impact event releases the energy of several million nuclear weapons detonating simultaneously, when an asteroid of only a few kilometers in diameter collides with a larger body such as the Earth (image: artist's impression).
23. Chondrite – Chondrites are stony meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body. They are formed when various types of dust and small grains that were present in the solar system accreted to form primitive asteroids. They are the most common type of meteorite falls to Earth with estimates for the proportion of the total fall that they represent varying between 85. 7% and 86. 2%. Their study provides important clues for understanding the origin and age of the Solar System, the synthesis of organic compounds, the origin of life or the presence of water on Earth. One of their characteristics is the presence of chondrules, which are round grains formed by distinct minerals, chondrites can be differentiated from iron meteorites due to their low iron and nickel content. Other non-metallic meteorites, achondrites, which lack chondrules, were formed more recently, there are currently over 27,000 chondrites in the worlds collections. The largest individual stone ever recovered, weighing 1770 kg, was part of the Jilin meteorite shower of 1976, chondrites were formed by the accretion of particles of dust and grit present in the primitive Solar System which gave rise to asteroids over 4.55 billion years ago. These asteroid parent bodies of chondrites are small to medium-sized asteroids that were never part of any body large enough to undergo melting, dating using 206Pb/204Pb gives an estimated age of 4,566.6 ±1.0 Ma, matching ages for other chronometers. Another indication of their age is the fact that the abundance of elements in chondrites is similar to that found in the atmosphere of the Sun. Many chondritic asteroids also contained significant amounts of water, possibly due to the accretion of ice along with rocky material. As a result, many chondrites contain hydrous minerals, such as clays, in addition, all chondritic asteroids were affected by impact and shock processes due to collisions with other asteroids. These events caused a variety of effects, ranging from simple compaction to brecciation, veining, localized melting, and formation of high-pressure minerals. Chondrites also contain inclusions, which are among the oldest objects to form in the solar system, particles rich in metallic Fe-Ni and sulfides. The remainder of chondrites consists of fine-grained dust, which may either be present as the matrix of the rock or may form rims or mantles around individual chondrules and refractory inclusions. Embedded in this dust are presolar grains, which predate the formation of our solar system, the chondrites have distinct texture, composition and mineralogy and their origin continues to be the object of some debate. Chondrites are divided into about 15 distinct groups on the basis of their mineralogy, bulk chemical composition, the various chondrite groups likely originated on separate asteroids or groups of related asteroids. Each chondrite group has a mixture of chondrules, refractory inclusions, matrix, and other components. Other ways of classifying chondrites include weathering and shock, chondrites can also be categorized according to their petrologic type, which is the degree to which they were thermally metamorphosed or aqueously alteredChondrite – A specimen of the NWA 869 chondrite (type L4-6), showing chondrules and metal flakes
24. Bolivia – Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range, with one of its largest cities and principal economic centers, El Alto, Bolivia is one of two landlocked countries that lie outside Afro-Eurasia. Bolivia is geographically the largest landlocked country in the Americas, but remains a small country in economic. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas, spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivias mines. After the first call for independence in 1809,16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Since independence, Bolivia has endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre. The countrys population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, the racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara, modern Bolivia is constitutionally a unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands and it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing such as textiles, clothing, refined metals. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin, Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a leader in the Spanish American wars of independence. Sucre opted to create a new nation and, with local support. The original name was Republic of Bolívar, some days later, congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed, If from Romulus comes Rome, then from Bolívar comes Bolivia. The name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825, the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years when the Aymara arrived. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, the capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD600 and AD800, becoming an important regional power in the southern AndesBolivia – Former President, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
25. Lake Titicaca – Lake Titicaca is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru. By volume of water and by area, it is the largest lake in South America. Lake Maracaibo has a surface area, but it is a tidal bay. It is often called the highest navigable lake in the world, although this refers to navigation by large boats, it is generally considered to mean commercial craft. For many years the largest vessel afloat on the lake was the 2, 200-ton, today the largest vessel is most likely the similarly sized, but broader, train barge/float Manco Capac, operated by PeruRail. Numerous smaller bodies of water around the world are at higher elevations, the lake is located at the northern end of the endorheic Altiplano basin high in the Andes on the border of Peru and Bolivia. The western part of the lies within the Puno Region of Peru. The lake is composed of two nearly separate sub-basins connected by the Strait of Tiquina, which is 800 m across at the narrowest point, the larger sub-basin, Lago Grande, has a mean depth of 135 m and a maximum depth of 284 m. The smaller sub-basin, Wiñaymarka, has a depth of 9 m. The overall average depth of the lake is 107 m, five major river systems feed into Lake Titicaca. In order of their flow volumes these are Ramis, Coata, Ilave, Huancané. More than twenty other smaller streams empty into Titicaca, the lake has 41 islands, some of which are densely populated. This only accounts for about 10% of the water balance. Evapotranspiration, caused by winds and intense sunlight at high altitude. It is nearly a closed lake, since 2000 Lake Titicaca has experienced constantly receding water levels. Between April and November 2009 alone the water level dropped by 81 cm and this drop is caused by shortened rainy seasons and the melting of glaciers feeding the tributaries of the lake. Water pollution is also a concern because cities in the Titicaca watershed grow, sometimes outpacing solid waste. According to the Global Nature Fund, Titicacas biodiversity is threatened by water pollution, already in 2012, the GNF nominated the lake Threatened Lake of the YearLake Titicaca – View of the lake from the lake's Isla del Sol
