1. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainlandCommonwealth of Puerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
2. Spanish language – Spanish —also called Castilian —is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain, with hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the worlds second-most spoken native language after Mandarin Chinese and it is one of the few languages to use inverted question and exclamation marks. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. Beginning in the early 16th century, Spanish was taken to the colonies of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania, around 75% of modern Spanish is derived from Latin. Greek has also contributed substantially to Spanish vocabulary, especially through Latin, Spanish vocabulary has been in contact from an early date with Arabic, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin and it has also been influenced by Basque as well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. It also adopted words from languages such as Gothic language from the Visigoths in which many Spanish names and surnames have a Visigothic origin. Spanish is one of the six languages of the United Nations. It is the language in the world by the number of people who speak it as a mother tongue, after Mandarin Chinese. It is estimated more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, speakers in the Americas total some 418 million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8% of the population. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States, in 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over,38 million speak Spanish at home. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows, El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado, las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas. Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State, the other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities. The Spanish Royal Academy, on the hand, currently uses the term español in its publications. Two etymologies for español have been suggested, the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus, from—or pertaining to—HispaniaSpanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
3. Dominican Republic – The Dominican Republic is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western one-third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, christopher Columbus landed on the Western part of Hispaniola, in what is now Haiti, on December 6,1492. The island became the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World, the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821 but were forcefully annexed by their more powerful neighbor Haiti in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country again under Spanish colonial rule until the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife until 1916, a civil war in 1965, the countrys last, was ended by another U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966–1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996. Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republics current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, the Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic have been standing out as one of the economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5. 4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7. 0%, respectively, in the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7. 4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing and tourism, private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as high level of remittances. The Dominican Republic has a market, Bolsa de Valores de la Republica Dominicana. and advanced telecommunication system. Nevertheless, unemployment, government corruption, and inconsistent electric service remain major Dominican problems, the country also has marked income inequality. International migration affects the Dominican Republic greatly, as it receives, mass illegal Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues. A large Dominican diaspora exists, mostly in the United States, contributes to development, the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The year-round golf courses are major attractions, the island has an average temperature of 26 °C and great climatic and biological diversity. The country is also the site of the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress built in all of the Americas, located in Santo Domingos Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and musicDominican Republic – The Pomier Caves are a series of 55 caves located north of San Cristobal in the Dominican Republic. They contain the largest collection of 2,000-year-old rock art in the Caribbean.
4. Caribbean – The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15,1954, to October 10,2010, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest. The two most prevalent pronunciations of Caribbean are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the accent on the third syllable. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, politically, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is also in the Atlantic and is a member of the Caribbean Community. According to the ACS, the population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies, Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin and these islands include Aruba, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and AntiguaCaribbean – Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela.
5. Greater Antilles – The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands. The Greater Antilles constitute nearly 90% of the mass of the entire West Indies. The remainder of the land belongs to the archipelago of the Lesser Antilles, the Lucayan Archipelago is not considered to be a part of the Antilles archipelagoes but rather of the North Atlantic. Cohen, S. Groene, J. Werner, L. Vladimir, hiller, H. L. Caribbean, The Greater Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean, Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics, Ecology, Evolution, oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. A Brief History of the Caribbean, new York, Facts on File,1992. Media related to Greater Antilles at Wikimedia CommonsGreater Antilles – Location within the Caribbean.
6. Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainlandPuerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
7. Archipelago – An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi-, in Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Archipelago was the proper name for the Aegean Sea and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands. It is now used to refer to any group or, sometimes. Archipelagos may be isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago, archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs generated by subduction zones or hotspots, but may also be the result of erosion, deposition, and land elevation. Depending on their origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as oceanic islands, continental fragments. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin, continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement. Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Maldives, the Bahamas, Greece, Hawaii, the largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed. ArchipelagoArchipelago – The Ksamil Archipelago in Albania.
8. Vieques, Puerto Rico – Vieques, in full Isla de Vieques, is an island–municipality of Puerto Rico in the northeastern Caribbean, part of an island grouping sometimes known as the Spanish Virgin Islands. Vieques is part of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and retains strong influences from 400 years of Spanish presence in the island, Vieques lies about 8 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland, and measures about 21 miles long by 4 miles wide. Its most populated barrio Isabel Segunda, the center on the northern side of the island. The population of Vieques was 9,301 at the 2010 Census, the islands name is a Spanish spelling of an American Indian word said to mean small island. It also has the nickname Isla Nena, usually translated from the Spanish as Little Girl Island, during the colonial period, the British name was Crab Island. Today the former navy land is a wildlife refuge, with numerous beaches that still retain the names given by the navy, including Red Beach, Blue Beach. The beaches are listed among the top beaches in the Caribbean for their azure-colored waters. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vieques was first inhabited by ancient American Indian peoples who traveled from continental America perhaps between 3000 BC and 2000 BC, however, estimates of these prehistoric dates of inhabitation vary widely. These tribes had a Stone Age culture and were probably fishermen, excavations at the Puerto Ferro site by Luis Chanlatte and Yvonne Narganes uncovered a fragmented human skeleton in a large hearth area. Radiocarbon dating of shells found in the hearth indicate a date of c.1900 BCE. Linear arrays of smaller stones radiating from the boulders are apparent at the site today. Further waves of settlement by Native Americans followed over many centuries, the Arawak-speaking Saladoid people, thought to have originated in modern-day Venezuela, arrived in the region perhaps around 200 BC. These tribes, noted for their pottery, stone carving, and other artifacts, eventually merged with groups from Hispaniola and Cuba and this culture flourished in the region from around 1000 AD, and survived on Vieques until the arrival of the Europeans in the late 15th century. The European discovery of Vieques is sometimes credited to Christopher Columbus and it does not seem to be certain whether Columbus personally visited Vieques, but in any case the island was soon claimed by the Spanish. During the early 16th century Vieques became a center of Taíno rebellion against the European invaders, the native Taíno population was decimated, and its people either killed, imprisoned or enslaved by the Spanish. The Spanish did not, however, permanently colonise Vieques at this time, as European powers fought for control in the region, a series of attempts by the French, English and Danish to colonise the island in the 17th and 18th centuries were repulsed by the Spanish. Scottish sovereignty of the island proved short-lived however, as a Danish ship arrived shortly afterwards, at the beginning of the 19th century, the Spanish took steps to permanently settle and secure the island. In 1811, Don Salvador Meléndez, then governor of Puerto Rico and he was instrumental in the establishment of large plantations, marking a period of social and economic change for the islandVieques, Puerto Rico – Vieques from the air, looking west
9. Culebra, Puerto Rico – Isla Culebra is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico. It is located approximately 17 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland,12 miles west of St. Thomas and 9 miles north of Vieques, Culebra is spread over 5 wards and Culebra Pueblo, the downtown area and the administrative center of the city. Residents of the island are known as Culebrenses, with a population of 1,818 as of the latest census, it is Puerto Ricos least populous municipality. Originally called Isla Pasaje and Isla de San Ildefonso, Culebra is also known as Isla Chiquita, some sources claim that Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive at the island during his second voyage in 1493. It is believed that the island was populated by Carib Indians during the colonization, after Agüeybaná and Agüeybaná II led the Taíno rebellion of 1511, Taíno Indians from the main island sought refuge on Culebra and allied with Caribs to launch random attacks at the island estates. After that, the island was abandoned for centuries. During the era of Spanish commerce through the Americas, it was used as a refuge for pirates, as well as local fishermen and sailors. Some sources mention an Englishman named Stevens, who was put in charge of Culebra in 1875 by the Spanish crown to protect the island from foreigners, Culebra was then settled by Cayetano Escudero Sanz on October 27,1880. This first settlement was called San Ildefonso, to honor the Bishop of Toledo, two years later, on September 25,1882, construction of the Culebrita Lighthouse began. It was completed on February 25,1886 which made it the oldest operating lighthouse in the Caribbean until 1975, in 1902, Culebra was integrated as a part of Vieques. One year later, on June 26, President Theodore Roosevelt established the Culebra Naval Reservation, a bird refuge was established on February 27,1909. In 1939, the U. S. Navy began to use the Culebra Archipelago as a gunnery and this was done in preparation for the United States involvement in World War II. In 1971 the people of Culebra began protests, known as the Navy-Culebra protests, four years later, in 1975, the use of Culebra as a gunnery range ceased and all operations were moved to Vieques. Culebra was declared an independent island municipality in 1917, the first democratically elected government was put into place in 1960. Prior to this, the government of Puerto Rico appointed delegates to administer the island, Culebra is an archipelago consisting of the main island and twenty-three smaller islands that lie off its coast. The largest of these cays are, Culebrita to the east, Cayo Norte to the northeast, the smaller islands include Cayo Ballena, Cayos Geniqui, Arrecife Culebrita, Las Hermanas, El Mono, Cayo Lobito, Cayo Botijuela, Alcarraza, Los Gemelos, and Piedra Steven. Islands in the archipelago are arid, meaning they have no rivers or streams, all of the fresh water is brought from Puerto Rico via Vieques. Culebra is characterized by an irregular topography resulting in a long intricate shoreline, the island is approximately 7 by 5 milesCulebra, Puerto Rico – M4A3E8 Sherman tank at Flamenco Beach.
