1. U2 – U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976. The group consists of Bono, the Edge, Adam Clayton, initially rooted in post-punk, U2s sound grew to incorporate influences from many genres of popular music, yet has maintained an anthemic sound. Their lyrics, often embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal themes, popular for their live performances, the group has staged several ambitious and elaborate tours over their career. The band formed at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in 1976 when the members were teenagers with limited musical proficiency, within four years, they signed with Island Records and released their debut album Boy. Subsequent work such as their first UK number-one album War, by the mid-1980s, they had become renowned globally for their live act, highlighted by their performance at Live Aid in 1985. The groups fifth album, The Joshua Tree, made them international superstars and was their greatest critical and commercial success. Topping music charts around the world, it produced their only number-one singles in the US, With or Without You, facing a backlash and creative stagnation, U2 reinvented themselves in the 1990s through a new musical direction and public image. This experimentation continued through their album, Pop, and the PopMart Tour. U2 regained critical and commercial favour with the records All That You Cant Leave Behind and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb and their U2 360° Tour of 2009–2011 is the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour in history. The groups thirteenth album, Songs of Innocence, was released at no cost through the iTunes Store, U2 have released 13 studio albums and are one of the worlds best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 170 million records worldwide. They have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. The band formed in Dublin on 25 September 1976, Larry Mullen Jr. then a 14-year-old student at Mount Temple Comprehensive School, posted a note on the schools notice board in search of musicians for a new band—six people responded. Mullen later described it as The Larry Mullen Band for about ten minutes, then Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge. Martin, who had brought his guitar and amplifier to the first practice but could not play, did not remain with the group, the group settled on the name Feedback because it was one of the few technical terms they knew. Most of their material consisted of cover songs, which the band admitted was not their forte. Some of the earliest influences on the band were emerging punk rock acts, such as the Jam, the Clash, Buzzcocks, the popularity of punk rock convinced the group that musical proficiency was not a prerequisite to being successful. In April 1977, Feedback played their first gig for an audience at St. Fintans High School. Shortly after, the changed their name to The HypeU2 – U2 performing at Madison Square Garden in November 2005, from left to right: The Edge; Larry Mullen, Jr. (drumming); Bono; Adam Clayton
2. Dublin – Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, administration, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt. /d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black, dark, and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin, Divlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Scotland, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin CastleDublin – Clockwise from top: Samuel Beckett Bridge, Trinity College, Custom House, Dublin Castle, O'Connell Bridge, and Convention Centre Dublin.
3. Ireland – Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic. As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, however, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, however, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, rugby, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is also the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, prosperous, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the timeIreland – Satellite image of Ireland on 11 October 2010
4. Bono – Paul David Hewson, known by his stage name Bono, is an Irish singer-songwriter, musician, venture capitalist, businessman, and philanthropist. He is best known as the lead vocalist of rock band U2, Bono was born and raised in Dublin, Ireland, and attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife, Alison Stewart, and the future members of U2. Bono writes almost all U2 lyrics, frequently using religious, social, during U2s early years, his lyrics contributed to their rebellious and spiritual tone. As the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with the other members, Bono is also widely known for his activism concerning Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign and Product Red. He has organised and played in several concerts and has met with influential politicians. Bono has been praised for his activism and involvement with U2, together with Bill and Melinda Gates, Bono was named Time Person of the Year in 2005, among other awards and nominations. Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960. He was raised in the Northside suburb of Finglas with his brother by their mother, Iris, a member of the Church of Ireland, and their father, Brendan Robert Bob Hewson and his parents initially agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. Although Bono was the child, he also attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother. He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School, Bonos mother died on 10 September 1974, after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her fathers funeral. Many U2 songs, including I Will Follow, Mofo, Out of Control, Lemon, Bono attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School, a multi-denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence, Bono and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called Lypton Village, Bono met one of his closest friends, Guggi, in Lypton Village. The gang had a ritual of nickname-giving, Bono had several names, first, he was Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang, then just Huyseman, followed by Houseman, Bon Murray, Bono Vox of OConnell Street, and finally just Bono. Bono Vox is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to good voice and it is said he was nicknamed Bono Vox by his friend Gavin Friday. He initially disliked the name, however, when he learned it translated to good voice, Hewson has been known as Bono since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his name, close family and friends also refer to him as Bono. After he left school, his father Bob Hewson, told him he could live at home for one year but if he was not able to pay his own way, Bono is married to Alison Hewson. The couple have four children, daughters Jordan and Memphis Eve and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q, Bono is almost never seen in public without sunglasses, as he suffers from glaucomaBono – Bono in 2014
