1. Pop music – Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid 1950s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular. Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, dance, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, according to Pete Seeger, pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz, rock, and novelty songs. Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition. The term pop song was first recorded as being used in 1926, Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience. Since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles. Grove Music Online also states that, in the early 1960s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll. From about 1967, the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral. It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative. It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptionsPop music – The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance)
2. Popular music – Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training and it stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or folk music. Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of music, although since the beginning of the recording industry. Traditional music forms such as blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller. The original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States, although popular music sometimes is known as pop music, the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music songs and pieces typically have easily singable melodies, in the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have an appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture. The examples of Africa, Indonesia and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local traditions to create new hybrid styles. Sales of recordings or sheet music are one measure, middleton and Manuel note that this definition has problems because multiple listens or plays of the same song or piece are not counted. Manuel states that one criticism of music is that it is produced by large media conglomerates and passively consumed by the public. He claims that the listeners in the scenario would not have been able to make the choice of their favorite music, moreover, understandings of popular music have changed with time. A societys popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published, david Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture. The majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values and this allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music. Form in popular music is most often sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, chorus form *, and twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs are rarely composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics, the verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse usually has the melody, but the lyrics change for most verses. The chorus usually has a phrase and a key lyrical line which is repeatedPopular music – The 19th century singer Jenny Lind depicted performing La sonnambula
3. Rock and roll – While elements of rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until the 1950s. For the purpose of differentiation, this deals with the first definition. The beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Beyond simply a style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes. In addition, rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teens enjoyed the music and it went on to spawn various genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply rock music or rock. The term rock and roll now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage, the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s. In 1934, the song Rock and Roll by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round, in 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term rock-and-roll to describe upbeat recordings such as Rock Me by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the Rock and Roll Inn in South Merchantville, in 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it. The origins of rock and roll have been debated by commentators. The migration of former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called race music, particularly significant influences were jazz, blues, gospel, country, and folk. The 1940s saw the use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics. In the same period, particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest, similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll. Rock and roll arrived at a time of technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar, amplifier and microphone. It was the realization that relatively affluent white teenagers were listening to music that led to the development of what was to be defined as rock. Because the development of rock and roll was a process, no single record can be identified as unambiguously the first rock. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee LewisRock and roll – Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio in the origins of rock and roll
4. Rock music – It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues, rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk. Musically, rock has centered on the guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk. From the 1990s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers. The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group, Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, rock and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original. The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee LewisRock music – Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2006, showing a quartet lineup for a rock band (from left to right: bassist, lead vocalist, drummer, and guitarist).
5. Classical music – Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical and secular music. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period, Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo, meter and rhythms for a piece of music. This can leave less room for such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation. The term classical music did not appear until the early 19th century, the earliest reference to classical music recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836. This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, the written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them, J. S. The use of written notation also preserves a record of the works, Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced. That said, the score does not provide complete and exact instructions on how to perform a historical work, even if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, we do not know exactly how fast the piece should be played. Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations, during the Classical era, the composer-performer Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles. During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto, during the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century and they consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments. The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for music and includes members of the string, woodwind, brass. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass and it generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section. However, many bands use a double bass. Many of the used to perform medieval music still exist. Medieval instruments included the flute, the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ, fiddle, Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut, during the earlier medieval period, the vocal music from the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic, using a single, unaccompanied vocal melody line. Polyphonic vocal genres, which used multiple independent vocal melodies, began to develop during the medieval era, becoming prevalent by the later 13thClassical music
6. Jazz – Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national, regional, and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine, ragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, said, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elementsJazz – Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) is considered one of the pivotal musicians in jazz for his contributions as a trumpet player, composer and singer.
7. Lady Gaga – Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta, known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. She performed initially in theater, appearing in school plays. From there, Akon noticed her vocal abilities and helped her to sign a joint deal with Interscope Records and her debut album The Fame was a critical and commercial success that produced international chart-topping singles such as Just Dance and Poker Face. A follow-up EP, The Fame Monster, was met with a reception and Bad Romance, Telephone. Her second full-length album Born This Way was released in 2011, topping the charts in more than 20 countries, including the United States, the album produced the number-one single Born This Way. Her third album Artpop, released in 2013, topped the US charts, in 2014, Gaga released a collaborative jazz album with Tony Bennett titled Cheek to Cheek, which became her third consecutive number one in the United States. For her work in the television series American Horror Story, Hotel, with her fifth studio album Joanne, she became the first woman to have four US number one albums in the 2010s. In February 2017, Gaga headlined the Super Bowl LI halftime show which had an audience of over 150 million across various platforms worldwide. With global album and single sales of 27 million and 146 million respectively, as of January 2016 and her achievements include twelve Guinness World Records, three Brit Awards, and six Grammy Awards. She is also the first artist to win the Songwriters Hall of Fames Contemporary Icon Award, in 2013, Gaga finished second on Times readers poll of the most influential people of the past ten years, while in 2015, she was named Billboards Woman of the Year. Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta was born on March 28,1986 and she is the elder daughter of Cynthia Louise Cindy and Internet entrepreneur Joseph Joe Germanotta. Gaga has three Italian grandparents and one American grandparent, as well as French Canadian ancestry, Gagas sister Natali is a fashion student. From age 11, she attended the Convent of the Sacred Heart and she described her academic life in high school as very dedicated, very studious, very disciplined but also a bit insecure. I used to get made fun of for being too provocative or too eccentric. I didnt fit in, and I felt like a freak, in 2014, Gaga said she was raped at the age of 19. She stated, I went through some things that Im able to laugh now, because Ive gone through a lot of mental and physical therapy. Gaga later said that she suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder because of the rape, and that support from doctors, family, and friends really saved my life. Gaga began playing the piano at the age of four, wrote her first piano ballad at 13 and she performed lead roles in high school productions, including Adelaide in Guys and Dolls and Philia in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the ForumLady Gaga – Gaga performing at the Cheek to Cheek Tour in June 2015
8. Convent of the Sacred Heart (New York City) – Convent of the Sacred Heart is an independent Roman Catholic all-girl school in the Manhattan borough of New York City. Teaching from pre-kindergarten all the way through to grade, it is located on Manhattans Upper East Side at East 91st Street. The school is housed in the former Otto H. Kahn House, Burden House, both of which are New York City-Designated Landmarks. Founded in 1881 by the Society of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic congregation established in France in 1800, the school was originally housed in a Manhattan brownstone on Madison Avenue at East 54th Street. By the 1930s, the school had outgrown its Madison Avenue space, in 1940, the Society acquired the Burden mansion next door. It is operated independently as part of the Network of Sacred Heart Schools, the school is also associated with the New York Interschool Association. Sacred Heart is accredited by the New York State Association of Independent Schools, as of September 2014, the athletic center is open. There are 40+ after-school activities available every fall, winter and spring to Lower School students, there are 40+ clubs and activities available to Middle School students. There are 30+ clubs and activities available to Upper School students, the school participates in eleven interscholastic sports disciplines. There is an athletic building at 406 91st Street near 1st AveConvent of the Sacred Heart (New York City) – The convent is housed in the former Otto H. Kahn and James A. Burden houses (left to right)
9. New York University – New York University is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU is considered one of the worlds most influential research universities, University rankings compiled by Times Higher Education, U. S. News & World Report, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities all rank NYU amongst the top 32 universities in the world. NYU is a part of the creativity, energy and vibrancy that is Manhattan, located with its core in Greenwich Village. Among its faculty and alumni are 37 Nobel Laureates, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 30 Academy Award winners, alumni include heads of state, royalty, eminent mathematicians, inventors, media figures, Olympic medalists, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and astronauts. NYU alumni are among the wealthiest in the world, according to The Princeton Review, NYU is consistently considered by students and parents as a Top Dream College. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish in this immense, a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all. A three-day-long literary and scientific convention held in City Hall in 1830 and these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18,1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the merchants, bankers. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institutions first president, the university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was officially renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, in 1835, the School of Law, NYUs first professional school, was established. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU and it became one of the nations largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding, the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU also had a desire to follow New York Citys development further uptown, NYUs move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken. The University Heights campus was far more spacious than its predecessor was, as a result, most of the universitys operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYUs administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead and this extension would later become a fully independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the citys institutions, including NYUNew York University – Albert Gallatin
