Corona Heights is a neighborhood in San Francisco, just north of Market Street and Eureka Valley. Corona Heights is often considered part of The Castro and Upper Market areas, the Corona Heights neighborhood stretches between Buena Vista Park and Eureka Valley. The streets within Corona Heights were literally cut out of the hill that once encompassed all of Buena Vista Park. In 1899, excavation began on the hill to make way for the Gray Brothers Quarry, the quarry had removed tons of rock and produced tens of thousands of bricks, creating a blasted landscape. George and Harry Gray owned a total of three quarries in San Francisco, besides The Corona Heights Quarry, One was located on Telegraph Hill, and the third at Thirtieth and Castro located above Noe Valley. > They had a bad reputation that was well deserved. Of the bricks that were produced at the factory, many of them were used in the Cable Car beds, subsequently, it was determined that these bricks were substandard and had to be replaced.
The community became enraged with the Gray brothers when adults and children were injured by falling rocks, although the Gray brothers faced lawsuit after lawsuit, they kept quarrying. In 1909, Carolyn Bush, their cashier and George Grays secretary, was shot, a few years in 1915 George, by a millionaire, was at the Thirtieth and Castro quarry. He was confronted by Joseph Lococo, a 26-year-old former worker whom Gray refused to pay back wages of $17.50, George was murdered by Lococo at the quarry. The quarrying and the company ended at that time, because of the quarry, streets had been cut out of the rock for transport vehicle access and from the general quarrying done to the area. This made the prime real estate for people who began to build their homes on the streets cut into the hill. Many of the homes have views, close proximity to underground transportation, and are situated just a few blocks from The Castro, local restaurants. At the top of the hill, where the used to stand, there is now the Corona Heights Park, a large, open space with panoramic views of the city.
Corona Heights Park features a fenced-in, maintained dog park, Corona Heights Park, a large, open space, city park, with panoramic views of the city and the bay. Randall Museum, focuses on the arts, sciences, the Castro District Castro SF. org, The Complete Local Guide Corona Heights. com, San Franciscos Best Kept Secret
City College of San Francisco, or CCSF, is a two-year community college in San Francisco, California. The Ocean Avenue campus, bordering the Sunnyside, Westwood Park, the College has locations across the District. City College of San Francisco first opened on September 4,1935 as San Francisco Junior College and it was nicknamed Trolley Car College in the early days since students were forced to travel extensively to get between campuses. As the enrollment grew over time, so did the CCSF campus, in February 1948, the name was changed to City College of San Francisco. It now consists of eleven campuses, the Ocean Campus being the primary one, since its founding in 1935, City College has evolved into a multicultural, multi-campus community college that is one of the largest in the country. CCSF offers courses in more than 50 academic programs and over 100 occupational disciplines, in 2012, the college began experiencing significant public turmoil. In July of 2013, the ACCJC elected to take action to terminate the colleges accreditation, subject to a one-year review, the decision was based on a variety of deficiencies in standards.
A Fiscal Crisis & Management Assistance Team report was expected to be released by the end of July 2013, the 2013 decision to revoke accreditation in 2014 was put on hold pending the legal challenges. Two years later, ACCJC reaffirmed the colleges accreditation for seven years, the Student Activities Office provides resources and leadership training for eight Associated Students Councils and more than 80 clubs and student organizations. It sponsors a variety of concerts and lectures throughout the year. Students can avail themselves of the Fitness Center, enjoy nationally ranked intercollegiate sports, the College features a student-run newspaper, The Guardsman, an award-winning magazine, ETC as well as television and radio stations. Performances given by students in music and theatre Arts further enhance campus life, there is a Queer Alliance student group and a Queer Resource Center on campus. The Queer Resource Center is an academic and informational resource center for lesbian, bisexual, gender queer, questioning, the Queer Resource Center aims to empower and celebrate its demographic as well as its community.