5. The Edge – David Howell Evans, better known by his stage name The Edge, is an Irish musician and songwriter best known as the lead guitarist, keyboardist and backing vocalist of the rock band U2. A member of the group since its inception, he has recorded 13 studio albums with the band as well as one solo record, as a guitarist, the Edge has crafted a minimalistic and textural style of playing. His use of a delay effect yields a distinctive ambient. The Edge was born in England to a Welsh family, and was raised in Ireland after the Evans family moved there, in 1976, at Mount Temple Comprehensive School he formed a band with his fellow students and elder brother Dik that would evolve into U2. Inspired by the ethos of punk rock and its basic arrangements and they eventually became one of the most successful acts in popular music, with albums such as 1987s The Joshua Tree and 1991s Achtung Baby. With U2, the Edge has also played keyboards, co-produced their 1993 record Zooropa, the Edge met his second and current wife, Morleigh Steinberg, through her collaborations with the band. As a member of U2 and as an individual, the Edge has campaigned for human rights and he co-founded Music Rising, a charity to support musicians affected by Hurricane Katrina. Several music publications have ranked the Edge among the greatest guitarists of all time, david Howell Evans was born at the Barking Maternity Hospital, in the County of Essex in England, on 8 August 1961. He is the child of Welsh parents Garvin and Gwenda Evans, who originated in Llanelli. Garvin was an engineer who worked for the electricity board. The Edge has an elder brother Richard and a sister called Gillian. He received his formal education at St Andrews National School, Malahide. As a child he received piano and guitar lessons. Among the several other pupils who also responded to the note were Bono and this band went through a number of versions before becoming known as U2 in March 1978. U2 began its public life in small venues in Dublin in 1977. In December 1979 they performed their first concerts outside Ireland, in London and their debut album Boy was released in 1980. In 1981, leading up to the October Tour, Evans came very close to leaving U2 for religious reasons, during this period he became involved with a group called Shalom Tigers, in which bandmates Bono and Larry Mullen Jr. were also involved. Shortly after deciding to remain with the band, he wrote a piece of music later became Sunday Bloody SundayThe Edge – Performing at Gillette Stadium in 2009
6. Adam Clayton – Adam Charles Clayton is an Irish musician, best known as the bass guitarist of the rock band U2. He has resided in County Dublin since the time his family moved to Malahide when he was five years old in 1965. Clayton is well known for his bass playing on such as Gloria, New Years Day, Bullet the Blue Sky, With or Without You, Mysterious Ways, Get on Your Boots. He has worked on solo projects throughout his career, such as his work with fellow band member Larry Mullen, Jr. on the 1996 version of the Theme from Mission. Clayton, as a part of U2, has won 22 Grammy Awards, Adam Charles Clayton is the oldest child of Brian and Jo Clayton, born on 13 March 1960 in Chinnor, Oxfordshire, England. His father was a pilot with the Royal Air Force, who moved into civil aviation, when he was 4 years old, Claytons father worked in Kenya as a pilot with East African Airways, the family being resident in Nairobi. In 1965 the family moved to Malahide, County Dublin in the Republic of Ireland, the Clayton family became friends with the Evans family. When he was eight years old, Clayton was sent to the junior boarding Castle Park School in Dalkey. He did not enjoy or respond well to its ethos not being particularly sports orientated and he was interested in pop music, which students were not allowed to listen to. He joined the Schools Gramphone Society, which met to listen to classical music and he also took piano lessons for a short time. At age 13, Clayton entered the private St. Columbas College secondary school in Rathfarnham, here he made friends with other pupils who were enthusiastic about the pop/rock music acts of the period, including The Who, The Beatles, The Grateful Dead, and Carole King. In response he bought a £5 acoustic guitar from a junk-shop near the Dublin quays, john Leslie, who shared a bunk bed with Clayton at St. Columbas, persuaded him to join in with a school band where Clayton would play the bass guitar for the first time. His mother purchased a bass for him when he was 14 years old on the basis of a promise that he would commit himself to learn to play the instrument. McCormick and Martin left the band soon after its inception, while the band was a five-piece it was known as Feedback. The name was changed to The Hype, but changed to U2 soon after Dik Evans left. Clayton stood in as the nearest thing that the band had to a manager in its early life, handing over the duties to Paul McGuinness in May 1978. In 1981, around the time of U2s second, spiritually charged album, October, Bono, The Edge, and Mullen had joined a Christian group, and were questioning the compatibility of rock music with their spirituality. However, Clayton, with his more ambiguous religious views, was less concerned, Clayton made international headlines in August 1989 when he was arrested in Dublin for carrying a small amount of marijuanaAdam Clayton – Clayton playing in Charlottesville, Virginia on 1 October 2009
7. Larry Mullen Jr. – Laurence Joseph Larry Mullen Jr. is an Irish musician and actor, best known as the drummer of the Irish rock band U2. A member of the band since its inception, he has recorded 13 studio albums with U2, Mullen was born and raised in Dublin, and attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School, where, in 1976, he co-founded U2 after posting a message on the schools notice board. His drumming style developed from his playing martial beats in a marching band. Some of his most famous contributions to the U2 catalogue include Sunday Bloody Sunday, Pride, Where the Streets Have No Name, Zoo Station, Mysterious Ways, through his work with U2, Mullen has received 22 Grammy Awards. In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked Mullen the 96th-greatest drummer of all time, as a member of the band, he has been involved in philanthropic causes throughout his career, including Amnesty International. He has sporadically acted in films, most notably in Man on the Train and his father was a civil servant and his mother a homemaker. He has a sister, Cecilia, and had a younger sister. He attended the School of Music in Chatham Row to learn piano at the age of eight and, then, began drumming in 1971, at the age of 9, after Joes death, Bonnies daughter, Monica, took over from him. But Mullen gave up the lessons and started playing by himself and his mother died in a car accident in 1976. Mullen lost interest again and left the band after they asked him to cut his shoulder-length hair and he saved money and his father helped him out to buy a drum kit made by a Japanese toy company, which was for sale by a friend of his sister Cecilia. He set up the kit in his bedroom and his parents gave him certain times to practice, then his father got him into the Post Office Workers Band, which played orchestral melodies with percussion, along with marching band standards. He attended Scoil Colmcille, Marlborough Street, Dublin and he took the exams for Chanel College and St. Pauls, two Catholic schools his father wanted his son to attend. Mullens father suggested that he place a notice on the Mount Temple bulletin board, U2 was founded on 25 September 1976 in Mullens kitchen in Artane. McCormick and Martin soon left, and the name was changed to The Hype. Just before they won a talent contest in Limerick, Ireland, they changed their name again, for the time, to U2 at a farewell concert for Dik Evans. Mullen left school in 1978, having taken his Intermediate Certificate exams, the school offered him the chance to complete his Leaving Certificate exams. He and his sister Cecelia worked for an American company in Dublin, Mullen worked there for a year in the purchasing department, with the prospect of becoming a computer programmer in their geology section. In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked Mullen the 96th-greatest drummer of all time, when the band was first being signed to CBS Records, they refused to sign the band unless Mullen was firedLarry Mullen Jr. – Mullen in 2006