10. Tisch School of the Arts – The New York University Tisch School of the Arts is a center of study in the performing and media arts. Founded on August 17,1965, Tisch is a ground for artists, scholars of the arts, filmmakers. The school merges the technical training of a school with the academic resources of a major research university to immerse students in their intended artistic disciplines. It is located at 721 Broadway in Manhattan, New York City, NYU has the most alumni working at Broadway theatre. Tisch School of the Arts was founded in order to provide training in theatre and film. The school created additional departments such as dance, theatre design, in recognition of the generosity of the Tisch family, the school was renamed Tisch School of the Arts. Tisch also offers a selection of classes to NYU students not enrolled in any of its programs through the Open Arts curriculum, the Graduate Acting Program offers a three-year MFA that equips acting students with the skills of a working career in theatre and/or film. The Department of the Dance offers training on the graduate and undergraduate level to students preparing for careers as dancers or choreographers, while taking full advantage of the liberal arts resources of the New York University and the cultural resources of the New York City. The Graduate Musical Theater Writing Program is an MFA program specially designed for the major collaborators in the creation of new theater and opera, composers, lyricists. NYU Tisch School of the Arts Graduate Acting Program has gained a reputation for its selectivity. Zelda Fichandler became chair of the program in 1984 and stepped down in 2008, in May 2008, Mark Wing-Davey became chair. Graduate Acting alumni have gone on to achieve many acting accolades, faison Edi Gathegi Jordan Gelber,2000 Enver Gjokaj Matthew Gray Gubler Logan Marshall Green Christopher Guest,1971 Danai Gurira Michael C. Many of the faculty have their own independent of the dance department. The program strives to prepare students for the life of a dancer, preparing them by treating their third year students as a company. Students graduate in three years, hence the schedule which is accelerated in order for dancers to graduate earlier than their peers in other college dance programs. Because of brevity of the program, students attend a six-week summer course following their first. During these summer intensives, six different companies come in a week each and teach students their style of movement and this is an excellent way for students to be introduced to companies and have the chance to get noticed and get to know the different companies in an intimate setting. This is unique to the Tisch Dance Program, and is conducive to introducing dancers into the world of auditionsTisch School of the Arts – Tisch School of the Arts
11. Manhattan – Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government. The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City. In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776. The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the cityManhattan – View from Midtown Manhattan, facing south toward Lower Manhattan
12. Lower East Side – The Lower East Side is roughly bounded by the Bowery to the west, East Houston Street to the north, the F. D. R. Drive to the east and Canal Street to the south, the western boundary below Grand Street veers east off of the Bowery to approximately Essex Street. The neighborhood is bordered in the south and west by Chinatown – which extends north to roughly Grand Street, in the west by Nolita and in the north by the East Village. Historically, the Lower East Side referred to the area alongside the East River from about the Manhattan Bridge and Canal Street up to 14th Street and it included areas known today as East Village, Alphabet City, Chinatown, Bowery, Little Italy, and NoLIta. Parts of the East Village are still known as Loisaida, a Latino pronunciation of Lower East Side, Avenue C is known directly as Loisaida and is home to the Loisaida Festival every summer. Their main trail took approximately the route of Broadway, one encampment in the Lower East Side area, near Corlears Hook was called Rechtauck or Naghtogack. Around these farms were a number of enclaves of free or half-free Africans, one of the largest of these was located along the modern Bowery between Prince Street and Astor Place. These black farmers were some of the earliest settlers of the area, gradually, during the 17th century, there was an overall consolidation of the boweries and farms into larger parcels, and much of the Lower East side was then part of the Delancy farm. James Delanceys pre-Revolutionary farm east of post road leading from the city survives in the names Delancey Street, on the modern map of Manhattan, the Delancey farm is represented in the grid of streets from Division Street north to Houston Street. In response to the pressures of a city, Delancey began to survey streets in the southern part of the West Farm in the 1760s. The point of land on the East River now called Corlears Hook was also called Corlaers Hook under Dutch and British rule, and briefly Crown Point during British occupation in the Revolution. It was named after the schoolmaster Jacobus van Corlaer, who settled on this plantation that in 1638 was called by a Europeanized version of its Lenape name, Nechtans or Nechtanc. Corlaer sold the plantation to Wilhelmus Hendrickse Beekman, founder of the Beekman family of New York, the projection into the East River that retained Corlaers name was an important landmark for navigators for 300 years. On older maps and documents it is usually spelled Corlaers Hook, in the course of the 19th century they came to be called hookers. In 1833, Corlears Hook was the location of some of the first tenements built in New York City, the original location of Corlears Hook is now obscured by shoreline landfill. It was near the east end of the present pedestrian bridge over the FDR Drive near Cherry Street, the name is preserved in Corlears Hook Park at the intersection of Jackson and Cherry Streets along the East River Drive. The bulk of immigrants who came to New York City in the late 19th and early 20th centuries came to the Lower East Side, moving into crowded tenements there. By the 1840s, large numbers of German immigrants settled in the area, later, more radical artists such as the Beat poets and writers were drawn to the neighborhood – especially the parts which later became the East Village – by the inexpensive housing and cheap foodLower East Side – Lower East Side Historic District
13. Interscope Records – Interscope Records is an American record company. At the time, it differed from most record companies by giving decision-making authority to its A&R staff and it had its first hit records less than a year after it was founded and achieved profitability in 1993. In 1992, Interscope acquired the rights to market and distribute the hardcore rap label Death Row. Albums by Death Row artists included rappers Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, as a result, Time Warner severed ties with Interscope by selling its 50 percent stake back to Field and Iovine for $115 million in 1995. In 1996, 50% of the label was acquired by the MCA Music Entertainment Group for a reported $200 million, Iovine served as chairman and CEO until May 2014. He was succeeded by John Janick, Interscope is headquartered in Santa Monica, California. The labels best-selling artists include U2, Eminem, Lady Gaga, in 1989, Ted Field began to build Interscope Records as a division of his film company, Interscope Communications. To run it, he hired John McClain, who had played a role in Janet Jacksons success at A&M Records, and Tom Whalley. Separately, Iovine, who had produced records by U2, Bruce Springsteen, I thought, Music is going to change, Iovine said in 1997. Young bands arent going to be asking for me, but I love working with the new thing. I always liked the part of the business thats the first time you hear something, Iovine and Field were introduced by Paul McGuinness, then U2s manager. After a series of negotiations led by David Geffen, they came to an agreement, in a 1997 article in Rolling Stone, David Wild wrote, Interscopes start-up coincided with a period of incredible change in the music world. Nirvana had ushered in the alternative revolution, based in Westwood, California, Interscope was run by music men. It was a departure from the industry practices of the 1970s and 1980s. A founding tenet of the label was that artists would have creative control. Interscopes first release was Rico Suave by Ecuadoran rapper Gerardo in December 1990, Primus Interscope debut was released in May, followed by Marky Mark and the Funky Bunchs Music for the People in July. It included the #1 single Good Vibrations, two days after first hearing his demo, Whalley signed Tupac Shakur, and in November 1991, Interscope released 2pacalypse Now, Shakurs studio debut. Interscope began to develop a significant presence in the genre in 1992Interscope Records – Interscope Records
14. Akon – Aliaume Damala Badara Akon Thiam, better known as Akon, is a Senegalese-American singer, rapper, songwriter, businessman, record producer and actor. He rose to prominence in 2004 following the release of Locked Up and he has since founded two successful record labels, Konvict Muzik and Kon Live Distribution. He is the first solo artist to hold both the one and two spots simultaneously on the Billboard Hot 100 charts twice. Akon has had four songs certified as 3× platinum, three songs certified as 2× platinum, more than ten songs certified as 1× platinum and more than ten songs certified as gold in digital sales, Akon has sung songs in other languages including Tamil, Hindi, and Spanish. He was listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the #1 selling artist for master ringtones in the world, Akon often provides vocals as a featured artist and is currently credited with over 300 guest appearances and more than 35 Billboard Hot 100 songs. He has worked with performers such as Michael Jackson, Eminem, Snoop Dogg, Whitney Houston, Bone Thugs-N-Harmony. He has had five Grammy Awards nominations and has produced songs for such as Lady Gaga, Colby ODonis, Kardinal Offishall, Leona Lewis. Forbes ranked Akon 80th in Forbes Celebrity 100 in 2010 and 5th in 40 Most Powerful Celebrities in Africa list, Billboard ranked Akon No.6 on the list of Top Digital Songs Artists of the decade. Akon was born in St. Louis, Missouri, and spent much of his childhood in the West African country Senegal, the child of a dancer mother and a percussionist father, Mor Thiam, Akon learned to play five instruments, including drums, guitar and djembe. At age 7, he moved with his family to Union City, New Jersey, growing up in New Jersey, Akon had difficulties getting along with other children. When he and his brother reached high school, his parents left them on their own in Jersey City and moved the rest of the family to Atlanta. In regards to his date, Akon is very protective of it. However, legal documents released by The Smoking Gun list his date of birth as April 16,1973, Akons alleged three years in jail saw him begin to recognize his music abilities and develop an appreciation for his musical background. The songs Akon recorded with Stephens were brought to the attention of Universals imprint SRC Records, in an interview with HitQuarters SRC A&R Jerome Foster said, What caught my attention right away was Lonely, and I said, this kid is official – this is a huge record. Foster and SRC CEO Steve Rifkind immediately boarded a plane to Atlanta to meet the young artist. Akon knew of Fosters work as producer Knobody and so there was a mutual respect for one another, Akon increased his exposure further by collaborating with overseas artists, including New Zealands rapper Savage and hip-hop producer P-Money, performing choruses as a featured vocalist. Akons solo debut album, Trouble was released on June 29,2004 and it spawned the singles Locked Up and Lonely, Belly Dancer, Pot Of Gold, and Ghetto. Locked Up reached 8th position in the U. S. Ghetto became a radio hit when it was remixed by DJ Green Lantern to include verses from rappers 2Pac and The Notorious B. I. GAkon – Akon in 2009
15. The Fame – The Fame is the debut studio album by American singer Lady Gaga. It was released on August 19,2008 through Interscope Records, after joining Kon Live Distribution and Cherrytree Records in 2008, Gaga began working on the album with different producers, primarily RedOne, Martin Kierszenbaum and Rob Fusari. Musically, The Fame is a synthpop and dance-pop album that has influences of pop music from the 1980s, lyrically, the album visualizes Gagas love of fame in general while also dealing with subjects such as love, sex, money, drugs and sexual identity. Promotion was primarily through The Fame Ball Tour and multiple television appearances, the Fame was included as a bonus disc on the deluxe edition of the extended play, The Fame Monster. The album received favorable reviews from music critics, who commended the albums lyrical content and Gagas musicianship. The album was a success, topping the charts in different countries worldwide, including the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany. In the United States, it peaked at two on the Billboard 200, while topping the Dance/Electronic Albums chart for 106 non-consecutive weeks. The Fame became the fifth best-selling album of 2009 and it has sold 4.7 million copies in the United States as of April 2016 and is the seventh best-selling digital album in history. The album sold 15 million copies worldwide as of November 2010, subsequent single LoveGame and Paparazzi, were commercial successes as well, charting within the top ten of more than ten countries worldwide. Eh, Eh had a release, while Beautiful, Dirty. The Fame has won multiple awards since its release and it was nominated for a total of five Grammy Awards at the 52nd Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Award for Album of the Year. It won the Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album and the Best Dance Recording for the single Poker Face and it also won Best International Album at the 2010 BRIT Awards. In 2013, Rolling Stone named The Fame as one of the 100 Greatest Debut Albums of All-Time, while establishing herself as an artist and working her way up through the New York underground club scene, Gaga released her debut studio album, The Fame. Speaking about the title and concept of the album, Gaga explained and it doesnt make you cool to hate pop culture, so I embraced it and you hear it all over The Fame. I want to invite you all to the party, I want people to feel a part of this lifestyle. Gaga stated in an interview with MTV UK that she had been working on the album for two and a half years and completed half of it during the first week of January 2008. As well as writing the lyrics, Gaga worked on the melodies and synth work of the album, according to Gaga, the first track Just Dance is a joyous, heart-themed song, which appeals to people going through tough times in their life. LoveGame, the track, was inspired by Gagas sexual crush on a stranger in a night club to whom she saidThe Fame – Gaga performing " Paparazzi " on The Fame Ball Tour.
16. Just Dance (song) – Just Dance is the debut single by American recording artist Lady Gaga. The song was produced by RedOne and co-written by RedOne, Gaga and Akon and it was released in 2008 as the lead single from Gagas debut studio album, The Fame. The song was written by Gaga in ten minutes as a happy record, Just Dance also has influences of R&B and lyrically speaks about being intoxicated at a club. The song received positive reviews music critics, who complimented its club anthem-like nature. The song topped the charts in the United States, Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, the Netherlands, the single is among the best-selling singles of all time, having sold over 10 million copies. The music video of the song portrayed Lady Gaga appearing in a party where she plays the song, prompting party-goers to start dancing in enjoyment, Gaga compared her experience of shooting the video with being on a Martin Scorsese set. Just Dance was performed by Gaga in a number of appearances including all of her concert tours. In 2009, the received a Grammy nomination in the Best Dance Recording category. Just Dance is written by Gaga and Akon with co-writing by RedOne, in an interview with Heat Gaga explained her inspiration for writing the song. She said, I was very hung-over, I wrote the song in about 10 minutes with RedOne. And it was my first time being in a Hollywood studio, very pristine, big huge room with giant speakers. Gaga wrote Just Dance during January 2008 and according to her it was hard work, later, Gaga reflected on the song by saying, That record saved my life. I was in such a space in New York. I was so depressed, always in a bar, I got on a plane to LA to do my music and was given one shot to write the song that would change my life and I did. I left behind my boyfriend, my apartment and my mother went in and cleared it for me. In an interview with Contactmusic. com Gaga explained that Just Dance is a record and is supposed to be appreciated by people going through rough times like losing jobs. Gaga further explained with Artistdirect that she wanted to write a record with Just Dance. Its just one of those records and it feels really good, and when you listen to it, it makes you feel good insideJust Dance (song) – Gaga performing "Just Dance" on the original The Monster Ball Tour.