10. Mona, Puerto Rico – Mona is the third-largest island of the Puerto Rican archipelago, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques. It is the largest of three located in the Mona Passage, a strait between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the others being Monito Island and Desecheo Island. It measures about 11 km by 7 km, and lies 66 km west of Puerto Rico, of which it is administratively a part. The original name given to the island by the Taíno Indians is Amona and it is one of two islands that make up the Isla de Mona e Islote Monito Barrio of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. The island is managed as the Mona Island Nature Reserve, Mona Island is believed to have been originally settled by Arawak Indians who arrived from Quisqueya. An archeological excavation during the 1980s discovered many Pre-Columbian objects on the island that helped support historians theories of the islands first inhabitants, stone tools found in a rock shelter have been dated to around 3000 BC. Much later the island was settled by the Taínos and remained so until the arrival of the Spanish in the 15th century. Within hours of setting foot in Puerto Rico, Columbus and his ships headed west to Hispaniola, as he left Puerto Rico, he reputedly became the first European to sight the island on September 24,1494, which was claimed for Spain. The name Mona derives from the Taíno name Ámona, bestowed by the natives in honor of the ruling Cacique or chief of the island. However, one amateur archaeologist who has studied the Mona Island/Columbus sighting for over 14 years puts this in dispute with the following logic, Columbus is in a bay on the northwest corner. He is to sail from there straight across to the north coast of Hispaniola, why would he sail south to where he has already been and then sail north again to Hispaniola. Mona Island was probably picked by armchair historians because it is the island in the passage between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola that is drawn on most maps. It is more logical that when Columbus left the northwest coast of Puerto Rico and it was never considered by armchair authors because it is small, barren, and of no interest, it is not drawn on most maps. In 1502, Fray Nicolás de Ovando was sent to Isla de la Mona to keep an eye, from a safe distance, with a group of 2,000 Spanish settlers, Ovando was left in charge of creating a permanent settlement on the island. Juan Ponce de León, who accompanied Columbus on his first two voyages, became the first ruling governor of Puerto Rico, in 1515, after some wrangling, Ferdinand II was able to reclaim the island from Diego Colón, Viceroy of the Indies. By then, Isla de la Mona was an important point of trade between Spain and the rest of Latin America, as well as a rest stop for the crews of boats carrying slaves. Realizing that mining would require intense labor, the majority of inhabitants chose to work as fishermen, by accepting this option, they also were exempted from paying imposed taxes, and were able to avoid the hard labor many other natives endured in mines. In time, natives from neighboring islands were brought to Mona Island to assist with laborMona, Puerto Rico – Mona Island Lighthouse
11. Hispaniola – Hispaniola is the 22nd-largest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, two sovereign nations share the 76, 192-square-kilometre island. The only other shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493. The island was called by various names by its native people, fernández de Oviedo and de las Casas both recorded that the island was called Haiti by the Taíno. DAnghiera added another name, Quizqueia, but later shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. When Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana, meaning the Spanish Island in Latin and La Isla Española, meaning the Spanish Island, in Spanish. De las Casas shortened the name to Española, and when d‘Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola. Due to Taíno, Spanish and French influences on the island, historically the whole island was referred to as Haiti, Hayti, Santo Domingo, St. Domingue. The name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as the name of independent Saint-Domingue. It was also adopted as the name of independent Santo Domingo, as the Republic of Spanish Haiti. Christopher Columbus inadvertently landed on the island during his first voyage across the Atlantic in 1492, where his flagship, a contingent of men were left at an outpost christened La Navidad, on the north coast of present-day Haiti. The island was inhabited by the Taíno, one of the indigenous Arawak peoples, the Taino were at first tolerant of Columbus and his crew, and helped him to construct La Navidad on what is now Môle-Saint-Nicolas, Haiti, in December 1492. European colonization of the began in earnest the following year. In 1496 the town of Nueva Isabela was founded, after being destroyed by a hurricane, it was rebuilt on the opposite side of the Ozama River and called Santo Domingo. It is the oldest permanent European settlement in the Americas, several 16th century writers estimated the 1492 population of Hispaniola at over 1 million people. Twentieth-century estimates of the range from 60,000 to 8,000,000. Harsh enslavement by Spanish colonists, redirection of food supplies and labor towards the colonists, had a impact on both mortality and fertility over the first quarter century. Colonial administrators and Dominican and Hyeronimite priests observed that the search for gold, demographic data from two provinces in 1514 shows a low birth rate consistent with a 3. 5% annual population declineHispaniola – View from Hispaniola
12. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
13. Treaty – A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to bind themselves. Since the late 19th century, most treaties have followed a consistent format. A treaty typically begins with a preamble describing the parties and their joint objectives in executing the treaty. Modern preambles are sometimes structured as a very long sentence formatted into multiple paragraphs for readability. The end of the preamble and the start of the agreement is often signaled by the words have agreed as follows. After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the actual agreement. Each article heading usually encompasses a paragraph, a long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. The date is written in its most formal, longest possible form. For example, the Charter of the United Nations was DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one nine hundred. If the treaty is executed in multiple copies in different languages, that fact is always noted, the signatures of the parties representatives follow at the very end. Bilateral treaties are concluded between two states or entities, each of these treaties has seventeen parties. These however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties, the parties are divided into two groups, the Swiss and the EU and its member states. The treaty establishes rights and obligations between the Swiss and the EU and the member states severally—it does not establish any rights and obligations amongst the EU, a multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries. The agreement establishes rights and obligations between each party and every other party, Treaties of mutual guarantee are international compacts, e. g. the Treaty of Locarno which guarantees each signatory against attack from another. Reservations are essentially caveats to an acceptance of a treaty. Reservations are unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and these must be included at the time of signing or ratification, i. e. a party cannot add a reservation after it has already joined a treatyTreaty – The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian
14. Incorporated territory – Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have a government through an Organic Act passed by the U. S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are inhabited, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands. They are classified as unincorporated territories and they are organized, self-governing territories with locally elected governors and territorial legislatures. Each also elects a member to the U. S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small islands, atolls and reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, the status of some are disputed by Colombia, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving, other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, United States Virgin Islands and American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, while claimed by the US, Navassa Island, Wake Island, Serranilla Bank and Bajo Nuevo Bank are disputed. Territories have always been a part of the United States, by Act of Congress, the term United States, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Since political union with the Northern Mariana Islands in 1986, they too are treated as a part of the U. S, an Executive Order in 2007 includes American Samoa as U. S. geographical extent duly reflected in U. S. State Department documents. Approximately 4 million islanders are U. S. citizens, about 32,000 U. S. non-citizen nationals live in American Samoa, under current law among the territories, only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals. American Samoans are under the protection of the U. S. with freedom of U. S. travel without visas. The five inhabited U. S. territories have local voting rights and protections under U. S. courts, pay some U. S. taxes, depending on the congress, they may also vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. S. Every four years, the Democratic and Republican political parties nominate their candidates at conventions which include delegates from the five major territories. The citizens there, however, do not vote in the election for U. S. President. S. Incorporated territories are considered a part of the United StatesIncorporated territory – View of San Juan, Puerto Rico
15. Organized territory – Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have a government through an Organic Act passed by the U. S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are inhabited, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands. They are classified as unincorporated territories and they are organized, self-governing territories with locally elected governors and territorial legislatures. Each also elects a member to the U. S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small islands, atolls and reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, the status of some are disputed by Colombia, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving, other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, United States Virgin Islands and American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, while claimed by the US, Navassa Island, Wake Island, Serranilla Bank and Bajo Nuevo Bank are disputed. Territories have always been a part of the United States, by Act of Congress, the term United States, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Since political union with the Northern Mariana Islands in 1986, they too are treated as a part of the U. S, an Executive Order in 2007 includes American Samoa as U. S. geographical extent duly reflected in U. S. State Department documents. Approximately 4 million islanders are U. S. citizens, about 32,000 U. S. non-citizen nationals live in American Samoa, under current law among the territories, only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals. American Samoans are under the protection of the U. S. with freedom of U. S. travel without visas. The five inhabited U. S. territories have local voting rights and protections under U. S. courts, pay some U. S. taxes, depending on the congress, they may also vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. S. Every four years, the Democratic and Republican political parties nominate their candidates at conventions which include delegates from the five major territories. The citizens there, however, do not vote in the election for U. S. President. S. Incorporated territories are considered a part of the United StatesOrganized territory – View of San Juan, Puerto Rico
16. United States Congress – The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, however, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can also refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith, Roberts, and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percentUnited States Congress
17. Guerrilla warfare – The term, the diminutive form of war in Spanish, is usually translated as little war, and the word, guerrilla, has been used to refer to the concept since the 18th century, and perhaps earlier. In correct Spanish usage, a person who is a member of a guerrilla is a guerrillero if male, the term guerrilla was used in English as early as 1809, to refer to the fighters, and also to denote a group or band of such fighters. However, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the style of warfare. The use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number, scale, guerrillas usually carries positive connotations, and is often used by such fighters themselves and by their sympathizers, while their foes in many cases call them terrorists. Making an objective definition of the difference between a guerrilla and a terrorist has proven a difficult task, the strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare tend to focus around the use of a small, mobile force competing against a larger, more unwieldy one. The Guerrilla focuses on organizing in small units, depending on the support of the local population, tactically, the guerrilla army would avoid any confrontation with large units of enemy troops, but seek and eliminate small groups of soldiers to minimize losses and exhaust the opposing force. Not limiting their targets to personnel, enemy resources are preferred targets. All of that is to weaken the strength, to cause the enemy eventually to be unable to prosecute the war any longer. It is often misunderstood that guerrilla warfare must involve disguising as civilians to cause enemy troops to fail in telling friend from foe, however, this is not a primary feature of a guerrilla war. This type of war can be practiced anywhere there are places for combatants to cover themselves, at least one author credits the ancient Chinese work The Art of War with providing instruction in such tactics to Mao. The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War or 600 BC to 501 BC, was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare and this directly inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla tactics were employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare, on the hand, did not emerge until 3100 BC in Egypt. Since the Enlightenment, ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism, socialism, because of the innovative tactics he used during his command, he made himself the name of Terror Romanorum. A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency operation involves actions taken by the government of a nation to contain or quell an insurgency taken up against it. Counter-insurgency operations are common during war, occupation and armed rebellions, the two most influential of scholars of counter-insurgency have been Westerners whose job it had been to fight insurgents. Robert Thompson fought during the Malayan Emergency and David Galula fought during the Algerian War, together these officers advocated multi-pronged strategies to win over the civilian population to the side of the counter-insurgent. The widely distributed and influential work of Sir Robert Thompson, counter-insurgency expert of the Malayan Emergency, thompsons underlying assumption was that the counter-insurgent was committed to improving the rule of law and bettering local governanceGuerrilla warfare – Spanish guerrilla resistance to the French invasion in 1808
18. Direct action – Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue. This can include nonviolent and less often violent activities which target persons, groups, examples of non-violent direct action can include sit-ins, strikes, workplace occupations, blockades, or hacktivism, while violent direct action may include political violence or assaults. Tactics such as sabotage and property destruction may be considered violent if people are hurt in the action, by contrast, electoral politics, diplomacy, negotiation, and arbitration are not usually described as direct action, as they are politically mediated. Direct action tactics have been around for as long as conflicts have existed, the radical union the Industrial Workers of the World first mentioned the term direct action in a publication in reference to a Chicago strike conducted in 1910. American anarchist Voltairine de Cleyre wrote an essay called Direct Action in 1912 which is widely cited today. In his 1920 book, Direct Action, William Mellor placed direct action firmly in the struggle between worker and employer for control over the life of society. Mellor defined direct action as the use of form of economic power for securing of ends desired by those who possess that power. Mellor considered direct action a tool of both owners and workers and for this reason he included within his definition lockouts and cartels, as well as strikes, over and over they were arrested, fined, and imprisoned. Till they finally compelled their persecutors to let them alone, —de Cleyre, undated Martin Luther King felt that non-violent direct actions goal was to create such a crisis and foster such a tension as to demand a response. The rhetoric of Martin Luther King, James Bevel, and Mohandas Gandhi promoted non-violent revolutionary direct action as a means to social change. Noteworthy, Gandhi and Bevel had been influenced by Leo Tolstoys The Kingdom of God Is Within You. By the middle of the 20th century, the sphere of action had undoubtedly expanded. Some sections of the movement used direct action, particularly during the 1980s. In the US, mass protests opposed nuclear energy, weapons, many groups also set up semi-permanent peace camps outside air bases such as Molesworth and Greenham Common, and at the Nevada Test Site. Environmental movement organizations such as Greenpeace have used direct action to pressure governments, on April 28,2009, Greenpeace activists, including Phil Radford, scaled a crane across the street from the Department of State, calling on world leaders to address climate change. Soon thereafter, Greenpeace activists dropped a banner off of Mt. Rushmore, placing President Obamas face next to other historic presidents, overall, more than 2,600 people were arrested while protesting energy policy and associated health issues under the Barack Obama Administration. In 2009, hundreds blocked the gates of the coal fired power plant that powers the US Congress building, following the Power Shift conference in Washington, D. C. Anti-globalization activists made headlines around the world in 1999, when they forced the Seattle WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 to end early with direct action tacticsDirect action – Mohandas Gandhi and supporters Salt March on March 12, 1930. This was an act of non-violent direct action.