8. Grammy Awards – A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards. The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4,1959, to honor, following the 2011 ceremony, The Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 59th Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 2015 to September 2016, was held on February 12,2017, the Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s. The music executives decided to rectify this by creating a given by their industry similar to the Oscars. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts, after it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of what to call it, one working title was the Eddie, to honor the inventor of the phonograph, Thomas Edison. They finally settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards, also held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado. In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, which is trademarked. The trophies with the name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements. By February 2009,7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded, the General Field are four awards which are not restricted by genre. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the team of a full album if other than the performer. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the team of a single song if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song, Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist. The only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, and Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017. Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other such as artwork. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry, the many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast Premiere Ceremony earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecastGrammy Awards – Grammy Awards
9. The Joshua Tree – The Joshua Tree is the fifth studio album by Irish rock band U2. It was produced by Daniel Lanois and Brian Eno, and was released on 9 March 1987 on Island Records, inspired by American tour experiences, literature, and politics, U2 chose America as a theme for the record. Recording began in January 1986 in Ireland, and to foster a relaxed, creative atmosphere, Recording was completed in November 1986, additional production continued into January 1987. Throughout the sessions, U2 sought a cinematic quality for the record, one that would evoke a sense of location, in particular and they represented this in the sleeve photography depicting them in American desert landscapes. The Joshua Tree received critical acclaim, topped the charts in over 20 countries, according to Rolling Stone, the album increased the bands stature from heroes to superstars. The album won Grammy Awards for Album of the Year and Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal in 1988, the group supported the record with the Joshua Tree Tour throughout 1987. Frequently featured on lists of the greatest records, The Joshua Tree is one of the worlds best-selling albums. U2 commemorated the records 20th anniversary with a remastered re-release, and its 30th anniversary with announcements of a concert tour. In 2014, it was deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant by the US Library of Congress, before The Joshua Tree, U2 had released four studio albums and were an internationally successful band, particularly as a live act having toured every year in the 1980s. The groups stature and the anticipation for a new album grew following their 1984 record The Unforgettable Fire, their subsequent tour. U2 began writing new material in mid-1985 following the Unforgettable Fire Tour, I saw the spoiled child of the Western world. I started thinking, They may have a desert. And thats what attracted me to the desert as a symbol of some sort, in 1985, Bono participated in Steven Van Zandts anti-apartheid Sun City project and spent time with musicians Keith Richards and Mick Jagger. When Richards and Jagger played blues, Bono was embarrassed by his lack of familiarity with the genre, Bono realised that U2 had no tradition, and he felt as if they were from outer space. This inspired him to write the blues-influenced song Silver and Gold, nascent friendships with Bob Dylan, Van Morrison and Richards encouraged Bono to look back to rocks roots and to focus on his skills as a songwriter and lyricist. He explained, I used to think that writing words was old-fashioned, I wrote words on the microphone. For The Joshua Tree, I felt the time had come to words that meant something. Dylan told Bono of his own debt to Irish music, while Bono further demonstrated his interest in music traditions in his duet with Irish Celtic, the group referred to this approach as working within the primary colours of rock music—guitar, bass, and drumsThe Joshua Tree – Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois produced the album, their second time working with U2.
10. Achtung Baby – Achtung Baby is the seventh studio album by Irish rock band U2. It was produced by Daniel Lanois and Brian Eno, and was released on 18 November 1991 on Island Records, thematically, Achtung Baby is darker, more introspective, and at times more flippant than their previous work. Seeking inspiration from German reunification, U2 began recording Achtung Baby at Berlins Hansa Studios in October 1990, the sessions were fraught with conflict, as the band argued over their musical direction and the quality of their material. After tensions and slow progress nearly prompted the group to disband, morale and productivity improved during subsequent recording sessions in Dublin, where the album was completed in 1991. To confound the publics expectations of the band and their music, U2 chose the records facetious title and colourful multi-image sleeve. Achtung Baby is one of U2s most successful records, it received reviews and debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 Top Albums. Five songs were released as singles, all of which were chart successes, including One, Mysterious Ways. The album has sold 18 million copies worldwide and won a Grammy Award in 1993 for Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal, Achtung Baby has since been acclaimed by writers and music critics as one of the greatest albums of all time. The record was reissued in October 2011 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of its original release, U2s high exposure and their reputation for being overly serious led to accusations of grandiosity and self-righteousness. By the bands 1989 Lovetown Tour, they had become bored with playing their greatest hits. U2 believe that audiences misunderstood the groups collaboration with blues musician B. B. King on Rattle and Hum and the Lovetown Tour, and they described it as an excursion down a dead-end street. Bono said that, in retrospect, listening to black music enabled the group to create a work such as Achtung Baby, while their experiences with folk music helped him to develop as a lyricist. Towards the end of the Lovetown Tour, Bono announced on-stage that it was the end of something for U2, following the tour, the group began, what was at the time, their longest break from public performances and album releases. Reacting to their own sense of stagnation and to their critics. They wrote God Part II from Rattle and Hum after realising they had excessively pursued nostalgia in their songwriting, the song had a more contemporary feel that Bono said was closer to Achtung Babys direction. Much of the material they wrote was experimental, and according to Bono, ideas deemed inappropriate for the play were put aside for the bands use. During this period, Bono and the Edge began increasingly writing songs together without Mullen or bassist Adam Clayton, in mid-1990, Bono reviewed material he had written in Australia on the Lovetown Tour, and the group recorded demos at STS Studios in Dublin. The demos later evolved into the songs Whos Gonna Ride Your Wild Horses, Until the End of the World, Even Better Than the Real Thing, and Mysterious WaysAchtung Baby – Prior to recording Achtung Baby, The Edge and Bono (pictured in 2009) began working more closely together on songwriting without the other band members.
