1. Scotland – Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four housesScotland – Edinburgh Castle. Human habitation of the site is dated back as far as the 9th century BC, although the nature of this early settlement is unclear.
2. Scottish Gaelic language – Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, the census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 reported having some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased, Scottish Gaelic is neither an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. Outside Scotland, a group of dialects collectively known as Canadian Gaelic are spoken in parts of Atlantic Canada, mainly Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of Gaelic languages in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic. About 2,320 Canadians in 2011 also claimed Gaelic languages as their mother tongue, with over 300 in Nova Scotia, aside from Scottish Gaelic, the language may also be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelic in reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced, outside Ireland and Great Britain, Gaelic may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, from the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a language from Irish. Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth, by 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct, completely replaced by Gaelic. An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, however, however, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, by the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba. Its spread to southern Scotland, was even and totalizing. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west as well as in West Lothian, less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken, the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of NorthumbriaScottish Gaelic language – 1891 distribution of English and Gaelic in Scotland
3. Alba – The name Bolivarian refers to the ideology of Simón Bolívar, the 19th-century South American independence leader born in Caracas who wanted Hispanic America to unite as a single Great Nation. The eleven member countries are Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, Grenada, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Suriname was admitted to ALBA as a guest country at a February 2012 summit. ALBA nations may conduct trade using a regional currency known as the SUCRE. Venezuela and Ecuador made the first bilateral trade using the Sucre, instead of the US dollar. The name initially contained Alternative instead of Alliance, but was changed on June 24,2009, Venezuela began to deliver about 96,000 barrels of oil per day from its state-owned oil company, PDVSA, to Cuba at very favorable prices. In exchange, Cuba sent 20,000 state-employed medical staff, the agreement also made it possible for Venezuelans to travel to Cuba for specialized medical care, free of charge. When it was launched in 2004, ALBA had only two states, Venezuela and Cuba. Subsequently, a number of other Latin American and Caribbean nations entered into this Peoples Trade Agreement, Bolivia under Evo Morales joined in 2006, Nicaragua under Daniel Ortega in 2007, and Ecuador under Rafael Correa in 2009. Honduras, under Manuel Zelaya, joined in 2008, but withdrew in 2009 after the 2009 Honduran coup détat, the Caribbean nations Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saint Lucia also joined. Jamaica, at the invitation of Hugo Chávez, the President of Venezuela and Mexico, at the invitation of Daniel Ortega, Hugo Chávez also invited the countries of Central America to join ALBA, and Argentina, to use SUCRE, the currency of this organization. Vietnam has been invited to join as an observer, in the eleventh Summit of ALBA in February 2012, Suriname, St. Lucia and Haiti requested admission to the organization. Haiti was granted the status of permanent member, while the other two countries were named special members, while awaiting their full incorporation. In October 2009, ALBA leaders agreed, at a summit in Bolivia, the document is approved, said Bolivian President Evo Morales, the summit host. President Hugo Chávez announced The sucre an autonomous and sovereign monetary system that will be agreed upon today so that it can be implemented in 2010. As of 2015, the currency is being used to compensate trade between Bolivia, Cuba, Nicaragua, and especially Ecuador and Venezuela. In addition, Suriname is a special guest member that intends to become a full member, Haiti, an observer member, also intends to join ALBA. This initiative provides the Caribbean nations with important hydrocarbon resources, which many do not possess on their territories, in the case of Cuba, Petrocaribe ensures a continual flow to a nation that has been deprived of oil since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989. Launched in 2005, TeleSUR is a conglomerate that provides newsAlba – Late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, founder of ALBA.
4. Great Britain – Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England, Scotland, and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Breoten, Bryten, Breten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, Britain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland. The latter were later called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, France, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England, Scotland and Wales in combinationGreat Britain – Satellite image of Great Britain in April 2002
5. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
6. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
7. Demographics of Scotland – The demography of Scotland includes all aspects of population, past and present, in the area that is now Scotland. Scotland has a population of 5,295,000, the population growth rate in 2011 was estimated as 0. 6% per annum according to the 2011 GROS Annual Review. Covering an area of 78,782 square kilometres, Scotland has a density of 67. 2/km2. Other concentrations of population include the northeast coast of Scotland, principally the regions around the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness, the Highlands of Scotland and the island group of Eilean Siar have the lowest population densities at 9/km2. Glasgow has the highest population density at 3, 289/km2, from 1 April 2011 the GROS merged with the National Archives of Scotland to become the National Records of Scotland. In conjunction with the rest of the United Kingdom, the National Records for Scotland is also responsible for conducting a census of population. The most recent one took place in March 2011 with the due to take place in 2021. In the United Kingdom a census was taken every 10 years from 1801 with the exception of 1941 due to the Second World War, Population data for years prior to that is provided from directories and gazetteers Notes a. There was no census in 1941 however there was a National Registrar of the Civilian Population in 1939 b, data for 1961 onwards rounded to nearest thousand c. The age distribution based on the 2011 census was as follows, the 2001 and 2011 censuses recorded the following ethnic groups, A question on national identity was asked in the 2011 census, what do you feel is your national identity. Respondents could identify themselves as having more than one national identity, the remainder chose other national identities. The council areas with at least 90% of the population stating some Scottish national identity were North Lanarkshire, Inverclyde, East Ayrshire, the lowest proportions of people stating some Scottish national identity were in Edinburgh and Aberdeen. The council areas with the highest proportions of people stating British as their national identity were Argyll and Bute and Shetland. Below is a table of national identity sorted by council area based on the results of the 2011 census, The statistics from the 2011 census, English is by far the most commonly spoken language in Scotland. Two regional languages of Scotland, Scottish Gaelic and Scots, are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, abilities in these languages for those aged three and above were recorded in the UK census 2011 as follows. Several other languages are spoken amongst immigrants to Scotland, the most commonly spoken of these is Polish. In the 2011 census 54,186 respondents aged three and over said that Polish was their language, amounting to 1. 06% of the total population of Scotland aged three and over. Glaciers then scoured their way across most of Britain, and only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, mesolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, and archaeologists have dated a site near Biggar to around 8500 BCDemographics of Scotland – Stone houses at Knap of Howar, evidence of a settled agricultural population and the beginnings of demographic growth, c. 3500 BC
8. Geography of Scotland – The geography of Scotland is varied, from rural lowlands to unspoilt uplands, and from large cities to sparsely inhabited islands. Scotlands only land border is with England, which runs for 60 miles in a direction from the Solway Firth in the west to the North Sea on the east coast. Separated by the North Channel, the island of Ireland lies 13 miles from Mull of Kintyre on the Scottish mainland, Norway is located 190 miles to the northeast of Scotland across the North Sea. The Atlantic Ocean, which fringes the coastline of western and northern Scotland and its islands, influences the temperate, Scotland contains the majority of mountainous terrain in the UK. The topography of Scotland is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault – a geological rock fracture – which traverses the Scottish mainland from Helensburgh to Stonehaven. The faultline separates two different physiographic regions, namely the Highlands to the north and west and the Lowlands to the south. The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotlands mountainous terrain, including the highest peak, Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, although Edinburgh is the capital and political centre of the country. While the Lowlands are less elevated, upland and mountainous terrain is located across the Southern Uplands, an abundance of natural resources such as coal, iron and zinc contributed significantly to the industrial growth of Scotland during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, energy is a component of Scotlands economy. Whilst Scotland is the largest producer of petroleum in the European Union, the land area of Scotland is 30,414 square miles, 32% of the area of the United Kingdom. The mainland of Scotland has 6,160 miles of coastline, the geomorphology of Scotland was formed by the action of tectonic plates, and subsequent erosion arising from glaciation. The major division of Scotland is the Highland Boundary Fault, which separates the land into highland to the north and west, and lowland to the south and east. The Highlands of Scotland are largely mountainous, and form the highest ground in the UK, they are bisected by the Great Glen into the Grampian Mountains to the southeast and the Northwest Highlands. The Scottish Lowlands can be subdivided into the Southern Uplands, an area of rolling farmland and high moorland. Scotland has a variety of geology for an area of its size. It is also the origin of significant discoveries and important figures in the development of the science. The oldest rocks of Scotland are the Lewisian gneisses, which were formed in the Precambrian period and they are among the oldest rocks in the world. During the Precambrian, the Torridonian sandstones and the Moine were also laid down, further sedimentary deposits were formed through the Cambrian period, some of which metamorphosed into the Dalradian seriesGeography of Scotland – Ben Nevis is the highest peak in Great Britain.