19. Independence movement in Puerto Rico – The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain independence for the island people. First from the Spanish Empire, and since 1898, from the United States, a wide variety of groups, movements, political parties, and organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of autonomous, Nationalist, and Independence sentiments and political parties exist on the island, during the second half of the 20th century, the independence movement has attracted neither widespread support nor support at elections from the Puerto Rican people. In a status referendum in 2012,5. 5% voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 44% of the votes cast, Independence also received the least support, less than 4. 5% of the vote, in the status referendums in 1967,1993 and 1998. A fourth referendum was held in 2012, with 54% voting to change Puerto Ricos status, the fifth plebiscite is due to be held on June 11,2017. The two options at that time will be Statehood and Independence/Free Association and it will be the first referendum not to offer the choice of retaining the current status as a Commonwealth. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the 16th century and he was joined by Guarionex, cacique of Utuado, who attacked the village of Sotomayor and killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Agüeybaná IIs people, who were armed only with spears, bows, and arrows, were no match for the guns of the Spanish forces, the revolt ultimately failed, and many Taíno either committed suicide or fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the born, or Criollos. These include the conspiracy at San Germán in 1809, and the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán, many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to create a federation of Latin American nations, to include Puerto Rico, the Spanish occupation forces were the object of more than thirty conspiracies. Some, like the Lares uprising, the riots and sedition of 1897, the most widespread popular revolts, however, were the one in Lares in 1868, and the one in Yauco in 1897. In 1868, the Grito de Lares took place, in which occupied the town of Lares. Ramón Emeterio Betances was the leader of this revolt, earlier, Segundo Ruiz Belvis and Betances had founded the Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances wrote several Proclamas, or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the Spanish colonial system and these statements were rapidly circulated throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. The critical state of the economy, along with the repression imposed by the Spanish. The stronghold of the movement were located on the mountains of the west of the islandIndependence movement in Puerto Rico – Roman Catholic Church and Plaza de la Revolución in Lares, where the 1868 Grito de Lares took place
20. Bomb – A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy. Bombs have been in use since the 11th century in Song Dynasty China, the term bomb is not usually applied to explosive devices used for civilian purposes such as construction or mining, although the people using the devices may sometimes refer to them as a bomb. The military use of the bomb, or more specifically aerial bomb action, typically refers to airdropped, unpowered explosive weapons most commonly used by air forces. Other military explosive weapons not classified as bombs include grenades, shells, depth charges, warheads when in missiles, in unconventional warfare, other names can refer to a range of offensive weaponry. For instance, in recent Middle Eastern conflicts, bombs called improvised explosive devices have been employed by insurgent fighters to great effectiveness, the word comes from the Latin bombus, which in turn comes from the Greek βόμβος, an onomatopoetic term meaning booming, buzzing. Explosive bombs were used in China in 1221, by a Jin dynasty army against a Song Dynasty city, Bombs built using bamboo tubes appear in the 11th century. Bombs made of cast iron shells packed with explosive gunpowder date to 13th century China, the term was coined for this bomb during a Jin dynasty naval battle of 1231 against the Mongols. When hit, even iron armour was pierced through. The Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing describes the use of gunpowder bombs. During the Mongol invasions of Japan, the Mongols used the explosive thunder-crash bombs against the Japanese, archaeological evidence of the thunder-crash bombs has been discovered in an underwater shipwreck off the shore of Japan by the Kyushu Okinawa Society for Underwater Archaeology. X-rays by Japanese scientists of the excavated shells confirmed that they contained gunpowder, explosive shock waves can cause situations such as body displacement, dismemberment, internal bleeding and ruptured eardrums. Shock waves produced by explosive events have two components, the positive and negative wave. The positive wave shoves outward from the point of detonation, followed by the vacuum space sucking back towards the point of origin as the shock bubble collapses. The greatest defense against shock injuries is distance from the source of shock, as a point of reference, the overpressure at the Oklahoma City bombing was estimated in the range of 28 MPa. A thermal wave is created by the release of heat caused by an explosion. Military bomb tests have documented temperatures of up to 2,480 °C, while capable of inflicting severe to catastrophic burns and causing secondary fires, thermal wave effects are considered very limited in range compared to shock and fragmentation. This would be fatal to humans, as tests have proven. Fragmentation is produced by the acceleration of shattered pieces of bomb casing, the use of fragmentation in bombs dates to the 14th century, and appears in the Ming Dynasty text HuolongjingBomb – The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States is the second most powerful conventional bomb in the world.
21. Federal Bureau of Investigation – The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nations prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Department of Justice, Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, although many of the FBIs functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint and these overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries. The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation and its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, in the fiscal year 2012, the Bureaus total budget was approximately $8.12 billion. In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, the Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the breakage of the Oregon land fraud scandal at approximately the turn of the 20th Century, President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, on May 27,1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelts urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26,1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including veterans of the Secret Service. Its first Chief was Stanley Finch, Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. The bureaus first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the White Slave Traffic Act, or Mann Act, in 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition, in the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenureFederal Bureau of Investigation – J. Edgar Hoover, Director from 1924 to 1972.
22. FBI Most Wanted Terrorists – The FBI Most Wanted Terrorists was a list created and first released on October 10,2001, with the authority of United States President Bush, following the September 11 attacks on the United States. Initially, the list contained 22 of the top terrorists chosen by the FBI, none of the 22 had been captured by US or other authorities by that date. Of the 22, only Osama bin Laden was by then listed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list. No particular legal consequences flowed from the creation of and inclusion on the list, the information sought to be reported is not necessarily relating to any person on any of the FBI wanted lists. On the fugitive group wanted poster, the FBI did not list the persons in any particular stated order, except perhaps for the consistent placing of bin Laden in the number one position of the top row. However, the 22 can easily fit into categories of over the two decades, based on the terrorist attacks in which they were, according to US authorities. The 22 on the list are then grouped beneath the attack for each person was first accused of involvement. To enlist the help in this effort, the FBI sought a way to deliver the early known suspected terror attack information, often very limited. So, on January 17,2002, the third major FBI wanted list was first released, the first such list profiled five persons about whom little was known, but who were suspected of plotting terrorist attacks in martyrdom operations. The main evidence against the five was five videos they had produced, found in the rubble of Mohammed Atefs destroyed home outside Kabul, by 2006, more than four years had passed since the FBI had listed the original 22 alleged terrorists on the Most Wanted Terrorist list. Of those 22, by then four had been qualified for removal from the list, also by then, the FBI determined that new persons qualified to be listed as Most Wanted Terrorists. Some of these persons were indicted for attacks and plots that had taken place since the original list had been compiled, the original indictments had been for incidents only through 1998. On February 24,2006, the day after adding two name to the list, the FBI added an additional six fugitive terrorists, for various plots and attacks. One of the entries was for an indictment dating back to the June 14,1985, additionally, the FBI also added to the Seeking Information – War on Terrorism list an additional three persons, most notably, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the notorious leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq. This marked the first time that al-Zarqawi had appeared on any of the three major FBI wanted lists, on June 8,2006, ABC News reported that Abu Musab al-Zarqawi was confirmed to have been killed in Baghdad in a bombing raid by a United States task force. His death was confirmed by sources in Iraq, including the United States government. More than $100 million had been paid to over 60 people through this programFBI Most Wanted Terrorists – Banner used by the FBI since inception on October 10, 2001 as the main title for the web site pages of both the group of wanted terrorists, and also on the wanted poster of each terrorist fugitive. The three overlapping seals on the left are the seal of the U.S. Department of State (similar to the Great Seal of the United States), the seal of the U.S. Department of Justice, and the seal of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
23. Criminals – In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term crime does not, in criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition. The most popular view is that crime is a created by law, in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act not only to some individual. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law, the notion that acts such as murder, rape and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What precisely is an offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, the state has the power to severely restrict ones liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which investigations and trials must adhere, usually, to be classified as a crime, the act of doing something criminal must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the intention to do something criminal. While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime, breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes, authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, and collectively these constitute a criminal justice system, Legal sanctions vary widely in their severity, they may include incarceration of temporary character aimed at reforming the convict. Some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments, legal mutilation, usually a natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may also commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes, the sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between society and crime. When Quinney states crime is a phenomenon he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning I decide, originally the Latin word crīmen meant charge or cry of distress. The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives, typically referred to a mistake or an offense against the community. In 13th century English crime meant sinfulness, according to etymonline. com and it was probably brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following, charge, indictment, accusation, crime, fault, the word may derive from the Latin cernere – to decide, to siftCriminals – Criminology and penology
24. Boricua Popular Army – The Ejército Popular Boricua, also known as Los Macheteros, is a clandestine organization based in Puerto Rico, with cells in the states and other nations. It campaigns for, and supports, the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States, during their first decade of existence, they had an average of two actions per year. Boricua Popular Army was led primarily by former FBI fugitive Filiberto Ojeda Ríos until his killing by the FBI in 2005. Ojeda Rioss killing was termed an illegal killing by the Government of Puerto Ricos Comision de Derechos Civiles after a seven-year investigation and this assertion would later be quoted when explaining the organizations strategy of scientific Marxism, which they established as the main basis for their martial methodology. Ojeda Ríoss main thesis states that the 1898 invasion by the United States represented meddling in the struggle that the people had been waging against Spanish colonialism for 400 years. Macheteros de Puerto Rico were dispatched throughout the island, working in cooperation with other groups including the Guardias de la Paz in Yauco. These voluntary units were involved in most of the battles in the Puerto Rican Campaign and their last involvement was in the Battle of Asomante, where along with units led by Captain Hernaíz, defended Aibonito Pass from invading units. The allied offensive was effective, prompting an order from the American side. However, the morning the signing of the Treaty of Paris was made public. Subsequently, both Spanish and Puerto Rican soldiers and volunteers disengaged and Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States, as established in the EPBs Organization of the EPB, the organization operates in a systemic and hierarchic structure. The entire organization is overseen by a committee, which is generally focused on politics. Beneath it lies a military commission, which in turn is divided by sub commissions specialized in finances, intelligence, transportation, provisions and general services, each commando receives additional salary, with specific exemptions being given to marriages, unemployed individuals and those with dependents. In December 1981, the EPB included benefits similar to those in the American military, the organization agreed to medical services and college education pending commission approval. New recruits may be trained in rural farms or in foreign countries. Training includes skills such as lock picking, handling firearms and explosives, forging documents, scuba diving, photography, concealment using makeup, an exercise regime is expected from commandoes afterwards. Meeting are kept to a minimum and only held when relevant, the basic units are the combat units, composed of five foot soldiers that are led by a leader with ties to the political branch. Their weapons and munitions are arbitrarily divided by type, short weapons, semi automatic weapons, rifles, a car was also provided and used both for meetings and in incursions without attracting attention. Units in turn subscribe to specific 17-men cells, with three of the unit leaders forming the hierarchy along a pair if political and military leaders and these cells generally aim to have equipment that is comparable to the American military or law enforcement agenciesBoricua Popular Army – Logo of the Boricua Popular Army
25. Robbery – Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. At common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to deprive the person of that property. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions, under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment. The word rob came via French from Late Latin words of Germanic origin, among the types of robbery are armed robbery involving use of a weapon and aggravated robbery involving use of a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a place such as a sidewalk, street. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force, extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given, primarily using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes blagging or stick-up, and steaming, in Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offence, subject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a minimum sentence of five years for the first offence. Robbery is an offence in the Republic of Ireland. Robbery is an offence in England and Wales. Aggravated theft Robbery is the offence of aggravated theft. Aggravated robbery There are no offences of aggravated robbery and this requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. In R v Robinson the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was actually owed and his conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief in his legal right to the money. See also R v Skivington 1 QB166,2 WLR655,131 JP265,111 SJ72,1 All ER483,51 Cr App R167, CA. It was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, and R v Gomez, should apply, the threat or use of force must take place immediately before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery, the words or immediately after that appeared in section 23 of the Larceny Act 1916 were deliberately omitted from section 8. The book Archbold said that the facts in R v Harman and it was held in R v Dawson and James that force is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury. This approach was confirmed in R v Clouden and Corcoran v Anderton, stealing may involve a young child who is not aware that taking other persons property is not in orderRobbery – Rōnin robbing a merchant's house in Japan around 1860.