17. Poker Face (Lady Gaga song) – Poker Face is a song by American singer Lady Gaga from her debut studio album, The Fame. It was released on September 26,2008 as the second single. Poker Face is a song in the key of G♯ minor, following in the footsteps of her previous single Just Dance. The main idea behind the song is bisexuality and was a tribute by Gaga to her rock, the songs lyrics feature various sexual innuendos. Poker Face was acclaimed by most critics, who praised the robotic hook, the song attained worldwide success, topping the charts in twenty countries including the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and many European countries. Poker Face is the single of 2009 worldwide, with over 9.5 million in sales. It is among the singles of all time, having sold over 14 million copies. The accompanying music video for the song portrays Gaga singing it in various costumes, Gaga performed the song for the eighth season of the television show American Idol as well as the Fame Ball and Monster Ball tours. The live performances included a version and an acoustic version. It was nominated for both Song of the Year and Record of the Year at the 52nd Grammy Awards, Poker Face was written by Gaga and RedOne, while production was handled also by RedOne. Gaga stated in an interview that Poker Face was written by her as a pop song and was a tribute to her rock n roll boyfriends and she also stated that the main idea behind the song was sex and gambling. In an interview with UKs Daily Star, Gaga noted of the song, I gamble but Ive also dated a lot of guys who are really into sex and booze and gambling, so I wanted to write a record my boyfriends would like too. In an interview with Rolling Stone magazine, when asked about the meaning of the line bluffin with my muffin, obviously, its my pussys poker face. I took that line from another song I wrote but never released, called Blueberry Kisses and it was about a girl singing to her boyfriend about how she wants him to go down on her, and I used the lyric. Blueberry kisses, the muffin man misses them kisses, during her Fame Ball Tour performance at Palm Springs, California, on April 11,2009, Gaga explained to the crowd the true meaning behind the term Poker Face used in the song. She suggested that the song dealt with her experience with bisexuality. The idea behind the song was to be with a man but fantasizing about a woman, Poker Face is a synthpop song, and follows the footsteps of Gagas previous single Just Dance. According to Kerri Mason of Billboard, the composition carr the pleather-and-sequins vibe of the downtown New York scene out of the underground and onto the FM dial without losing its smut and sassPoker Face (Lady Gaga song) – Gaga performing the piano version of "Poker Face" on The Monster Ball Tour, accompanied by Kid Cudi. The backdrops display videos submitted by her fans.
18. The Fame Ball Tour – The Fame Ball Tour was the debut concert tour by American singer Lady Gaga, in support of her debut studio album The Fame. North American shows began in March, followed by dates in Oceania, dates in Asia soon followed, as well as two performances at Englands V Festival and two shows in North America that had been postponed from April. Gaga described the tour as a museum show incorporating artist Andy Warhols pop-performance art concept. Tickets were distributed for charity also, alternate versions of the show with minimal variations were planned by Gaga to accommodate different venues. The show consisted of four segments, with each segment being followed by an interlude to the next segment. The set list consisted of songs from her debut album only, Gaga appeared on the stage in new costumes including an innovative dress made entirely of bubbles and premiered an unreleased song called Future Love. An alternate set list with minor changes were performed after the first North American leg of the tour, the show has received critical acclaim with critics complimenting her vocal clarity and fashion sense as well as her ability to pull off theatrics like a professional artist. The tour was announced on January 12,2009 through Gagas official MySpace page. It was her first headlining tour, she has served as opening act for New Kids on the Blocks New Kids on the Block, Live tour. Gaga stated, I consider what I do to be more of an Andy Warhol concept, pop art, multimedia, fashion, technology, video. And its all coming together, and its going to be traveling museum show, Gaga started planning for the show while on the tour with The Pussycat Dolls. In an interview with MTV News, she described the tour as, Its not really a tour, I want it to be an entire experience from minute you walk in front door to minute I begin to sing. And when its all over, everyones going to press rewind, I want so much to make every depression dollar that everyone spends on my show worth it. And, yeah, Im paying a lot for it — out of my own pocket, I just dont care about money. Gaga prepared three versions of her show to cater to different sizes of the venues she played. In an interview with Billboard she said, I am so mental and sleepless and excited for this tour, whats fantastic about was I was able to plan it while I was on another tour that was on a much smaller scale, opening for the Dolls. This is going to be, like, the ultimate creative orgasm for me cause Im ready to move on, Im not restricted to a certain structure for my show anymore. I want to have a schedule of the dimensions for each venue so that we can properly execute all the technologyThe Fame Ball Tour – Official poster for the tour
19. The Fame Monster – The Fame Monster is a reissue of American singer Lady Gagas debut studio album, The Fame, and was released on November 18,2009, through Interscope Records. Initially planned solely as a deluxe reissue of The Fame. The decision was due to Gaga believing the re-release was too expensive. A super deluxe edition of The Fame Monster including The Fame and additional merchandise, musically, The Fame Monster is a pop album with influences of disco, glam rock, and synthpop music of the 1970s and 1980s, as well as industrial and gothic music. The album was inspired by fashion shows and runways. According to Gaga, the deals with the darker side of fame. The cover artwork was done by Hedi Slimane and has a Gothic theme, due to which they were declined by her record company. The Fame Monster received generally positive reviews music critics. In the United States, it reached five on the Billboard 200 albums chart. The Fame Monster has won multiple awards since its release and it was nominated in a total of six categories at the 53rd Annual Grammy Awards including Gagas second consecutive Album of the Year nomination, ultimately winning for Best Pop Vocal Album. Its lead single, Bad Romance, was a success, topping the charts in more than twenty countries worldwide. The next two singles, Telephone and Alejandro were successful as well, reaching the top ten in countries worldwide. Dance in the Dark was only released as a single in select territories, achieving moderate chart success, Gaga released her debut studio album, The Fame, in 2008. After the worldwide success of The Fame, the idea of a re-release arose, however, Gaga felt that re-releases were a disservice to music artists because its artists sneaking singles onto an already finished piece of work in an effort to keep the album afloat. Her label, Interscope Records, initially wanted three songs for the project, titled as The Fame Monster, but as the tracks began taking definite form, it developed into much more than that. Gaga had already composed a song, Monster, by March 2009, on May 22,2009, Gaga tweeted just the word monster and explained in an interview with Daily Star, I have an obsession with death and sex. Those two things are also the nexus of horror films, which Ive been obsessing over lately, i’ve been watching horror movies and 1950s science fiction movies. My re-release is called The Fame Monster so Ive just been sort of eating and regurgitating monster moviesThe Fame Monster
20. Bad Romance – Bad Romance is a song by American singer Lady Gaga from her third extended play, The Fame Monster. It was written and produced by Gaga and RedOne, lyrically, Bad Romance explores Gagas attraction to individuals with whom romance never works, her preference for lonely relationships and the paranoia she experienced while on tour. Following an illegal demo leak, Gaga showcased the product at Alexander McQueens show at the Paris Fashion Week in October 2009. Musically, Bad Romance features a bridge, a full-throated chorus. The song, which is imbued with elements of Germanesque house and techno, as well as music from 1980s, the song contains a few lines in French. Most commentators were enticed by Bad Romance, which they declared one of the highlights of The Fame Monster album. It achieved worldwide success by topping the charts in a variety of markets, ultimately selling 12 million copies worldwide, the accompanying music video of Bad Romance features Gaga inside a surreal white bathhouse. There, she gets kidnapped by a group of supermodels who drug her, the music video ends with Gaga burning the man alive who bought her. The songs video garnered acclaim from critics, who not only applauded the risqué and symbolic nature of the plot, in 2011, the music video was voted the best video of the 2000s by readers of Billboard. It was nominated for numerous superlatives, including ten awards at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards, Gaga collaborated with Nadir RedOne Khayat in writing Bad Romance, with Khayat taking charge of production. The song was recorded at Record Plant Studios in Los Angeles, Bad Romance was released as the lead single from The Fame Monster, Gagas follow-up to her debut album, The Fame. Before its official release, a version of the song was published illegally on the internet, prompting Gaga to comment via Twitter. Wait till you hear the real version, a snippet of the song was performed on Saturday Night Live on October 3,2009, along with Poker Face and LoveGame. The final version of Bad Romance premiered during the finale of fashion designer Alexander McQueens 2010 Paris Fashion Week show, according to Gaga, the song was one of her initial efforts among the songs that she wrote in 2009 while touring. The songs composed during that time were about the various abstract monsters—metaphors for her paranoias—that she faced during the tour, one of these concepts became the inspiration behind Bad Romance. Gaga explained that she felt lonely when she was involved in a relationship. Bad Romance explores her preference for lonely relationships and her poor choice in men. Gaga wrote the lyrics of Bad Romance in Norway on her tour bus and she further elaborated on the writing process in an interview with Grazia, I was in Russia, then Germany, and spent a lot of time in Eastern EuropeBad Romance – "Bad Romance"
21. Telephone (song) – Telephone is a song recorded by American singer Lady Gaga for her third EP, The Fame Monster. The song features American singer Beyoncé, the song was written by Gaga, Rodney Jerkins, LaShawn Daniels, Lazonate Franklin and Beyoncé. Originally, Gaga wrote the song for Britney Spears, who recorded a demo, musically, Telephone consists of an expanded bridge, verse-rap and a sampled voice of an operator announcing that the phone line is unreachable. Beyoncé appears in the middle of the song, singing the verses in a rapid-fire way, the song received positive reviews from critics who frequently noted Telephone as a stand-out track from The Fame Monster. It was Grammy-nominated for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals in 2011, Telephone charted in a number of countries due to digital sales following the albums release, namely in the United States, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and Hungary. The song was successful in Europe where it reached the top of the charts in Belgium, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Norway. According to the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, the single sold 7.4 million digital copies worldwide in 2010, the accompanying music video is a continuation of the video for her 2009 song, Paparazzi, and is also shot as a short film. After Gaga gets bailed out of prison by Beyoncé, they go to a diner, after the homicide they escape and end up in a high-speed police chase. The video referenced Quentin Tarantino and his films Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill, the video received generally positive reviews was nominated for three awards at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards, including one for Video of the Year. In January 2015 Billboard named it the best video of the first half of the decade, in memory of Alexander McQueen, Gaga performed an acoustic rendition of Telephone mixed with Dance in the Dark at the 2010 BRIT Awards. It was also added to the set list of The Monster Ball Tour in 2010, Telephone was originally written by Gaga for singer Britney Spearss sixth studio album, Circus, but Spears rejected it. Later, Gaga recorded the song as a collaboration with Beyoncé for The Fame Monster, Gaga said, I wrote it for her a long time ago and she just didnt use it for her album. Its fine because I love the song and I get to perform it now, Spears demo for the song leaked in May 2010. Additionally, the guest vocalist was originally going to be Spears, the main inspiration behind the song was Gagas fear of suffocation as she felt that she seldom found time to just let loose and have fun. Fear of suffocation—something that I have or fear is never being able to enjoy myself, cause I love my work so much, I find it really hard to go out and have a good time. You dont see pictures of me falling out of a club drunk, I dont go—and thats because I usually go and then, you know, a whiskey and a half into it, I got to get back to work. In May 2011, Gaga said her emotional connection with the song was difficult, when she was asked if it was because the song was originally written for Britney Spears, she answered, Well that’s not exactly what happened, but I don’t want to delve into that. I could delve into it if you turn that off, but ultimately the mix and the process of getting the production finished was very stressful for meTelephone (song) – "Telephone" was initially written for Britney Spears (left). When she did not use it for her album, Gaga took the song and recorded a duet with Beyoncé (right).