9. Anglo-Scottish border – The Anglo-Scottish border, or the English-Scottish border, is the official border and mark of entry between England and Scotland. It runs for 96 miles between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west and it is Scotlands only land border. England shares a border with Wales. The Firth of Forth was the border between the Picto-Gaelic Kingdom of Alba and the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria in the early 10th century and it became the first Anglo-Scottish border with the annexation of Northumbria by Anglo-Saxon England in the mid 10th century. Lothian was taken by the Scots at the Battle of Carham in 1018, the Solway-Tweed line was legally established in 1237 by the Treaty of York between England and Scotland. It remains the border today, with the exception of the Debatable Lands, north of Carlisle, and an area around Berwick-upon-Tweed. It is thus one of the oldest extant borders in the world, for centuries until the Union of the Crowns the region on either side of the boundary was a lawless territory suffering from the repeated raids in each direction of the Border Reivers. The age of legal capacity under Scots law is 16, while it was previously 18 under English law, the border settlements of Gretna Green, Coldstream and Lamberton were convenient for elopers from England who wanted to marry under Scottish laws, and marry without publicity. The border is marked by signposts welcoming travellers both into Scotland and into England and it is a hilly area, with the Scottish Southern Uplands to the north, and the Cheviot Hills forming the border between the two countries to the south. A 16th-century Act of the Scottish Parliament talks about the chiefs of the clans. Although Lowland aristocrats may have liked to refer to themselves as families. For a time a local clan dominated a region on the border between England and Scotland. It was known as the Debatable Lands and neither monarchs writ was heeded, King James VI & I decreed that the Borders should be renamed the Middle Shires. In 1605 he established a commission of ten drawn equally from Scotland and England to bring law. Reivers could no longer escape justice by crossing from England to Scotland or vice versa, the rough-and-ready Border Laws were abolished and the folk of the middle shires found they had to obey the law of the land like all other subjects. In 1603 the King placed George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar in charge of pacification of the borders, courts were set up in the towns of the Middle Shires and known reivers were arrested. The more troublesome and lower classes were executed without trial, known as Jeddart justice, mass hanging soon became a common occurrence. In 1607 James felt he could boast that the Middle Shires had become the navel or umbilic of both kingdoms, planted and peopled with civility and riches, after ten years King James had succeeded, the Middle Shires had been brought under central law and orderAnglo-Scottish border – A sign marking the border on the East Coast Main Line railway
10. North Sea – The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, Orkney, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms. These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies 200 miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows, On the SouthwestNorth Sea – North Sea
11. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa. The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in later maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the otherAtlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
12. North Channel (British Isles) – The North Channel is the strait between north-eastern Ireland and south-western Scotland. The southern boundary of the strait is a line joining the Mull of Galloway, the northern boundary is a line joining Portnahaven and Benbane Head. The narrowest part of the strait is between the Mull of Kintyre and Torr Head where its width is 21 kilometres, the deepest part is called Beauforts Dyke. It is crossed by a number of ferry services. In 1953, it was the scene of a maritime disaster. In August 2007 the Centre for Cross-Border Studies proposed the construction of a 34-kilometre long rail bridge or tunnel, in the Victorian era, engineers proposed a rail tunnel between Stranraer and Belfast. This strait was known as the Irish Channel. In the 19th century, Alexander Keith Johnstons suggested name St Patricks Channel had currency, according to the ILDSA, this was first accomplished in 1947 by Tom Blower. The first two-way crossing was completed by a relay team on 28 July 2015. Straits of Moyle St Georges ChannelNorth Channel (British Isles) – Map of the North Channel
13. Irish Sea – The Irish Sea, separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. It is connected to the Celtic Sea in the south by St Georges Channel, anglesey is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man. The sea is occasionally, but rarely, referred to as the Manx Sea, the sea is of significant economic importance to regional trade, shipping and transport, fishing, and power generation in the form of wind power and nuclear power plants. Annual traffic between Great Britain and Ireland amounts to over 12 million passengers and 17 million tonnes of traded goods, the Irish Sea has undergone a series of dramatic changes over the last 20,000 years as the last glacial period ended and was replaced by warmer conditions. At the height of the glaciation the central part of the sea was probably a long freshwater lake. As the ice retreated 10,000 years ago the lake reconnected to the sea, becoming brackish, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Irish Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limit of the Scottish Seas, a line joining St. Davids Head to Carnsore Point. It is connected to the North Atlantic at both its northern and southern ends, to the north, the connection is through the North Channel between Scotland and Northern Ireland and the Malin Sea. The southern end is linked to the Atlantic through the St Georges Channel between south eastern Ireland and Pembrokeshire in Wales, and the Celtic Sea. The Irish Sea is composed of a channel about 300 km long and 30–50 km wide on its western side. The western channels depth ranges from 80 metres up to 275 m in the Beauforts Dyke in the North Channel, the main embayments – Cardigan Bay in the south and the waters to the east of the Isle of Man – are less than 50 m deep. The Sea has a water volume of 2,430 km3, 80% of which is to the west of the Isle of Man. The largest sandbanks are the Bahama and King William Banks to the east and north of the Isle of Man, the Irish Sea, at its greatest width, is 200 km and narrows to 75 km. Unlike Great Britain, Ireland has no tunnel or bridge connection to continental Europe, thus the vast majority of heavy goods trade is done by sea. The Port of Liverpool handles 32 million tonnes of cargo and 734 thousand passengers a year, Holyhead port handles most of the passenger traffic from Dublin and Dún Laoghaire ports, as well as 3.3 million tonnes of freight. Ports in the Republic handle 3,600,000 travellers crossing the sea each year and this has been steadily dropping for a number of years, probably as a result of low cost airlines. There is also a connection between Liverpool and Belfast via the Isle of Man or direct from Birkenhead, the worlds largest car ferry, Ulysses, is operated by Irish Ferries on the Dublin Port–Holyhead route, Stena Line also operates between Britain and Ireland. The Port of Barrow-in-Furness, despite being one of Britains largest shipbuilding centres, a ferry crossing used to run between Swansea and Cork, but given the geographical limits defined above, this route crosses the Celtic Sea rather than the Irish SeaIrish Sea – Satellite image
14. Norway – The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland. It also included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels, counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and then again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It also has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index. Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain also referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of himNorway – The helmet found at Gjermundbu near Haugsbygd, Buskerud, is the only Viking Age helmet that has been found.
15. Faroe Islands – The Faroe Islands, also spelled the Faeroes, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland,320 kilometres north-northwest of Scotland. Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 49,188 in 2016, the Faeroe Islands is an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have an oceanic climate, windy, wet, cloudy. Despite this island groups northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream, between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most domestic matters, areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, the police department, the justice department, currency, and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy. The islands also have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation, the people of the Faroe Islands also compete as national team in certain sports. In Danish, the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær, the morpheme øerne represents a plural of ø in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as the islands of sheep, in Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for island, the modern Faeroese word for island is oyggj. In the English language, their name is sometimes spelled Faeroe, archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods prior to the arrival of the Norse, the first between 400 and 600 and the second between 600 and 800. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have also found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, archaeologist Mike Church noted that Dicuil mentioned what may have been the Faroes. He also suggested that the living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia. A Latin account of a made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description, Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language, according to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against Sigmund Brestursson, the Norwegian monarchy, a traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí, possibly refers to the Skeggjar Beards, a nickname given to island dwellersFaroe Islands – Tinganes in Tórshavn, seat of a part of the Faroese government.
16. Iceland – Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean. It has a population of 332,529 and an area of 103,000 km2, the capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active, the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence still keeps summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in the year 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, Norwegians, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, the island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the worlds oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century. The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark, Iceland thus followed Norways integration to that Union and came under Danish rule after Swedens secession from that union in 1523. In the wake of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars, Icelands struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918, until the 20th century, Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture, and was among the poorest in Europe. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity, in 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance, biotechnology, and manufacturing. Iceland has an economy with relatively low taxes compared to other OECD countries. It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. Iceland ranks high in economic, political and social stability and equality, in 2013, it was ranked as the 13th most-developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index. Iceland runs almost completely on renewable energy, some bankers were jailed, and the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nations Scandinavian heritage, most Icelanders are descendants of Germanic and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old Norse and is related to FaroeseIceland – Norsemen Landing in Iceland – a 19th Century depiction by Oscar Wergeland.
17. Republic of Ireland – Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland. The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, and, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is also referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%Republic of Ireland – The Irish Parliamentary Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846–1891).
18. List of islands of Scotland – This is a list of islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain. Also included are other related tables and lists. Scotland has over 790 offshore islands, most of which are to be found in four groups, Shetland, Orkney. Many of these islands are swept by strong tides, and the Corryvreckan tide race between Scarba and Jura is one of the largest whirlpools in the world. Other strong tides are to be found in the Pentland Firth between mainland Scotland and Orkney, and another example is the Grey Dog between Scarba and Lunga, the geology and geomorphology of the islands is varied. Some, such as Skye and Mull are mountainous, while others like Tiree, the largest island is Lewis and Harris which extends to 2,179 square kilometres, and there are a further 200 islands which are greater than 40 hectares in area. Of the remainder, several such as Staffa and the Flannan Isles are well known despite their small size. Some 94 Scottish islands are inhabited, of which 89 are offshore islands. The culture of the islands has been affected by the influences of Celtic, Norse and English speaking peoples. Most of the Hebrides have names with Scots Gaelic derivations, whilst those of the Northern Isles tend to be derived from the Viking names, a few have Brythonic, Scots and even perhaps pre-Celtic roots. A feature of island life is the low crime rate. Orkney was rated as the best place to live in Scotland in both 2013 and 2014 according to the Halifax Quality of Life survey, Rockall is a small rocky islet in the North Atlantic which was declared part of Scotland by the Island of Rockall Act 1972. However, the legality of the claim is disputed by the Republic of Ireland, Denmark and Iceland, the 2011 census records 94 Scottish islands as having a usually resident population of which 89 are offshore islands. There are a number of other islands that are evidently inhabited. The local government council areas with the most inhabited islands are Argyll and Bute with 23, Orkney with 20, Shetland with 16 and Highland, there are also three in North Ayrshire and one each in Fife, Perth and Kinross, Stirling and West Dunbartonshire. The last three named plus two islands in Argyll and Bute are freshwater rather than offshore, in the past many smaller islands that are uninhabited today had permanent populations. Losses were severe in many areas during the 19th century when islands such as Pabbay, mass emigration from the Hebridean islands was at its height in the mid-19th century but it commenced as early as the 1770s in some areas. The crofting counties held 20% of Scotlands population in 1755 but by 1961 this figure had declined to 5%, other examples include Mingulay, Noss and the St Kilda archipelago, which were abandoned during the course of the 20th centuryList of islands of Scotland – Eilean Donan castle
19. Coast – A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake. A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the Coastline paradox, the term coastal zone is a region where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs. Both the terms coast and coastal are often used to describe a location or region, for example, New Zealands West Coast. Edinburgh for example is a city on the coast of Scotland, a pelagic coast refers to a coast which fronts the open ocean, as opposed to a more sheltered coast in a gulf or bay. A shore, on the hand, can refer to parts of the land which adjoin any large body of water, including oceans. Similarly, the related term refers to the land alongside or sloping down to a river or to a body of water smaller than a lake. Bank is also used in parts of the world to refer to an artificial ridge of earth intended to retain the water of a river or pond. According to the UN atlas, 44% of people live within 150 kilometres of the sea, tides often determine the range over which sediment is deposited or eroded. Areas with high tidal ranges allow waves to reach farther up the shore, the tidal range is influenced by the size and shape of the coastline. Tides do not typically cause erosion by themselves, however, tidal bores can erode as the waves surge up river estuaries from the ocean. Waves erode coastline as they break on shore releasing their energy, the larger the wave the more energy it releases and the more sediment it moves. Coastlines with longer shores have more room for the waves to disperse their energy, while coasts with cliffs and short shore faces give little room for the wave energy to be dispersed. In these areas the wave energy breaking against the cliffs is higher, sediment deposited by waves comes from eroded cliff faces and is moved along the coastline by the waves. This forms an abrasion or cliffed coast, sediment deposited by rivers is the dominant influence on the amount of sediment located on a coastline. Today riverine deposition at the coast is often blocked by dams and other human regulatory devices, like the ocean which shapes them, coasts are a dynamic environment with constant change. The coast and its adjacent areas on and off shore are an important part of a local ecosystem, Salt marshes and beaches also support a diversity of plants, animals and insects crucial to the food chain. The high level of biodiversity creates a level of biological activity. More and more of the people live in coastal regionsCoast – Rugged coastline of the West Coast Region of New Zealand