26. Bill Clinton – William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the Presidency he was the 40th Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, before that, he served as Arkansas Attorney General from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideogically a New Democrat, Clinton is married to Hillary Clinton, who served as United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013 and U. S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and served the Democratic nominee for President in 2016, Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham both earned degrees from Yale Law School, where they met and began dating. As Governor of Arkansas, Clinton overhauled the states education system, Clinton was elected President of the United States in 1992, defeating incumbent George H. W. Bush. At age 46, he was the third-youngest president and the first from the Baby Boomer generation, Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history and signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement. After failing to pass health care reform, the Democratic House was ousted when the Republican Party won control of the Congress in 1994. Two years later, in 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second term, Clinton passed welfare reform and the State Childrens Health Insurance Program, providing health coverage for millions of children. Clinton was acquitted by the U. S. Senate in 1999, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus between the years 1998 and 2000, the last three years of Clintons presidency. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. President since World War II, since then, Clinton has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes, such as the prevention of AIDS, in 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life. In 2009, Clinton was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti, since leaving office, Clinton has been rated highly in public opinion polls of U. S. Presidents. Clinton was born on August 19,1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas and he was the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4,1943, but this later proved to be bigamous. Soon after their son was born, his mother traveled to New Orleans to study nursing, leaving her son in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the Southern United States was segregated racially, in 1950, Bills mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas, with his brother and Earl T. Ricks. The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950, although he immediately assumed use of his stepfathers surname, it was not until Clinton turned fifteen that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. Johns Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School—where he was a student leader, avid readerBill Clinton – Bill Clinton
27. Clinton administration – The presidency of Bill Clinton began on January 20,1993 at noon Eastern Standard Time, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on January 20,2001. His running mate, Al Gore, took office as Vice President on the same day, Clinton, a Democrat, took office after defeating Republican incumbent President George H. W. Bush and Independent businessman Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election. Four years later, he defeated Republican Bob Dole and Ross Perot to win a term of office. During both elections, Clinton ran as a New Democrat, and many of his administrations policy proposals reflected his centrist, Third Way thinking. He was succeeded in office by Republican George W. Bush, months into his first term, he signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which raised taxes and set the stage for future budget surpluses. He also signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement, a trade pact negotiated by President George H. W. Bush among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. His most ambitious legislative initiative, a plan to provide health care. Clintons party suffered a strong rebuke in the 1994 elections, the Republican Revolution, as the 1994 elections came to be known, empowered Congressional Republicans led by Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich to propose several conservative policies. While Clinton vetoed many of these policies, he signed some, including the Personal Responsibility. After disagreements with Congressional Republicans led to two shutdowns of the government between 1995 and 1996. In foreign policy, Clintons first term saw American interventions in Haiti and the Balkans, Clinton also appointed two Supreme Court Justices, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer. Clintons second term saw the first federal budget surpluses since the 1960s and his impeachment arose after he denied having an affair with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Though the House of Representatives voted to impeach Clinton, he was acquitted of all charges by the Senate, in 1997, Clinton signed into law a bill creating the State Childrens Health Insurance Program, which was to help provide health care coverage for millions of children. In 1999, he signed the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which allowed for the consolidation of investment banks, commercial banks, in foreign policy, Clinton launched a major bombing campaign in the Balkans, which led to the creation of a United Nations protectorate in Kosovo. Clinton also pursued trade agreements, most notably with China. Since the end of his presidency, historians and political scientists have tended to rank Clinton as an average to above average president. In the 1992 presidential election, Clinton defeated incumbent Republican president George H. W. Bush to become the first Democratic president since Jimmy Carter left office in 1981, Clinton took office with Democratic majorities in both houses, and attempted to pass an ambitious health care reform bill. Republicans took control of both houses of Congress in 1994 and retained control throughout Clintons presidency, but Clinton won reelection in 1996Clinton administration – Official portrait
28. United States Attorney – United States Attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. There are 93 U. S. Attorneys located throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. One U. S. Attorney is assigned to each of the districts, with the exception of Guam. Each U. S. Attorney is the federal law enforcement officer within his or her particular jurisdiction. They supervise district offices with as many as 350 Assistant U. S. Attorneys, an Assistant U. S. Attorney, or federal prosecutor, is a public official who represents the federal government on behalf of the U. S. Attorney in criminal prosecutions. U. S. Attorneys and their offices are part of the Department of Justice, U. S. Attorneys receive oversight, supervision, and administrative support services through the Justice Departments Executive Office for United States Attorneys. Selected U. S. Attorneys participate in the Attorney Generals Advisory Committee of United States Attorneys, the Office of the United States Attorney was created by the Judiciary Act of 1789, along with the office of Attorney General and the United States Marshals Service. The same act also specified the structure of the Supreme Court of the United States and established inferior courts making up the United States Federal Judiciary, thus, the office of U. S. Attorney is older than the Department of Justice. The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for the appointment in each district of a Person learned in the law to act as attorney for the United States. The U. S. Attorney is appointed by the President of the United States for a term of four years, a U. S. Attorney continues in office, beyond the appointed term, until a successor is appointed and qualified. By law, each United States attorney is subject to removal by the President, the Attorney General has had the authority since 1986 to appoint interim U. S. Attorneys to fill a vacancy. If an appointment expires under subsection, the court for such district may appoint a United States attorney to serve until the vacancy is filled. The order of appointment by the court shall be filed with the clerk of the court, on March 9,2007, President George W. This, in effect, extinguished the 120-day limit on interim U. S. Attorneys, and their appointment had an indefinite term. Related to the dismissal of U. S. attorneys controversy, in March 2007 the Senate, the bill was signed by President George W. Bush, and became law in June 2007. Senator Dianne Feinstein, summarized the history of interim United States Attorney appointments, the U. S. Attorney is both the primary representative and the administrative head of the Office of the U. S. Attorney for the district. The U. S. Attorneys Office is the prosecutor for the United States in criminal law cases. However, they are not the one that can represent the United States in Court. These responsibilities include certain legal, budgetary, administrative, and personnel services, the EOUSA was created on April 6,1953, by Attorney General Order NoUnited States Attorney – Seal of the Department of Justice.