22. Alejandro (song) – Alejandro is a song by American singer Lady Gaga. It was released as the single from her third extended play and second major release. Co-written and produced by herself and RedOne, the inspired by her Fear of Men Monster. Musically, it is a synthpop song. Contemporary critics predominantly gave Alejandro positive reviews and noted that it takes influence from the pop acts ABBA, Ace of Base, the song charted in the United Kingdom and Hungary due to digital sales following the albums release. Alejandro became Gagas seventh successive single to reach the top-ten of the US Billboard Hot 100, the accompanying music video was directed by fashion photographer Steven Klein and inspired by Gagas love for her gay friends and admiration of gay love. Within the video, Gaga dances with a group of soldiers in a cabaret, interspersed scenes of Gaga as a nun swallowing a rosary. The music video was controversial and received mixed reviews, Gaga performed the song on the ninth season of American Idol and has performed it on all dates of The Monster Ball Tour. The song was included on her 2012–13 tour The Born This Way Ball, as well as on her 2014 tour, ArtRave. Gaga co-wrote and co-produced Alejandro with RedOne and it was recorded at FC Walvisch Studios in Amsterdam. She told Fuse TV that the inspiration behind Alejandro was her Fear of Men Monster, Billboard described Alejandro as a synthpop song with a stomping Euro-pop beat. The song is influenced by ABBA and Ace of Base, the Ace of Base influences are prominent in the beats of the song, the vocals, and the melody. The words are slurred in her mouth while consisting of an uplifting melody, the track then changes to a stomping Europop beat. Gaga bids her ex-lovers farewell with a bitter-hearted pre-chorus where she sings, You know that I love you, boy/Hot like Mexico, by the end of the song, the three protagonists – Alejandro, Fernando, and Roberto – are bidden farewell by Gaga. According to the music published at Musicnotes. com by Sony/ATV Music Publishing. It is composed in the key of B minor with Gagas vocal range spanning from F♯3 to G5, the song has a basic sequence of Bm–D–F♯m as its chord progression. Originally, Dance in the Dark was planned to be released as the single from The Fame Monster. The singers own choice, Alejandro, initially saw poor reception in terms of radio play, a quarrel then arose between Gaga and her label where Alejandro was ultimately chosen to be releasedAlejandro (song) – Lady Gaga performing "Alejandro" on the Born This Way Ball, sporting her "gun-bra" from the music video.
23. The Monster Ball Tour – The Monster Ball Tour was the second worldwide concert tour by American singer Lady Gaga. Staged in support of her extended play The Fame Monster and comprising a set list of songs from that and her debut album The Fame, the tour visited arenas and stadiums from 2009 through 2011. Described as the first-ever pop electro opera by Gaga, the tour was announced in October 2009 after a joint concert tour with hip-hop artist Kanye West was suddenly canceled. The Monster Ball Tour commenced four days after the release of The Fame Monster in November 2009, a revision of the tour occurred after only a few months of performances, due to Gagas concern that the original version was constructed within a very short span of time. The stage of the show looked like a frame, comparable to that of a hollowed-out television set. From 2010 onwards, the shows had a New York theme and portrayed a story set in the city. Both versions of the show were divided into five segments, with the last being the encore, each of them featured Gaga in new outfits, singing songs related to the concept of the segment, as they were followed by a video interlude. The tour received critical acclaim, with critics praising Gagas singing abilities, the theatricality of the show. The Monster Ball was a success, with sold-out shows. It ultimately grossed an estimated US$227.4 million from 200 reported shows, HBO filmed a special of The Monster Ball Tour during Gagas February 2011 shows at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Initially, hip-hop artist Kanye West and Lady Gaga had plans to launch a joint tour in October 2009, known as Fame Kills, Starring Lady Gaga and Kanye West. Amid negative response to his controversial outbursts at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, nevertheless, the complete schedule for Fame Kills was released, with the tour set to begin on November 10,2009, in Phoenix, Arizona. Shortly afterwards, the tour was cancelled without any explanation. Gaga addressed the situation at Billboards annual Women in Music luncheon, in an interview she stated, is going to take a break, but the good news is, I am not. After assuring the public that she would be embarking on her own tour and it was originally planned to debut in London in early 2010, but ended up kicking off on November 27,2009, in Montreal. Rapper Kid Cudi and singer Jason Derülo were confirmed as the acts for the tour, with Cudi supporting Gaga from the beginning of the tour. The contraption was designed by Nasir Mazhar in collaboration with Gagas own creative production company, Haus of Gaga. The tours sponsor of the American leg was Virgin Mobile USA, in an interview with Rolling Stone, Gaga explained that she wanted to put together an expensive looking, beautiful show which would be affordable for her fansThe Monster Ball Tour – The original and the revised shows began with a club remix of " Dance in the Dark ". In the original show (left), Gaga appeared behind scrim lighting, while the revised show (right) presented a New York night scene.
24. List of highest-grossing concert tours – This is an incomplete list of the highest-grossing concert tours. Only tours using reliable references and having grossed over $100 million have been added to the list, some of the gross may be higher than reported on this list because not all concerts are reported. Billboard and Pollstar regularly provide the figure of concerts gross revenue worldwide. Tours that span multiple decades are included in the decade that they concluded, in bold, the tours which, when completed, became the highest-grossing of all time. This list represents the top 20 grossing tours of all timeList of highest-grossing concert tours – The 360° Tour by U2 is the highest grossing concert tour of all time
25. Born This Way (album) – Born This Way is the second studio album by American singer Lady Gaga, released by Interscope Records on May 23,2011. It is a follow-up to her successful album The Fame. As co-producer of every track on the album, Gaga collaborated with producers, including RedOne and Fernando Garibay. She also worked with such as E Street Band saxophonist Clarence Clemons. It features a range of genres such as opera, heavy metal, disco, house and rock and roll while its lyrical topics include sexuality, religion, freedom, feminism. Several publications included the album in their year-end best-of lists, Born This Way received three Grammy Award nominations, including Gagas third consecutive nomination for Album of the Year. Born This Way debuted in the top five spots of every major chart and it sold six million copies worldwide. The title track was once the fastest-selling single in iTunes history. Gaga has performed songs from the album on different occasions, including the 53rd Grammy Awards, in November 2011, Born This Way, and the remix album, Born This Way, The Remix, were packaged with the compilation album, Born This Way, The Collection. In March 2010, Gaga disclosed that she was working on a new album, meanwhile, producer RedOne described it as Gagas freedom album as her manager, Troy Carter, felt her public image would begin to change after the release of Born This Way. A few months after the announcement, Gaga exclaimed that she had finished writing songs for the album, Ive been working on it for months, and I feel very strongly that its finished right now. In another interview, she declared the album the anthem of generation, as she continued, Ive already written the first single for the new album and I promise you, that this album is the greatest of my career. Brian May, a guitarist of Queen, and Clarence Clemons, in terms of musical composition, Born This Way is considered to be a notable departure from Gagas previous works. The songs Hair and The Edge of Glory are distinguishable from the rest of the album, as a saxophone – performed by Clarence Clemons, the album contains mainly moderate-tempo dance songs, described as anthemic style melodies with really sledge-hammering dance beats. The album includes references to religious figures of Christianity, notably Judas Iscariot, Mary Magdalene. Several songs on the album give reference to sexuality and feminism, other themes referenced in the album include individualism, equality, and freedom. The album opens with Marry the Night, a song written as a homage to New York City, the songs sound has been compared to that of 1980s pop and glam metal artists, including Bon Jovi, Pat Benatar and Bonnie Tyler. The next, Born This Way is about how everybody is equal, regardless of color, sexuality, or creedBorn This Way (album) – In songs such as " Marry the Night " and "Fashion of His Love" Gaga seeks influence from Whitney Houston.
26. Born This Way (song) – Born This Way is a song by American singer Lady Gaga, and the lead single from her second studio album of the same name. Written by Gaga and Jeppe Laursen, who produced it along with Fernando Garibay and DJ White Shadow, inspired by 1990s music which empowered women and the gay community, Gaga explained that Born This Way was her freedom song. She sang part of the chorus at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards in 2010 and announced the song as the single from the album. The record is backed by rumbling sounds, a humming bass and additional chorus percussion. Critics positively reviewed the song, calling it a club-ready anthem, the song reached number one in over 25 countries and was her third single to top the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and the 1, 000th song in that charts history to reach number one. Born This Way has sold 8.2 million copies worldwide, Nick Knight directed the accompanying music video, which was inspired by surrealist painters like Salvador Dalí and Francis Bacon. Gaga is depicted as giving birth to a new race during a prologue, after a series of dance sequences, the video concludes with the view of a city populated by this race. Critics noted the references to the work of Madonna, Michael Jackson, Björk. Gaga performed the song at the 53rd Grammy Awards after coming out of an incubating vessel and it was also performed during the last leg of The Monster Ball Tour and on television shows such as Saturday Night Live, Dick Clarks New Years Rockin Eve and Good Morning America. The song was treated with different remixes, including a Country Road version recorded by Gaga herself, alice Cooper, Madonna, Katy Perry, Maria Aragon, and the cast of the TV series Glee have covered the song. In 2010, Lady Gaga was touring for her world tour. At that time she started developing ideas for her studio album. The first song written and recorded for the album was the track itself which she wrote in Liverpool and Manchester, England. She wrote it in ten minutes and compared the process to an Immaculate Conception, White Shadow, one of the producers of the track, credited Gaga for coming up with the idea and the theme behind the song. We recorded it around the world, on the road, in whatever was available and it sounds like it reads, but not like you think until you hear it, he added. I want it to be an attack, an assault on the issue because I think, especially in music, everything gets kind of washy sometimes. Thats the record going to shake up the industry. Anyone could sing Born This Way, Born This Way is who I amBorn This Way (song) – "Born This Way"
27. Judas (Lady Gaga song) – Judas is a song by American singer Lady Gaga, from her second studio album, Born This Way. It was released four days ahead of schedule by Interscope Records on April 15,2011, written and produced by Lady Gaga and RedOne, Judas is a dance and electro house song about a woman in love with a man who betrayed her. It embodies the incidents that have haunted Gaga in the past, Gaga has further explained that the song was also about honoring ones inner darkness in order to bring oneself into the light. The artwork for the single was designed by Gaga in Microsoft Word, Judas received generally positive reviews from most music critics. The song has a sound to Gagas previous RedOne-produced tracks, including Poker Face, LoveGame, Bad Romance. It contains three distinct hooks and a break down. Gaga explained that the lines spoken during the talk about her as beyond redemption. Judas initially had a strong opening, but was less successful commercially in comparison to Gagas previous singles. The song reached the top ten of the charts in most major music markets, a music video for the song was filmed in April 2011, co-directed by Gaga and Laurieann Gibson and co-starring Norman Reedus. It has a Biblical storyline where Reedus played Judas Iscariot and Gaga played Mary Magdalene, the video portrays them as modern day missionaries going to Jerusalem. It included the Biblical story of Judas betraying Jesus, and ended with Gaga as Magdalene getting stoned to death, before its release, the Catholic League condemned Gaga for the use of religious imagery and her role in the video. However, the video was praised by critics and nominated for two awards at the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards. Judas was revealed as the name of the single in Gagas interview for Vogue. Gaga confirmed the release of Judas as the single, on Ryan Seacrests radio show on February 14,2011. At the 53rd Grammy Awards, he told MTV News that if the single from Born This Way. On the talk show Last Call with Carson Daly, Gaga explained to the host that Judas was about falling in love with the wrong man over and over again. Judas is a very, very dark song, someone once said to me, If you have no shadows then youre not standing in the light. So the song is about washing the feet of good and evil and understanding and forgiving the demons from your past in order to move into the greatness of your futureJudas (Lady Gaga song) – "Judas"