11. Zoo TV Tour – The Zoo TV Tour was a worldwide concert tour by rock band U2. Staged in support of their 1991 album Achtung Baby, the tour visited arenas, to mirror the new musical direction that the group took with Achtung Baby, the tour was intended to deviate from their past and confound expectations of the band. In contrast to U2s austere stage setups from previous tours, the Zoo TV Tour was a staged multimedia event. It satirised television and media oversaturation by attempting to instill sensory overload in its audience, to escape their reputation for being earnest and overly serious, U2 embraced a more lighthearted and self-deprecating image on tour. Zoo TV and Achtung Baby were central to the groups 1990s reinvention, the tours concept was inspired by disparate television programming, coverage of the Gulf War, the desensitising effect of mass media, and morning zoo radio shows. The stage featured dozens of video screens that showed visual effects, video clips. Channel surfing, prank calls, video confessionals, a belly dancer, on stage, Bono portrayed several characters he conceived, including the leather-clad egomaniac The Fly, the greedy televangelist Mirror Ball Man, and the devilish MacPhisto. In contrast to other U2 tours, each of the Zoo TV shows opened with six to eight new songs before older material was played. Comprising five legs and 157 shows, the began in Lakeland, Florida, on 29 February 1992 and finished in Tokyo, Japan. The first four legs alternated between North America and Europe, before the final leg visited Australasia and Japan, after two arena legs, the shows production was expanded for stadiums for the final three legs, which were branded Outside Broadcast, Zooropa, and Zoomerang/New Zooland, respectively. Although the tour provoked a range of reactions from music critics, along with being the highest-grossing North American tour of 1992, Zoo TV sold around 5.3 million tickets over its five legs. The bands 1993 album Zooropa, which expanded on Zoo TVs mass media themes, was recorded during a break in the tour, the tour was depicted in the Grammy Award–winning 1994 concert film Zoo TV, Live from Sydney. Critics regard the Zoo TV Tour as one of rocks most memorable tours—in 2002, U2s 1987 album The Joshua Tree and the supporting Joshua Tree Tour brought them to a new level of commercial and critical success, particularly in the United States. Like their previous tours, the Joshua Tree Tour was a minimalistic, austere production, the project was criticised as being pretentious, and misguided and bombastic, and U2 were accused of being grandiose and self-righteous. The wild antics of morning zoo radio programmes inspired the band to consider taking a radio station on tour. They were also interested in using video as a way of making themselves less accessible to their audiences, the band developed these ideas in late 1990 while recording Achtung Baby in Berlin at Hansa Studios. While in Berlin, they watched television coverage of the Gulf War on Sky News, when they became tired of hearing about the conflict, they tuned into local programming to see bad German soap operas and automobile advertisements. The band believed that cable television had blurred the lines between news, entertainment, and home shopping over the decade, and they wanted to represent this on their next tourZoo TV Tour – Zoo TV Tour
12. Amnesty International – Amnesty International is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights that claims to have over 7 million members and supporters around the world. The stated objective of the organisation is to research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights. Amnesty International was founded in London in 1961, following the publication of the article The Forgotten Prisoners in The Observer on 28 May 1961, Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards. It works to public opinion to put pressure on governments that let abuse take place. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights, the organisation was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its campaign against torture, and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978. Amnesty International was founded in London in July 1961 by English labour lawyer Peter Benenson, researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question. In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of António de Oliveira Salazar, the government was authoritarian in nature and strongly anti-communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. The newspaper reader feels a sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. It marked the launch of Appeal for Amnesty,1961, the aim of which was to mobilise public opinion, quickly and widely, in defence of these individuals, the Appeal for Amnesty was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. In the same year, Benenson had a published, Persecution 1961. In July 1961 the leadership had decided that the appeal would form the basis of a permanent organisation, Amnesty, Benenson ensured that all three major political parties were represented, enlisting members of parliament from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Party. On 30 September 1962, it was officially named Amnesty International, between the Appeal for Amnesty,1961 and September 1962 the organisation had been known simply as Amnesty. From the very beginning, research and campaigning were present in Amnesty Internationals work, a library was established for information about prisoners of conscience and a network of local groups, called THREES groups, was started. Each group worked on behalf of three prisoners, one each of the then three main ideological regions of the world, communist, capitalist and developing. The international movement was starting to agree on its principles and techniques. In 1967 Peter Benenson resigned after an independent inquiry did not support his claims that AI had been infiltrated by British agents, later he claimed that the Central Intelligence Agency had become involved in Amnesty. Leading Amnesty International in the 1970s were key figures Seán MacBride, Amnesty International believed that the reasons underlying torture of prisoners by governments, were either to acquire and obtain information or to quell opposition by the use of terror, or bothAmnesty International – 1986 Faroe postage stamp celebrating Amnesty's 25th anniversary – Painting by 11-year-old Rannvá Kunoy