The center has participated in anti-violence, anti-homophobia, and anti-transphobia rallies, on campus, there are numerous student activity groups, gender-specific courses, and health services. CCSF is part of the San Francisco Community College District which is independent and co-extensive with the City and County of San Francisco, the districts Board of Trustees is elected by San Francisco residents. District funds are allocated from the legislature, local property taxes, student tuition and fees, lottery funds, sales tax funds. On July 3,2013, the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges voted to revoke CCSFs accreditation, ACCJC has made recommendations to the college several times about major problems. In July 2012, ACCJC gave the eight months to prove it should remain accredited and ordered it to make preparations for closure
The Twin Peaks are two prominent hills with an elevation of about 925 feet located near the geographic center of San Francisco, California. Only 928 foot Mount Davidson is higher within the city, the North and South Twin Peaks, known as Eureka and Noe respectively, are about 200 m apart, Twin Peaks Boulevard runs a figure eight around them. The peaks form a divide for the coastal fog pushed in from the Pacific Ocean. Their west-facing slopes often get fog and strong winds, while the east-facing slopes receive more sun, elevation at each summit is just over 900 feet. Thin, sandy soil is commonplace on Twin Peaks, making them susceptible to erosion, before the arrival of the Europeans, the native Ohlone people may have used Twin Peaks as a lookout or hunting ground. The ecological diversity of Twin Peaks provided medicinal or ceremonial plants, when the Spanish conquistadors and settlers arrived at the beginning of the 18th century, they called the area Los Pechos de la Chola or Breasts of the Indian Maiden and devoted the area to ranching.
When San Francisco passed under American control during the 19th century, christmas Tree Point lies some 70 ft below the North Peak and offers vistas of San Francisco and San Francisco Bay. To the north is one of the many reservoirs. It is owned by the San Francisco Fire Department, and supplies water to the Fire Departments independent HPFS water system for fighting fires, established after the 1906 earthquake, the top of Twin Peaks is undeveloped. It is part of the 31 acres Twin Peaks Natural Area and owned by the San Francisco Recreation and these preserved areas are home to many natural resources and wildlife. As part of the Mission blue butterfly habitat conservation, Twin Peaks is one of the few remaining habitats for endangered species. Many bird species and vegetation thrive in these areas, the Muni Metro Twin Peaks Tunnel runs beneath Twin Peaks, linking Downtown San Francisco with West Portal and the southwestern part of the city. There is no public transportation all the way to the top of the Peaks, the San Francisco Police Department Academy is at the base of the peaks.
Randall Museum is a museum in San Francisco, California owned and operated by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department with the support of the Randall Friends. The museum focuses on science and the arts, on exhibit are live native and domestic animals and interactive displays about nature. Other facilities include a theater, a shop, and art. The museum is currently under renovations and its permanent location is in Corona Heights Park, on a large hill between the Castro and Haight-Ashbury districts of San Francisco. During renovations, the museum has relocated its live animal exhibit and programs to 745 Treat Ave, the plan is to reopen at 199 Museum Way at the end of January 2017. The museum features views of the city, downtown financial district, originally named the Junior Museum, the facility was established in 1937 in an old city jail on what is now the campus of City College of San Francisco. In 1947, a $12 million bond was issued for the creation of recreation and park capital projects, the museum was formally dedicated by Mayor Elmer Robinson on September 23 of that year.
In 2003, the museum dedicated its Outdoor Learning Environment, the Randall Museum takes its name from Josephine Dows Randall, a Stanford University masters degree graduate in zoology in 1913. After graduating she traveled to the Midwest and organized one of the first Girl Scout troops in the United States as well as one of the first Camp Fire Girls troops. The museum charges no admission and offers events, plays, lectures and classes for ages 3–adult and adult classes are available in the wood shop and pottery studio. The museum has special topic days, such as Bug Day, Mushroom Day, the museums theater is home to the performances of the Young Peoples Teen Musical Theatre Company, a Recreation and Parks Department program closely tied to the museum. The Golden Gate Model Rail Road Club has been a tenant in the west basement wing since 1961, children run HO-scale trains around the layout on Junior Engineer Days, on the third Saturday of every odd month. San Francisco Randall Museum website Golden Gate Model Rail Road Club website
Buena Vista Park is a park in the Haight-Ashbury and Buena Vista Heights neighborhoods of San Francisco, California. It is the oldest official park in San Francisco, established in 1867 as Hill Park and it is bounded by Haight Street to the north, and by Buena Vista Avenue West and Buena Vista Avenue East. The park is on a hill that peaks at 575 feet. The lowest section is the end along Haight. The hill on which the park lies is composed primarily of sand and San Francisco chert, the layout of the park uses the steepness of the hill to good advantage, offering good views of the city. At the peak of the park is a small lawn, the paths along the west side are lined with gutters built by WPA workers out of broken headstones from the Citys Victorian cemeteries at Lone Mountain, which were moved to Colma in 1930s. In a few cases the inscriptions were placed facing up and can be discerned, the northeast corner staircase features a large peace symbol shaped out of flower plantings. Further south a tennis court is located just inside the park at the intersection of Duboce, across the street from the south side of the park is 355 Buena Vista East, an architecturally notable building which appears briefly in Alfred Hitchcocks Vertigo.