20. Kingdom of Scotland – The Kingdom of Scotland was a state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the third of the island of Great Britain. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a war of independence. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, in 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union. The Crown was the most important element of government, the Scottish monarchy in the Middle Ages was a largely itinerant institution, before Edinburgh developed as a capital city in the second half of the 15th century. The Scottish Crown adopted the conventional offices of western European courts, Parliament also emerged as a major legal institution, gaining an oversight of taxation and policy, but was never as central to the national life as its counterpart in England. In the 17th century, the creation of Justices of Peace, the continued existence of courts baron and the introduction of kirk sessions helped consolidate the power of local lairds. Scots law developed into a system in the Middle Ages and was reformed and codified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under James IV the legal functions of the council were rationalised, in 1532, the College of Justice was founded, leading to the training and professionalisation of lawyers. David I is the first Scottish king known to have produced his own coinage, Early Scottish coins were virtually identical in silver content to English ones, but from about 1300 their silver content began to depreciate more rapidly than the English coins. At the union of the Crowns in 1603 the Scottish pound was fixed at only one-twelfth the value of the English pound, the Bank of Scotland issued pound notes from 1704. Scottish currency was abolished by the Act of Union, Scotland is half the size of England and Wales in area, but has roughly the same length of coastline. Geographically Scotland is divided between the Highlands and Islands and the Lowlands, the Highlands had a relatively short growing season, which was further shortened during the Little Ice Age. From Scotlands foundation to the inception of the Black Death, the population had grown to a million, following the plague and it expanded in the first half of the 16th century, reaching roughly 1.2 million by the 1690s. Significant languages in the kingdom included Gaelic, Old English, Norse and French. Christianity was introduced into Scotland from the 6th century, in the Norman period the Scottish church underwent a series of changes that led to new monastic orders and organisation. During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a Protestant Reformation that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk, there were a series of religious controversies that resulted in divisions and persecutions. The Scottish Crown developed naval forces at various points in its history, Land forces centred around the large common army, but adopted European innovations from the 16th century, and many Scots took service as mercenaries and as soldiers for the English CrownKingdom of Scotland – James VI, whose inheritance of the thrones of England and Ireland created a dynastic union in 1603
21. Kenneth MacAlpin – Cináed mac Ailpín, commonly anglicised as Kenneth MacAlpin and known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I, was a king of the Picts who, according to national myth, was the first king of Scots. He was thus known by the posthumous nickname of An Ferbasach. The dynasty that ruled Scotland for much of the period claimed descent from him. The Kenneth of myth, conqueror of the Picts and founder of the Kingdom of Alba, was born in the centuries after the real Kenneth died. In the reign of Kenneth II, when the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled, Pictland was named after the Picts, whom, as we have said, Kinadius destroyed. Two years before he came to Pictland, he had received the kingdom of Dál Riata, gret bataylis than dyd he, To pwt in freedom his cuntre. When humanist scholar George Buchanan wrote his history Rerum Scoticarum Historia in the 1570s, Buchanan included an account of how Kenneths father had been murdered by the Picts and a detailed, and entirely unsupported, account of how Kenneth avenged him and conquered the Picts. As a result, much of the misleading and vivid detail was removed from the series of events. Other Gaels, such as Caustantín and Óengus, the sons of Fergus, were identified among the Pictish king lists, as were Angles such as Talorcen son of Eanfrith, later historians would reject parts of the Kenneth produced by Skene and subsequent historians, while accepting others. Medievalist Alex Woolf, interviewed by The Scotsman in 2004, is quoted as saying, there’s actually no hint at all that he was a Scot. If you look at contemporary sources there are four other Pictish kings after him, so he’s the fifth last of the Pictish kings rather than the first Scottish king. Many other historians could be quoted in terms similar to Woolf, the Pictish institution of kingship provided the basis for merger with the Gaelic Alpin dynasty. The meeting of King Constantine and Bishop Cellach at the Hill of Belief near the city of Scone in 906 cemented the rights. Hence the change in styling from King of the Picts to King of Alba, the legacy of Gaelic as the first national language of Scotland does not obscure the foundational process in the establishment of the Scottish kingdom of Alba. Kenneths origins are uncertain, as are his ties, if any, among the genealogies contained in the Rawlinson B502 manuscript, dating from around 1130, is the supposed descent of Malcolm II of Scotland. Medieval genealogies are unreliable sources, but many historians still accept Kenneths descent from the established Cenél nGabráin, or at the very least from some unknown minor sept of the Dál Riata. Leaving aside the shadowy kings before Áedán son of Gabrán, the genealogy is certainly flawed insofar as Áed Find, who died c. 778, could not reasonably be the son of Domangart, who was killed c. 673. The conventional account would insert two generations between Áed Find and Domangart, Eochaid mac Echdach, father of Áed Find, who died c. That Kenneth was a Gael is not widely rejected, but modern historiography distinguishes between Kenneth as a Gael by culture and/or in ancestry, and Kenneth as a king of Gaelic Dál RiataKenneth MacAlpin – Kenneth MacAlpin
22. King of Scots – The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Kenneth MacAlpin, the distinction between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of the Picts is rather the product of later medieval myth and confusion from a change in nomenclature i. e. The Kingdom of the Picts just became known as Kingdom of Alba in Gaelic, which became known in Scots and English as Scotland. By the late 11th century at the very latest, Scottish kings were using the term rex Scottorum, or King of Scots, to refer to themselves in Latin. The title of King of Scots fell out of use in 1707, thus Queen Anne became the last monarch of the ancient kingdoms of Scotland and England and the first of Great Britain, although the kingdoms had shared a monarch since 1603. Her uncle Charles II was the last Scottish monarch actually to be crowned in Scotland, the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin begins what is often called the House of Alpin, an entirely modern concept. * Evidence for Eochaids reign is unclear, he may never have actually been King, if he was, he was co-King with Giric. † Eochiad was a son of Run, King of Strathclyde and he was also the heir-general of Malcolm I, as his paternal grandfather, Duncan of Atholl was the third son of Malcolm I. The House of Dunkeld was therefore related to the House of Alpin. Duncan was killed in battle by Macbeth, who had a long, in a series of battles between 1057 and 1058, Duncans son Malcolm III defeated and killed Macbeth and Macbeths stepson and heir Lulach, and claimed the throne. Edgar triumphed, sending his uncle and brother to monasteries, after the reign of David I, the Scottish throne was passed according to rules of primogeniture, moving from father to son, or where not possible, brother to brother. The last King of the House of Dunkeld was Alexander III, Alexander had himself remarried, but in early 1286 he died in an accident while riding home. His wife, Yolande of Dreux, was pregnant, but by November 1286 all hope of her bearing a child had passed. Accordingly, in the Treaty of Salisbury, the Guardians of Scotland recognised Alexanders three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret of Norway, Margaret remained in her fathers Kingdom of Norway until Autumn 1290, when she was dispatched to Scotland. However, she died on the journey in Orkney, having never set foot on Scottish soil and she is thus sometimes not considered Queen by nationalists. The death of Margaret of Norway began an interregnum in Scotland caused by a succession crisis. With her death, the descent of William I became extinct, the Scottish Magnates invited Edward I of England to arbitrate the claims, he did so, but forced the Scots to swear allegiance to him as overlord. For ten years, Scotland had no King of its own, the Scots, however, refused to tolerate English rule, first William Wallace and then, after his execution, Robert the Bruce fought against the EnglishKing of Scots
23. Sovereign state – A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and it is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact, States came into existence as people gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state. States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of sovereignty based on territoriality. It is a system of states, multinational corporations. Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused and that position was reflected and constituted in the notion that their sovereignty was either completely lacking, or at least of an inferior character when compared to that of civilised people. Lassa Oppenheim said There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is a fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon. In the opinion of H. V. Evatt of the High Court of Australia, sovereignty is neither a question of fact, nor a question of law, but a question that does not arise at all. The right of nations to determine their own status and exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognized. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the non-west as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make religion a subordinate to politics and this system does not fit in the Islamic world because concepts such as separation of church and state and individual conscience are not recognised in the Islamic religion as social systems. Nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, religion, language, origins, however, the adjectives national and international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory, State recognition signifies the decision of a sovereign state to treat another entity as also being a sovereign state. Recognition can be expressed or implied and is usually retroactive in its effects. It does not necessarily signify a desire to establish or maintain diplomatic relations, There is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations on the criteria for statehood. In actual practice, the criteria are mainly political, not legal, in international law, however, there are several theories of when a state should be recognised as sovereignSovereign state – Member states of the United Nations, all of which are sovereign states, though not all sovereign states are necessarily members
24. Act of Union 1707 – The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament, the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had agreed on 22 July 1706. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in two separate Crowns resting on the same head. The Acts took effect on 1 May 1707, on this date, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the Parliament of Great Britain, based in the Palace of Westminster in London, the home of the English Parliament. Hence, the Acts are referred to as the Union of the Parliaments, on the Union, the historian Simon Schama said What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world. It was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history, the first attempts at Union surrounded the foreseen unification of the Royal lines of Scotland and England. In pursuing the English throne in the 1560s, Mary, Queen of Scots pledged herself to a union between the two kingdoms. England and Scotland were ruled by the king for the first time in 1603 when James VI of Scotland also became the king of England. However they remained two separate states until 1 May 1707, the first attempt to unite the parliaments of England and Scotland was by Marys son, King James VI and I. On his accession to the English throne in 1603 King James announced his intention to unite his two realms so that he would not be guilty of bigamy. James used his prerogative powers to take the style of King of Great Britain and to give an explicitly British character to his court. In the meantime, James declared that Great Britain be viewed as presently united, and as one realm and kingdom, the Scottish and English parliaments established a commission to negotiate a union, formulating an instrument of union between the two countries. However, the idea of union was unpopular, and when James dropped his policy of a speedy union. When the House of Commons attempted to revive the proposal in 1610, the ordinance was ratified by the Second Protectorate Parliament, as an Act of Union, on 26 June 1657. One united Parliament sat in Westminster, with 30 representatives from Scotland and 30 from Ireland joining the members from England. Whilst free trade was brought about amongst the new Commonwealth, the benefits were generally not felt as a result of heavy taxation used to fund Cromwells New Model Army. This republican union was dissolved automatically with the restoration of King Charles II to the thrones of England and Scotland, Scottish members expelled from the Commonwealth Parliament petitioned unsuccessfully for a continuance of the union. An abortive scheme for union occurred in Scotland in 1670, following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the records of the Parliament of Scotland show much discussion of possible unionAct of Union 1707 – "Articles of Union with Scotland", 1707
25. 1707 – As of the start of 1707, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian. January 1 – John V is crowned King of Portugal and the Algarves in Lisbon, january 16 – The Treaty of Union of the two Kingdoms of Scotland and England is ratified by the Parliament of Scotland. March 3 – Death of the Emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi, march 19 – The Act of Union with Scotland is ratified by the Parliament of England. Following this, Philip V of Spain promulgates the first Nueva Planta decrees, bringing the Kingdoms of Valencia, may 23 – Volcanic eruption in the Santorini caldera begins. July 29–August 21 – War of the Spanish Succession, Battle of Toulon – Allies are obliged to withdraw, october 22 – Scilly naval disaster, four Royal Navy ships run aground in the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell and at least 1450 sailors all drown, october 23 – The Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain first meets in London. October 28 – Hōei earthquake, the most powerful in Japan until 2011, december 16 – The last recorded eruption of Mount Fuji begins in Japan. December 24 – The first British Governor of Gibraltar, directly appointed by Queen Anne, Roger Elliott, december – Charles XII of Sweden launches his campaign to conquer Russia, marching to the east from Leipzig with 60,000 coalition troops. Another 16,000 soldiers are waiting on the outskirts of Riga, a fortress is founded on the future site of Ust-Abakanskoye. The Lao empire of Lan Xang officially ends and splits into the kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, hacienda Juriquilla is built in Querétaro, Mexico1707 – The Isles of Scilly, scene of the naval disaster in October 1707.
