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1. Politics – Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community as well as the interrelationship between communities. It is very often said that politics is about power, a political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to antiquity, with seminal works such as Platos Republic, Aristotles Politics. Formal Politics refers to the operation of a system of government and publicly defined institutions. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics, many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal Politics is Politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, informal Politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Generally, this includes anything affecting ones daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that politics is everywhere. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotles book Politics also derives, the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as Polettiques, it became politics in Modern English. The history of politics is reflected in the origin, development, the origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries including China, of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the French Revolution put an end to the divine right of kings. Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of Hereditary monarchy, the king often, even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, long before the council became a bulwark of democracy, it rendered invaluable aid to the institution of kingship by, Preserving the institution of kingship through heredity. Preserving the traditions of the social order, being able to withstand criticism as an impersonal authority. Being able to manage a greater deal of knowledge and action than an individual such as the king. The greatest of the subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and ScotlandPolitics – Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart – Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.
2. Decision-making – This article deals with decision-making as analyzed in psychology. In psychology, decision-making is regarded as the process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, it may or may not prompt action, decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision-maker. Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory and it is therefore a process which can be more or less rational or irrational and can be based on explicit or tacit knowledge. Cognitive, the decision-making process regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment, normative, the analysis of individual decisions concerned with the logic of decision-making, or communicative rationality, and the invariant choice it leads to. A major part of decision-making involves the analysis of a set of alternatives described in terms of evaluative criteria. Then the task might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision-maker when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Another task might be to find the best alternative or to determine the relative priority of each alternative when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the focus of multiple-criteria decision analysis and this leads to the formulation of a decision-making paradox. Logical decision-making is an important part of all science-based professions, where specialists apply their knowledge in an area to make informed decisions. For example, medical decision-making often involves a diagnosis and the selection of appropriate treatment and they may follow a recognition primed decision that fits their experience and arrive at a course of action without weighing alternatives. The decision-makers environment can play a part in the decision-making process, for example, environmental complexity is a factor that influences cognitive function. A complex environment is an environment with a number of different possible states which come. Studies done at the University of Colorado have shown that more complex environments correlate with cognitive function. One experiment measured complexity in a room by the number of objects and appliances present. Cognitive function was greatly affected by the measure of environmental complexity making it easier to think about the situation. Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving and it is important to differentiate between problem analysis and decision-making. Traditionally, it is argued that problem analysis must be done first, information overload is a gap between the volume of information and the tools we have to assimilate itDecision-making – Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia.
3. Political power – In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behavior of people. The term authority is used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings, in business, power is often expressed as being upward or downward. With downward power, a companys superior influences subordinates, when a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of their leader or leaders. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force, at one extreme, it closely resembles what an English-speaking person might term influence, although some authors distinguish influence as a means by which power is used. One such example is power, as compared to hard power. The philosopher Michel Foucault saw power as an expression of a complex strategic situation in a given social setting that requires both constraint and enablement. Social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, in a now-classic study, a must draw on the base or combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome. Drawing on the power base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in As own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, further bases have since been adduced – in particular by Gareth Morgan in his 1986 book, Images of Organization. Also called positional power, it is the power of an individual because of the relative position, legitimate power is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by various attributes of such as a uniform. Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and it is based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A person may be admired because of specific personal trait, here the person under power desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower. Nationalism and patriotism count towards a sort of referent power. For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend the honor of the country and this is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Advertisers have long used the referent power of sports figures for products endorsements, the charismatic appeal of the sports star supposedly leads to an acceptance of the endorsement, although the individual may have little real credibility outside the sports arena. Abuse is possible when someone that is likable, yet lacks integrity and honesty, rises to power, referent power is unstable alone, and is not enough for a leader who wants longevity and respectPolitical power – Sociology