The building, constructed in 1928 as St. Josephs Hospital, has converted to condominiums. The building is on the National Register of Historic Places and this modern house is no more, as it has been significantly modified with an addition of another level in 2015. Muni bus lines 6,7,43,71, the 37 line passes along the south end of the park. The 24 and 33 come within three blocks, the N Judah runs underneath the park via the Sunset Tunnel. List of hills in San Francisco Official page on San Francisco Recreation and Parks web site
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, in 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a geographic designation. Californias north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco, though, Northern California usually refers to the states northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, the term is applied to the area north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains.
Because of Californias large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well, the state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast while the region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the economic, scientific. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is Home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, Northern Californias largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto.
The 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any area in California. The states larger cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown, in 1542, beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, in 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of todays San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored Californias coast as far north as Monterey Bay, other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established.
The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast, the mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776
Corona Heights Park is a park in the Castro and Corona Heights neighborhoods of San Francisco, United States. It is situated immediately to the south of Buena Vista Park, Corona Heights is bounded in part by Flint Street on the east, Roosevelt Way to the north, and 16th Street to the south. The base of the hill is at approximately 300 feet, while the peak extends to 520 feet above sea level, Corona Heights Playground and the Randall Museum are located within the Corona Heights Park. The whole area is underlain by Franciscan chert bedrock, and a percentage of the hill is barren. At the hilltop, the bedrock in terra cotta red is clearly visible. The steps leading up to the peak are not supported by handrails, the peak of the hill is windy, but it offers an unobstructed panoramic view of the city of San Francisco from downtown to the Twin Peaks. Portions of Corona Heights park are made up of plant communities protected under the natural areas program as well as non-local plants. The park is home to reptiles, including northern and southern alligator lizards.
Butterflies like the anise swallowtail, red admiral and cabbage white can be flying in the park. Red-tailed hawks and common ravens can be seen over the park on most days, the property has been known as Rocky Hill or Rock Hill, and the Fist. In the 1800s, Rock Hill was the site of a quarry and brick factory, in 1928, Josephine Randall, the Superintendent of Recreation for the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department, proposed that the City buy the 16 acres of Rock Hill for recreation. In 1941, it was purchased for $27,333 and officially named Corona Heights, Corona Heights is prominently featured in the 1977 horror novel Our Lady of Darkness by Fritz Leiber. List of hills in San Francisco Hills in San Francisco at MisterSF. com
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural, or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of areas, rocks and trees. In North America, many parks have fields for playing such as soccer and football. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities, some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Often, the smallest parks are in areas, where a park may take up only a city block or less. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables, the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands of square kilometres, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers. In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit, many natural parks are protected by law, and users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are typically overseen by a ranger or a park warden.
Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the months and, in some northern hemisphere countries. The first parks were English deer parks, land set aside for hunting by royalty and they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was strictly forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks and these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owners wealth, an aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown. As cities became crowded, the hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities, sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development, in some parks or time periods with high pollen counts, parks tend to be avoided.
Park design is influenced by the purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground, a park primarily intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities, the design of a park may determine who is willing to use it
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica. Depending on its origin, it can contain either microfossils, small macrofossils, Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand, limestone and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral, where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. Where it occurs in chalk or marl, it is usually called flint and it occurs in thin beds, when it is a primary deposit. Thick beds of chert occur in marine deposits. These thickly bedded cherts include the novaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas, the banded iron formations of Precambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Chert occurs in deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense, in petrology the term chert is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz.
The term does not include quartzite, chalcedony is a microfibrous variety of quartz. Strictly speaking, the flint is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk. Among non-geologists, the distinction between flint and chert is often one of quality - chert being lower quality than flint, among petrologists, chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Since many cherts contain both microcrystalline and microfibrous quartz, it is difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. The cryptocrystalline nature of chert, combined with its above average ability to resist weathering, recrystallization, for example, The 3.2 Ga chert of the Fig Tree Formation in the Barbeton Mountains between Swaziland and South Africa preserved non-colonial unicellular bacteria-like fossils. The Gunflint Chert of western Ontario preserves not only bacteria and cyanobacteria but believed to be ammonia-consuming and some that resemble green algae. The Apex Chert of the Pilbara craton, Australia preserved eleven taxa of prokaryotes, the Bitter Springs Formation of the Amadeus Basin, Central Australia, preserves 850 Ma cyanobacteria and algae.