13. Make Poverty History – Make Poverty History is the name of organizations in a number of countries, which focus on issues relating to 8th Millennium Development Goal such as aid, trade and justice. They generally form a coalition of aid and development agencies which work together to raise awareness of global poverty, the various national campaigns are part of the international Global Call to Action Against Poverty campaign. The symbol of the campaign is a white awareness bracelet made of cotton or silicone, usually, on the band the words would be written in black, with the Poverty word a lighter shade. A virtual white band was also available to be displayed on websites, television advertisements ran for many months, urging people to speak to their representatives about stopping poverty. However, the Office of Communications banned the ads, deciding that the ads were wholly or mainly political in nature, since they aimed to achieve important changes. The three demands of the campaign were, Trade Justice Drop the debt More and better aid None of these aims were new, approximately forty groups argued against the dissolution. On January 23,2013, the Enough Food For Everyone IF campaign was launched, by a group of over 100 aid organisations and religious groups. Sometimes called Make Poverty History 2, or simply the IF campaign and it coincides with Britain once again assuming presidency of the G8. The central theme of the campaign concerns ending hunger, with four strands aimed at tackling the root causes, the need to combat tax avoidance. The need to land grabs the need for greater transparency from governments and large corporations. The launch of the campaign was welcomed by Britains prime minister David Cameron, and supported by international figures such as Bill Gates and Archbishop Desmond Tutu. On 8 June, the IF campaign mobilized about 45,000 people to demonstrate in Hyde Park, the IF campaign coalition commissioned an external evaluation of the campaign. The evaluation report assesses progress against objectives and captures learnings for future work, Make Poverty History set out a timescale revolving around the 31st G8 summit in Gleneagles, Scotland on July 6,2005. Britain assumed presidency of the G8 on January 1,2005 and hosted the summit with poverty in Africa being, at least nominally, the Commission for Africa, launched by Tony Blair in February 2004, aimed to help create a strong and prosperous Africa. Their report, published in March 2005, was a point for the British presidency of the G8. In the second half of 2005, Britain held the EU presidency, July 1,2005 was the first international White Band Day, a worldwide day of action. July 2 - Over 225,000 protesters demonstrated in Edinburgh to promote the campaigns demands. On the same day, the Live 8 concerts took place before the G8 summit to encourage activism and debate within the G8 member countries, demonstrators walked overnight up to 20 miles to reach Gleneagles as the A8 had been closedMake Poverty History – An estimated 225,000 (BBC News) campaigners marched in Edinburgh on 2 July 2005
14. ONE Campaign – In 2007, ONE announced that it would be merging with DATA. It is an organization of nearly 8 million people worldwide. ONE was founded by 11 organizations, Bread for the World, CARE, DATA, International Medical Corps, International Rescue Committee, Mercy Corps, Oxfam America, Plan USA, the official launch rally was held on May 16,2004, at Liberty Mall in Philadelphia. Approximately 2,000 people attended, including Bono, Dikembe Mutombo, Michael W. Smith, Richard Stearns, in December 2004, ONE announced a $3 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In 2008, ONE merged with DATA, the merged entity was run by CEO David J. Lane until his departure in early 2011 to join the Obama administration. Former editor of Time magazine, CEO Michael Elliott, led ONE from 2011 until early 2016, members of ONEs Board of Directors include Bono, Sheryl Sandberg, Aliko Dangote, Dr. Mo Ibrahim, and Heleyne Gayle. Members of ONEs Africa Policy Advisory Board include Angélique Kidjo, Archbishop Njongonkulu Ndungane, John Githongo, Paul Collier, and Amadou Mahtar Ba. During the 2008 U. S. presidential election, the organization launched a campaign, called ONE Vote 08, in 2010, the Gates Foundations Living Proof Project became part of ONE. In 2011, ONE and partnered for World AIDS Day and brought together U. S. President Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Tanzanian President Kikwete, in 2012 ONE acquired as a division of ONE. ONE has a focus on ‘Factivism’, as referenced in Bono’s 2013 TED talk, as such much of their attention is currently placed on the bad-data at the heart of development, which makes progress difficult to track. In 2014, ONEs Trillion Dollar Scandal report was released and it suggested that $1 trillion leaves developing countries each year through various forms of corrupt activity. During the 10 year anniversary, the ONE Campaign changed its motto to Its not about us, in March 2015, ONE launched a report titled Poverty is Sexist, which details the ways in which women and girls are most seriously affected by poverty. It was nominated for ‘Best African Collaboration’ in the All Africa Music Awards, the Poverty is Sexist campaign also encouraged women around the world to pose for a #Strengthie – a selfie in the pose of Rosie the Riveter, face of the famous We Can Do It. Poster – and post it online in support of girls and women, teenage activist and ONE campaign associate Malala Yousafzai posted a #strengthie from the Malala Campaign twitter to show her support. The event, which also marked ONE’s 10 year anniversary, was hosted by The Daily Show’s Trevor Noah and featured performances from Miley Cyrus, Hozier, Jessie J, Bono and The Edge. On International Womens Day 2017, ONE released a report that stated 130 million girls are out of school. It claims the number of missing out on receiving an education amounts to a crisis that must be urgently addressed. Michael Elliott was the former CEO of the ONE Campaign from 2011 to 2016 and he was born and grew up in Liverpool, UKONE Campaign – Archbishop Desmond Tutu speaking about ONE in a prerecorded video shown before a U2 performance of "One" during the group's U2 360° Tour in 2009.