4. Elections – An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century, Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is used in many other private and business organizations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections. To elect means to choose or make a decision, and so other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, in Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, and was typically a son of the previous raja, however, the gana members had the final say in his elections. The Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains, such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members, the leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system, ancient Arabs also used election to choose their caliph, Uthman and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate. Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections, males, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage. Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections. The question of who may vote is an issue in elections. In Australia Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962, suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen, the nationality of the country of residence is not requiredElections – A ballot box
5. Legislature – A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a seat, as, for, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress, diet and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral. In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
6. Second Malaysia Plan – The Second Malaysia Plan was an economic development plan introduced by the government of Malaysia with the goal of implementing the Malaysian New Economic Policy. It was the successor to the First Malaysia Plan, which was intended to specifically tackle the problem of poverty among the Malays. However, the First Malaysia Plan had limited success, which may have been a factor in the May 13 Incident in 1969 when race riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur. Although the Malays have nearly always comprised a majority of the Malaysian population, in 1970, the Bumiputra controlled only 1. 9% of the Malaysian economy, while the non-Malays held 37. 4%, with the rest in foreign hands. A victory parade held on May 12 by supporters of the led to a retaliatory rally on May 13 by the United Malays National Organisation. However, the rally turned into a riot which lasted two days. Officially, around 200 people died—although others have much larger estimates—with thousands left homeless. A state of emergency was declared, and Parliament was suspended, the National Operations Council governed until 1971, when Parliament reconvened. The Second Malayan Five Year Plan was a development plan launched by the government of Malaya. This plan followed the First Malayan Five Year Plan, which ran from 1956 to 1960, the Second Malayan Five Year Plan increased expenditure for the development of agriculture and rural areas. Funding was markedly increased for land development schemes, physical infrastructure, the Plans stated objective was to provide facilities and opportunities for the rural population to improve its level of economic and social wellbeing. The Outline Perspective Plan was also approved, with goals to the NEP. Both the NEP and the Outline Perspective Plan were set to expire in 1990, the Second Malaysia Plan stepped up government involvement in the economy, with the main goal of increasing Malay economic interests, especially in the areas of manufacturing and mining. A sum of M$7.25 billion in total was allocated for the Second Malaysia Plan, although this constituted a decrease from the First Malaysia Plans allocation of M$10. At the time the plan was announced, the non-Malays had, in the words of one commentator, a monopoly of private industrial and commercial employment. However, foreign interests controlled most modern industries, including manufacturing, banking, finance, rubber, the Malays were largely involved in rural occupations such as rice farming, fishing, tending to rubber or oil palm smallholdings, and so on. Most members of professions, such as medicine and law, were non-Malay. Ironically, government policies, such as set out by Article 153Second Malaysia Plan – Crop diversification was introduced during the Second Malaysia Plan, phasing out rubber in favour of oil palm.
7. Development economics – Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices, unlike in many other fields of economics, approaches in development economics may incorporate social and political factors to devise particular plans. Also unlike many other fields of economics, there is no consensus on what students should know, different approaches may consider the factors that contribute to economic convergence or non-convergence across households, regions, and countries. The earliest Western theory of development economics was mercantilism, which developed in the 17th century, earlier theories had given little attention to development. For example, Scholasticism the dominant school of thought during medieval feudalism, emphasized reconciliation with Christian theology and ethics, the 16th- and 17th-century School of Salamanca, credited as the earliest modern school of economics, likewise did not address development specifically. Mercantilism held that a nations prosperity depended on its supply of capital and it emphasised the maintenance of a high positive trade balance as a means of accumulating this bullion. To achieve a trade balance, protectionist measures such as tariffs. Mercantilist development theory also advocated colonialism, in France, mercantilist policy is most associated with 17th-century finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, whose policies proved influential in later American development. Mercantilist ideas continue in the theories of nationalism and neomercantilism. A significant difference from mercantilism was the de-emphasis on colonies, in favor of a focus on domestic production, the names most associated with 19th-century economic nationalism are the American Alexander Hamilton, the German-American Friedrich List, and the American Henry Clay. Hamiltons 1791 Report on Manufactures, his opus, is the founding text of the American System. The key authors are Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, Kurt Mandelbaum, Ragnar Nurkse, only after the war did economists turn their concerns towards Asia, Africa and Latin America. At the heart of these studies, by such as Simon Kuznets and W. Arthur Lewis was an analysis of not only economic growth. The linear-stages-of-growth model posits that there are a series of five stages of development which all countries must go through during the process of development. Such theories have been criticized for not recognizing that, while necessary and that is to say that this early and simplistic theory failed to account for political, social and institutional obstacles to development. Furthermore, this theory was developed in the years of the Cold War and was largely derived from the successes of the Marshall Plan. This has led to the criticism that the theory assumes that the conditions found in developing countries are the same as those found in post-WWII Europe. There are two forms of structural-change theory, WDevelopment economics – Alexander Hamilton, credited as Father of the National System.