26. Flag of Scotland – The Flag of Scotland, also known as St Andrews Cross or the Saltire, is the national flag of Scotland. As the national flag, the Saltire, rather than the Royal Standard of Scotland, is the flag for all individuals. It is also, where possible, flown from Scottish Government buildings every day from 8am until sunset, according to legend, the Christian apostle and martyr Saint Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, was crucified on an X-shaped cross at Patras, in Achaea. Use of the iconography of his martyrdom, showing the apostle bound to an X-shaped cross. It was again depicted on seals used during the late 13th century, including on one used by the Guardians of Scotland, using a simplified symbol which does not depict St. Andrews image, the saltire or crux decussata, began in the late 14th century. In June 1385, the Parliament of Scotland decreed that Scottish soldiers serving in France would wear a white Saint Andrews Cross, both in front and behind, for identification. The earliest reference to the Saint Andrews Cross as a flag is found in the Vienna Book of Hours, circa 1503, supposedly, a miraculous white saltire appeared in the blue sky and Óengus troops were roused to victory by the omen. Consisting of a blue background over which is placed a white representation of an X-shaped cross, in heraldic language, it may be blazoned azure, a saltire argent. The tincture of the Saltire can appear as silver or white. In the case of the Saltire, variations in shades of blue have resulted in the background of the flag ranging from sky blue to navy blue. Some flag manufacturers selected the same navy blue colour trend of the Union Flag for the Saltire itself, leading to a variety of shades of blue being depicted on the flag of Scotland. Having taken advice from a number of sources, including the office of the Lord Lyon King of Arms, recent versions of the Saltire have therefore largely converged on this official recommendation. The flag proportions are not fixed, however the Lord Lyon King of Arms states that 5,4 is suitable. The ratio of the width of the bars of the saltire in relation to the width of the field is specified in heraldry in relation to shield width rather than flag width. However, this ratio, though not rigid, is specified as one-third to one-fifth of the width of the field. According to legend, in 832 A. D. Óengus II led an army of Picts and Scots into battle against the Angles, led by Æthelstan, near modern-day Athelstaneford, East Lothian. On the morning of battle white clouds forming the shape of an X were said to have appeared in the sky, Óengus and his combined force, emboldened by this apparent divine intervention, took to the field and despite being inferior in terms of numbers were victorious. The white saltire set against a blue background is said to have been adopted as the design of the flag of Scotland on the basis of this legendFlag of Scotland – Saint Andrew
27. Flag – A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design that is used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or as decoration. National flags are patriotic symbols with varied wide-ranging interpretations, often including strong military associations due to their original, flags are also used in messaging, advertising, or for other decorative purposes. The study of flags is known as vexillology, from the Latin word vexillum, due to the use of flags by military units, flag is also used as the name of some military units. A flag is equivalent to a brigade in Arab countries, and in Spain, in antiquity, field signs or standards were used in warfare that can be categorized as vexilloid or flag-like. During the High Middle Ages flags came to be used primarily as a device in battle. Already during the medieval period, and increasingly during the Late Middle Ages. Regimental flags for individual units became commonplace during the Early Modern period, flags also became the preferred means of communications at sea, resulting in various systems of flag signals, see, International maritime signal flags. One of the most popular uses of a flag is to symbolize a nation or country, some national flags have been particularly inspirational to other nations, countries, or subnational entities in the design of their own flags. Some prominent examples include, The flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is attested in 1478, the flag of the Netherlands is the oldest tricolour. Its three colours of red, white and blue go back to Charlemagnes time, the 9th century, the coastal region of what today is the Netherlands was then known for its cloth in these colours. Maps from the early 16th century already put flags in these colours next to this region, a century before that, during the 15th century, the three colours were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the three bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled. As state flag it first appeared around 1572 as the Princes Flag in orange–white–blue, soon the more famous red–white–blue began appearing, becoming the prevalent version from around 1630. Orange made a comeback during the war of the late 18th century. During World War II the pro-Nazi NSB used it, any symbolism has been added later to the three colours, although the orange comes from the House of Orange-Nassau. This use of orange comes from Nassau, which today uses orange-blue, not from Orange, however, the usual way to show the link with the House of Orange-Nassau is the orange pennant above the red-white-blue. It is said that the Dutch Tricolour has inspired many flags but most notably those of Russia, New York City, the national flag of France was designed in 1794. As a forerunner of revolution, Frances tricolour flag style has been adopted by other nations, examples, Italy, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ireland, Haiti, Romania and Mexico. The Union Flag of the United Kingdom is the most commonly used, british colonies typically flew a flag based on one of the ensigns based on this flag, and many former colonies have retained the design to acknowledge their cultural historyFlag – ASEAN members' national flags in Jakarta
28. Saint Andrew – Andrew the Apostle, also known as Saint Andrew and called in the Orthodox tradition Prōtoklētos or the First-called, was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter. The name Andrew, like other Greek names, appears to have been common among the Jews, Christians, no Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. According to Orthodox tradition, the successor to Saint Andrew is the Patriarch of Constantinople. The New Testament states that Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter and he was born in the village of Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee. Both he and his brother Peter were fishermen by trade, hence the tradition that Jesus called them to be his disciples by saying that he make them fishers of men. At the beginning of Jesus public life, they were said to have occupied the house at Capernaum. In the Gospel of Matthew and in the Gospel of Mark Simon Peter and these narratives record that Jesus was walking along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, observed Simon and Andrew fishing, and called them to discipleship. In the parallel incident in the Gospel of Luke Andrew is not named, the narrative indicates that Simon was not the only fisherman in the boat but it is not until the next chapter that Andrew is named as Simons brother. However, it is understood that Andrew was fishing with Simon on the night in question. Matthew Poole, in his Annotations on the Holy Bible, stressed that Luke denies not that Andrew was there. In contrast, the Gospel of John states that Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist, whose testimony first led him, Andrew at once recognized Jesus as the Messiah, and hastened to introduce him to his brother. Thenceforth, the two brothers were disciples of Christ, on a subsequent occasion, prior to the final call to the apostolate, they were called to a closer companionship, and then they left all things to follow Jesus. Subsequently, in the gospels, Andrew is referred to as being present on important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus. Andrew told Jesus about the boy with the loaves and fishes, Andrew was present at the Last Supper. Andrew was one of the four disciples who came to Jesus on the Mount of Olives to ask about the signs of Jesus return at the end of the age, Eusebius in his church history 3,1 quoted Origen as saying that Andrew preached in Scythia. The Chronicle of Nestor adds that he preached along the Black Sea and the Dnieper river as far as Kiev, hence, he became a patron saint of Ukraine, Romania and Russia. According to tradition, he founded the See of Byzantium in AD38, according to Hippolytus of Rome, Andrew preached in Thrace, and his presence in Byzantium is also mentioned in the apocryphal Acts of Andrew. Basil of Seleucia also knew of Apostle Andrews missions in Thrace, Scythia and this diocese would later develop into the Patriarchate of ConstantinopleSaint Andrew – Saint Andrew the Apostle by Artus Wolffort
29. Patron saint – Catholics believe that patron saints, having already transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede effectively for the needs of their special charges. Historically, a practice has also occurred in many Islamic lands. With regard to the omnipresence of this belief, the late Martin Lings wrote. Traditionally, it has been understood that the saint of a particular place prays for that places wellbeing and for the health. Saints often become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active, professions sometimes have a patron saint owing to that individual being involved somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession and it is, however, generally discouraged in some Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry. In Islam, the veneration or commemoration and recognition of saints is found in many branches of traditional SunnismPatron saint – Saint Matthew the Apostle, depicted with an angel, is the patron saint of Salerno, Italy, bankers and tax collectors
30. National day – A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country. This nationhood can be symbolized by the date of independence, of becoming a republic or a significant date for a saint or a ruler. Often the day is not called National Day but serves and can be considered as one, the national day will often be a national holiday. Many countries have more than one national day, most countries have a fixed-date national day, but some have movable dates. An example is Jamaica, which up to 1997 celebrated its day on the first Monday in August. This commemorated independence from the United Kingdom which was attained on Monday,6 August 1962, another example is Thailand which celebrates the birthday of the king on 28 July. This date will change on the accession of the heir to the throne, most national days can be categorized in two large blocks, Newer countries that celebrate their national day as the day of their independence. Older countries that use some other event of significance as their national day. Denmark and the United Kingdom are among the few countries that do not have designated national days, importance attached to the national day as well as the degree to which it is celebrated vary greatly from country to country. A military parade is held in Madrid celebrating the occasion, the national day in France is 14 July and known as the Fête nationale commemorating the Storming of the Bastille, which is considered the start of the French Revolution. It is widely celebrated and the French Tricolour is much in evidence, in the United States, the Independence Day celebrations on 4 July are widely celebrated with parades, fireworks, picnics and barbecues. In Ireland, Saint Patricks Day,17 March, is the equivalent of a day and has been a public holiday for many years. However, in the United Kingdom the constituent countries patron saints days are low-key affairs, a National Day for the United Kingdom has also been proposed in recent years. As with the Bastille Day military parade in France, many countries have a National Day Parade. Examples include the Singapore National Day Parade, and the parade for the National Day of the Peoples Republic of China, regions that are not broadly recognized sovereign states are shown in pink. For regions controlled by states, the name of the sovereign state is shown in parenthesesNational day – Independence or Death, famous painting from Pedro Américo that celebrates the Independence Day of Brazil.