15. Live Aid – Live Aid was a dual-venue concert held on 13 July 1985, and an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the jukebox, the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, England, United Kingdom and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in countries, such as the Soviet Union, Japan, Austria, Australia. It was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time, the 1985 Live Aid concert was conceived as a follow-on to the successful charity single Do They Know Its Christmas. Which was also the brainchild of Geldof and Ure, in October 1984, images of millions of people starving to death in Ethiopia were shown in the UK in Michael Buerks BBC News reports on the 1984 famine. Bob Geldof saw the report, and called Midge Ure from Ultravox, in the hope of raising money for famine relief. Geldof then contacted colleagues in the industry and persuaded them to record the single under the title Band Aid for free. On 25 November 1984, the song was recorded at Sarm West Studios in Notting Hill, London, Geldof then set his sights on staging a huge concert to raise further funds. The idea to stage a charity concert to raise funds for Ethiopia originally came from Boy George. George and Culture Club drummer Jon Moss had taken part in the recording of Do They Know Its Christmas, and in December 1984 Culture Club were undertaking a tour of the UK, which culminated in six nights at Wembley Arena. George was so overcome by the occasion he told Geldof that they should consider organising a benefit concert and its a logical progression from the record, but the point is you dont just talk about it, you go ahead and do it. It was clear from the interview that Geldof had already had the idea to hold a dual venue concert and how the concerts should be structured, The show should be as big as is humanly possible. Theres no point just 5,000 fans turning up at Wembley, we need to have Wembley linked with Madison Square Gardens and it would be great for Duran to play three or four numbers at Wembley and then flick to Madison Square where Springsteen would be playing. While hes on, the Wembley stage could be ready for the next British act like the Thompsons or whoever. In that way lots of acts could be featured and the rights, tickets. Its not an idea, and certainly one worth exploiting. Among those involved in organising Live Aid were Harvey Goldsmith, who was responsible for the Wembley Stadium concert, and Bill Graham, the concert grew in scope, as more acts were added on both sides of the AtlanticLive Aid – The 2004 Live Aid DVD cover
16. Live 8 – Live 8 was a string of benefit concerts that took place on 2 July 2005, in the G8 states and in South Africa. They were timed to precede the G8 conference and summit held at the Gleneagles Hotel in Auchterarder, both events also coincided with the 20th anniversary of Live Aid. Run in support of the aims of the UKs Make Poverty History campaign, on 7 July, the G8 leaders pledged to double 2004 levels of aid to poor nations from US$25 billion to US$50 billion by the year 2010. Half of the money was to go to Africa, more than 1,000 musicians performed at the concerts, which were broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks. Live Aid organizer Bob Geldof announced the event on 31 May, many former Live Aid acts offered their services to the cause. Prior to the announcement of the event, many news sources referred to the event as Live Aid 2. However, Geldof and co-organiser Midge Ure have since said they dont think of the event as the same as Live Aid. However, after organising the event, Geldof said This is not Live Aid 2 and these concerts are the start point for The Long Walk To Justice, the one way we can all make our voices heard in unison. Many of the Live 8 backers were also involved in the largely forgotten NetAid concerts, organizers of Live 8 presented the Live 8 List to the world leaders at the Live 8 call that politicians take action to Make Poverty History. Names from the list also appeared on the giant televisions at each concert during the broadcast, an official Live 8 DVD set was released on 7 November 2005 internationally and 8 November 2005 in the United States. It was released almost a year to the day after the release of the DVD of Live Aid on 8 November 2004, broadcaster Jonathan Ross opened the European Live 8 concerts with the words, There were ten concerts held on 2 July 2005, most of them simultaneously. The first to begin was held at the Makuhari Messe in Japan and this was to represent the death of a child every three seconds owing to poverty. Bob Geldof hosted the event at Hyde Park in London, England where he also performed I Dont Like Mondays, special guests appeared throughout the concerts. Guest presenters, ranging from stars to comedians, also introduced acts. Included in the all-star line-up were Pink Floyd, reunited with former bassist/vocalist/lyricist Roger Waters for the first time in over 24 years, the complete foursome had not performed together as Pink Floyd since a show at Earls Court in London on 17 June 1981. With the death of pianist/keyboardist/backing vocalist Richard Wright in 2008, Live 8 became the time the four members of the bands best known. Attempts to lure former member Syd Barrett to perform prove fruitless, the band dedicated Wish You Were Here to the absent Barrett, who died in 2006. The final event called Edinburgh 50,000 - The Final Push was held at Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh and it featured further performances from some of the artists from the other concerts, and was the closest of the eleven to the actual location of the G8 summitLive 8 – The Live 8 logo
17. Music Rising – Music Rising is a charity co-founded by Producer Bob Ezrin, U2s The Edge and Gibson Guitar CEO Henry Juszkiewicz. Launched in November 2005 in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the aims to help in the purchasing of new instruments for the musicians of New Orleans affected by the disaster. In early September 2006, Green Day collaborated with U2 in the studio to record a version of the song The Saints Are Coming by The Skids to benefit Music Rising. To coincide with the recording, both performed a live version of the song during the NFL Monday Night Football Pregame show of the New Orleans Saints/Atlanta Falcons game on September 25,2006. This game marked the first time that the New Orleans Saints returned to their home building, the Saints Are Coming was digitally released on October 31 and the single on November 6,2006. In April 2006, Music Rising aided in the reopening of the historic Preservation Hall landmark in New Orleans, while the Jazz Hall survived the storm, it had lost all of its instruments, which were eventually replaced as part of Music Risings initiatives. Ezrin, The Edge, and Juszkiewicz were all present at the grand reopening, additionally, Music Rising helped replace the precious Baldwin Piano that Fats Domino had lost when his house was destroyed during the hurricane. Since beginning Phase Two of its initiatives, Music Rising has restored instruments to tens of thousands of parishioners, Phase Three is dedicated to supporting community musical and cultural organizations and events. In 2008, the played a large part in ensuring that the expenses were covered for the Mardi Gras Indians. Music Rising was the subject of a documentary directed by Canadian Don Young and produced by Frantic Films of Winnipeg. It was the documentary in Canada during September 2006. The film told the story of U2s efforts to raise money for the Music Rising charity. Contributing to Don Youngs film were musicians The Edge, Dave Matthews, Dr. John, Willie Nelson, Arlo Guthrie, Wolfman Washington, Breeze Cayolle, Bruce Springsteen, under considerable pressure to change the film Young resigned but eventually re-joined the project to protect the final cut. The rare and valuable U2 footage has never been broadcast, in 2007 Music Rising won two television academy Accolade Awards and was broadcast in 27 countries, including the United States, where it aired on both VH1 and the Sundance Channel. Music Rising Official Site About the Music Rising GuitarMusic Rising – Music Rising logo
18. Rock music – It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues, rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk. Musically, rock has centered on the guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk. From the 1990s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers. The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group, Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, rock and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original. The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee LewisRock music – Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2006, showing a quartet lineup for a rock band (from left to right: bassist, lead vocalist, drummer, and guitarist).