8. Economic policy – Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field. Such policies are often influenced by international institutions like the International Monetary Fund or World Bank as well as political beliefs, almost every aspect of government has an important economic component. Trade policy, which refers to tariffs, trade agreements and the institutions that govern them. Fiscal policy, often tied to Keynesian economics, uses government spending, fiscal stance, The size of the deficit or surplus Tax policy, The taxes used to collect government income. It is concerned with the amount of money in circulation and, consequently, interest rates, sometimes other objectives, like military spending or nationalization are important. These are referred to as the goals, the outcomes which the economic policy aims to achieve. To achieve these goals, governments use policy tools which are under the control of the government and these generally include the interest rate and money supply, tax and government spending, tariffs, exchange rates, labor market regulations, and many other aspects of government. Government and central banks are limited in the number of goals they can achieve in the short term, for instance, there may be pressure on the government to reduce inflation, reduce unemployment, and reduce interest rates while maintaining currency stability. This dilemma can in part be resolved by using microeconomics, supply-side policy to help adjust markets, for instance, unemployment could potentially be reduced by altering laws relating to trade unions or unemployment insurance, as well as by macroeconomic factors like interest rates. For much of the 20th century, governments adopted discretionary policies like demand management designed to correct the business cycle and these typically used fiscal and monetary policy to adjust inflation, output and unemployment. However, following the stagflation of the 1970s, policymakers began to be attracted to policy rules, a discretionary policy is supported because it allows policymakers to respond quickly to events. This makes policy non-credible and ultimately ineffective, a rule-based policy can be more credible, because it is more transparent and easier to anticipate. Examples of rule-based policies are fixed exchange rates, interest rate rules, the stability and growth pact, some policy rules can be imposed by external bodies, for instance the Exchange Rate Mechanism for currency. A compromise between strict discretionary and strict rule-based policy is to grant discretionary power to an independent body. For instance, the Federal Reserve Bank, European Central Bank, Bank of England and Reserve Bank of Australia all set interest rates without government interference, another type of non-discretionary policy is a set of policies which are imposed by an international body. This can occur as a result of intervention by the International Monetary Fund, the first economic problem was how to gain the resources it needed to be able to perform the functions of an early government, the military, roads and other projects like building the Pyramids. Early governments generally relied on tax in kind and forced labor for their economic resources, however, with the development of money came the first policy choice. A government could raise money through taxing its citizens, however, it could now also debase the coinage and so increase the money supplyEconomic policy – Public finance
9. Politics of Malaysia – Executive power is exercised by the federal government and the 13 state governments. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament and the 13 state assemblies. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, though the executive maintains a level of influence in the appointment of judges to the courts. The Constitution of Malaysia is codified and the system of government is based on the Westminster system, whereas, the Parliament consists of the Dewan Negara and Dewan Rakyat. Malaysia has had a multi-party system since the first direct election of the Federal Legislative Council of the Malaya in 1955 on a first-past-the-post basis, the ruling party since then had always been the Alliance Party coalition and from 1973 onwards, its successor, the Barisan Nasional coalition. The Barisan Nasional coalition currently consists of the United Malays National Organisation, Malaysian Chinese Association, the opposition are made up of the newly formed pact, the Coalition of Hope, the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, the Socialist Party of Malaysia and other smaller parties. Although Malaysian politics has been stable, critics allege that the government, ruling party. However, since the 8 March 2008 General Election, the coverage on the countrys politics has noticeably increased. Early organised political movements in Malaysia were organised along regional and ethnic groups and