31. Scottish inventions – Scottish inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques either partially or entirely invented or discovered by a person born in or descended from Scotland. In some cases, an inventions Scottishness is determined by the fact that it came into existence in Scotland, often, things that are discovered for the first time are also called inventions and in many cases there is no clear line between the two. The Scots take enormous pride in the history of Scottish invention, there are many books devoted solely to the subject, as well as scores of websites listing Scottish inventions and discoveries with varying degrees of science. Even before the Industrial Revolution, Scots have been at the forefront of innovation, the following is a list of inventions or discoveries that are in some way Scottish. Aircraft design, Frank Barnwell Establishing the fundamentals of design at the University of Glasgow. Wrote Field Intelligence, Its Principles and Practice and Reconnaissance on the intelligence of modern warfare during World War I. Special forces, Founded by Sir David Stirling, the SAS was created in World War II in the North Africa campaign to go behind enemy lines to destroy and disrupt the enemy. Since then it has regarded as the most famous and influential special forces that has inspired other countries to form their own special forces too. Intelligence, Allan Pinkerton developed the still relevant intelligence techniques of shadowing and assuming a role in his time as head of the Union Intelligence Service, coal mining extraction in the sea on an artificial island by Sir George Bruce of Carnock. Regarded as one of the wonders of the late medieval period. Making cast steel from iron, David Mushet Wrought iron sash bars for glass houses. Universal Standard Time, Sir Sandford Fleming Light signalling between ships, Admiral Philip H, the book became Europes principal text on the classification and treatment of disease. His ideas survive in the nervous energy and neuroses. The first postcards and picture postcards in the UK The first eBook from a UK administration, Scottish Government publishes Your Scotland, Your Referendum. At the time it was thought the rings were solid. The Maxwell Ringlet and Maxwell Gap were named in his honor, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution by James Clerk Maxwell, the basis of the kinetic theory of gases, that speeds of molecules in a gas will change at different temperatures. The original theory first hypothesised by Maxwell and confirmed later in conjunction with Ludwig Boltzmann, before this such light manipulating atoms were fixed on flat hard surfaces. The team at St Andrews are the first to develop the concept to fabric, discovery of Catacol whitebeam by Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, a rare tree endemic and unique to the Isle of Arran in south west ScotlandScottish inventions – — Richard Feynman
32. Esperanto literature – Esperanto literature began before the official publication of the constructed language Esperanto, the languages creator, L. L. Other early speakers wrote poetry, stories and essays in the language, except for a handful of poems, most of the literature from Esperantos first twenty years or so is now regarded as of historical interest only. Modern authors include Claude Piron and William Auld, who was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature a number of times. Esperanto has seen a production of material in Braille since the work of the blind Russian Esperantist Vasili Eroshenko. Harold Brown wrote several plays in Esperanto. Over 25,000 books in Esperanto have been published, over 130 original novels have been published in Esperanto, plus a larger number of novellas, short story collections, and poetry collections. Three major literary magazines, Fonto, Literatura Foiro and Beletra Almanako, appear regularly, some magazines, such as Monato. La Fenomeno Esperanto by William Auld, concise Encyclopedia of the Original Literature of Esperanto by Geoffrey Sutton Esperanto poetry Writings in Esperanto at Project Gutenberg Beletra AlmanakoEsperanto literature – Esperanto books at the World Esperanto Congress, Rotterdam 2008
33. Nobel Prize in Literature – Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, here work refers to an authors work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year, the academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the worlds most prestigious literature prize, many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain widely studied and read. The prize has become seen as a political one - a peace prize in literary disguise, whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for Swedish professors, as of 2016,16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin. The Academy has often been alleged to be biased towards European, Nobels vague wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word translates as either idealistic or ideal. The Nobel Committees interpretation has varied over the years, in recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets,31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it. The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, the members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed, the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Nobel Foundation then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundations newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II, according to Nobels will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature and it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, and as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned and these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates, by May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee. The subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in LiteratureNobel Prize in Literature – Announcement of the Nobel Prize laureate in literature
34. Archie Roy – Archie Edmiston Roy FRSE, FRAS was Professor Emeritus of Astronomy in the University of Glasgow. Professor Archie Edmiston Roy, was educated at Hillhead High School and he was married to Frances with three sons, Dr. Archie W N Roy, Ian Roy and David Roy, and two grandchildren David and Fraser. Professor Roy was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Royal Astronomical Society, and he was also a Member and past President of the Society for Psychical Research and Founding President of The Scottish Society for Psychical Research. He was also elected a member of the European Academy of Arts, Sciences and he was a Patron of the Churches Fellowship for Psychical and Spiritual Studies and a member of the Scientific and Medical Network. Archie Roy conducted research in astrodynamics, celestial mechanics, archaeoastronomy, psychical research, in addition Roy has published 20 books, six of them novels, some 70 scientific papers and scores of articles. His books have published in the United Kingdom, United States, France, Russia, Italy. The Hungaria asteroid 5806 Archieroy, discovered by American astronomer Edward Bowell was named in his honor in 1994, in 2004 he was awarded the Myers Memorial Medal for outstanding contributions to psychical research by the Society for Psychical Research. On 27 December 2012 Roy died at the Drumchapel Hospital at the age of 88 and he was survived by his wife, three sons and two grandchildrenArchie Roy – Archie Edmiston Roy Machrie Moor 1982
35. John Gregorson Campbell – John Gregorson Campbell was a Scottish folklorist and Free Church Minister at the Tiree and Coll parishes in Argyll, Scotland. An avid collector of stories, in 1831 he became Secretary to the Ossianic Society of Glasgow University. He was fluent in languages, including Scottish Gaelic. John Gregorson Campbell was born near Loch Linnhe at Kingairloch, Argyll in 1836, the child and second son of Helen MacGregor and Captain Campbell. The family moved to Appin in about 1839, where the parochial school provided Gregorson Campbells education until he was ten years old. He then attended a school in Glasgow before moving on to the University of Glasgow. Law was the subject Gregorson Campbell chose to study after completing his education but his primary interest was folklore, in 1831 he was appointed Secretary to the Glasgow University Ossianic Society. He secured a licence to preach from the Presbytery of Glasgow in 1858 but was unable to work as a clergyman at that time owing to ill health. His recuperation was spent beginning his collection of folklore stories, the Presbytery upheld two of the three main complaints, but an appeal was made to the Synod. Concerns had also expressed that his health was insufficiently robust to serve the needs. The motion was not upheld and Gregorson Campbell became the minister of both parishes, a position he held for thirty years, Gregorson Campbell continued to build on the collection he started during his period of recuperation around 1858, preserving the traditional tales as quoted at the time. The folklorist John Francis Campbell, also known as Campbell of Islay, had his first mythology books published in 1860 and he corresponded with Gregorson Campbell. Gregorson Campbell had his own style of collating legends, meticulously transcribing the stories as dictated by the individual storytellers, traditional tales collected by Gregorson Campbell were first published in the inaugural edition of the quarterly periodical the Scottish Celtic Review in March 1881. Further legends from his collection were included in the three volumes of the review. The Gaelic Society of Inverness published some of the tales, also given in Gaelic with an English translation, the first of these in 1888, Sir Olave OCorn, also involved a King of Ireland and included some explanatory notes from Gregorson Campbell. Celtic Magazine and Highland Monthly were two other journals that published some of his folklore, two other books were published posthumously, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland in 1900, and Witchcraft and Second Sight in the West Highlands the following yearJohn Gregorson Campbell – John Gregorson Campbell
36. Herbert Lawford – Herbert Fortescue Lawford was a former co-World No.1 tennis player from Scotland who won the Mens Singles championship at Wimbledon in 1887, and was runner-up five times. In the 1887 final, the native of Bayswater defeated Ernest Renshaw in five sets, 1–6, 6–3, 3–6 and he reached the finals of Wimbledon in 1880, 1884–86, and 1888. Lawford won the first major mens doubles tournament, the Oxford University Men’s Doubles Championship. This event was a precursor to the Wimbledon mens doubles championship, introduced in 1884, in 1885 he won the singles title at the inaugural British Covered Court Championships. Lawford is said to be the first person to introduce topspin to the game of tennis. His formidable forehand was called the Lawford stroke, Lawford made a more substantial contribution in technically advancing the game. He unveiled the “Lawford forehand, ” introducing topspin into the sport with that revolutionary shot, aggressive and unwavering, he was equipped with power, speed and uncanny accuracy. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2006. Herbert Lawford at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Herbert Lawford at the Association of Tennis ProfessionalsHerbert Lawford – Lawford, standing, on the right side
37. Harold Mahony – Harold Segerson Mahony was a Scottish-born Irish tennis player who is best known for winning the singles title at the Wimbledon Championships in 1896. His career lasted from 1888 until his death in 1905, Mahony was born in Scotland but lived in Ireland for the majority of his life, his family were Irish including both of his parents, the family home was in County Kerry, Southwestern Ireland. He was the last Scottish born man to win Wimbledon until the victory of Andy Murray at the 2013 championships, Mahony was born at 21 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh to Richard John Mahony, an Irish barrister and prominent landowner. The family had a home in Scotland but spent most of their time at Dromore Castle, in County Kerry, Harold trained on a specially built tennis court at Dromore. Mahony made his Wimbledon debut in 1890 exiting in the first round and he reached the semifinal in 1891 and 1892. Mahony spent some time in America in the mid-1890s, before returning to England, in the final he beat Wilfred Baddeley of Great Britain in five sets, 6–2, 6–8, 5–7, 8–6, 6–3. Under the challenger system Mahony was entitled to defend the Wimbledon title in 1897 and he was the last Scottish-born player to win a grand slam until Andy Murray won the US Open in 2012 and win Wimbledon until Murray won it in 2013. He was recognised as the third and last Irishman to win the Wimbledon singles and he won the singles title at the British Covered Court Championships, played at the Queens Club in London, in 1893 and successfully defended his title the following year. In 1895 Mahony forfeited the defence of his due to illness. In 1898 he won the titles at the prestigious Irish Championships. That same year Mahony, who was a competitor in Germany and spoke fluent German. Mahony won the Kent Championships in 1899, defeating Wilberforce Eaves in the final, Mahony was a member of the 1903 British Isles Davis Cup team that won the against the United States at the Longwood Cricket Club in Boston but did not play in the event. Mahony was 1. 91m tall and possessed a formidable backhand and his forehand was less notable, his fellow-player, George Hillyard, wrote that he never did acquire the right method of hitting the ball on the forehand. Mahony was killed on 27 June 1905, aged 38, in an accident while descending a steep hill near Caragh Lake in Co. Challenge Round, the round of a tournament, in which the winner of a single-elimination phase faces the previous years champion. The challenge round was used in the history of tennis. Denotes challenge round Harold Mahony at the International Tennis Federation Harold Mahony at Sports ReferenceHarold Mahony – Harold Mahony