28. The Edge of Glory – The Edge of Glory is a song by American singer Lady Gaga from her second studio album, Born This Way. The song was released on May 9,2011 as the third single. Initially released as one of two singles for Born This Way, it shortly became a single following its success in digital outlets worldwide. The song was written and produced by Gaga and Fernando Garibay, according to Gaga, lyrical inspiration came from the death of her grandfather, who died in September 2010. The Edge of Glory received critical acclaim, with many deeming it as an album highlight. Much of the went to the songs chorus and the musical production. Reviewers also complimented Gagas vocals, describing it as soulful, the song was a commercial success worldwide, charting in the top ten in several major music markets, including Australia, Belgium, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom. In the United States, it peaked at three on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Gagas tenth consecutive top-ten single in the United States. A music video for the song was filmed in late May, co-directed by the singer and her production team, the video is simple in contrast to much of Gagas previous work, and portrays her dancing on a fire-escape and walking on a lonely street. Differences include the lack of intricate choreography and back-up dancers, as well as using only one designed by Versace. Critics lauded the simplicity of the video, while comparing it to the works of Michael Jackson, Janet Jackson, Gaga has performed the song in award shows, music festivals and her concert tours. The Edge of Glory was written by Lady Gaga, Fernando Garibay and DJ White Shadow, the origins of the song first came about in January 2011, when Gaga released part of the lyrics on her Twitter account. White Shadow revealed that before they returned to Europe for the 2010 dates of The Monster Ball Tour, after he died, Gaga told White Shadow that she wrote a song about her grandfathers death and its impact on her. Gaga spoke to Jon Pareles of The New York Times about the story behind the song, was about how when my grandma was standing over my grandfather while he was dying. There was this moment where I felt like he had sort of looked at her and our love made us a winner. I thought about that idea, that the moment of your life is when you decide that its okay to go, you don’t have any more words to say, more business. Youre on the cliff, you tip your hat to yourself, that’s what it was for me in that moment when I witnessed it. More information in regards to The Edge of Glory was revealed by Gaga, in an interview with Google where she explained the song as being about ones final moments on earth, another inspiration for the song was actor Sylvester Stallones 1976 film Rocky, which is Gagas favorite filmThe Edge of Glory – "The Edge of Glory"
29. Thriller (Michael Jackson album) – Thriller is the sixth studio album by American singer Michael Jackson, released on November 30,1982 by Epic Records. The follow-up to Jacksons successful previous album, Off the Wall, Thriller explores genres similar to those of its predecessor, including pop, post-disco, rock and funk. Recording sessions for Thriller took place from April to November 1982 at Westlake Recording Studios in Los Angeles, Quincy Jones produced the album, while Jackson wrote four of its nine songs. In just over a year, Thriller became—and currently remains—the worlds best-selling album and it is the best-selling album in the United States and the first album to be certified 33x multi-platinum, having shipped 33 million album-equivalent units. Thriller is also the best selling album ever in Europe, with sales of over 17 million copies, the album won a record-breaking number of eight Grammy Awards in 1984, including Album of the Year. Seven singles were released from the album, all of which reached the top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. Thriller also enabled Jackson to break racial barriers in pop music, via his appearances on MTV. The album was one of the first to use music videos as successful promotional tools, and that same year the album was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, along with Jacksons Off the Wall album. In 2012, Slant Magazine placed Thriller at number one on its list of Best Albums of the 1980s, in 2003, Rolling Stone placed the album at number 20 on their list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The album was listed by the National Association of Recording Merchandisers at number three on its list of the Definitive 200 albums of all time, Jacksons previous album Off the Wall received strong critical acclaim and was also a commercial success, eventually selling over 20 million copies worldwide. The years between Off the Wall and Thriller were a period for the singer, a time of increasing independence. The period saw the singer become deeply unhappy, Jackson explained, Even at home, I sit in my room sometimes and cry. Its so hard to make friends, I sometimes walk around the neighborhood at night, just hoping to find someone to talk to. But I just end up coming home, when Jackson turned 21 in August 1979, he hired John Branca as his manager. Jackson confided in Branca that he wanted to be the biggest star in show business and the wealthiest. The singer was upset about what he perceived to be the under-performance of Off the Wall, stating, It was totally unfair that it didnt get Record of the Year, someday those magazines are going to be begging me for an interview. Maybe Ill give them one, and maybe I wont, Jackson reunited with Off the Wall producer Quincy Jones to record his sixth studio album. The pair worked together on 30 songs, nine of which were eventually included, Thriller was recorded at Westlake Recording Studios in Los Angeles, California, with a production budget of $750,000Thriller (Michael Jackson album) – Quincy Jones continued his collaboration with Jackson by producing Thriller
30. Studio album – Album, is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD, record, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century, first as books of individual 78rpm records, vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st century album sales have mostly focused on compact disc and MP3 formats. The audio cassette was a format used from the late 1970s through to the 1990s alongside vinyl, an album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places. Recording may take a few hours to years to complete, usually in several takes with different parts recorded separately. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed live, the majority of studio recordings contain an abundance of editing, sound effects, voice adjustments, etc. With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, and sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, historically, the term album was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, the LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. It was adopted by the industry as a standard format for the album. Apart from relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound capability, the term album had been carried forward from the early nineteenth century when it had been used for collections of short pieces of music. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, as part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some commenters have declared that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. Sometimes shorter albums are referred to as mini-albums or EPs, Albums such as Tubular Bells, Amarok, Hergest Ridge by Mike Oldfield, and Yess Close to the Edge, include fewer than four tracks. There are no rules against artists such as Pinhead Gunpowder referring to their own releases under thirty minutes as albums. These are known as box sets, material is stored on an album in sections termed tracks, normally 11 or 12 tracks. A music track is a song or instrumental recording. The term is associated with popular music where separate tracks are known as album tracks. When vinyl records were the medium for audio recordings a track could be identified visually from the groovesStudio album – Early record albums were packages of 78 RPM records in book form
31. Michael Jackson – Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, actor, and philanthropist. Called the King of Pop, his contributions to music, dance, the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his career in 1971. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music, the popularity of these videos helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Jacksons 1987 album Bad spawned the U. S and he continued to innovate with videos such as Black or White and Scream throughout the 1990s, and forged a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and his distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous artists of various music genres. Thriller is the album of all time, with estimated sales of 65 million copies worldwide. Jacksons other albums, including Off the Wall, Bad, Dangerous and he is recognized as the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time by Guinness World Records. Jackson won hundreds of awards, making him the most awarded recording artist in the history of popular music. He became the first artist in history to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades when Love Never Felt So Good reached number nine on May 21,2014. Jackson traveled the world attending events honoring his humanitarianism, and, in 2000, aspects of Jacksons personal life, including his changing appearance, personal relationships, and behavior, generated controversy. In 1993, he was accused of sexual abuse, but the civil case was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of child sexual abuse allegations. While preparing for his concert series, This Is It, Jackson died of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication on June 25,2009. The Los Angeles County Coroner ruled his death a homicide, and his personal physician, Jacksons death triggered a global outpouring of grief, and a live broadcast of his public memorial service was viewed around the world. Forbes ranks Jackson as the dead celebrity with earnings of $825 million in 2016. Michael Joseph Jackson was born on August 29,1958 and his mother, Katherine Esther Scruse, was a devout Jehovahs Witness. She played clarinet and piano and once aspired to be a country-and-western performer, michaels father, Joseph Walter Joe Jackson, a former boxer, was a steelworker at U. S. SteelMichael Jackson – Jackson performing in 1988, during the Bad World Tour
32. Epic Records – Epic Records is an American record company owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, Inc. Epic was founded predominantly as a jazz and classical music label in 1953 and it later expanded its scope to include a more diverse range of musical genres, including pop, R&B, rock and hip hop. Historically, the label has housed popular acts such as Boston, ABBA, Michael Jackson, Celine Dion, Dave Clark Five, Gloria Estefan, Pearl Jam, Shakira, Anastacia, and Sly & the Family Stone. Along with Columbia and RCA Records, Epic is one of Sony Music Entertainments three main record labels, L. A. Reid has served as chairman and CEO of Epic since July 2011. Sylvia Rhone was appointed president in March 2014, Epic Records was launched in 1953 by Columbia Records for the purpose of marketing jazz, pop and classical music that did not fit the theme of its more mainstream Columbia Records label. Initial classical music releases were from Philips Records which distributed Columbia product in Europe, pop talent on co-owned Okeh Records were transferred to Epic which made Okeh a rhythm and blues label. Epics bright-yellow, black, and blue became a familiar trademark for many jazz. By 1960, the musical base had been expanded to include all genres. This was done in part to prevent the roster of Columbia Records from being overstuffed with newer artists, subsequently, Epic became better known for its signing of newer, fledgling acts. By the end of the 1960s, Epic earned its first gold records and had evolved into a formidable hit-making force in rock and roll, R&B and country music. Among its many acts, it included Roy Hamilton, Bobby Vinton, The Dave Clark Five, The Hollies, Tammy Wynette, Donovan, The Yardbirds, Lulu, July, Helen Shapiro and Jeff Beck. Also during the 1960s, Epic oversaw the smaller subsidiary CBS labels including Okeh Records, in 1968, Epic recordings began being distributed in the UK by CBS after the distribution deal with EMI expired that year, Epic itself launched in England around 1971. Epic was involved in a trade of artists. Graham Nash was signed to Epic because of his membership in The Hollies, when the newly formed Crosby, Stills & Nash wanted to sign with Atlantic Records, Ahmet Ertegün worked out a deal with Clive Davis whereby Richie Furays new band Poco would sign with Epic. Also contributing to the success was its distribution of Philadelphia International Records. Sony bought CBS Records in 1987, and the company was renamed Sony Music in 1991. In 2004, Sony merged with another powerhouse music distributor, BMG, bringing labels such as RCA, Arista, Columbia, Epic, Jive, in February 2009, singer and songwriter Amanda Ghost was appointed president of Epic Records. Later in the year, Sony BMG Music merged Epic and Columbias operations, Sony BMGs Legacy Recordings reissues the companys classic and catalog titlesEpic Records – Classic radial sound sunburst logo, used from the 1960s to 1973, revived in late 1998; used until 2005. Still used on Japanese operations. This logo was used on Pearl Jam 's Vitalogy in 1994, No Code in 1996 and Yield in February 1998.