29. Flag of Puerto Rico – The flag of Puerto Rico represents and symbolizes the island of Puerto Rico and its people. Ramón Emeterio Betances and embroidered by Mariana Brazos de Oro Bracetti and this flag was used in the short-lived Puerto Rican revolt against Spanish rule in the island, known as El Grito de Lares. The use and display of the Puerto Rican flag was outlawed and the only permitted to be flown in Puerto Rico were the Spanish flag. In 1952, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico adopted the flag design. The color of the triangle that was used by the administration of Luis Muñoz Marín was the dark blue, therefore, it is not uncommon to see the flag of Puerto Rico with different shades of blue displayed in the island. Several Puerto Rican flags, with darker shades than sky blue were aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery during its flight into space on March 15,2009. The conquistadores under the command of Juan Ponce de León proceeded to conquer and they carried as their military standard the Spanish Expedition Flag. After the island was conquered and colonized, the flag of Spain was used in Puerto Rico, the Spanish Army designed the Cross of Burgundy Flag and adopted it as their standard. This flag flew wherever there was a Spanish military installation, the independence movement in Puerto Rico gained momentum with the liberation successes of Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín in South America. The materials for the flag were provided by Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, the flag was divided in the middle by a white Latin cross, the two lower corners were red and the two upper corners were blue with a white star in the upper left blue corner. The Revolutionary Flag of Lares was used in the rebellion against Spain in what became known as El Grito de Lares. The original Lares flag was taken by a Spanish army officer as a war prize, many years later it was returned and transferred to the Puerto Rican people. It is now exhibited in the University of Puerto Ricos Museum, in 1873, following the abdication of Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, as King and with Spains change from Kingdom to Republic, the Spanish government issued a new colonial flag for Puerto Rico. The new flag, which was used until 1873, resembled the flag of Spain, Juan de Mata Terreforte, a leader of the Grito de Lares revolt who fought alongside Manuel Rojas, was exiled to New York City. He joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee and was named its Vice-President, Terreforte and the members of the Revolutionary committee adopted the Flag of Lares as their standard. In 1892, the Committee was presented with the design of the current flag of Puerto Rico, the new flags design has been attributed to various Puerto Ricans who were members of the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City. Some sources document Francisco Gonzalo Marín with presenting a Puerto Rican flag prototype in 1895 for adoption by the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City, Marín has since been credited by some with the flags design. There is a written by Juan de Mata Terreforte which gives credit to MarinFlag of Puerto Rico – A photograph of the Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
30. 1868 – As of the start of 1868, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 2 – British Expedition to Abyssinia, Robert Napier leads an expedition to free captive British officials, January 5 – Paraguayan War, Brazilian Army commander Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias enters Asunción, Paraguays capital. Some days later he declares the war is over, nevertheless, Francisco Solano López, Paraguays president, prepares guerrillas to fight in the countryside. January 7 – Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock, January 9 – Penal transportation from Britain to Australia ends with arrival of the convict ship Hougoumont in Western Australia after an 89-day voyage from England. There are 62 Fenians among the transportees, January 10 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares the emperors declaration illegal and prepares to attack Kyoto. February – Foreign ministers meeting in Hyōgo are persuaded to recognise the restored Emperor Meiji of Japan with promises that harbours will be open in accordance with international treaties, february 13 – The British War Office sanctions the formation of what becomes the Army Post Office Corps. February 16 – In New York City the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent, february 19 – in the Passage of Humaitá a Brazilian naval force succeeds in dashing past a Paraguayan fortress on the River Paraguay, considered by some the turning point in the Paraguayan War. February 24 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Three days after his action to dismiss United States Secretary of War Edwin M. Johnson is later acquitted by the United States Senate, the first parade to have floats takes place at Mardi Gras in New Orleans. March – French geologist Louis Lartet discovers the first identified skeletons of Cro-Magnon, the first early modern humans, at Abri de Crô-Magnon, a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. March 12 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, is shot in the back in Sydney, Australia, the prince survives and quickly recovers, OFarrell is executed on April 21 despite attempts by the prince to gain clemency for him. March 23 – The University of California is founded in Oakland, California, march 24 – The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed. March 27 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, march – The first transnational womens organization, Association internationale des femmes, is founded. April 1 – The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute is established in Hampton, April 7 – The Charter Oath, drawn up by his councilors, is promulgated at the enthronement of the Emperor Meiji of Japan, promising deliberative assemblies and an end to feudalism. April 9 – Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia massacres at least 197 of his own people at Magdala and these are prisoners incarcerated, for the most part, for very trivial offenses, and are killed for requesting bread and water. Tewodros commits suicide and Magdala is captured, ending the British Expedition to Abyssinia, April 11–July – Fall of Edo, the Japanese city is surrendered to the Emperor Meiji. The Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu submits to the Emperor, April 29 – General William Tecumseh Sherman brokers the Treaty of Fort Laramie between the federal government of the United States and the Plains Indians. May 10–14 – Battle of Utsunomiya Castle in Japan, forces of the Emperor Meiji resist the troops of the Tokugawa shogunate. May 16, May 26 – President Andrew Johnson is twice acquitted during his impeachment trial, may 26 – Fenian bomber Michael Barrett becomes the last person publicly hanged in the United Kingdom1868 – January 3: Emperor Meiji.
31. Rebellion – Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the resistance against the orders of an established authority. The term comes from the Latin verb rebellō, I renew war (from re- + bellō, the rebel is the individual that partakes in rebellion or rebellious activities, particularly when armed. Thus, the rebellion also refers to the ensemble of rebels in a state of revolt. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation, Rebellion can be individual or collective, peaceful or violent In political terms, rebellion and revolt are often distinguished by their different aims. If rebellion generally seeks to evade an oppressive power, a revolt seeks to overthrow and destroy that power, the goal of rebellion is resistance while a revolt seeks a revolution. As power shifts relative to the adversary, or power shifts within a mixed coalition, or positions harden or soften on either side. The following theories broadly build on the Marxist interpretation of rebellion and they explore the causes of rebellion from a wide lens perspective. Marx writes about the structure of society that must be elucidated through an examination of the direct relationship of the owners of the conditions of production to the direct producers. The mismatch, between one mode of production, between the forces and the social ownership of the production, is at the origin of the revolution. The inner imbalance within these modes of production is derived from the modes of organization, such as capitalism within feudalism. The dynamics engineered by these class frictions help class consciousness root itself in the collective imaginary, for example, the development of the bourgeoisie class went from oppressed merchant class to urban independence, eventually gaining enough power to represent the state as a whole. Social movements, thus, are determined by a set of circumstances. The proletariat must also, according to Marx, go through the process of self-determination which can only be achieved by friction against the bourgeoisie. In Marxs theory revolutions are the locomotives of history, it is because rebellion has for ultimate goal to overthrow the ruling class and its antiquated mode of production. Later, rebellion attempts to replace it with a new system of political economy, one that is suited to the new ruling class. The cycle of rebellion, thus, replaces one mode of production by another through the constant class friction, in his book Why Men Rebel, Ted Gurr looks at the roots of political violence itself applied to a rebellion framework. He defines political violence as, all collective attacks within a political community against the political regime, the concept represents a set of events, a common property of which is the actual or threatened use of violenceRebellion – "Rebellion for a hope" by Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega
32. Spain – By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growthSpain – Lady of Elche
33. Grito de Lares – The Grito de Lares —also referred to as the Lares uprising, the Lares revolt, the Lares rebellion, or the Lares revolution—was the first major revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico. The short-lived revolt was planned by Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis and it began on September 23,1868, in the town of Lares, for which it is named, and spread rapidly to various revolutionary cells throughout the island. In the 1860s, the government of Spain was involved in conflicts across Latin America. It became involved in a war with Peru and Chile, and had to address slave revolts in Cuba and this board, the Junta Informativa de Reformas de Ultramar would be formed by representatives of each overseas province, in proportion to their collective population. The board would meet in Madrid, then report to the Minister of State, the Puerto Rican delegation was freely elected by those eligible to vote, in what was one of the first exercises of political openness in Spain. However, Acosta could convince the Junta that abolition could be achieved in Puerto Rico without disrupting the local economy, beyond abolition however, proposals for autonomy were voted down, as were other petitions to limit the governor generals power over virtually every aspect of life in Puerto Rico. Once the Junta members returned to Puerto Rico, they met with community leaders in a famed meeting at the Hacienda El Cacao in Carolina. Ramón Emeterio Betances, who supported independence from Spain and had been exiled by the Spanish government twice by that time, was invited by Ruiz, Betances then suggested an outright, island-wide rebellion, with a proclamation of independence as soon as possible. To Acostas horror, many of the meetings attendees sided with Betances, the Lares uprising, commonly known as the Grito de Lares, occurred on September 23,1868, but was planned well before that date. A group led by Dr. Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis founded the Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico on January 6,1868 from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances authored several Proclamas, or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the Spanish centralist system and these statements soon circulated throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. Among them, Los Diez Mandamientos de los hombres libres written in exile in Saint Thomas in November 1867. It is directly based on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted by Frances National Assembly in 1789, eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, named Treasurer of the revolution by Betances, provided Mariana Bracetti with the materials for the Revolutionary Flag of Lares. The flag was divided in the middle by a white Latin cross, a white star was placed in the upper left blue corner. The Revolutionary Committee named twelve of their members as generales, the stronghold of the movement were towns located in the mountains, on the western part of the island. On September 20, Francisco Ramírez Medina held a meeting at his house in which the insurrection was planned, cancela instructed Manuel María González to deliver all of the acts and important papers in regard to the meeting to Manuel Rojas. Juan Castañón, a captain stationed in Quebradillas, overheard two cell members commenting that on September 29 the troops at Camuy would be neutralized by poisoning the bread rations. Castañón and his men then entered Gonzálezs residence and confiscated the documents of Medinas meeting, the cell leaders at the Lanzador del Norte cell in Camuy were soon arrestedGrito de Lares – Original Lares Revolutionary Flag Municipality of Lares highlighted in red
34. Knit – Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric. Knitting creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube, Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of rows of interlocking loops. Knitting may be done by hand or by using a machine, different types of yarns, needle sizes, and stitch types may be used to achieve knitted fabrics with different properties. Like weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread, in weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise or crosswise. By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a path, forming symmetric loops symmetrically above. These meandering loops can be stretched in different directions giving knit fabrics much more elasticity than woven fabrics. Depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%, for this reason, knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearers motions, such as socks and hosiery. Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the used in knitting. If they are not secured, the loops of a course will come undone when their yarn is pulled. To secure a stitch, at least one new loop is passed through it, although the new stitch is itself unsecured, it secures the stitch suspended from it. A sequence of stitches in each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale. To secure the initial stitches of a fabric, a method for casting on is used, to secure the final stitches in a wale. During knitting, the stitches are secured mechanically, either from individual hooks or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting. There are two varieties of knitting, weft knitting and warp knitting. In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn, in warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn. By contrast, in warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale, since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machineKnit – Multi-colored knitwork made in stockinette stitch.