38. Andy Murray – Sir Andrew Barron Murray, OBE is a British professional tennis player from Scotland currently ranked world No.1 in mens singles. He was first ranked as British No.1 on 27 February 2006, following his run to winning the 2016 Paris Masters, Murray became world No.1 on 7 November 2016. He was created a Knight Bachelor in the 2017 New Year Honours list, and has won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year award a record three times. At the 2012 US Open, Murray became the first British player since 1977, and the first British man since 1936, to win a Grand Slam singles tournament, when he defeated Novak Djokovic in the final. In 2016, he won his second Wimbledon title to become the first British man to win multiple Wimbledon singles titles since Perry in 1935. Murray is the mens singles 2012 and 2016 Olympic gold medallist, making him the only player, male or female. He featured in Great Britains Davis Cup-winning team in 2015, going 11–0 in his matches as they secured their first Davis Cup title since 1936, Murray was born in Glasgow, Scotland, the son of Judy Murray and William Murray. His maternal grandfather, Roy Erskine, was a footballer in the late 1950s. Murray is a supporter of Hibernian Football Club, the team his grandfather represented, Murrays elder brother, Jamie, is also a professional tennis player, playing on the doubles circuit. Murray was born with a bipartite patella, where the remains as two separate bones instead of fusing together in early childhood, but was not diagnosed until the age of 16. He is seen to hold his knee due to the pain caused by the condition and has pulled out of events because of it, Murray began playing tennis at the age of three when his mother Judy took him to play on the local courts. He played in his first competitive tournament at age five and by the time he was eight he was competing with adults in the Central District Tennis League, Murray grew up in Dunblane and attended Dunblane Primary School. He and his brother were present during the 1996 Dunblane school massacre, when Thomas Hamilton killed 16 children, Murray later attended Dunblane High School. Murrays parents split up when he was only 10 and he believes the impact this had on him could be the reason behind his competitive spirit. At 15, he was asked to train with Rangers Football Club at their School of Excellence and he then decided to move to Barcelona, Spain. There he studied at the Schiller International School and trained on the courts of the Sánchez-Casal Academy. Murray described this time as a big sacrifice and his parents had to find £40,000 to pay for his 18-month stay there. While in Spain, he trained with Emilio Sánchez, formerly the world No.1 doubles player, in February 2013, Murray bought Cromlix House for £1.8 million which opened as a 15-room five-star hotel in April 2014Andy Murray – Murray at the 2015 Australian Open
39. History of Scotland – The History of Scotland is known to have begun by the end of the last glacial period, roughly 10,000 years ago. Prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BC, the Bronze Age about 2000 BC, and the Iron Age around 700 BC. Scotlands recorded history began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, North of this was Caledonia, whose people were known in Latin as Picti, the painted ones. Constant risings forced Romes legions back, Hadrians Wall attempted to seal off the Roman south, the latter was swiftly abandoned and the former overrun, most spectacularly during the Great Conspiracy of the 360s. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonizing Western Scotland, according to 9th- and 10th-century sources, the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded on the west coast of Scotland in the 6th century. In the following century, the Irish missionary Columba founded a monastery on Iona and introduced the previously pagan Scoti, towards the end of the 8th century, the Viking invasions began. Successive defeats by the Norse forced the Picts and Gaels to cease their hostility to each other and to unite in the 9th century. The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin and his descendants, known to modern historians as the House of Alpin, fought among each other during frequent disputed successions. England, under Edward I, would take advantage of the succession in Scotland to launch a series of conquests into Scotland. The resulting Wars of Scottish Independence were fought in the late 13th and early 14th centuries as Scotland passed back, Scotlands ultimate victory in the Wars of Independence under David II confirmed Scotland as a fully independent and sovereign kingdom. When David II died without issue, his nephew Robert II established the House of Stewart, ruling until 1714, Queen Anne was the last Stuart monarch. Since 1714, the succession of the British monarchs of the houses of Hanover and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha has been due to their descent from James VI, during the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Later, its decline following the Second World War was particularly acute. In recent decades Scotland has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance, fuelled in part by a resurgent financial services sector and the proceeds of North Sea oil and gas. Since the 1950s, nationalism has become a political topic, with serious debates on Scottish independence. People lived in Scotland for at least 8,500 years before Britains recorded history, glaciers then scoured their way across most of Britain, and only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, around 9600 BC. Mesolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, and archaeologists have dated an encampment near Biggar to around 8500 BC, numerous other sites found around Scotland build up a picture of highly mobile boat-using people making tools from bone, stone and antlers. The oldest house for which there is evidence in Britain is the structure of wooden posts found at South Queensferry near the Firth of Forth, dating from the Mesolithic periodHistory of Scotland – The oldest standing house in Northern Europe is at Knap of Howar, dating from 3500 BC.
40. Prehistoric Scotland – Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. Scotland is geologically alien to Europe, comprising a lost sliver of the ancient continent of Laurentia, during the Cambrian period the crustal region which became Scotland formed part of the continental shelf of Laurentia, then still south of the equator. Laurentia was separated from the continent of Baltica by the diminishing Iapetus Ocean, the two ancient continents moved toward one another through the Cambrian and Ordovician periods, with tectonic folding during the Silurian pushing the first Scottish land above water. The final collision occurred during the Devonian period, with the Scottish segment of the Laurentian plate smashing into Avalonia, a motile subcontinent which had previously joined with Baltica. This impact threw up a chain of mountains and saw the formation of the granitic West Highland and Grampian mountain chains. During the Permian and Triassic periods, with the Iapetus Ocean entirely closed, at the start of the Tertiary, a constructive plate boundary became active between Laurentia and Eurasia, pushing the two apart. In lowland areas the ice deposited rich fields of glacial till and eroded the softer material surrounding the extinct volcanoes. Neanderthal sites have found in the south of England, and it is possible that early humans made their way to Scotland. Glaciers then scoured their way across most of Britain, and it was only after the ice retreated about 15,000 years ago that Scotland again became habitable, as the climate improved, mesolithic hunter-gatherers extended their range into Scotland. The earliest evidence to date is the flint artefacts found at Howburn Farm, an early settlement at Cramond, near what is today Edinburgh, has been dated to around 8500 BC. Pits and stakeholes suggest a hunter-gatherer encampment, and microlith stone tools made at the site predate finds of similar style in England and this suggests that hunter-gatherers could also have settled down in Scotland. Finds of flint tools on Ben Lawers and at Glen Dee show that people were capable of travelling well inland across the hills. At Balbridie in Aberdeenshire crop markings were investigated, and ditches and post holes found, an almost identical building, with evidence of pottery, was excavated at Claish near Stirling. On the islet of Eilean Domhnuill, in Loch Olabhat on North Uist, there are many other examples across the country, many under the care of Historic Scotland. At the wonderfully well preserved stone house at Knap of Howar on the Orkney island of Papa Westray the walls stand to a low height. Finely made and decorated Unstan ware pottery links the inhabitants to chambered cairn tombs nearby and to sites far afield, including Balbrindi, the houses at Skara Brae on the Mainland of the Orkney Islands are very similar, but are grouped into a village linked by low passageways. This settlement was occupied from about 3000 BC to 2500 BC, pottery found here is of the grooved ware style which is found across Britain as far away as Wessex. About 6 miles from Skara Brae, grooved ware pottery was found at the Standing Stones of Stenness which lie centrally in a group of three major monumentsPrehistoric Scotland – Neolithic dwellings at Skara Brae, Orkney
41. Scotland in the High Middle Ages – At the close of the ninth century, various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland. From its base in the east, this kingdom acquired control of the lying to the south and ultimately the west. It had a culture, comprising part of the larger Gaelic-speaking world. After the twelfth-century reign of King David I, the Scottish monarchs are better described as Scoto-Norman than Gaelic, a consequence was the spread of French institutions and social values including Canon law. The first towns, called burghs, appeared in the same era and these developments were offset by the acquisition of the Norse-Gaelic west and the Gaelicisation of many of the noble families of French and Anglo-French origin. National cohesion was fostered with the creation of various unique religious, by the end of the period, Scotland experienced a Gaelic revival, which created an integrated Scottish national identity. By this date, the Kingdom of Scotland had political boundaries that closely resembled those of the modern nation, Scotland in the High Middle Ages is a relatively well-studied topic and Scottish medievalists have produced a wide variety of publications. Some, such as David Dumville, Thomas Owen Clancy and Dauvit Broun, are interested in the native cultures of the country. Barrow, are concerned with the Norman and Scoto-Norman cultures introduced to Scotland after the eleventh century, for much of the twentieth century, historians tended to stress the cultural change that took place in Scotland during this time. However, scholars such as Cynthia Neville and Richard Oram, while not ignoring cultural changes, argue that continuity with the Gaelic past was just as, if not more, important. Since the publication of Scandinavian Scotland by Barbara E. Crawford in 1987, the sources for information about the Hebrides and indeed much of northern Scotland from the eighth to the eleventh century, are thus almost exclusively Irish, English or Norse. The main Norse texts were written in the thirteenth century. At the close of the ninth century various polities occupied Scotland, the Pictish and Gaelic Kingdom of Alba had just been united in the east, the Scandinavian-influenced Kingdom of the Isles emerged in the west. Dumbarton, the capital of the Kingdom of Strathclyde had been sacked by the Uí Ímair in 870 and this was clearly a major assault, which may have brought the whole of mainland Scotland under temporary Uí Imair control. The south-east had been absorbed by the English Kingdom of Bernicia/Northumbria in the seventh century, Galloway in the south west was a Lordship with some regality. In a Galwegian charter dated to the reign of Fergus, the Galwegian ruler styled himself rex Galwitensium, in the north east the ruler of Moray was called not only king in both Scandinavian and Irish sources, but before Máel Snechtai, King of Alba. However, when Domnall mac Causantín died at Dunnottar in 900, he was the first man to be recorded as rí Alban and his kingdom was the nucleus that would expand as Viking and other influences waned. In the tenth century the Alban elite had begun to develop a conquest myth to explain their increasing Gaelicisation at the expense of Pictish culture, known as MacAlpins Treason, it describes how Cináed mac Ailpín is supposed to have annihilated the Picts in one fell takeoverScotland in the High Middle Ages – Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. The site was in use throughout the High Middle Ages, and the castle itself dates to the fourteenth century.