26. Ground water – Groundwater is the water present beneath Earths surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or a deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the naturally, natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps. Groundwater is also withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, Groundwater is hypothesized to provide lubrication that can possibly influence the movement of faults. It is likely that much of Earths subsurface contains some water, Groundwater may not be confined only to Earth. The formation of some of the landforms observed on Mars may have influenced by groundwater. There is also evidence that water may also exist in the subsurface of Jupiters moon Europa. Groundwater is often cheaper, more convenient and less vulnerable to pollution than surface water, therefore, it is commonly used for public water supplies. For example, groundwater provides the largest source of water storage in the United States. Underground reservoirs contain far more water than the capacity of all surface reservoirs and lakes in the US, many municipal water supplies are derived solely from groundwater. Polluted groundwater is less visible, but more difficult to clean up, than pollution in rivers, Groundwater pollution most often results from improper disposal of wastes on land. An aquifer is a layer of substrate that contains and transmits groundwater. When water can flow directly between the surface and the zone of an aquifer, the aquifer is unconfined. The deeper parts of unconfined aquifers are more saturated since gravity causes water to flow downward. The upper level of this layer of an unconfined aquifer is called the water table or phreatic surface. Below the water table, where in general all pore spaces are saturated with water, is the phreatic zone, substrate with low porosity that permits limited transmission of groundwater is known as an aquitardGround water – The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater
27. Arsenic – Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals. It has various allotropes, but only the form is important to industry. The primary use of arsenic is in alloys of lead. Arsenic is a common dopant in semiconductor electronic devices. Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, a few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites. Trace quantities of arsenic are a dietary element in rats, hamsters, goats, chickens. However, arsenic poisoning occurs in multicellular life if quantities are larger than needed, Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem that affects millions of people across the world. The three most common allotropes are metallic gray, yellow, and black arsenic, with gray being the most common. Gray arsenic adopts a structure consisting of many interlocked, ruffled, six-membered rings. Because of weak bonding between the layers, gray arsenic is brittle and has a relatively low Mohs hardness of 3.5. Nearest and next-nearest neighbors form an octahedral complex, with the three atoms in the same double-layer being slightly closer than the three atoms in the next. This relatively close packing leads to a density of 5.73 g/cm3. Gray arsenic is a semimetal, but becomes a semiconductor with a bandgap of 1. 2–1.4 eV if amorphized, gray arsenic is also the most stable form. Yellow arsenic is soft and waxy, and somewhat similar to tetraphosphorus, both have four atoms arranged in a tetrahedral structure in which each atom is bound to each of the other three atoms by a single bond. This unstable allotrope, being molecular, is the most volatile, least dense, solid yellow arsenic is produced by rapid cooling of arsenic vapor, As 4. It is rapidly transformed into gray arsenic by light, the yellow form has a density of 1.97 g/cm3. Black arsenic is similar in structure to red phosphorus, black arsenic can also be formed by cooling vapor at around 100–220 °CArsenic – Arsenic, 33 As
28. Vapor – A vapor is different from an aerosol. An aerosol is a suspension of particles of liquid, solid. For example, water has a temperature of 647 K. In the atmosphere at ordinary temperatures, therefore, gaseous water will condense into a liquid if its pressure is increased sufficiently. A vapor may co-exist with a liquid, when this is true, the two phases will be in equilibrium, and the gas-partial pressure will be equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid. Vapor refers to a gas phase at a temperature where the substance can also exist in the liquid or solid state. If the vapor is in contact with a liquid or solid phase, the term gas refers to a compressible fluid phase. Fixed gases are gases for which no liquid or solid can form at the temperature of the gas, a liquid or solid does not have to boil to release a vapor. Vapor is responsible for the processes of cloud formation and condensation. It is commonly employed to carry out the processes of distillation. The constituent molecules of a vapor possess vibrational, rotational, and these motions are considered in the kinetic theory of gases. The vapor pressure is the pressure from a liquid or a solid at a specific temperature. The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid or solid is not affected by the amount of contact with the liquid or solid interface, the normal boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to normal atmospheric pressure. For two-phase systems, the pressure of the individual phases are equal. The total vapor pressure is the sum of the component partial pressures, perfumes contain chemicals that vaporize at different temperatures and at different rate in scent accords known as notes. Atmospheric water vapor is found near the surface, and may condense into small liquid droplets and form meteorological phenomena such as fog, mist. Mercury-vapor lamps and sodium vapor lamps produce light from atoms in excited states, flammable liquids do not burn when ignited. It is the cloud above the liquid that will burn if the vapors concentration is between the lower flammable limit and upper flammable limit of the flammable liquidVapor – Water condenses into visible droplets (aerosol) after evaporating from a cup of hot tea