19. Zooropa – Zooropa /zuːˈroʊpɑː/ is the eighth studio album by Irish rock band U2. Produced by Flood, Brian Eno, and The Edge, it was released on 5 July 1993 on Island Records, inspired by the bands experiences on the Zoo TV Tour, Zooropa expanded on many of the tours themes of technology and media oversaturation. The record was a continuation of the experimentation with alternative rock, electronic dance music. U2 began writing and recording Zooropa in Dublin in February 1993, during a six-month break between legs of the Zoo TV Tour. The record was intended as an EP to promote the Zooropa leg of the tour that was to begin in May 1993, but during the sessions. Pressed for time, U2 wrote and recorded at a pace, with songs originating from many sources. The album was not completed in time for the tours resumption, Zooropa received generally favourable reviews from critics. Despite none of its three singles—Numb, Lemon, and Stay —being hits consistently across regions, the record sold well upon release, the albums charting duration and lifetime sales of 7 million copies, however, were less than those of Achtung Baby. In 1994, Zooropa won the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album, although the record was a success and music journalists view the album as one of the groups most creative works, the band regard it with mixed feelings. U2 regained critical favour with their commercially successful 1991 album Achtung Baby, the record was a musical reinvention for the group, incorporating influences from alternative rock, industrial music, and electronic dance music into their sound. The tour was a staged multimedia event that satirised television. The band finished 1992 with one of their most successful years, selling 2.9 million concert tickets and their 73 North American concerts from the year grossed US$67 million, easily the highest amount for any touring artist in 1992. The group concluded the North American Outside Broadcast leg of the tour on 25 November 1992, rather than use the time to rest, lead vocalist Bono and guitarist The Edge were keen to record new material. Following a hectic year of touring, the two did not want to back into domestic life. Bono said, We thought we could live a normal life, but it turns out that your whole way of thinking, your whole body has been geared toward the madness of Zoo TV. So we decided to put the madness on a record, everybodys head was spinning, so we thought, why not keep that momentum going. The Edge also wished to distract himself from the emotions he was feeling after separating from his wife during the Achtung Baby sessions in 1991, the other members, bassist Adam Clayton and drummer Larry Mullen, Jr. ultimately agreed to join them for recording. After handling audio engineering for the recording of Achtung Baby, Robbie Adams was invited by U2 to manage sound mixing on the Zoo TV Tour, Adams also recorded the groups tour soundchecksZooropa – Zooropa
20. Frank Sinatra – Francis Albert Sinatra was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the music artists of all time. Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to Italian immigrants, Sinatra began his career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943 and he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatras professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, and he turned to Las Vegas and his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice n Easy. Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own label, Reprise Records. It was followed by 1968s collaboration with Duke Ellington, using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until a short time before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor. After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm and he appeared in various musicals such as On the Town, Guys and Dolls, High Society, and Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he associated with playing detectives. Sinatra would later receive the Golden Globe Cecil B, on television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, and he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. While Sinatra never formally learned how to read music, he had a natural, intuitive understanding of it, a perfectionist, renowned for his impeccable dress sense and cleanliness, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname Ol Blue Eyes, Sinatra led a colorful personal life, and was often involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner. He went on to marry Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976, Sinatra had several violent confrontations, usually with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements. He was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, Sinatra was also the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him the greatest singer of the 20th century, Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12,1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey. He was the child of Italian immigrants Antonino Martino Marty SinatraFrank Sinatra – Sinatra in 1957
21. Wim Wenders – Ernst Wilhelm Wim Wenders is a German filmmaker, playwright, author, photographer, and a major figure in New German Cinema. One of Wenders earliest honors was a win for the BAFTA Award for Best Direction for his narrative drama Paris, Texas, which also won the Palme dOr at the 1984 Cannes Film Festival. Many of his subsequent films have also recognized at Cannes, including Wings of Desire. Wenders has been the president of the European Film Academy in Berlin since 1996, alongside filmmaking, he is an active photographer, emphasizing images of desolate landscapes. Wenders was born in Düsseldorf into a traditionally Catholic family and his father, Heinrich Wenders, was a surgeon. The use of the Dutch name Wim is a version of the baptismal name Wilhelm/Willem. As a boy, he took unaccompanied trips to Amsterdam to visit the Rijksmuseum and he graduated from high school in Oberhausen in the Ruhr area. He then studied medicine and philosophy in Freiburg and Düsseldorf, however, he dropped out of university studies and moved to Paris in October 1966 to become a painter. Wenders failed his entry test at Frances national film school IDHEC, during this time, Wenders became fascinated with cinema, and saw up to five movies a day at the local movie theater. Set on making his obsession also his lifes work, Wenders returned to Germany in 1967 to work in the Düsseldorf office of United Artists and that fall, he entered the Hochschule für Fernsehen und Film München. Between 1967 and 1970 while at the HFF, Wenders also worked as a critic for FilmKritik, then the Munich daily newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung, Twen magazine. Wenders completed several films before graduating from the Hochschule with a feature-length 16mm black and white film. Wenders began his career during the New German Cinema era of the late 1960s, much of the distinctive cinematography in his movies is the result of a highly productive long-term