42. Wars of Scottish Independence – The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, the Second War began with the English-supported invasion by Edward Balliol and the Disinherited in 1332, and ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick. The wars were part of a crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining times in its history. At the end of wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent state. The wars were important for reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare. King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret as his heir. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland signed the Treaty of Birgham agreeing to the marriage of the Maid of Norway and Edward of Caernarvon, the son of Edward I, who was Margarets great-uncle. However, Margaret, travelling to her new kingdom, died shortly after landing on the Orkney Islands around 26 September 1290, with her death, there were 13 rivals for succession. The two leading competitors for the Scottish crown were Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale and John Balliol, Edward agreed to meet the guardians at Norham in 1291. Before the process got underway Edward insisted that he be recognised as Lord Paramount of Scotland, when they refused, he gave the claimants three weeks to agree to his terms, knowing that by then his armies would have arrived and the Scots would have no choice. Edwards ploy worked, and the claimants to the crown were forced to acknowledge Edward as their Lord Paramount and accept his arbitration. Their decision was influenced in part by the fact that most of the claimants had large estates in England and, therefore, however, many involved were churchmen such as Bishop Wishart for whom such mitigation cannot be claimed. Two days later, in Upsettlington, the Guardians of the Realm, all Scots were also required to pay homage to Edward I, either in person or at one of the designated centres by 27 July 1291. There were thirteen meetings from May to August 1291 at Berwick, on 3 August, Edward asked Balliol and Bruce to choose 40 arbiters each, while he chose 24, to decide the case. On 12 August, he signed a writ that required the collection of all documents that concern the competitors rights or his own title to the superiority of Scotland. Balliol was named king by a majority on 17 November 1292, on 26 December, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made it clear that he regarded the country as a vassal state, Balliol, undermined by members of the Bruce faction, struggled to resist, and the Scots resented Edwards demands. In 1294, Edward summoned John Balliol to appear before him, on his return to Scotland, John held a meeting with his council and after a few days of heated debate, plans were made to defy the orders of Edward IWars of Scottish Independence – Edward I and Edward, Prince of Wales
43. Scottish Enlightenment – The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, Scotland had a network of schools in the Lowlands. Among the fields that rapidly advanced were philosophy, political economy, engineering, architecture, medicine, geology, archaeology, law, agriculture, chemistry, the Scottish Enlightenment of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was a natural development of this earlier engagement and advancement of knowledge. Union with England in 1707 meant the end of the Scottish Parliament, the parliamentarians, politicians, aristocrats, and placemen moved to London. Scottish law, however, was separate from English law, so the civil law courts, lawyers. The headquarters and leadership of the Church of Scotland also remained, as did the universities, at the union of 1707, England had about five times the population of Scotland and about 36 times as much wealth. Scotland experienced the beginnings of economic expansion that allowed it to close this gap, contacts with England led to a conscious attempt to improve agriculture among the gentry and nobility. Although some estate holders improved the quality of life of their workers, enclosures led to unemployment. The major change in trade was the rapid expansion of the Americas as a market. Glasgow particularly benefited from this new trade, initially supplying the colonies with manufactured goods, it emerged as the focus of the tobacco trade, the merchants dealing in this lucrative business became the wealthy tobacco lords, who dominated the city for most of the eighteenth century. Banking also developed in this period, the Bank of Scotland, founded in 1695 was suspected of Jacobite sympathies, and so a rival Royal Bank of Scotland was founded in 1727. Local banks began to be established in burghs like Glasgow and Ayr and these made capital available for business, and the improvement of roads and trade. By the late 17th century there was a complete network of parish schools in the Lowlands. By the 17th century, Scotland had five universities, compared with Englands two, all saw the establishment or re-establishment of chairs of mathematics. Observatories were built at St. Andrews and at Kings and Marischal colleges in Aberdeen, Robert Sibbald was appointed as the first Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh, and he co-founded the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1681. These developments helped the universities to major centres of medical education. By the 18th century, access to Scottish universities was probably more open than in contemporary England, attendance was less expensive and the student body more socially representative. In the eighteenth century Scotland reaped the benefits of this systemScottish Enlightenment – David Hume and Adam Smith on the Scottish National Portrait Gallery
44. Scottish colonization of the Americas – On 29 September 1621, the charter for the foundation of a colony was granted by James VI of Scotland to Sir William Alexander. Between 1622 and 1628, Sir William launched four attempts to send colonists to Nova Scotia, a successful occupation of Nova Scotia was finally achieved in 1629. The colonys charter, in law, made Nova Scotia a part of mainland Scotland, for six months, no one took up this offer until James compelled one to make the first move. In 1627, there was a wider uptake of baronetcies, however, in 1627, war broke out between England and France and the French re-established a settlement at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, which they had originally settled in 1604. This set of British triumphs which left Cape Sable as the only major French holding in North America was not destined to last, the Scots were forced to abandon their Nova Scotia colony in its infancy. In 1625 a charter was given by James VI for a settlement at Cape Breton, however, this land was never colonised likely due to the problems over the settlement of Nova Scotia. On 23 November 1683, Charles II granted a charter for the colony of New Jersey to 24 proprietors,12 of whom were Scots, the colony was to be split between an English settlement in West Jersey and a Scottish settlement in East Jersey. The driving force among the Scots was Robert Barclay of Urie, a prominent Quaker, Scots began arriving in East Jersey in 1683 at Perth Amboy and spread south to Monmouth County. The city became the capital in 1686. During the 1680s, around 700 Scots emigrated to East Jersey, mostly from Aberdeen and Montrose, from 1685, there was further emigration, albeit unsought by the emigrants, with the deportation of captured Covenanters. They were originally to have placed in indented servitude on arrival, however, they were declared by the courts to be free men. The initial immigrants to East Jersey were Quakers, Episcopalians and Presbyterians, by the 1730s, in 1684,148 Scots settlers arrived to build a settlement at Port Royal, the site of former French and Spanish settlements. This was renamed by the Scots as Stuarts Town, in 1686, the Spanish retaliated and sent three ships with 150 Spanish troops and Indian allies to attack Stuarts Town. Due to a recent sickness, the Scots had only 25 effective fighting men able to mount a defence, there was no retaliation by the English, who were warned by the Proprietors not to interfere. The Darien scheme is probably the best known of all Scotlands colonial endeavours, and these powers were similar to those of the English East India Company, which opposed the establishment of a Scottish rival. Capital for the company of £400,000 was raised solely in Scotland, due to intrigue by English merchants and this opposition also prevented shares being sold in England, as was the original intention. In 1696,2,500 Scottish settlers, in two expeditions, set out to found a Scottish trading colony at Darién on the isthmus of Panama. These settlers were made up of ex-soldiers, ministers of religion, merchants, sailors, the government of the colony was run by a committee, the chairman of which changed every two weeksScottish colonization of the Americas – Map of the Scottish settlement on the isthmus of Panama as it was in 1699
45. Acts of Union 1707 – The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament, the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had agreed on 22 July 1706. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in two separate Crowns resting on the same head. The Acts took effect on 1 May 1707, on this date, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the Parliament of Great Britain, based in the Palace of Westminster in London, the home of the English Parliament. Hence, the Acts are referred to as the Union of the Parliaments, on the Union, the historian Simon Schama said What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world. It was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history, the first attempts at Union surrounded the foreseen unification of the Royal lines of Scotland and England. In pursuing the English throne in the 1560s, Mary, Queen of Scots pledged herself to a union between the two kingdoms. England and Scotland were ruled by the king for the first time in 1603 when James VI of Scotland also became the king of England. However they remained two separate states until 1 May 1707, the first attempt to unite the parliaments of England and Scotland was by Marys son, King James VI and I. On his accession to the English throne in 1603 King James announced his intention to unite his two realms so that he would not be guilty of bigamy. James used his prerogative powers to take the style of King of Great Britain and to give an explicitly British character to his court. In the meantime, James declared that Great Britain be viewed as presently united, and as one realm and kingdom, the Scottish and English parliaments established a commission to negotiate a union, formulating an instrument of union between the two countries. However, the idea of union was unpopular, and when James dropped his policy of a speedy union. When the House of Commons attempted to revive the proposal in 1610, the ordinance was ratified by the Second Protectorate Parliament, as an Act of Union, on 26 June 1657. One united Parliament sat in Westminster, with 30 representatives from Scotland and 30 from Ireland joining the members from England. Whilst free trade was brought about amongst the new Commonwealth, the benefits were generally not felt as a result of heavy taxation used to fund Cromwells New Model Army. This republican union was dissolved automatically with the restoration of King Charles II to the thrones of England and Scotland, Scottish members expelled from the Commonwealth Parliament petitioned unsuccessfully for a continuance of the union. An abortive scheme for union occurred in Scotland in 1670, following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the records of the Parliament of Scotland show much discussion of possible unionActs of Union 1707 – "Articles of Union with Scotland", 1707
46. Jacobitism – The movement took its name from Jacobus, the Renaissance Latin form of Iacomus, the original Latin form of James. Adherents rebelled against the British government on several occasions between 1688 and 1746, the strongholds of Jacobitism were parts of the Scottish Highlands and the lowland north-east of Scotland, Ireland, and parts of Northern England. Significant support also existed in Wales and South-West England, the Jacobites believed that parliamentary interference with the line of succession to the English and Scottish thrones was illegal. Catholics also hoped the Stuarts would end recusancy, in Scotland, the Jacobite cause became intertwined with the clan system. The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade, White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688. From the second half of the 17th century onwards, a time of political, the Commonwealth ended with the Restoration of Charles II. During his reign the Church of England was re-established, and episcopal government was restored in Scotland. The authorities attempted some accommodation with Presbyterian dissidents, introducing official Indulgences in 1669 and 1672 and this was particularly true of the followers of the Reverend Richard Cameron, soon to be known as the Cameronians. The government increasingly resorted to force in its attempts to out the Cameronians. The reigns of the last three Stuart Kings – Charles I, Charles II and James II and VII – were marked by growing Royal resistance to this developing consensual model of government. In part the Kings were inspired by the development of Royal Absolutism in contemporary Europe, exemplified particularly strongly by their neighbour and contemporary, Louis XIV of France. In part, however, the apologists of royal authority based their claims on a just assessment of the powers claimed by England, in 1685, Charles II was succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James II and VII. In addition to sharing his familys absolutist views of government, James attempted to introduce religious toleration of Roman Catholics, in Seventeenth-century Europe, being a religious outsider meant being a political and social outsider as well. James tried to encourage the participation in life of Roman Catholics, Protestant Dissenters. Such attempts to broaden his basis of support succeeded in antagonising members of the Anglican establishment, in England and Scotland, James attempted to impose religious toleration, which helped the Catholic minority but alarmed the religious and political establishment. Then in 1688 Jamess second wife had a boy, bringing the prospect of a Catholic dynasty, on 4 November 1688 William arrived at Torbay, England. When he landed the next day, at Brixham, James fled to France, in February 1689, the Glorious Revolution formally changed Englands monarch, but many Catholics, Episcopalians and Tory royalists still supported James as the constitutionally legitimate monarch. Forces of Cameronians as well as Clan Campbell Highlanders led by the Earl of Argyll had come to bolster Williams support, the convention set out its terms and William and Mary were proclaimed at Edinburgh on 11 April 1689, then had their coronation in London in MayJacobitism – David Morier 's depiction of the Battle of Culloden in 1746