33. Off the Wall (album) – Off the Wall is the fifth studio album by American singer Michael Jackson, released on August 10,1979 in the United States by Epic Records and internationally CBS Records. It was released following Jacksons critically well-received film performance in The Wiz, while working on that project, Jackson and Quincy Jones had become friends, and Jones agreed to work with Jackson on his next studio album. Recording sessions took place between December 1978 and June 1979 at Allen Zentz Recording, Westlake Recording Studios, and Cherokee Studios in Los Angeles, Jackson collaborated with a number of writers and performers, such as Paul McCartney, Stevie Wonder and Rod Temperton. Five singles were released from the album, three of the singles had music videos released, Jackson wrote three of the songs himself, including the number-one Grammy Award-winning single Dont Stop Til You Get Enough. The record was a departure from Jacksons previous work for Motown Records and its lyrical themes on the record relate to escapism, liberation, loneliness, hedonism and romance. Several critics observed that Off the Wall was crafted from funk, disco, soft rock, jazz, Broadway, Jackson received positive reviews for his vocal performance on the record. The record gained critical acclaim and recognition, and won the singer his first Grammy Award, with Off the Wall, Jackson became the first solo artist to have four singles from the same album peak inside the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100. On October 16,2001, a special reissue of Off the Wall was released by Sony Records. It was re-released on February 26,2016, recent reviews by AllMusic and Blender have continued to praise Off the Wall for its appeal in the 21st century. In 2003, the album was placed at number 68 on Rolling Stone list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, the National Association of Recording Merchandisers listed it at number 80 on its list of the Definitive 200 Albums of All Time. In 2008, Off the Wall was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, starting in 1971, Michael Jackson released a total of four solo studio albums with Motown, among them Got to Be There and Ben. These were released as part of The Jackson 5 franchise, and produced successful singles such as Got to Be There, Ben and a remake of Bobby Days Rockin Robin. The Jackson 5s sales, however, began declining in 1973, although the group scored several top 40 hits, including the top five disco single Dancing Machine and the top 20 hit I Am Love, The Jackson 5 left Motown in 1975. The Jackson 5 signed a new contract with CBS Records in June 1975, first joining the Philadelphia International Records division, as a result of legal proceedings, the group was renamed The Jacksons. After the name change, the continued to tour internationally. During that period Michael Jackson was the songwriter of the group, writing or co-writing such hits as Shake Your Body, This Place Hotel. In 1978, Jackson starred as Scarecrow in the film musical The Wiz, the musical scores were arranged by Quincy Jones, who formed a partnership with Jackson during the films production and agreed to produce the singers solo album Off the Wall. Jackson was dedicated to the role, and watched videotapes of gazelles, cheetahs, Jones recalled working with Jackson as one of his favorite experiences from The Wiz, and spoke of Jacksons dedication to his role, comparing his acting style to Sammy Davis, JrOff the Wall (album) – Off the Wall
34. Rhythm and blues – Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B or RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy. Lyrics focus heavily on the themes of triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, freedom, economics, aspirations, the term rhythm and blues has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s it was applied to blues records. This tangent of RnB is now known as British rhythm and blues, by the 1970s, the term rhythm and blues changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a style of R&B developed, becoming known as Contemporary R&B. It combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, funk, pop, hip hop, popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston, and Mariah Carey. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term rhythm and blues as a term in the United States in 1948. It replaced the term race music, which came from within the black community. The term rhythm and blues was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, before the Rhythm and Blues name was instated, various record companies had already begun replacing the term race music with sepia series. In 2010 LaMont Robinson founded the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame Museum, writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as a catchall term referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans. He has used the term R&B as a synonym for jump blues, however, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of its stronger, gospel-esque backbeat. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that rhythm, according to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to music made by black musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow, lilting, while singers are emotionally engaged with the lyrics, often intensely so, they remain cool, relaxed, and in control. The bands dressed in suits, and even uniforms, an associated with the modern popular music that rhythm. Lyrics often seemed fatalistic, and the music typically followed predictable patterns of chords, there was also increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophoneRhythm and blues – T-Bone Walker, American Folk Blues Festival 1972 (Heinrich Klaffs Collection 46)
35. Post-disco – Post-disco is a term to describe an aftermath in popular music history c. Developed from the rhythm and blues sound as perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, the side of disco, dub music techniques. Post-disco was typified by New York City music groups like D Train and Unlimited Touch who followed a more urban approach while others, like Material and ESG, a more experimental one. Post-disco was, like disco, singles-driven market controlled mostly by independent record companies that generated a cross-over chart success all through the early-to-mid 1980s, most creative control was in the hands of record producers and club DJs which was a trend that outlived the dance-pop era. Drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either partly or entirely dominant in a composition or mixed up with various acoustic instruments, depending on the artist. The main force in post-disco was mainly the 12 single format, the music that mostly catered to dance and urban audiences later managed to influence more popular and mainstream acts like Madonna, New Order or Pet Shop Boys. The music tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass lines, synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, and background jazzy or blues-y piano layers. For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the orchestration heard on many disco tracks. Soulful female vocals, however, remained an essence of post-disco. Bridging the so-called death of disco and the birth of house, all this early-to-mid-80s music lacks a name beyond drably functional and neutral terms like dance or club music. ”– Simon Reynolds, SPIN magazine The term post-disco was used as early as 1984 by Cadence Magazine when defining post-disco soul as disco without the loud bass-drum thump. AllMusic states that the term denotes a genre in the era between the indistinct end of disco music and the equally indistinct emergence of house music. Since disco music had been on the way of progression, it split itself into subscenes and styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco. The last one is associated with post-disco more than any other offshoots of post-disco. On the West Coast, especially in California, a different approach lead to a different sound, other examples of early American artists drawing from post-disco are Rick James, Change and Teena Marie. Disco in Europe remained relatively untouched by the events in the U. S. Ms 1979 Pop Muzik was a example of this. This section summary shows commercially successful records from the post-disco movement, during the late 1990s and throughout the 2000s, electronic and, especially, house musicians were influenced by post-disco. Some of these musicians are, Daft Punk, a French house music group, adopted elements of post-disco, disco, another artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer. Canadian music group Chromeo debuted in 2004 with the album Shes in Control, similar Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a boogie- and electro-influenced album released in 2009Post-disco – Synthesizers played a crucial part in the development of post-disco.
36. Adult contemporary music – Adult contemporary is rather a continuation of the easy listening and soft rock style that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s with some adjustments that reflect the evolution of pop/rock music. Adult contemporary tends to have lush, soothing and highly polished qualities where emphasis on melody and it is usually melodic enough to get a listeners attention, and is inoffensive and pleasurable enough to work well as background music. Like most of pop music, its songs tend to be written in a basic format employing a verse–chorus structure, the format is heavy on romantic sentimental ballads which mostly use acoustic instruments such as acoustic guitars, pianos, saxophones, and sometimes an orchestral set. The electric guitars are normally faint and high-pitched, however, recent adult contemporary music may usually feature synthesizers. An AC radio station may play mainstream music, but it excludes hip hop, dance tracks, hard rock, and some forms of teen pop, as these are popular among adults. AC radio often targets the 25–44 age group, the demographic that has received the most attention from advertisers since the 1960s, a common practice in recent years of adult contemporary stations is to play less newer music and more hits of the past. This de-emphasis on new songs slows the progression of the AC chart, over the years, AC has spawned subgenres including hot AC, soft AC, urban AC, rhythmic AC, and Christian AC. Some stations play only hot AC, soft AC, or only one of the variety of subgenres, therefore, it is not usually considered a specific genre of music, it is merely an assemblage of selected tracks from musicians of many different genres. Adult contemporary traces its roots to the 1960s easy listening format, a few offered 90% instrumentals, and a handful were entirely instrumental. Billboard first published the Easy Listening chart July 17,1961, with 20 songs, the chart described itself as not too far out in either direction. Initially, the vocalists consisted of such as Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Nat King Cole, Perry Como. The custom recordings were usually instrumental versions of current or recent rock and roll or pop hit songs, some stations would also occasionally play earlier big band-era recordings from the 1940s and early 1950s. After 1965, differences between the Hot 100 chart and the Easy Listening chart became more pronounced, better reflecting what middle of the road stations were actually playing, the composition of the chart changed dramatically. As rock music continued to harden, there was much less crossover between the Hot 100 and Easy Listening chart than there had been in the half of the 1960s. Roger Miller, Barbra Streisand and Bobby Vinton were among the charts most popular performers and these middle of the road stations also frequently included older, pre-rock-era adult standards and big band titles to further appeal to adult listeners who had grown up with those songs. Another big impetus for the evolution of the AC radio format was the popularity of easy listening or beautiful music stations, stations with music specifically designed to be purely ambient, hard rock had been established as a mainstream genre by 1965. From the end of the 1960s, it common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was often derived from rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melodyAdult contemporary music – Adult contemporary artist Celine Dion is one of the biggest international stars in music history, selling more than 220 million albums worldwide.