29. Machu Picchu – Machu Picchu is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge 2,430 metres above sea level. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District in Peru, above the Sacred Valley, most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti. Often mistakenly referred to as the Lost City of the Incas, the Incas built the estate around 1450 but abandoned it a century later at the time of the Spanish Conquest. Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls and its three primary structures are the Inti Watana, the Temple of the Sun, and the Room of the Three Windows. Most of the buildings have been reconstructed in order to give tourists a better idea of how they originally appeared. By 1976, thirty percent of Machu Picchu had been restored, Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. In 2007, Machu Picchu was voted one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide Internet poll. In the Quechua language, machu means old or old person, while picchu means peak, mountain or prominence with a base that ends in sharp peaks. Machu Picchu was built around 1450, at the height of the Inca and its construction appears to date to the period of the two great Inca rulers, Pachacutec Inca Yupanqui and Túpac Inca Yupanqui. It was abandoned just over 100 years later, in 1572 and it is possible that most of its inhabitants died from smallpox introduced by travellers before the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the area. Although it was located only about 80 kilometers from the Inca capital in Cusco, the conquistadors had notes of a place called Piccho, although no record of a Spanish visit exists. The types of sacred rocks defaced by the conquistadors in other locations are untouched at Machu Picchu, over the centuries, the surrounding jungle overgrew the site, and few outside the immediate area knew of its existence. The site may have discovered and plundered in 1867 by a German businessman. Some evidence indicates that German engineer J. M. von Hassel arrived earlier, maps show references to Machu Picchu as early as 1874. In 1911 American historian and explorer Hiram Bingham travelled the region looking for the old Inca capital and was shown to Machu Picchu by a local farmer, Bingham brought Machu Picchu to international attention and organized another expedition in 1912 to undertake major clearing and excavation. He returned in 1914 and 1915 to continue with excavation, in 1981, Peru declared an area of 325.92 square kilometres surrounding Machu Picchu a Historical Sanctuary. In addition to the ruins, the sanctuary includes a portion of the adjoining region, rich with the flora and fauna of the Peruvian Yungas. In 1983, UNESCO designated Machu Picchu a World Heritage Site, describing it as a masterpiece of architectureMachu Picchu – Machu Picchu
30. Quechua language – Quechua /ˈkɛtʃwə/, also known as runa simi, is an indigenous language family, with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America. Derived from an ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Approximately 13% of Peruvians speak Quechua and it is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire, and was disseminated by the colonizers throughout their reign. Quechua had already expanded across wide ranges of the central Andes long before the expansion of the Inca Empire, the Inca were one among many peoples in present-day Peru who already spoke forms of Quechua. In the Cusco region, Quechua was influenced by languages such as Aymara. The Cuzco variety of Quechua developed as quite distinct, in similar ways, diverse dialects developed in different areas, related to existing local languages, when the Inca Empire ruled and imposed Quechua as the official language. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in the 16th century and it was officially recognized by the Spanish administration and many Spanish learned it in order to communicate with the local peoples. Clergy of the Catholic Church adopted Quechua to use as the language of evangelization, given its use by the Catholic missionaries, the range of Quechua continued to expand in some areas. In the late 18th century, colonial officials ended administrative and religious use of Quechua, the Crown banned even loyal pro-Catholic texts in Quechua, such as Garcilaso de la Vegas Comentarios Reales. Despite a brief revival of the immediately after the Latin American nations achieved independence in the 19th century. Gradually its use declined so that it was mostly by indigenous people in the more isolated. Nevertheless in the 21st century, those speaking Quechua language speakers number 8 to 10 million people across South America, the oldest written records of the language are by missionary Domingo de Santo Tomás, who arrived in Peru in 1538 and learned the language from 1540. He published his Grammatica o arte de la lengua de los indios de los reynos del Perú in 1560. In 1975 Peru became the first country to recognize Quechua as one of its official languages, the major obstacle to the usage and teaching of Quechua is the lack of written materials in that language, such as books, newspapers, software, and magazines. The Bible has been translated into Quechua and is distributed by certain missionary groups, Quechua, along with Aymara and the minor indigenous languages, remains essentially a spoken language. In recent years, Quechua has been introduced in intercultural education in Bolivia, Ecuador. Even in these areas, the governments are reaching only a part of the Quechua-speaking populations, some indigenous people in each of the countries are having their children study in Spanish for the purposes of social advancement. Radio Nacional del Perú broadcasts news and agrarian programs in Quechua for periods in the mornings, Quechua and Spanish are now heavily intermixed in much of the Andean region, with many hundreds of Spanish loanwords in QuechuaQuechua language – Quechua