The Rhynie chert of Scotland has remains of a Devonian land flora, in prehistoric times, chert was often used as a raw material for the construction of stone tools. Like obsidian, as well as some rhyolites, felsites and this results in conchoidal fractures, a characteristic of all minerals with no cleavage planes. When a chert stone is struck against an iron-bearing surface sparks result and this makes chert an excellent tool for starting fires, and both flint and common chert were used in various types of fire-starting tools, such as tinderboxes, throughout history. Cherts are subject to problems when used as concrete aggregates, deeply weathered chert develops surface pop-outs when used in concrete that undergoes freezing and thawing because of the high porosity of weathered chert
The Financial District is a neighborhood in San Francisco, that serves as its main central business district. It is home to the citys largest concentration of headquarters, law firms, insurance companies, real estate firms, banks and loans. All six San Francisco Fortune 500 companies—McKesson, Wells Fargo, PG&E, Charles Schwab, the citys tallest buildings, including 555 California Street and the Transamerica Pyramid, and many other tall buildings, such as 101 California Street and 345 California Street are located there. Montgomery Street is the heart of the district. Since the 1980s, restrictions on high rise construction have shifted new development to the adjacent South of Market area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center and this area is sometimes called the South Financial District by real estate developers, or simply included as part of the Financial District itself. It was not until 1835 that the first settlers established themselves on the shore of Yerba Buena Cove, Yerba Buenas potential as a seaport made it the eventual center for European and American settlement.
Gold Rush wealth and business made it the capital of the west coast as many banks. The west coasts first and only skyscrapers, were built in the area along Market Street, the neighborhood was completely destroyed in the 1906 Earthquake and Fire. By 1910, the area was rebuilt with low-rise, masonry-clad buildings ranging from six to twelve stories in height. Due to new building and earthquake retrofitting technologies, the restrictions were lifted. This boom accelerated under mayor Dianne Feinstein during the 1980s, something her critics labelled as Manhattanization and this caused widespread opposition citywide leading to the skyscraper revolt similar to the freeway revolt in the city years earlier. The skyscraper revolt led to the city imposing extremely strict, European-style height restrictions on building construction citywide. Due to these restrictions, lack of buildable lots, and changes in the local real estate market. To encourage new development south of Market, and to fund the replacement for the Transbay Terminal.
As a result, nearly all new high rise construction since the 1980s has taken place South of Market, notable examples include the JPMorgan Chase Building,555 Mission Street,101 Second Street, the Four Seasons Hotel, The Paramount, and the Millennium Tower. Adjacent to the Financial District to the west is the Union Square shopping district, to the northwest is Chinatown, and to the north is North Beach and Jackson Square. To the east lies the Embarcadero waterfront and the Ferry Building, to the south lies Market Street and the South of Market district. The Financial District is served by more than two dozen Muni bus and rail lines, including one cable car line, as well as Montgomery Street Station, the nickname FiDi is occasionally employed, analogous to nearby SoMa
In 48 of the 50 states of the United States, the county is used for the level of local government immediately below the state itself. Louisiana uses parishes, and Alaska uses boroughs, there are 3,142 counties and county equivalent administrative units in total, including the District of Columbia. There are 41 independent cities in the United States, in Virginia, any municipality that is incorporated as a city legally becomes independent of any county. Where indicated, the statistics below do not include Virginias 38 independent cities, in Alaska, most of the land area of the state has no county-level government. Those parts of the state are divided by the United States Census Bureau into census areas, the states largest statistical division by area is the Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area, which is larger than any of the states boroughs. Although Anchorage is called a municipality, it is considered a consolidated city, lists of counties and county equivalents by number per political division, Total,3,142 Average county equivalents per state,62.84 These rankings include county equivalents.
The following tables exclude county equivalents, the largest counties and county equivalents are organized boroughs and the census areas of Alaska with the top two being Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area and North Slope Borough. The smallest counties and county equivalents are the independent cities of Virginia with the extreme being Falls Church. If independent cities are included, Falls Church becomes the smallest county in the state and this list excludes Alaskan Census Areas, but includes other county equivalents. The North Slope Borough is the largest independently incorporated county equivalent, the Unorganized Borough is substantially larger, but is an extension of the State of Alaska government and not independently incorporated. Data presented below is based on U. S. Census department data from 2010, calculations are made by dividing the population by the land area. This list generated by dividing the population by the land area, the list is dominated by just a few states, Alaska and Texas together comprise about two-thirds of the entries.
The Unorganized Borough is not included here as a unit, if the census areas were removed from the list, the Unorganized Borough would rank fourteenth with a density of 0.38 per square mile. Data presented below is based on U. S. Census Bureau data from 2010, calculations are made by dividing the population by the land area. Excluding the census areas of Alaska and Peninsula Borough is the least densely populated county equivalent with 0. 069/sq mi, map of the US showing population density per county 2002 Census of Governments, Volume 1, No. Page 8 shows a chart of counties by population and by state, labor Statistics County Employment and Wages