were not political parties in the modern sense and these in turn were primarily influenced by the Egyptian Islamic reform magazine, al-Manar published in Cairo by Rashid Rida from 1898 to 1936. While these publications were concerned with the Islamic religion, it also touched extensively on the social, political. One of the first such movements was the New Hope Society that was established in Johor Bahru in 1916, the Sultan Idris Training College for Malay teachers in Tanjung Malim was fertile ground for the exchange of ideas. This magazine allowed for the discussion of larger issues as well political issues. Eunos himself was a Justice of Peace, a member of the Muslim Advisory Board set up by the administration during World War I. In his capacity as the chairman of the KM, he became the first Malay member of the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements, one of the first issues championed by the KM was the appeal for land to be set aside for a Malay settlement. The appeal was granted and a sum of $700,000 was set aside for the KM to purchase and this settlement has evolved and is now part of the Eunos neighbourhood in Singapore. The KM also became the catalyst for the establishment of similar organisations in the states of the British Malaya such as the Penang Malay Association. People associated with the KM included the first President of Singapore, the KM survived World War II and entered into a political coalition with the United Malays National Organisation and the Malayan Chinese Association to form the Singapore Alliance Party. It however eventually faded away with the defeats of the Alliance in the 1955 legislative elections in SingaporePolitics of Malaysia – Current Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Tun Razak.
10. Malaysia – Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government, with a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia, located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, the first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946, Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia, less than two years later in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while allowing freedom of religion for non-Muslims, the government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the prime minister, since its independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6. 5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked third largest in Southeast Asia, the name Malaysia is a combination of the word Malay and the Latin-Greek suffix -sia/-σία. The word melayu in Malay may derive from the Tamil words malai and ur meaning mountain and city, land, malayadvipa was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word melayu or mlayu may have used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on SumatraMalaysia – "Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
11. Chinese Malaysian – The Malaysian Chinese or Chinese Malaysians consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. Most of these people are the descendants of those who arrived between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century, Malaysian Chinese form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thailand. Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group in Malaysia after the ethnic Malay majority and they are usually simply referred to as Chinese in Malaysia, Orang Cina in Malay, and Huaren or Huaqiao by Chinese themselves. The Chinese population in Malaysia has been consistently declining percentage-wise since Malayan independence, the reason for the decline may be due to a lower birthrate, as well as a high level of emigration in recent decades. The large number of emigrants, many of whom are young, the first wave of Han Chinese settlers came during the Malacca Empire in the early 15th century. The friendly diplomatic relations between China and Malacca culminated during the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah, who married the Chinese princess Hang Li Po, a senior minister of state and five hundred youths and maids of noble birth accompanied the princess to Malacca. Admiral Zheng He had also brought along 100 bachelors to Malacca, the descendants of this wave, many of whom are of Hokkien ancestry, adapted to the customs of local Malays while retaining parts of their ancestral culture. They are called Peranakan, or Baba for their menfolk and Nyonya for the females, Chinese immigration to British Malaya and Straits Settlements was encouraged by the British and the Malay sultans to work in the mines and plantations. This group was responsible for establishing the many Chinese-medium schools in Malaya and are mostly Chinese-educated, Some such as Koh Lay Huan escaped from China due to rebellious activities against the Qing dynasty. A much smaller wave came after the 1990s and they were mostly Mandarin speaking Chinese from