35. Mariana Bracetti – Mariana Bracetti was a patriot and leader of the Puerto Rico independence movement in the 1860s. The attempted overthrow was the Grito de Lares, and Bracettis creation became known as The Flag of Lares, the flags design was later adopted as the official flag of the municipality of Lares, Puerto Rico. Bracetti, born in the city of Añasco, Puerto Rico, met and developed a relationship with Miguel Rojas. Rojas and his brother Manuel owned a plantation called El Triunfo. Miguel and Manuel Rojas were admirers of Dr. Ramón Emeterio Betances and were influenced by his ideals of independence for Puerto Rico, Bracetti married Rojas with whom she had children. Bracetti then moved to the hacienda El Triunfo, which was to become the nucleus of the revolution that would be known as the El Grito de Lares. The Rojas admiration for Betances led them to him in the conspiracy to rebel against. The Rojas brothers became the leaders in Lares and their code name was Centro Bravo. Manuel Rojas, Bracettis brother-in-law, was named Commander of the Liberation Army, mathias Brugman was the independence leader in Mayagüez and his group went by the code name of Capá Prieto. Bracettis nickname was Brazo de Oro and she was appointed the leader of the Laress Revolutionary Council, Betances suggested that Bracetti knit the first flag of the future Republic of Puerto Rico. With the materials provided by Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, named Treasurer of the revolution by Betances, the flag was divided in the middle by a white Latin cross, the two lower corners are red and the two upper corners are blue. A white star was placed in the upper left blue corner, once the town was taken, Bracettis flag was placed on the High Altar of the Parroquial Church. The revolutionists declared Puerto Rico a republic, swore in Francisco Ramírez Medina as its first president, the rebel forces then departed to take over the next town, San Sebastián del Pepino. The Spanish militia, however, surprised the group with strong resistance, causing confusion among the armed rebels who, led by Manuel Rojas. Upon an order from the governor, Julián Pavía, the Spanish militia soon rounded up the rebels, all of the survivors, including Bracetti, were imprisoned in Arecibo and the insurrection was quickly brought to an end. The original Lares flag was taken by a Spanish army officer as a war prize and it is now exhibited in the University of Puerto Ricos Museum. Eighty of the prisoners died in jail, Bracetti however, lived and was released on January 20,1869, Mariana Bracetti died in the municipality of Añasco, Puerto Rico in 1903 and was buried in the Plaza of Añasco. There is a monument honoring her on the spot where she is buried and it became their standard until 1892 when the current design, modeled after the Cuban flag, was unveiled and adopted by the committeeMariana Bracetti – "Brazo de Oro" (Golden Arm)
36. 1928 Okeechobee hurricane – The Okeechobee hurricane, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin. The fourth tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and only hurricane of the 1928 season. Initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into a storm later that day. Further intensification was slow and halted by late on September 7, about 48 hours later, the storm resumed strengthening and became a Category 1 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12, there, the storm brought great destruction and 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique, Montserrat, and Nevis also reported damage and fatalities, around midday on September 13, the storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane and peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph. About six hours later, the system made landfall in Puerto Rico, very strong winds resulted in severe damage in Puerto Rico. Throughout the island, an estimated 24,728 homes were destroyed and 192,444 were damaged, heavy rainfall also led to extreme damage to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were 312 deaths and about $50 million in damage, while crossing the island and emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened slightly, falling to Category 4 intensity. The storm began crossing through the Bahamas on September 16, due to preparations, minimal damage or loss of life occurred, with 18 fatalities reported. Early on September 17, the storm made landfall near West Palm Beach, in the city, more than 1,711 homes were destroyed. Elsewhere in the county, impact was severest around Lake Okeechobee, the storm surge caused water to pour out of the southern edge of the lake, flooding hundreds of square miles as high as 20 feet above ground. Numerous houses and buildings were swept away in the cities of Belle Glade, Canal Point, Chosen, Pahokee, at least 2,500 people drowned, while damage was estimated at $25 million. While crossing Florida, the system weakened significantly, falling to Category 1 intensity late on September 17 and it curved north-northeastward and briefly re-emerged into the Atlantic on September 18, but soon made another landfall near Edisto Island, South Carolina with winds of 85 mph. Early on the day, the system weakened to a tropical storm. Overall, the system caused $100 million in damage and at least 4,079 deaths, on September 6, ships reported a tropical depression developing just off the west coast of Africa near Dakar, Senegal. However, lack of observations for several days prevented the system from being classified in real time as it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean. Later that day, two ships confirmed the intensity of the storm, and the Hurricane Research Division estimated it strengthened into a hurricane at 18,00 UTC on September 101928 Okeechobee hurricane – 1928 Okeechobee hurricane
37. Elfin woods warbler – The elfin woods warbler is a bird endemic to Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Discovered in 1968 and described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler, the species name, angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. An insectivore, it feeds by gleaning insects off leaves. Due to its populations and restricted habitats, conservation efforts were begun in 1982 to protect this species but, as of 2005. The elfin woods warbler is one of many species in the genus Setophaga of the New World warbler family Parulidae. It was first observed in 1968 by Cameron and Angela Kepler while they were conducting observations on two Puerto Rican endemic birds, the Puerto Rican amazon and the Puerto Rican tody. On May 18,1971, a specimen was captured in El Yunque National Forest, a year later Kepler and Parkes described and named the species making it the most recent warbler of the genus Setophaga discovered in the New World. Also, it is the first species described in the Caribbean since 1927, the species name, angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler. Elfin-woods warbler is a spelling, and Reinita de Bosque Enano is the Spanish name. This revised classification was adopted by the International Ornithologists’ Union, the warblers upper body is predominantly black with white areas while its underparts are white with black streaks. Other identifying characteristics are dark eyes, white patches on its ears and neck, an incomplete white eyering, a white eyestripe. Characteristic of Antillean warblers, the features a long bill and short. Among Setophaga spp. only S. adelaidae has a wing length average than the elfin woods warbler. Juveniles differ from adults, retaining a grayish-green back for approximately a year, the warblers average mature length is 12.5 cm and its average weight is 8.4 g. Sexual dimorphism is not present in this species, the elfin woods warbler is often confused with the black-and-white warbler, a non-breeding species in the Caribbean occurring in Puerto Rico from mid-September to early May. The main physical distinction is in the eyes, the elfin woods warbler has an incomplete white eyering and the black-and-white warbler has a white band across the eye and a white lower half of the eyering. Another distinction is found in the crown, with the elfin woods warblers being entirely black, the latter species forages on larger branches compared with the elfin woods warblers foraging in the canopy and on smaller branch tips. The elfin woods warblers song and call are difficult to hear, the species has a subtle voice and its call and song resemble those of the bananaquit, the most abundant bird in Puerto RicoElfin woods warbler – Elfin woods warbler
38. Fauna of Puerto Rico – The fauna of Puerto Rico is similar to other island archipelago faunas, with high endemism, and low, skewed taxonomic diversity. Bats are the extant native terrestrial mammals in Puerto Rico. All other terrestrial mammals in the area were introduced by humans, and include such as cats, goats, sheep, the small Asian mongoose. Marine mammals include dolphins, manatees, and whales, of the 349 bird species, about 120 breed in the archipelago, and 47. 5% are accidental or rare. The most recognizable and famous animal of Puerto Rico is probably the common coquí, an endemic frog. Some native freshwater fish inhabit Puerto Rico, but some species, the low richness-high diversity pattern is also apparent among invertebrates, which constitutes most of the archipelagos fauna. The arrival of the first people about 4,000 years ago and, to a larger extent, hunting, habitat destruction, and the introduction of non-native species led to extinctions and extirpations. Conservation efforts, the most notable being for the Puerto Rican parrot, according to IUCN, as of 2002, there were 21 threatened species in Puerto Rico, two mammals, eight breeding birds, eight reptiles, and three amphibians. The Caribbean Plate, a tectonic plate on which Puerto Rico. According to Rosen, when South America separated from Africa, an archipelago known as Proto-Antilles was formed. It later divided into the present-day Greater and Lesser Antilles because of a new line in the Proto-Antilles. Geologically, the archipelago of Puerto Rico is young, having formed about 135 Ma ago, rock samples from Sierra Bermeja in southwestern Puerto Rico, dated to the late Jurassic/early Cretaceous period, confirm this theory. The first, and prevailing, model favors overwater dispersal from continental, primarily South American, fauna, hedges et al. conclude that dispersal was the primary mechanism for the origin of West Indian biota. Vertebrate terrestrial genera such as Eleutherodactylus dispersed in an effect among the islands before any vicarization event occurred. However, other such as the endemic Antillean insectivores and freshwater fish appear to have colonized the West Indies earlier through other means. A short-lived landmass named GAARlandia connected northwestern South America with three of the Greater Antilles during this period, afterwards, during the fragmentation of the Proto-Antilles, divergence of vacariated lines would have begun. The last major changes in Puerto Rican fauna occurred about 10,000 years ago as a result of the post-Ice Age rise in sea level and associated environmental changes. Puerto Ricos transformation from a dry environment to its present moist, forested state led to mass extinctionsFauna of Puerto Rico – A common coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui), arguably the most recognizable species of Puerto Rico's fauna
39. Military history of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico was part of the Spanish Empire for four centuries, during which the people of Puerto Rico defended themselves against invasions from the British, French, and Dutch. Puerto Ricans fought alongside General Bernardo de Gálvez during the American Revolutionary War in the battles of Baton Rouge, Mobile, Pensacola, during the mid-19th century, Puerto Ricans residing in the United States fought in the American Civil War. In the 1800s, the quest for Latin American independence from Spain spread to Puerto Rico, in the short lived revolution known as the Grito de Lares, the island was invaded by the United States during the Spanish–American War. After the war ended, Spain officially ceded the island to the United States under the established in the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Puerto Rico became a United States territory and the Porto Rico Regiment was established on the island, as citizens of the United States, Puerto Ricans have participated in every major United States military engagement from World War I onward. During World War II, Puerto Ricans participated in the Pacific and Atlantic theaters, not only as combatants and it was during this conflict that Puerto Rican nurses were allowed to participate as members of the WAACs. The members of Puerto Ricos 65th Infantry Regiment distinguished themselves in combat during the Korean War and were honored with the Congressional Gold Medal, during the Vietnam War five Puerto Ricans were awarded the Medal of Honor, the highest military honor in the United States. Presently Puerto Ricans continue to serve in the military of the United States, the following is brief history of the military events in which Puerto Ricans have participated. Christopher Columbus arrived in the island of Puerto Rico on November 19,1493, the island was inhabited by the Arawak group of indigenous peoples known as Tainos, who called the island Borikén or Borinquen. The Tainos were known as a people, however they were also warriors and often fought against the Caribs. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist, the main port was named Puerto Rico. The conquistador Juan Ponce de León accompanied Columbus on this trip, when Ponce de León arrived in Puerto Rico, he was well received by the Cacique Agüeybaná, chieftain of the island Taino tribes. Besides the conquistadors, some of the first colonists were farmers and miners in search of gold, in 1508, Ponce de León became the first appointed governor of Puerto Rico, founding the first settlement of Caparra between the modern-day cities of Bayamón and San Juan. After being named Governor, de León and the conquistadors forced the Tainos to work in the mines and to build fortifications, upon realizing this, Agüeybaná II led his people in the Taino rebellion of 1511, the first rebellion in the island against the better armed Spanish forces. Guarionex, cacique of Utuado, attacked the village of Sotomayor, Cacique Guarionex died during the attack which was considered a Taino victory. After the Taino victory the colonists formed a militia to defend themselves against the attacks. Juan Ponce de León and one of his top commanders, Diego de Salazar led the Spaniards in a series of offensives which included a massacre of the Taino forces in the domain of Agüeybaná II, the Spanish offensive culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas against Cacique Mabodomoca. Agüeybaná II was shot and killed, ending the first recorded military action in Puerto Rico, according to the 500TH Florida Discovery Council Round Table, on March 3,1513, Juan Ponce de León, organized and commenced an expedition departing from Punta Aguada Puerto RicoMilitary history of Puerto Rico – Military history of Puerto Rico
40. Nutrition Assistance for Puerto Rico – It provides over $1.5 billion USD in supplemental economic resources to help just over 1 million impoverished residents cope with their nutritional needs. It is based on, though not directly part of, the USDAs national Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, since its inception in 1982, the program has been providing low-income families living in Puerto Rico with cash benefits used for food purchases. Although the methods of providing such benefits have changed over the years and it has, however, been controversial throughout its existence. Federal reviews and assessments have revealed deficiencies in its operations and management, requiring the implementation of various changes, including increased scrutiny. It has also attracted criticism and advocacy from Puerto Rico and the United States over its effectiveness in helping poor families. Food stamps have been issued in the United States since World War II, but the program did not include Puerto Rico until the early 1970s, when U. S. Public Laws 91-671 of January 11,1971 and 93-86 of November 1,1974 partially extended the Food Stamp Program to U. S. territories. The Food Stamp program was expanded to provide full coverage and benefits to Puerto Rico. After a year of studies and design, it commenced operations on July 1,1982 with an appropriation of $825 million. The new block grant program differed significantly from the former Food Stamp program in three major ways, second, the benefits were no longer restricted to vouchers redeemable only for food, but were provided in cash. The beneficiary could then elect to purchase a product or select services other than food, third, the overall assistance provided to Puerto Rico was limited to an annual block appropriation, requiring the Puerto Rican government to adjust its program management to allocate the funds. It has surpassed $1 billion annually since the early 1990s, since fiscal year 2006, the appropriation has reached over $1.5 billion annually. Over the years there has been a decline in participation in the nutrition assistance program. Participation in the previous Food Stamp program was estimated at 56%, more than 1.5 million island residents, by 1994, participation in the NAP program had decreased to 1.3 million, and by 2006 it had decreased to just over 1 million. While the Puerto Rican population has increased throughout those periods. Since its creation, the program has received criticism both within and outside Puerto Rico. S. National levels, while the average aid provided in Puerto Rico has exceeded the U. S. national average, because of this, Puerto Rico has been called the welfare island. People from the Dominican Republic do many of the jobs in Puerto Rico that pay too little to attract the locals, however, proponents of the program argue that Puerto Ricos social condition is in far worse shape than any of the 50 U. S. statesNutrition Assistance for Puerto Rico – The program's federal appropriations and expenditures have increased by a factor of 3–4% to match average inflation rates.