37. United States Dollar – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or also accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, there, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more commonUnited States Dollar – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
38. Quincy Jones – His career spans six decades in the entertainment industry and a record 79 Grammy Award nominations, and 28 Grammys, including a Grammy Legend Award in 1991. He is best known for the role of himself in Yakety Yak, Take it Back, Trash Talk, Jones came to prominence in the 1950s as a jazz arranger and conductor, before moving on to work prolifically in pop music and film scores. In 1971, Jones was the first African American to be named as the director and conductor of the Academy Awards ceremony. In 1995, he was the first African American to receive the Academys Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award and he is tied with sound designer Willie D. Burton as the African American who has been nominated for the most Oscars, each has received seven nominations. In 2013, Jones was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame as the winner, alongside Lou Adler, among his awards, Jones was named by Time Magazine as one of the most influential jazz musicians of the 20th century. Jones was born in 1933, on the South Side of Chicago, to Sarah Frances and Quincy Delight Jones and his father was a semi-professional baseball player and carpenter from Kentucky, his paternal grandmother was an ex-slave in Louisville. They had gone to Chicago as part of the Great Migration out of the South, Sarah was a bank officer and apartment complex manager. Jones later discovered that his paternal grandfather Caesar Jones was the son of a white American man of Welsh descent, Quincy had a younger brother, Lloyd, later an engineer for the Seattle station, KOMO-TV, Lloyd died in 1998. Quincy was introduced to music by his mother, who sang religious songs. When Jones was five or six, Jackson played stride piano next door, Lucy Jackson recalled that after he heard her that one day, she could not get him off her piano if she tried. When the boys were young, their mother suffered from a breakdown and was committed to a mental institution. His father obtained a divorce and remarried, Joness stepmother, Elvera, had three children of her own, Waymond, who became a friend of the young Quincy, Theresa, and Katherine. In 1943, when Jones was ten, his family moved to Bremerton, Washington, after the war, the Jones family moved to Seattle, the major regional city, where Jones attended Garfield High School near his home. He had discovered music when he was 12 and became deeply involved in high school. Classmates included Charles Taylor, who played saxophone and whose mother, the youths began playing with a band. At the age of 14, they were playing with a National Reserve band, Jones has said he got much more experience with music growing up in a smaller city, otherwise, he would have faced too much competition. At the age of 14, Jones introduced himself to a 16-year-old musician from Florida, Ray Charles, Jones cites Ray Charles as an early inspiration for his own music career. He noted that Charles overcame a disability to achieve his musical goals and he has credited his fathers sturdy work ethic with giving him the means to proceed, and his loving strength with holding the family togetherQuincy Jones – Jones in 2014
39. Billboard Hot 100 – The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales, radio play and online streaming, the weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is available on a real-time basis. A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesdays, as of the issue for the week ending on April 15,2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,061 different number one hits. The current number one song is Shape of You by Ed Sheeran, prior to 1955, Billboard did not have a unified, all-encompassing popularity chart, instead measuring songs by individual metrics. At the start of the era in 1955, three such charts existed, Best Sellers in Stores was the first Billboard chart, established in 1936. This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country, Most Played by Jockeys was Billboards original airplay chart. It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio disc jockeys, Most Played in Jukeboxes ranked the most played songs in jukeboxes across the United States. On the week ending November 12,1955, Billboard published The Top 100 for the first time, the Top 100 combined all aspects of a singles performance, based on a point system that typically gave sales more weight than radio airplay. The Best Sellers In Stores, Most Played by Jockeys and Most Played in Jukeboxes charts continued to be published concurrently with the new Top 100 chart. The week ending July 28,1958 was the publication of the Most Played By Jockeys and Top 100 charts. On August 4,1958, Billboard premiered one main all-genre singles chart, the Hot 100 quickly became the industry standard and Billboard discontinued the Best Sellers In Stores chart on October 13,1958. The Billboard Hot 100 is still the standard by which a songs popularity is measured in the United States, the Hot 100 is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by Nielsen Soundscan and streaming activity provided by online music sources. There are several component charts that contribute to the calculation of the Hot 100. Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with Arbitron listener data. Hot Singles Sales, the top selling singles compiled from a sample of retail store, mass merchant and internet sales reports collected, compiled. The chart is released weekly and measures sales of commercial singles. With the decline in sales of singles in the USBillboard Hot 100 – The Billboard logo
40. Oceana (singer) – Oceana Mahlmann is a German singer. Her musical roots are embedded in soul, reggae, hip hop, Oceana was raised by her mother, a German Haute Couture designer. Her father was a DJ from Martinique, the funk legend Maceo Parker is a close family friend and as a young child she performed with him on stage. In her teens, she established herself as dancer and choreographer and she performed in the role of Aida in the musical Aida by Tim Rice and Elton John. She was also the vocal soloist in the version of Dirty Dancing by Eleanor Bergstein. In 2006, she was the choreographer of the German chart-breaking band Seeed, in 2008, she signed to Warner to establish herself as a singer-songwriter. Her solo career took off in 2009 with the release of the single Cry Cry from her debut album Love Supply and this was a breakthrough in her career, the song was the highest selling single in Poland that year and peaked in several other European countries in the charts. Following this success Oceana appeared in numerous European TV shows, in March 2010, she appeared in the Polish version of Dancing with the Stars, but she withdrew, because she was in an advanced state of pregnancy and she finished in 6th place. In May 2010, she hosted the TV show ARTE Lounge and she has also appeared as a musical guest on the Greek X Factor and performed on some of the greatest festivals in Europe. On her tour for Love Supply, she performed such as Rock En Seine in France. Throughout her career, she has supported such as Lionel Richie, Raphael Saadiq. At the closing ceremony on July 1,2012 Oceana performed the live to a television audience of approximately one billion people. The video of Endless Summer has been watched by more than 80 million people, the song received numerous gold and platinum awards throughout Europe. Her second album, My House, was released in Europe on July 22,2012, Oceana is working on her third album in Los Angeles, which was scheduled for release in late 2014 or 2015Oceana (singer) – Oceana in a press photo taken in 2012
41. Radio Hamburg – Not to be confused with Radio Hamburg, owned by the Nazis or the British Army. Reichssender Hamburg was the Hamburg station of the Nazi German international broadcasting network, Radio Hamburg is a private commercial radio station set up in the 1980s to play the big hits of the times. Nowadays it plays hits from the 1990s onwards, on high rotation and their slogan is Die Mega-Hits der 90er, 2000er und dem Besten von heute“. Its services also include reports on weather and traffic and its website also has a ticket service for all the big concerts, a live web stream and an online shop. Since August 2008, Radio Hamburg is broadcast from the Semperhaus in Hamburg, translates as Easter Mega Hit Marathon. Since 1989 every Easter the station has a marathon where they play 800 Mega Hits over 24–48 hours during Easter, Radio Hamburg Mega Talent is a casting for people, who try their luck by auditioning in front of a jury, that consists of three people. The listener of the Radio Hamburg are voting for their favorite competitor or rather said candidate afterwards, according to this principle the candidates are elected out of the casting, so that there are only two candidates left. They begin to sing against each other, the listener may decide which competitor shall win Radio Hamburg Mega Talent. Finally they are meeting once more and they get to the studio of Radio Hamburg and they are standing face to face and the sum of votings made by the listener who has voted online for in his opinion best candidate are read. It decides who wins the competition, the winner gets money in the amount of 20,000 €/25,000 €. Radio Hamburg Official Website Radio Hamburg Web StreamRadio Hamburg – The former Radio Hamburg building, the St. Petri Haus
42. Mama (Spice Girls song) – Mama is a song by the British girl group the Spice Girls. It was written by the Spice Girls, Matt Rowe and Richard Stannard and it was released as a double A-side with Who Do You Think You Are, and became the official single of the 1997 Comic Relief. Directed music video, featured the singing to an audience of children. Despite receiving mixed reviews from critics, Mama was commercially successful. It was certified platinum by the British Phonographic Industry, the single performed well internationally, reaching the top ten in many European countries and New Zealand, and the top fifteen in Australia. Mama was written by the Spice Girls with songwriting partners Matt Rowe, in an interview about the writing process between the group and the duo, Rowe credits Mel B as the one who came up with the songs concept. During the writing process, each wrote a small verse in a different corner of the recording studio. Then, the added a gospel choir filled with the groups harmonies at the end of the song. Brown explained the inspiration on the book Real Life, Real Spice The Official Story. The sentiments are really that your mums probably the best friend that youve got, whether shes an over-protective mother or a bit of a landmine, she probably knows you better than yourself in some ways. In the same book, Melanie C further elaborated, Mamas all about how such a cow to your mum when youre going through that rebellious teenage stage. Then when you get a bit older, you realise that whatever she was doing, and you think, God, I was really horrible. Mama was released in the UK and Ireland as a double A-side along with Who Do You Think You Are in March 1997, timed not only for the Comic Relief telethon, but also for Mothering Sunday. Mama is a pop ballad, written in the key of F minor, it is set in the signature of common time. The song is constructed in a form, with a bridge before the third chorus, and its instrumentation comes from keyboards, a rhythm guitar, a cello. It opens with an introduction, with a chord progression of D♭–E♭–Fm–E♭/G–A♭. Bunton and Brown sing the first and second verse respectively, the bridge and third chorus follow. Then a choir, arranged by Mark Beswick, supplements the group during the last part of the song, Mama ends with the group repeating the chorus until the song gradually fades outMama (Spice Girls song) – "Mama"
43. Spice Girls – The Spice Girls are an English pop girl group formed in 1994. The group originally consisted of Melanie Brown, Melanie Chisholm, Emma Bunton, Geri Halliwell and they were signed to Virgin Records and released their debut single Wannabe in 1996, which hit number one in 37 countries and established them as a global phenomenon. Their debut album Spice sold more than 31 million copies worldwide and their follow-up album Spiceworld sold over 20 million copies worldwide. Among the highest profile acts in 1990s British popular culture, Time called them arguably the most recognisable face of Cool Britannia, the mid-1990s celebration of youth culture in the UK. The group became one of the most successful marketing engines ever, earning up to $75 million per year, under the guidance of their mentor and manager Simon Fuller, the Spice Girls embraced merchandising and became a regular feature of the British and global press. In 1996, Top of the Pops magazine gave each member of the group aliases, which were adopted by the group and media. According to Rolling Stone journalist and biographer David Sinclair, Scary, Baby, Ginger, Posh and Sporty were the most widely recognised group of individuals since John, Paul, George, with the girl power phenomenon, the Spice Girls were popular cultural icons of the 1990s. They are cited as part of the second wave 1990s British Invasion of the US, in 2016, Mel B, Emma Bunton and Geri Halliwell reunited and launched a new website called Spice Girls - GEM. In February 1994, together with financier Chic Murphy, they placed an advertisement in the trade magazine The Stage asking for singers to audition for a pop band at Danceworks studios. A week after the audition, the women were asked to attend a recall at Nomis Studios in Shepherds Bush, performing Signed, Sealed, Delivered on their own. During the session, Adams, Brown, Chisholm, Halliwell and Stephenson were selected to the band, the group moved to a house in Maidenhead, Berkshire, and spent most of 1994 training. During the first two months, they worked on demos at South Hill Park Recording Studios in Bracknell with producer/studio owner Michael Sparkes and songwriter/arranger Tim Hawes. According to Stephenson, the material the group was given was very, very pop, one of the songs they recorded, Sugar and Spice. They also worked on various dance routines at the Trinity Studios in Knaphill, near Woking, a few months into the training period, Stephenson was fired from the group and replaced with Emma Bunton. It was also during this time that Halliwell came up with the band name Spice, the group felt insecure about the lack of a contract and was frustrated by the direction in which Heart Management was steering them. In October 1994, armed with a catalogue of demos and dance routines, due to the large interest in the group, the Herberts quickly set about creating a binding contract for them. Encouraged by the reaction they had received at the Nomis showcase, all five members delayed signing contracts on the advice from, among others. In March 1995, the group parted from Heart Management due to their frustration with the unwillingness to listen to their visionsSpice Girls – The Spice Girls performing during their penultimate reunion concert in Toronto, Ontario, in February 2008. (L–R) Melanie Chisholm, Victoria Beckham, Geri Halliwell, Melanie Brown and Emma Bunton.