northern China and these were mostly foreign spouses married to Malaysian Chinese. Some national sports coaches such as badminton coach Han Jiang could only obtain permanent residency after repeated rejections of their citizenship applications, however, diving coach Huang Qiang managed to obtain his Malaysian citizenship. China is the largest participant in Malaysias foreign residency scheme called Malaysia My Second Home, according to department of statistics Malaysia July 2003, the composition of each dialect are as follows. The largest dialect group are the Min people with a total of about 2.947 million, the Min dialect group consists of the following subgroups. The southern Hokkien from Quanzhou, Amoy, and Zhangzhou is the largest Chinese language group in Malaysia, the first wave of Hokkien settled primarily in Malacca where they constitute a mere 3 percent of Malaccas Chinese population and are called Peranakan. The Quanzhou Hokkien also migrated to towns in Sarawak. Teochew immigrants from the Chaoshan region began to settle in Malaya in large numbers from the 18th century onwards, mainly in Province Wellesley and these immigrants were chiefly responsible for setting up gambier and pepper plantations in Malaya. More Teochew immigrated to Johor at the encouragement of Temenggong Ibrahim in the 19th century, many of them are the descendants of plantation workers who came to set up gambier and pepper plantations, following the administrative pattern of their countrymen in Johor. Chinese immigrants from Hainan began to migrate to Malaya and North Borneo from the 19th century onwards, smaller communities of Hainanese are also found in Sarawak and Sabah, where they work as coffee shop owners and are mainly found in large towns and citiesChinese Malaysian – Michelle Yeoh
12. Economy of Malaysia – Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, which is relatively open and state-oriented. The economy of Malaysia is the fourth largest in Southeast Asia, after the more populous Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. Malaysia is also the third richest in Southeast Asia by GDP per capita values, after the city-states of Singapore, Malaysias economy is one of the most competitive in the world, ranking 14th in the Ease of Doing Business Index for 2015. Malaysian economy is highly robust and diversified with export value of products in 2014 stood at 63.3 billion USD. Malaysia exports the second largest volume and value of oil products globally after Indonesia. Due to a reliance on oil exports for central government revenue. However government had step up measures to increase revenue by introducing the widely unpopular Government Service Tax at 6% rate to reduce deficits, as one of three countries that control the Strait of Malacca, international trade plays a very significant role in Malaysias economy. At one time, it was the largest producer of tin, rubber, manufacturing has a large influence in the countrys economy, accounting for over 40% of the GDP. Malaysia is also the worlds largest Islamic banking and financial centre, in the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural based Malaysian economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s the industrial sector has led Malaysias growth, high levels of investment played a significant role in this. With Japanese investment, heavy industries flourished and in a matter of years, Malaysia consistently achieved more than 7% GDP growth along with low inflation in the 1980s and the 1990s. In 1991, former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir bin Mohamad outlined his ideal, tan Sri Nor Mohamed, a government minister, said Malaysia could attain developed country status in 2018 if the countrys growth remains constant or increases. Malaysia experienced a boom and underwent rapid development during the late 20th century and has GDP per capita of US$11,062.043 in 2014. In 2009, the PPP GDP was US$383.6 billion, about half the 2014 amount, in 2014, the Household Income Survey undertaken by the government indicated that there were 7 million households in Malaysia, with an average of 4.3 members in each household. The average household income of Malaysia increased by 18% to RM5,900 a month, compared to RM5,000 in 2012. According to a HSBC report in 2012, Malaysia will become the worlds 21st largest economy by 2050, with a GDP of $1.2 trillion and a GDP per capita of $29,247. The report also says The electronic equipment, petroleum, and liquefied natural gas producer will see an increase in income per capita. Malaysian life expectancy, relatively high level of schooling, and above average fertility rate will help in its rapid expansion, viktor Shvets, the managing director in Credit Suisse, has said Malaysia has all the right ingredients to become a developed nationEconomy of Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur, financial centre of Malaysia.