41. Puerto Rican amazon – The Puerto Rican amazon, also known as the Puerto Rican parrot or iguaca, is the only bird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico belonging to the Neotropical genus Amazona. Measuring 28–30 cm, the bird is a green parrot with a red forehead. Two subspecies have been described, although there are doubts regarding the distinctiveness of the form gracilipes from Culebra Island and its closest relatives are believed to be the Cuban amazon and the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon reaches sexual maturity at three and four years of age. It reproduces once a year and is a cavity nester, once the female lays eggs she will remain in the nest and continuously incubate them until hatching. The chicks are fed by parents and will fledge 60 to 65 days after hatching. This parrots diet is varied and consists of flowers, fruits, leaves, bark, the species is the only remaining native parrot in Puerto Rico and has been listed as critically endangered by the World Conservation Union since 1994. Conservation efforts commenced in 1968 to save the bird from extinction, in 2012, the total estimated population was 58–80 individuals in the wild and over 300 individuals in captivity. The Puerto Rican amazon was described by Dutch ornithologist Pieter Boddaert in 1783, the indigenous Taíno people called it the iguaca, an onomatopoeic name that resembled the parrots flight call. There are two recognized subspecies, A. v. vittata is the nominate and only extant subspecies, inhabiting Puerto Rico and formerly nearby Vieques Island, a. v. gracilipes inhabited Culebra Island and is now extinct. It is unclear whether it was different from the nominate subspecies. Most Caribbean bird species originate from Central, North and South America, the Amazona species found in the Caribbean are divided in two groups, five mid-sized species found in the Greater Antilles and seven large species in the Lesser Antilles. All the Greater Antillean amazons display characteristics leading to suppositions of relatedness, including predominantly green-toned color patterns, subsequent studies showed that size and color patterns were not sufficient to assess evolutionary relationships, and that patterns changed with relative ease even within members of the same species. The research concluded that the Puerto Rican amazon may share an ancestor with the Jamaican A. agilis. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the Puerto Rican amazon is more related to the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon measures 28–30 cm and weighs 250–300 g, although small compared to amazons in general, it is similar in size to other Greater Antilles Amazona species. Both males and females have green plumage, though their feathers have blue edges. The primary flight feathers of the wings and the covert feathers are dark bluePuerto Rican amazon – Puerto Rican amazon
42. List of Governors of Puerto Rico – This list of Governors of Puerto Rico includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the position was first established by the Spanish Empire during the 16th century following the archipelagos colonization. The first person to occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1509. At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office, the first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the government or the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States, during the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, in 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected through a democratic process every four years. After 1580 the Captaincy General of Puerto Rico was established, on July 25,1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States when, following a brief armed conflict, the United States Army landed at Guánica. Following the conclusion of the war, Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, Puerto Rico began the twentieth century under the military rule of the United States with officials, including the governor, who were appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, William McKinley signed the Foraker Act as a United States federal law, the first civilian governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles Herbert Allen. This system was used after the approval of the Jones–Shafroth Act, which altered the structure of government in Puerto Rico. Following the approval of the federal Elective Governor Act by President Harry S Truman in 1947, under this system, the governor is in charge of the islands executive branch. The Governors four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Years Day holiday. org Mellander, the United States in Panamanian Politics, The Intriguing Formative Years. Mellander, Gustavo A. Nelly Maldonado Mellander, Charles Edward Magoon, The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, Editorial Plaza MayorList of Governors of Puerto Rico – Juan Ponce de León II, 26th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first native Puerto Rican to become governor
43. List of birds of Puerto Rico – The avifauna of Puerto Rico include a total of 349 species, of which 166 are accidental,42 are introduced by humans and 16 are endemic. Around 120 of these species breed in Puerto Rico while the majority of the others overwinter in the archipelago and this list does not include extinct species. This lists taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World,2016 edition, the family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, accidental and extirpated species are included in the species counts for Puerto Rico. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, and those that do not are common occurring native species. These birds are adapted to an existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent. In general, they are plump and have broad, relatively short wings and they have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like and their long wings have black markings, as does the head. White-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus Red-billed tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus Order, Suliformes Family and they are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches and they do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies with only boobies occurring in Puerto Rico. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish, plumage coloration is varied with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being quite colorful. American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers and they are strong fliers and, rather surprisingly, given their size and weight, very capable soarers. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers, however, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcassesList of birds of Puerto Rico – The Puerto Rican spindalis (reina mora in Spanish) is the national bird of Puerto Rico.
44. List of Puerto Rican boxing world champions – In Puerto Rico, boxing is considered a major sport, having produced more amateur and professional world champions than any other sport in its history. Puerto Rico ranks 5th worldwide between countries with most boxing champions, and is the only place to have champions accredited in all of the current boxing divisions. This number also places the archipelago in the lead in terms of champions per capita. Individually, Puerto Rican world champions have earned numerous achievements and these include, Wilfredo Gómezs record for most defenses in the super bantamweight division and for most successive knockouts by a titleholder. On September 3,1994, Daniel Jiménez established a record for the quickest knockout in a championship fight. Juan Manuel López is fifth in this category, having defeated César Figueroa in 47 seconds during his first defense, ossie Ocasio was the first World Boxing Association cruiserweight champion, winning it on February 13,1982. On June 7,2014, Miguel Cotto made history by becoming Puerto Ricos first four-division world champion, in womens boxing, Amanda Serrano holds the distinction of being the first IBF super featherweight champion and the first Puerto Rican female boxer to win world titles in four weight classes. Boxing was introduced and practiced in a manner in Puerto Rico while the archipelago was still a Spanish colony. Fights were organized in haciendas among the workers of the sugar and coffee plantations, following the culmination of the Puerto Rican Campaign and Spanish–American War, American soldiers who were stationed in the main island practiced the sport. During World War I, a known as Campeonato Las Casas was held as training for military personnel. Nero Chen, the first Puerto Rican boxer to gain recognition, the Combat Maneuver Training Center followed this example and organized boxing activities, which they named Los Campeones del Campamento. These were received with enthusiasm by the young recruits, most of these events were celebrated without restriction due to military jurisdictional limits, although prohibitions were put in place for the civilian population. Illegal matches were organized on the rooftops of residences in Old San Juan, empty terrains in El Condado and in hippodromes. By 1924, several men were being taught to box by Gregario Rosa. At times they were surprised to discover that several members of the law enforcement agencies, in one case they discovered a group of police officers, including a colonel, two members of the governors cabinet, numerous legislators and a judge at an event. The charges were archived, the decision was justified with a statement that said, in 1926, a boxing venue was opened in a military facility known as Cuartel de Ballajá, a fight card was organized weekly. Legislator Lorenzo Coballes Gandía redacted a proposal to legalize boxing, which was signed by governor Horace Mann Towner in May 1927, consequently, the Primera Comisión Atlética de Boxeo was created, this became the first organization dedicated to sanctioned boxing in Puerto Rico. Estadio Universal became the first venue to organize legal boxing cards, the first event featured a fight between Enrique Chaffardet and Al Clemens as the main event, which was declared a draw by the judgesList of Puerto Rican boxing world champions – A statue of Sixto Escobar, found in the Estadio Sixto Escobar venue
45. List of Vieques birds – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. Vieques is a municipality of Puerto Rico located off the east coast of the main island of Puerto Rico, south of Culebra island. It has an area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is land area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques, some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but are, nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list and this list presents the following information for each species, common and scientific name of each species, preferred habitat, breeding status in Vieques and frequency of occurrence for each season. Tags are used to describe this information for each species and this lists taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, introduced, stray and extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat, thorn scrub Inhabited areas Mangrove lagoons Dry forest Shoreline Moist forest The following tags have been used to describe the breeding status of each species in Vieques. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order, Podicipediformes Family and they have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, Order, Phaethontiformes Family, Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head, Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies with only boobies occurring in Vieques. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish, Order, Suliformes Family, Fregatidae Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings, the males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface, having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Pelecanidae Pelicans are very large birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbillsList of Vieques birds – Vieques Island from the air