47. Highland Clearances – The Highland Clearances was the eviction, mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries, of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands. It resulted from enclosures of common lands and a change from farming to sheep raising, the Clearances were a complex series of events occurring over more than a hundred years. A Highland Clearance has been defined as an enforced simultaneous eviction of all living in a given area such as an entire glen. The Clearances relied on the insecurity of tenure of most tenants under the Scottish legal system, there was no equivalent of the English system of copyhold, which provided a heritable tenancy for many English counterparts of the Scots who were cleared from their farms. The Clearances resulted in significant emigration of Highlanders to the coast, the Scottish Lowlands, in the early 21st century, many times more descendants of Highlanders are found in these diaspora destinations than in Scotland. The enclosures in rural England in the British Agricultural Revolution started much earlier, similar developments in Scotland have lately been called the Lowland Clearances by historians such as Tom Devine. But in the Highlands, the impact on a Goidelic -speaking semi-feudal culture, there has been a lingering bitterness among the descendants of those forced to emigrate or to remain in crofting townships on very small areas of poor farming land. From the late 16th century, laws required clan leaders to appear in Edinburgh regularly to provide bonds for the conduct of anyone in their territory and this created a tendency among chiefs to identify as landlords, rather than leaders of men. The lesser clan-gentry increasingly took up droving, taking cattle along the old unpaved drove roads to sell in the Lowlands and this brought wealth and land ownership within the clan, though the Highlands continued to be overpopulated and poor. The Jacobite Risings brought repeated government efforts to curb those clans who supported James VII of Scotland and II of England and James Francis Edward Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart. The government of the day responded with repression after the 1746 Battle of Culloden, the 1746 Act of Proscription, incorporating the Dress Act, required all swords to be surrendered to the government, it prohibited the traditional wearing of clan tartans and kilts. The Heritable Jurisdictions Act 1746 removed the virtually sovereign power which the chiefs held over their clans, the governments enforcement of the prohibitions varied and often related to the degree of a clans support during the rebellion. But, overall these actions led to the destruction of the clan system. From about 1725, in the aftermath of the first Jacobite Rising, under the Disarming Act of 1746 and the Clan Act of 1715, the Crown made ineffectual attempts to subdue the Scottish Highlands, and eventually sent in troops. These had the effect of limiting organisational travel and choking off news, but, social conditions remained unsettled for the whole decade. What became known as the Clearances were regarded by the landlords as necessary improvements to make agriculture viable and they are thought to have been begun by Admiral John Ross of Balnagowan Castle in 1762. MacLeod of MacLeod began experimental work on Skye in 1732, chiefs hired Lowland, or sometimes English, factors with expertise in more profitable sheep farming. They encouraged, sometimes forcibly, the population to move off land judged suitable for raising sheep, to landlords, improvement and clearance did not initially mean depopulationHighland Clearances – Ruined croft houses on Fuaigh Mòr in Loch Roag. The island was cleared of its inhabitants in 1841 and is now only used for grazing sheep.
48. Politics of Scotland – Scotland is a country which is part of the United Kingdom. The UK is de jure a unitary state, and the Parliament of the United Kingdom, located at Westminster, London, is sovereign over the whole state. However, since the late 1990s, a system of devolution has emerged in the UK, under which Scotland, Wales, Scotland entered into a political union with England in 1707, and since then has sent representatives to the Palace of Westminster, which became the British parliament. In 1999, an 129-member Scottish Parliament was established in Edinburgh, it has power to make law in Scotland. In the UK government, Scottish affairs are represented by the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Scottish Government is headed by a First Minister, who is the leader of the political party with the most support in the Scottish Parliament, currently Nicola Sturgeon MSP. The head of state in Scotland is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as the UK is part of the European Union, Scotland also elects six Members to sit in the European Parliament. Scotland can best be described as having a multi-party system, in the Scottish Parliament, the centre-left pro-independence Scottish National Party is the party which forms the government, it currently holds a plurality of seats in the parliament. Opposition parties include the Scottish Labour Party, the Scottish Conservative Party, the Scottish Liberal Democrats, elections are held once every five years, with 73 Members being elected to represent constituencies, and the remaining 56 elected via a system of proportional representation. At Westminster, Scotland is represented by 56 MPs from the Scottish National Party, and 1 MP each from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, today, the creation of an independent Scotland outside the United Kingdom remains a prominent issue. On 18 September 2014, the people of Scotland voted in a referendum on whether to become independent, the party with the largest number of seats in the Scottish Parliament is the Scottish National Party, which campaigns for Scottish independence. The current First Minister of Scotland is SNP leader Nicola Sturgeon, the previous First Minister, Alex Salmond, led the SNP to an overall majority victory in the May 2011 general election, which was then lost in 2016 and now forms a minority government. Other parties represented in the parliament are the Labour Party, Conservative Party which form the opposition, Liberal Democrats. The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held in May 2021 and this has been done on a number of occasions where it has been seen as either more efficient, or more politically expedient to have the legislation considered by Westminster. The Scotland Office is a department of the United Kingdom government, the current Secretary of State for Scotland is David Mundell MP, a Conservative. Until 1999, Scottish peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, the main political debate in Scotland tends to revolve around attitudes to the constitutional question. Under the pressure of growing support for Scottish independence a policy of devolution had been advocated by all three GB-wide parties to some degree during their history. Now that devolution has occurred, the argument about Scotlands constitutional status is over whether the Scottish Parliament should accrue additional powers. To clarify these issues, the SNP-led Scottish Executive published Choosing Scotlands Future, the programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen the divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the United KingdomPolitics of Scotland – The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament Building.
49. Scottish Parliament – The Scottish Parliament, is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood area of the city, Edinburgh. The most recent general election to the Parliament was held on 5 May 2016, as a consequence, both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England ceased to exist, and the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London was formed. The Act delineates the legislative competence of the Parliament – the areas in which it can make laws – by explicitly specifying powers that are reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Scottish Parliament has the power to legislate in all areas that are not explicitly reserved to Westminster, the British Parliament retains the ability to amend the terms of reference of the Scottish Parliament, and can extend or reduce the areas in which it can make laws. The first meeting of the new Parliament took place on 12 May 1999, initial Scottish proposals in the negotiation over the Union suggested a devolved Parliament be retained in Scotland, but this was not accepted by the English negotiators. Suggestions for a devolved Parliament were made before 1914, but were shelved due to the outbreak of the First World War, one of the principal objectives of the commission was to examine ways of enabling more self-government for Scotland, within the unitary state of the United Kingdom. Kilbrandon published his report in 1973 recommending the establishment of a directly elected Scottish Assembly to legislate for the majority of domestic Scottish affairs, the party argued that the revenues from the oil were not benefitting Scotland as much as they should. The combined effect of events led to Prime Minister Wilson committing his government to some form of devolved legislature in 1974. However, it was not until 1978 that final legislative proposals for a Scottish Assembly were passed by the United Kingdom Parliament, publishing its blueprint for devolution in 1995, the Convention provided much of the basis for the structure of the Parliament. Devolution continued to be part of the platform of the Labour Party which, in May 1997, an election was held on 6 May 1999, and on 1 July of that year power was transferred from Westminster to the new Parliament. Since September 2004, the home of the Scottish Parliament has been a new Scottish Parliament Building. The Scottish Parliament building was designed by Spanish architect Enric Miralles in partnership with local Edinburgh Architecture firm RMJM which was led by Design Principal Tony Kettle. Some of the features of the complex include leaf-shaped buildings. Throughout the building there are many repeated motifs, such as based on Raeburns Skating Minister. Crow-stepped gables and the upturned boat skylights of the Garden Lobby, Queen Elizabeth II opened the new building on 9 October 2004. In March 2006, one of the Holyrood buildings roof beams slipped out of its support and was left dangling above the back benches during a debate, the debating chamber was subsequently closed, and MSPs moved to The Hub for one week, whilst inspections were carried out. During repairs, all business was conducted in the Parliaments committee room twoScottish Parliament
50. Scottish Government – The Scottish Government is Scotlands devolved government. It was formally renamed in 2012 to the Scottish Government by section 12 of the Scotland Act 2012, the government consists of cabinet secretaries, who attend cabinet meetings, and ministers, who do not. It is led by the first minister, who selects the cabinet secretaries, the Scottish Government is responsible for devolved matters, and those not explicitly reserved to the British Parliament in Westminster, by Schedule 5 to the Scotland Act 1998. Devolved matters that were decided on by the Scotland Act 1998 included healthcare provision, education, justice, policing, rural affairs, economic development, the Scottish Government also has administrative responsibility for some matters where it does not have legislative power. An example is Sections 36 &37 of the Electricity Act 1989 which allow the Scottish Government to authorise power transmission lines and grant power generation consents. The Scottish Governments budget is decided upon by the grant that is formulated using the Barnett Formula with the ability to also increase or decrease income tax rates. In the financial year of 2016–17, the annual budget was £37.2 billion. The government is led by the First Minister, the Scottish Parliament nominates one of its members to be appointed as first minister by the monarch. He or she is assisted by various cabinet secretaries with individual portfolios, Ministers are similarly appointed to assist cabinet secretaries in their work. The Scottish law officers, the Lord Advocate and Solicitor General, can be appointed from outside the parliaments membership and they are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the first minister. The first minister, the secretaries and the Scottish law officers are the members of the Scottish Government. They are collectively known as the Scottish Ministers, the members of the government have substantial influence over legislation in Scotland, putting forward the majority of bills that are successful in becoming Acts of the Scottish Parliament. The structure of the team used by the Scottish National Party after its election victory in May 2007 differs from those used by previous governments. The title cabinet secretary was introduced to replace what were called ministers, the cabinet secretaries and ministers are, The Scottish Cabinet is the group of ministers who are collectively responsible for all Scottish Government policy. While parliament is in session, the cabinet meets weekly, normally meetings are held on Tuesday afternoons in Bute House, the official residence of the first minister. The cabinet consists of the secretaries, excluding the Scottish Law Officers. The Lord Advocate attends meetings of the cabinet only when requested by the first minister, the cabinet is supported by the Cabinet Secretariat, which is based at St Andrews House. Scottish Government also includes a service that supports the Scottish ministersScottish Government – First Minister