13. Malay people – These locations today are part of the modern nations of Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, and southern Thailand. In literature, architecture, culinary traditions, traditional dress, performing arts, martial arts, throughout their history, the Malays have been known as a coastal-trading community with fluid cultural characteristics. The epic literature, the Malay Annals, associates the etymological origin of Melayu to Sungai Melayu in Sumatra, the English term Malay was adopted via the Dutch word Malayo, itself derived from Portuguese, Malaio, which originates from the original Malay word, Melayu. Prior to the 15th century, the term Melayu and its variants appear to apply as an old toponym to the Strait of Malacca region in general. Malaya Dwipa, Malaya Dvipa, is described in chapter 48, Vayu Purana as one of the provinces in the sea that was full of gold. Some scholars equate the term with Sumatra, but several Indian scholars believe the term should refer to the mountainous Malay peninsula, maleu-kolon - appeared in Ptolemys work, Geographia. Mo-lo-yu - mentioned by Yijing, a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk who visited the Southeast Asia in 688–695, according to Yijing, the Mo-Lo-Yu kingdom was located in a distance of 15 day sail from Bogha, the capital of Sribhoga. It took a 15-day sail as well to reach Ka-Cha from Mo-lo-yu, therefore, a popular theory relates Mo-Lo-Yu with the Jambi in Sumatra, however the geographical location of Jambi contradicts with Yi Jings description of a half way sail between Ka-Cha and Bogha. Among the terms used was Bok-la-yu, Mok-la-yu, Ma-li-yu-er, Oo-lai-yu - traced from the source of monk Xuanzang). Malayur - inscribed on the wall of the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tamil Nadu. It was described as a kingdom that had a mountain for its rampart in Malay peninsula. Bhūmi Mālayu -, a transcription from Padang Roco Inscription dated 1286 CE by Slamet Muljana, the term is associated with Dharmasraya kingdom. Ma-li-yu-er - mentioned in the chronicle of Yuan Dynasty, referring to a nation of Malay peninsula that faced the southward expansion of Sukhothai Kingdom, the chronicle stated. Animosity occurred between Siam and Ma-li-yu-er with both killing each other. In response to the Sukhothais action, a Chinese envoy went to the Ram Khamhaengs court in 1295 bearing an imperial decree, Keep your promise and do no evil to Ma-li-yu-er. Malauir - mentioned in Marco Polos account as a kingdom located in the Malay peninsula, malayapura -, inscribed on the Amoghapasa inscription dated 1347 CE. The term was used by Adityawarman to refer to Dharmasraya. The word Malay refer to Mountain, other evidence that supports this theory include, stone tools found in the Malay Archipelago are analogous to Central Asian tools, the similarity of Malay customs and Assam customs. The New Guinea theory - The proto-Malays are believed to be knowledgeable in oceanography. Over the years they settled at places and adopted various culturesMalay people – Joget dance from the Malacca Sultanate; many aspects of Malay culture are derived from the Malaccan court.
14. First Malaysia Plan – The First Malaysia Plan was an economic development plan implemented by the government of Malaysia. It was the first economic plan for the whole of Malaysia—Sabah and Sarawak included—as opposed to just Malaya, the Plans objectives were to promote the welfare of all citizens, and improve the living conditions in rural areas, particularly among low-income groups. The Plan attempted to access to medical facilities in rural areas through the formation of the Rural Health Service. District hospital facilities were upgraded to handle referrals from the clinics the Service operated, East Malaysian medical facilities in particular were less-well equipped and staffed than those in West Malaysia. Over M$470.8 million was allocated for education under the First Malaysia Plan, however, less than 70% of this allocation was spent, in particular, the cost of training teachers and technical education had been overestimated. Between 1957 and 1970, the literacy rate improved from 51% to 59%. Shortly before the implementation of the First Malaysia Plan, the colonial masters of Malaysia. The income disparity between rural and urban areas that the Second Malayan Five Year Plan had sought to resolve was also not satisfactorily eliminated. In the rural, agricultural-centred areas, the government sought to continue the development that had been first brought about by the First Malayan Five Year Plan. During the tenure of the First Malaysia Plan, over 40,000 acres of rice, the government also replanted hundreds of thousands of rubber trees to increase rubber yields, in West Malaysia alone,304,000 acres of small holdings were replanted. The government also attempted to rehabilitate inefficient coconut holdings, modernise fishing methods, however, the government also tried to reduce the Malaysian economys age-old dependence on rubber, developing oil palm cultivation in West Malaysia, and developing the timber industry in Sabah. The government also offered incentives to industrialise the Malaysian economy by promoting Malay entrepreneurship, the Federal Industrial Development Authority, established in 1965 but only commencing operations in 1967, sought to accelerate industrial development further and co-ordinate such development. In 1968, new regulations were established that set quotas for Malay ownership of enterprises. The governments ambitious plans to increase the standard of living in rural areas fell short of their objectives, limited investment in social capital, despite the various land development schemes, had failed to either stem the tide of rural-urban migration or raise the incomes of rural families. In West Malaysia, 90% of all households earning less than M$100 a month were located in rural areas, the vast majority of these were Malay households. However, the programmes to improve rubber output were largely successful. By 1970, the uniform-quality Standard Malaysian Rubber comprised 20% of all rubber exports, the government also succeeded in reducing dependence on rubber at the same time by developing other fledgling industries. Nevertheless, the First Malaysia Plan had visibly failed to reduce the inequity in the distribution of income, discontent over this issue grew among the Malay populace, while the Chinese electorate, concerned by what they saw as more aggressive Malay discrimination against them, likewise became unhappyFirst Malaysia Plan – The government replanted hundreds of thousands of rubber trees to increase rubber yields.