46. Vega Baja, Puerto Rico – Vega Baja is a municipality in north central Puerto Rico located in the northern coast, north of Morovis, east of Manatí, and west of Vega Alta. Vega Baja is spread over 13 wards and Vega Baja Pueblo and it is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area. The name Vega Baja in Spanish means low plains Geographically, the North of Puerto Rico goes down lower or slighly higher than the level of the Atlantic Ocean and Vega Baja is a coastal town. Other historians believed that as Vega Baja comes from La Vega and Vega is a last name of one of the families that were originally in the foundation of Vega Baja and it is also believed that the name comes from the region of Spain La Vega Baja del Segura. Orange comes from its previous name based in the fruit that was cultivated in the place, Cibuco, name of one of the rivers that carve its fertile lands, is a variation of the name Sebuco, a chief or Cacique Taíno Indian of the region. These cells of Taíno Indians were known to settle in the vicinity of the rivers, although the Cibuco river is prone to floods due to heavy seasonal rains even to this day, the benefits provided to the land by the river are numerous. Taino carvings have found on some of the exposed reefs in the vicinity of the Cibuco river. Among these carvings, one depicting a face and others shaped as fish and they are an indication that these reefs were frequented for spear fishing and perhaps other day-to-day activities. Other places like Carmelita, Maisabel, Cueva Maldita and Paso del Indio are known as sites where the aborigins established their communities. In 1990, over a million dollars in cash was found buried in plastic barrels, the sudden wealth of a few residents attracted attention and prompted an investigation by FBI and local police. In addition, Vega Baja counts with one of the most visited beaches in the northern coastline and this beach attracts thousands of beach goers annually, making it a center for local tourism, especially during the hot summer months. It boasts a natural formation of enormous proportions both in height and length colloquially named La Peña. This rock feature shelters the beach portion from the open seas just behind it, in decades past, the land portion situated between the neighborhood of Monte Carlo and the neighborhood of Los Naranjos, was the site for cultivation of sugar cane. Clothing, leather articles, electrical and electronic equipment, machinery Medical, the educator Marcos Cruz Molina is the mayor since 2013 and Ebrahim Narváez is the President of the Municipal Legislature. The city also belongs to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district III, in 2012, José Joito Pérez and Ángel Chayanne Martínez were elected as District Senators. Rafael Hernández is the Eleventh District Representative and Hector Torres the Twelve District Representative at the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico, Vega Bajas flag consists of a yellow cloth, crossed by a green band. The band relates to the valley and the river. The Vega Baja Coat of Arms has a green band, with overlapping roses in silverVega Baja, Puerto Rico – Location of Vega Baja in Puerto Rico
47. Banco Popular – In recent years, it has expanded into other areas of the Caribbean and Central America. The BPPR in the stands for Banco Popular de Puerto Rico. Popular, Inc. is the parent company of Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, Banco Popular North America, E-Loan, the headquarters of Banco Popular Puerto Rico are located in Hato Rey, Puerto Rico. The bank was founded in Puerto Rico in 1893 when the island was still under Spanish administration, and was led in its early stages by Rafael Carrión, Sr. During the 1970s, the commercials were very popular on Puerto Rican television, they presented a balding, middle aged man in a white tee shirt. The 1970s also saw a giant step in the development of Banco Popular as Puerto Ricos biggest bank, by buying this bank, Popular entered the credit-card industry. During the following decades, Banco Popular put a lot of emphasis on the public image. It was during the 1980s, after Rafael Carrion, Sr. s death, in 1989, the bank introduced a childrens savings service with a bear, Populoso, as its mascot. The Club del Ahorro was intended to encourage children to open savings accounts, the following decade started with a big development for the bank, when in 1990 it merged with Banco de Ponce, one of the largest banks in Puerto Rico. At this time, Banco Populars holding company changed its name to BanPonce Corporation, Popular acquired Banco Roig, one of the main banks in the eastern side of the island, in 1997, entering a geographical market they had yet to succeed in. During the late 1990s, the company began to diversify its services thanks to revisions of state laws that allowed certain privileges related to different financial services other than banking. These years saw the birth of Popular Auto, Popular Finance, Popular Mortgage, Popular Insurance, during this time, the company created one of its flagship subsidiaries, Popular Securities. It quickly became the investment banking, retail brokerage, and institutional sales arm of Banco Popular, on the retail side, Popular Securities has an extensive network of brokers in Puerto Rico, rivaled only by Swiss giant UBS and more recently by Banco Santander. Popular Securities has additional offices in New York City, San Antonio, Houston, Richard Carrión remained as president and CEO of the parent company, Popular, Inc. In the 24 January 2005 issue of Fortune Magazine, Popular, on 11 April 2005, an agreement was announced between Banco Popular North America and the New York Mets. Under the five-year agreement, Popular operated seven ATMs and displayed various advertisements at Shea Stadium, until it closed in September 2008, in favour of the new Citi Field. Travelers who fly into the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport can appreciate Populars landmark building below, Banco Popular is currently the largest bank in Puerto Rico, the largest company in Puerto Rico, and the largest Hispanic bank in the United States. As of January,2012, Popular, Inc. still owed $935 million to the US government Troubled Asset Relief ProgramBanco Popular – Popular, Inc. headquarters in the Golden Mile of Hato Rey, Puerto Rico.
48. Richter scale – The Richter magnitude scale assigns a magnitude number to quantify the size of an earthquake. As measured with a seismometer, an earthquake that registers 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10 times greater than an earthquake that registered 4.0 at the same distance. This means that, for instance, an earthquake of magnitude 5 releases 31.6 times as energy as an earthquake of magnitude 4. In the United States, the Richter scale was succeeded in the 1970s by the moment magnitude scale, the moment magnitude scale is now the scale used by the United States Geological Survey to estimate magnitudes for all modern large earthquakes. Richter derived his earthquake-magnitude scale from the apparent magnitude scale used to measure the brightness of stars and that fixed measure was chosen to avoid negative values for magnitude, given that the slightest earthquakes that could be recorded and located at the time were around magnitude 3.0. The Richter magnitude scale itself has no limit, and contemporary seismometers can register, record. M L was not designed to be applied to data with distances to the hypocenter of the earthquake that were greater than 600 km. Later, to express the size of earthquakes around the planet, Gutenberg and Richter developed a surface wave magnitude scale and these are types of waves that are recorded at teleseismic distances. The two scales were adjusted such that they were consistent with the M L scale and that adjustment succeeded better with the M s scale than with the M b scale. Each scale saturates when the earthquake is greater than magnitude 8.0, because of this, researchers in the 1970s developed the moment magnitude scale. The older magnitude-scales were superseded by methods for calculating the seismic moment, about the origins of the Richter magnitude scale, C. F. Richter said, I found a paper by Professor K. Wadati of Japan in which he compared large earthquakes by plotting the maximum ground motion against distance to the epicenter. I tried a similar procedure for our stations, but the range between the largest and smallest magnitudes seemed unmanageably large, dr. Beno Gutenberg then made the natural suggestion to plot the amplitudes logarithmically. I was lucky, because logarithmic plots are a device of the devil, the particular instrument used would become saturated by strong earthquakes and unable to record high values. The scale was replaced in the 1970s by the moment magnitude scale, for earthquakes adequately measured by the Richter scale, anything above 5 is classified as a risk by the USGS. Several scales have historically described as the Richter scale, especially the local magnitude M L. In addition, the body wave magnitude, m b, a couple of new techniques to measure magnitude are in the development stage by seismologists. All magnitude scales have been designed to give similar resultsRichter scale – Charles Francis Richter, c. 1970
49. 1918 Puerto Rico Earthquake – The 1918 San Fermín earthquake, also known as the Puerto Rico earthquake of 1918, struck the island of Puerto Rico at 10,14,42 local time on October 11. The earthquake measured 7.1 on the moment magnitude scale, the mainshock epicenter occurred off the northwestern coast of the island, somewhere along the Puerto Rico Trench. The earthquake triggered a tsunami with waves measured that swept the west coast of the island, the combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami made it one of the worst natural disasters that have struck the island. The losses resulting from the disaster were approximately 76–116 casualties and $4–29 million in property damage, the epicenter of the 1918 Puerto Rico earthquake was located in the Mona Passage off the northwestern coast of the island. The strongest ground shaking has been estimated at intensity IX on the Mercalli intensity scale, the resulting tsunami affected primarily the west coast towns of the island. Numerous structures in the west coast suffered irreparable damage, factories and production facilities were virtually destroyed, while bridges and roads were severely damaged. The earthquake caused several mudslides in areas where the intensity exceeded Level VII, also, the river currents were affected, which, in many cases affected the foundations of many bridges, resulting in their collapse. Telegraph cables under the ocean were damaged, cutting off the island from outside communication for a time, the reported casualties of the earthquake have been estimated somewhere between 76 and 116 deaths. Approximately 40 of these deaths were caused by the tsunami which swept shore communities, damage to property was estimated to be between $4 and 29 million. In Mayagüez, the largest city affected,700 masonry buildings were damaged and 1,000 wooden houses, major buildings like the church, post office and hall were severely damaged. With fear because of the aftershocks, many people camped out in the hills for weeks, as a result of the earthquake, a tsunami lashed the west coast of the island, probably 4–7 minutes after the main shock. The highest waves were measured at 20 ft and destroyed coastal villages. It has been estimated that 40 people were drowned as a result of the tsunami. The tsunami reached Galveston, Texas, where it registered as a disturbance on tide gauges, several aftershocks were reported immediately after the main earthquake. On October 24 and November 12, two strong aftershocks were reported in the island, however, no damage was reported as a result1918 Puerto Rico Earthquake – Damage caused to the "La Habanera de Infanzón y Rodríguez" building in Mayagüez
50. Tsunami – A tsunami or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Unlike normal ocean waves which are generated by wind, or tides which are generated by the pull of the Moon and Sun. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves, Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called internal wave train. Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events, numerous terms are used in the English language to describe waves created in a body of water by the displacement of water, however, none of the terms in frequent use are entirely accurate. The term tsunami, meaning harbour wave in literal translation, comes from the Japanese 津波, while not entirely accurate, as tsunami are not restricted to harbours, tsunami is currently the term most widely accepted by geologists and oceanographers. Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves and this once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of tsunami, which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Although the meanings of tidal include resembling or having the form or character of the tides, use of the tidal wave is discouraged by geologists. The term seismic sea wave also is used to refer to the phenomenon, prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English-speaking countries, scientists generally encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. The Sumatran region is not unused to tsunamis either, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes regularly occurring off the coast of the island, Tsunamis are an often underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily, the Storegga Slide in the Norwegian sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake, at the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen, the principal generation mechanism of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea. This displacement of water is attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites. The waves formed in this way are then sustained by gravity, tides do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis. Tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water and they grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a wave shoaling process described below. A tsunami can occur in any state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas. On April 1,1946, the 8.6 Mw Aleutian Islands earthquake occurred with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI and it generated a tsunami which inundated Hilo on the island of Hawaii with a 14-metre high surge. Between 165 and 173 were killed, the area where the earthquake occurred is where the Pacific Ocean floor is subducting under AlaskaTsunami – 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, An aerial view of damage in the Sendai region with black smoke coming from the Nippon Oil Sendai oil refinery