44. Biffco – Biffco are a music production and songwriting team from Brighton, England, formed by Richard Biff Stannard, Julian Gallagher, Ash Howes. The group have worked with a number of artists, including Kylie Minogue, One Direction, Atomic Kitten, Ellie Goulding, Leona Lewis, Little Mix, Sophie Ellis-Bextor. They are also responsible for the rise of the Spice Girls, Five. So far, Biffco have had 41 hit singles, including nine number-ones, Stannard and Howes also worked as music directors and show song producers on The X Factor since 2010. Richard Biff Frederick Stannard was born in 1966 and his breakthrough in the music industry came with English boyband East 17. Stannard met singer and songwriter Tony Mortimer and introduced him to music manager Tom Watkins, Stannard went on to be the executive producer of East 17s debut album, Walthamstow, and produced two songs for the follow-up album, Steam. In 2010, he founded the label Major Label with Adam Clough and their first signing was English synthpop duo Hurts in 2009. Alphabeat Chess Atomic Kitten If You Come to Me Ellie Goulding Lights Ritual Emma Bunton Better Be Careful High on Love So Long What Took You So Long. PBiffco – Biffco
45. Spice (album) – Spice is the debut studio album by British girl group the Spice Girls. It was first released on 19 September 1996 by Virgin Records, the album was recorded at Olympic Studios in Barnes, London between 1995 and 1996, by producers Matt Rowe and Richard Stannard, and the production duo Absolute. The album is a pop record with an inclusion of such as dance, R&B. It is considered to be the record that brought teen pop back, conceptually, the album centered on the idea of Girl Power, and during that time was compared to Beatlemania. Spice was a worldwide commercial success. It became the worlds top-selling album of 1997 selling 19 million copies in over a year, in total the album sold 23 million copies worldwide, becoming the biggest-selling album in music history by a girl group and one of the most successful albums of all time. Five singles were released from the album, the first single, Wannabe, became a worldwide success went to number one in 35 countries, one of the best-selling singles of all time and selling over six million copies worldwide. The next two singles, Say Youll Be There and 2 Become 1, reached number one in 53 countries. Who Do You Think You Are was released as the official Comic Relief single in the UK as a double A-side with Mama and both songs reached the top 20 in charts across Europe, Australia and New Zealand. In the bands native UK, all four went to number one on the UK singles chart and, in the Billboard Hot 100. The new band was originally called Touch and moved to a house in Maidenhead, Emma Bunton was the last to join after Stephenson dropped out when her mother became ill. The group felt insecure about the lack of contract and were frustrated by the direction in which Heart Management was steering them, in October 1994, armed with a catalog of demos and dance routines, the group began touring management agencies. They started to meet with producers, musicians and other executives, among them were composer Tim Hawes. Hawes worked with the group and watched the evolution in their singing and writing abilities, together they composed a song called Sugar and Spice, which served as the inspiration behind the change of the groups name to Spice. Eventually the name was changed again to Spice Girls due to an American rapper using the name Spice at the time, on 3 March 1995, because of the groups frustration at their managements unwillingness to listen to their visions and ideas, they parted from Heart Management. The group stole the master recordings of their discography from the management offices in order to ensure they kept control of their own work. The group were supposed to meet with producer Eliot Kennedy the week after they left their former managers, but without access to Herberts address book, they knew nothing of Kennedys whereabouts other than he lived in Sheffield. Brown and Halliwell drove to Sheffield the day after the departure from Heart Management and looked for the first phone book they came across and that evening they went to his house and persuaded him to work with themSpice (album) – Spice
46. Ballad – A ballad /ˈbæləd/ is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French chanson balladée or ballade, which were originally danced songs, Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and song of the British Isles from the later medieval period until the 19th century. They were widely used across Europe, and later in the Americas, Australia, Ballads are 13 lines with an ABABBCBC form, consisting of couplets of rhymed verse, each of 14 syllables. Many ballads were written and sold as single sheet broadsides, the form was often used by poets and composers from the 18th century onwards to produce lyrical ballads. In the later 19th century, the took on the meaning of a slow form of popular love song and is now often used for any love song. The ballad derives its name from medieval French dance songs or ballares, from which ballet is also derived, as a narrative song, their theme and function may originate from Scandinavian and Germanic traditions of storytelling that can be seen in poems such as Beowulf. Musically they were influenced by the Minnesinger, the earliest example of a recognizable ballad in form in England is Judas in a 13th-century manuscript. This means that the two words, ballad and ballet, are derived from the French language. Ballads were originally written to accompany dances, and so were composed in couplets with refrains in alternate lines and these refrains would have been sung by the dancers in time with the dance. Most northern and west European ballads are written in ballad stanzas or quatrains of alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, known as ballad meter. Usually, only the second and fourth line of a quatrain are rhymed, there is considerable variation on this pattern in almost every respect, including length, number of lines and rhyming scheme, making the strict definition of a ballad extremely difficult. Ballads usually use the dialect of the people and are heavily influenced by the region in which they originate. Scottish ballads in particular are distinctively un-English, even showing some pre-Christian influences in the inclusion of elements such as the fairies in the Scottish ballad Tam Lin. The ballads do not have any known author or correct version, instead, having passed down mainly by oral tradition since the Middle Ages. The ballads remained a tradition until the increased interest in folk songs in the 18th century led collectors such as Bishop Thomas Percy to publish volumes of popular ballads. In all traditions most ballads are narrative in nature, with a story, often concise, and rely on imagery, rather than description. Themes concerning rural laborers and their sexuality are common, and there are many ballads based on the Robin Hood legend. Another common feature of ballads is repetition, sometimes of fourth lines in succeeding stanzas, as a refrain, sometimes of third and fourth lines of a stanza and sometimes of entire stanzasBallad – Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad " The Twa Corbies "
47. Electric keyboard – An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments. Broadly speaking, in a popular context, the term electronic keyboard or just a keyboard mostly refers to any type of digital or electronic keyboard instrument. These include synthesizers, digital pianos, stage pianos, electronic organs, however, in true musical terminology, an electronic keyboard is an inexpensive synthesizer equipped with built-in power amplifier and small loudspeakers. Electronic keyboards are capable of recreating a wide range of instrument sounds with less complex sound synthesis, Electronic keyboards are usually dedicated for home users, beginners and other non-professional users. The least expensive models do not have velocity-sensitive keys, but mid- to high-priced models do have these feature, home keyboards typically have little if any sound editing capacity. The user typically selects from a range of voices or sounds. Home keyboards have a lower cost than professional synthesizers. Casio and Yamaha are among the manufacturers of home keyboards. An electronic keyboard may also called a digital keyboard, portable keyboard, or home keyboard, referring their digital-based sound generation and light-weight, portable build. In Russia, most kinds of keyboards were often referred to as a synthesizer. The term electronic keyboard may also be used to refer to synthesizer or digital piano on colloquial usage, Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit to reduce the amount of wiring that is needed. Electronic hardware can also do this, Sound generator, A digital sound module typically contained within an integrated ROM, which is capable of accepting MIDI commands and producing sounds. Keyboard sound generators are mostly based on PCM synth, amplifier and speakers, an internal audio amplifier built to the sound generator chip and low-powered speakers that amplify the sounds so that the listener can hear them. Power supply, Keyboards may or may not have a power supply system built to the main circuit board. Flash memory, Most electronic keyboards have an amount of onboard memory for storing MIDI data and/or recorded songs. Floppy disks were obsolete by the early 2000s, with memory cards start to replace them shortly afterwards, USB storage were originally less common at the time, but was later popularized by Yamahas Tyros2 workstation keyboard in 2005 and has become a standard feature ever since. Most keyboards today uses USB storage, with the exception of some Casio, keyboard instruments can be found as far back as the hydraulis in the 3rd century BCE, which developed into the pipe organ, and small portable instruments such as the portative and positive organ. Additional keyboard instruments, the clavichord and harpsichord, were developed in the 14th century CE, as technology improved, more sophisticated keyboards were developed, including the 12-tone keyboard still in use todayElectric keyboard – A Yamaha PSR-290 electronic keyboard.
48. Rhythm guitar – Therefore, the basic technique of rhythm guitar is to hold down a series of chords with the fretting hand while strumming rhythmically with the other hand. More developed rhythm techniques include arpeggios, damping, riffs, chord solos, in big band music, the guitarist is considered part of the rhythm section, alongside bass and drums. In some musical situations, such as a solo singer-guitarist, the guitar accompaniment provides all the rhythmic drive, in the most commercially available and consumed genres, electric guitars tend to dominate their acoustic cousins in both the recording studio and the live venue. However the acoustic guitar remains a popular choice in country, western and especially bluegrass music, most rhythms in rock and blues are based on 4/4 time with a backbeat, however, many variations are possible. A backbeat is a syncopated accentuation on the off beat, in a simple 4/4 rhythm these are beats 2 and 4. This requires rhythm guitarists to have a knowledge of how to use chord voicings, riffs. Three-chord progressions are common in pop and rock, using various combinations of the I, IV and V chords. Minor and modal chord progressions feature in popular music. One departure from the basic strummed chord technique is to play arpeggios, if this is done rapidly enough, listeners will still hear the sequence as harmony rather than melody. Arpeggiation is often used in folk, country, and heavy metal and it is also prominent in 1960s pop, such as The Animals House of the Rising Sun, and jangle pop from the 1980s onwards. Rhythm guitarists who use arpeggio often favor semi-acoustic guitars and twelve string guitars to get bright, the Soukous band TPOK Jazz additionally featured the unique role of mi-solo, guitarist, playing arpeggio patterns and filling a role between the lead and rhythm guitars. In some cases, the progression is implied with a simplified sequence of two or three notes, sometimes called a riff, that is repeated throughout the composition. In heavy metal music, this is expanded to more complex sequences comprising a combination of chords, single notes. The rhythm guitar part in compositions performed by more technically oriented bands often include riffs employing complex lead guitar techniques, in bands with two or more guitarists, the guitarists may exchange or even duplicate roles for different songs or different sections within a song. In those with a single guitarist, the guitarist may play lead and rhythm at different times or simultaneously, some rhythm techniques cross over into lead guitar playing. In guitar-bass-and-drums power trios guitarists must double up between rhythm and lead, for instance Jimi Hendrix combined full chords with solo licks, double stops and arpeggios. A recent innovation is the use of a pedal to record a chord sequence or riff over which the lead line can then be played. As a result, rhythm and lead players may use different guitars and amplifiers, Rhythm guitarists may employ an electric acoustic guitar or a humbucker-equipped electric guitar for a richer and fatter outputRhythm guitar – Guitar strum Play (help · info): pattern created by subtracting the second and fifth (of eight) eighth notes from a pattern of straight eighth notes.
49. Cello – The cello or violoncello is a bowed or plucked string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. The strings from low to high are generally tuned to C2, G2, D3 and A3 and it is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin and viola and the double bass. The cello is used as a musical instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras. It is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the symphony orchestra. Cello parts are written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clefs are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a cellist or violoncellist, in a small Classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello typically plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece. In orchestra, in Baroque era and Classical music period, the cello plays the bass part. In Baroque era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline, in a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined by other bass instruments, playing double bass, viol or other low-register instruments. The name cello is a contraction of the Italian violoncello, which means little violone, in modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument. Thus, the name contained both the augmentative -one and the diminutive -cello. By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to cello and it is now customary to use cello without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the viola, which was derived from Medieval Latin vitula. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3 and it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola, but an octave lower. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello is most closely associated with European classical music, and has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the orchestra, as part of the string section. A large number of concertos and sonatas have been written for the cello, among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bachs six unaccompanied Suites. The Prelude from the First Suite is particularly famous, romantic era repertoire includes the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms. The cello is increasingly common in traditional music, especially Scottish fiddle musicCello – Cello close-up
50. Violin – The violin is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use, smaller violin-type instruments are known, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are virtually unused in the 2010s. The violin typically has four strings tuned in fifths, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings. Violins are important instruments in a variety of musical genres. They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition and in varieties of folk music. They are also used in genres of folk including country music and bluegrass music. Electric violins are used in forms of rock music, further. The violin is sometimes called a fiddle, particularly in Irish traditional music and bluegrass. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries. In Europe it served as the basis for stringed instruments used in classical music, the viola. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, many of these trade instruments were formerly sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a luthier or violinmaker, the parts of a violin are usually made from different types of wood and on the use of a pickup and an amplifier and speaker). Violins can be strung with gut, Perlon or other synthetic, the earliest stringed instruments were mostly plucked. Similar and variant types were probably disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the first makers of violins probably borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lira. These included the rebec, the Arabic rebab, the vielle, the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words violino and vyollon are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, by this time, the violin had already begun to spread throughout Europe. The violin proved very popular, both among street musicians and the nobility, the French king Charles IX ordered Andrea Amati to construct 24 violins for him in 1560, one of these noble instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin. The Messiah or Le Messie made by Antonio Stradivari in 1716 remains pristine and it is now located in the Ashmolean Museum of OxfordViolin – A standard modern violin shown from the front and the side