15. Poverty – Poverty is general scarcity or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. It is a concept, which includes social, economic. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the lack of necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing. Absolute poverty is meant to be about the independent of location. After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made producing goods increasingly less expensive, of more importance is the modernization of agriculture, such as fertilizers, to provide enough yield to feed the population. Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable typically include welfare, economic freedoms, Poverty reduction is a major goal and issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank. The World Bank forecasts that 702.1 million people, down from 1.75 billion in 1990, of these, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia. According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the population living in extreme poverty fell from 37. 1% to 9. 6%. Nevertheless, given the current economic model, built on GDP, extreme poverty is a global challenge, it is observed in all parts of the world, including developed economies. UNICEF estimates half the children live in poverty. It has been argued by some academics that the policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF. Another estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. In 2012 it is estimated that, given a poverty line of $1.25 a day 1.2 billion people lived in poverty, the word poverty comes from old French poverté, from Latin paupertās from pauper. The English word poverty via Anglo-Norman povert, there are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, and the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty, a familys income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries, United Nations, Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of capacity to participate effectively in society. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and it means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank, Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions and it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignityPoverty – An example of urban poverty in this slum in Jakarta, Indonesia
16. Kuala Lumpur – Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or more commonly called KL is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city. Being rated as an Alpha world city, Kuala Lumpur is the global city in Malaysia which covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing regions in South-East Asia, in terms of population. Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia, the city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they were moved to Putrajaya in early 1999. Some sections of the judiciary still remain in the city of Kuala Lumpur. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is situated in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural, financial and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a key city. Kuala Lumpur is one of three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Since the 1990s, the city has played host to international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades and it is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers, which have become an iconic symbol of Malaysias futuristic development. Kuala Lumpur means muddy confluence, kuala is the point where two rivers join together or an estuary, and lumpur means mud. One suggestion is that it was named after Sungai Lumpur, it was recorded in 1824 that Sungei Lumpoor was the most important tin-producing settlement up the Klang River. It has also proposed that Kuala Lumpur was originally named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu. Another suggestion is that it was initially a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning flooded jungle or decayed jungle, there is however no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes. It is also possible that the name is a form of an earlier. It is unknown who founded or named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur was originally a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was openedKuala Lumpur – Clockwise from top left: Petronas Twin Towers, Petaling Street, Masjid Jamek and Gombak / Klang river confluence, National Monument, National Mosque, skyline of KL. Centre: KL Tower
17. Salman Khurshid – Salman Khurshid is an Indian politician, designated senior advocate, eminent author and a law teacher. He was the Cabinet Minister of the Ministry of External Affairs and he belongs to the Indian National Congress. He is a lawyer, and a writer who has been elected from Farrukhabad Lok Sabha constituency in the General Election of 2009 and he belongs to the Farrukhabad area. Prior to this he was elected to the 10th Lok Sabha from the Farrukhabad Lok Sabha constituency and he became the Union Deputy Minister of Commerce in June 1991, and later became the Union Minister of State for External Affairs. He started his career in 1981 as an Officer on Special Duty in the Prime Ministers Office under the prime ministership of Indira Gandhi. He started his career as an Officer on Special Duty in the Prime Ministers Office. Later he became the Deputy Minister of Commerce in the Government of India, during this period he was the Member of Parliament from the Farrukhabad constituency in Uttar Pradesh. In the General Election of 2009 he was again elected as Member of Parliament from Farrukhabad, winning as a candidate of the Indian National Congress. He became the Union Minister of State of Corporate Affairs and Minority Affairs in the Government of India and he took over as Minister on Friday,29 May 2009. In the Cabinet reshuffle of 12 July 2011, he was made Cabinet Minister for Law and Justice and he came 4th and lost his deposit in the Lok Sabha elections 2014 contesting from Farrukhabad. He has been the President of the Uttar Pradesh Pradesh Congress Committee twice and he was also the President of the Delhi Public School Society and Dr. Zakir Hussain Study Circle and PATRON of Mother Teresa Memorial Trust/Mother Teresa Foundation. Asked about his appearance, Khurshid said, I would refuse a client only when I am personally satisfied that taking up the case would go against the ethics of the profession, a lawyer has to appear for an accused. A party and the government too cannot pre-judge an organisation, in 2009, incumbent president Sirajuddin Qureshi beat Salman Khurshid for the presidency of India Islamic Cultural Centre. Campaign for the election was very intense which became high-profile with Khurshids entry in the fray, Khurshid has been deeply involved in writing and acting in plays since his student days in Delhi and Oxford. He is the author of the play Sons of Babur, published by Rupa & Co. which has staged, with Tom Alter in the lead role. Salman Khurshid has also been the editor of The Contemporary Conservative, the Zakir Hussain Memorial Trust is registered at Khurshids residence as an NGO and Louise is its chief functionary officer. It has been operating in many states and receiving substantial grants from several important ministries of the government of India, as of 2012, it is chaired by Sayeeda Alam, Khurshids father. In October 2012, India Today and Aaj Tak alleged that the Khurshids had embezzled funds, the ruling party Congress strongly defended Khurshid, but former social activist Arvind Kejriwal of Aam Aadmi Party began what he called indefinite agitationSalman Khurshid – Salman Khurshid
18. Indian National Congress – The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. Congress was founded in 1885 during the British Raj, its founders include Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, there have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, and the most recent Manmohan Singh. The partys social liberal platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of regional parties. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Meghalaya, in Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition. The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, the Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume. It has been suggested that the idea was conceived in a meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued. Its objective was to obtain a share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress, the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, representing each province of India, the Partys delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims, the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds. It also included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915, in 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, the Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, at the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj was declared as the partys goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as Purna Swaraj Diwas, Independence Day. The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, the British government allowed provincial elections in India in the winter of 1936–37 under the Government of India Act 1935Indian National Congress – A. O. Hume, one of the founders of the Indian National Congress
19. Lawyer – A lawyer is a person who practices law, as an advocate, barrister, attorney, counselor or solicitor or chartered legal executive. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, in practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer. As a result, the meaning of the lawyer may vary from place to place. In Australia, the lawyer is used to refer to both barristers and solicitors. In Canada, the word lawyer refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called barristers and solicitors, however, in Quebec, civil law advocates often call themselves attorney and sometimes barrister and solicitor in English. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the activities that may only be performed by a person who is entitled to do so pursuant to the Act. Lawyer is not a protected title, in India, the term lawyer is often colloquially used, but the official term is advocate as prescribed under the Advocates Act,1961. In Scotland, the word refers to a more specific group of legally trained people. It specifically includes advocates and solicitors, in a generic sense, it may also include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals, in fact, there are regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have terms for the analogous concept. In most countries, particularly civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries, clerks, and scriveners. Several countries that originally had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, in countries with fused professions, a lawyer is usually permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a clients case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the province of the barrister in England. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved, in England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, and barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courtsLawyer – Dr Alberico Gentili (1552-1608), one of the best known lawyers.