collaboration with Dutch cinematographer Robby Müller. Handkes novel, The Goalies Anxiety at the Penalty Kick was adapted for Wenders second feature film, handke co-wrote the script for Wings of Desire and Until the End of the World, both featuring Solveig Dommartin. Wenders has directed several highly acclaimed documentaries, most notably Buena Vista Social Club, about Cuban musicians and he has also directed a documentary style film on the Skladanowsky brothers, known in English as A Trick of the Light. The Skladanowsky brothers were inventing moving pictures when several others like the Lumiere brothers, alongside Buena Vista Social Club also his documentaries on Pina Bausch, Pina, and Sebastiao Salgado, The Salt of the Earth, got him a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. He has also directed music videos for groups such as U2 and Talking Heads, including Stay and Sax. His television commercials include a UK advertisement for Carling Premier Canadian beer, Wenders is a member of the advisory board of World Cinema FoundationWim Wenders – Wim Wenders (2015)
22. Faraway, So Close! – Faraway, So Close. is a 1993 film by German director Wim Wenders. The screenplay is by Wenders, Richard Reitinger and Ulrich Zieger, the film is a sequel to Wenders 1987 film Wings of Desire. Actors Otto Sander and Bruno Ganz reprise their roles as angels visiting Earth, the film also stars Nastassja Kinski, Willem Dafoe and Heinz Rühmann. It won the Grand Prix du Jury at the 1993 Cannes Film Festival, Cassiel and Raphaella, two angels, observe the busy life of reunited Berlin. Due to their origin, they can hear the thoughts of the people around them. Cassiel has been following his friend Damiel, who senses his presence and he owns a pizza parlor named Casa dellangelo and has married Marion, a trapeze artist whom he met when an angel. She works in a bar in West Berlin, and the two have a young daughter, Doria. Cassiel follows Raisa Becker, an 11-year-old girl who lives in the former East Berlin and he observes her life and notices that she and her mother Hanna Becker are being followed by Philip Winter, a detective who works for Anton Baker. The latter is an American arms dealer and pornographer who owns a transport company, Cassiel follows Hanna Becker to an abandoned building in the outskirts of East Berlin. There he finds that she brings food to Konrad, a man who has acted as a father to her, traveling back in time, Cassiel is able to see the last days of Berlin late in the war. When the war appeared to have been lost, the father, the mother Gertrud Becker stayed behind with the young Hanna, both under the care of Konrad. Winter photographs the World War II-vintage cars which Konrad cares for, Winter drops the man as an employer, having investigated his activities. He encounters Peter Falk outside the hotel, as Raphaella and Cassiel sit on top of the Brandenburg Gate, he expresses a desire to experience human life. Visiting Raisa, he finds her alone at her flat and leaning over the balcony railing, as she falls, Cassiel tries to save her and suddenly becomes human, catching the child. He has to adjust to the transformation, learning to modulate the volume of his voice and to negotiate streets and his only possession is an angels armor, which became tangible when he leaped into humanity. In the underground, Cassiel is tricked into gambling by Emit Flesti, losing his armor, Raphaella begs Flesti to give Cassiel time to understand what it is to be a human, he agrees but does not promise to stop hunting him. Arrested and detained, Cassiel struggles to satisfy demands for identification. He cannot give his name or address, but refers the police to his friends pizza shop, Damiel arrives at the station and takes his now human friend homeFaraway, So Close! – Theatrical release poster
23. Golden Globe – Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a part of the film industrys awards season. The 74th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film, the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, was held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel. In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish an honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as a figure within the entertainment industry. The official name of the award became the Cecil B. In 1963, the Miss Golden Globe concept was introduced, in its inaugural year, two Miss Golden Globes were named, one for film and one for television. The two Miss Golden Globes named that year were Eva Six and Donna Douglas, respectively, in 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned. It was unveiled at a conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. The broadcast of the Golden Globe Awards, telecast to 167 countries worldwide, generally ranks as the third most-watched awards show each year, behind only the Oscars, gervais returned to host the 68th and 69th Golden Globe Awards the next two years. Tina Fey and Amy Poehler hosted the 70th, 71st and 72nd Golden Globe Awards in 2015, the Golden Globe Awards theme song, which debuted in 2012, was written by Japanese musician and songwriter Yoshiki Hayashi. On January 7,2008, it was announced due to the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike. The ceremony was faced with a threat by striking writers to picket the event, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association was forced to adopt another approach for the broadcast. In acting categories, Meryl Streep holds the record for the most competitive Golden Globe wins with eight, however, including honorary awards, such as the Henrietta Award, World Film Favorite Actor/Actress Award, or Cecil B. DeMille Award, Barbra Streisand leads with nine, additionally, Streisand won for composing the song Evergreen, producing the Best Picture, and directing Yentl in 1984. Jack Nicholson, Angela Lansbury, Alan Alda and Shirley MacLaine have six awards each, behind them are Rosalind Russell and Jessica Lange with five wins. Meryl Streep also holds the record for most nominations with thirty, at the 46th Golden Globe Awards an anomaly occurred, a three way-tie for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – DramaGolden Globe – The Golden Globe statuette
24. Stay (Faraway, So Close!) – Stay is a song by rock band U2. It is the track on their 1993 album, Zooropa. The song was a top ten hit in Ireland, Australia, the United Kingdom, the music video was shot in Berlin, Germany. The earliest incarnation of the song developed during sessions for the groups 1991 album Achtung Baby and it was written for and inspired by Frank Sinatra and bore his surname as the original working title. An alternate recording was used in the Wim Wenders film Faraway, Stay was well received by critics and nominated for a Golden Globe for Best Original Song. The song made its debut on the Zoo TV Tour but has only been performed intermittently in an acoustic version over subsequent tours. Members of U2 consider it to be one of their songs, guitarist The Edge named it the best track on the album. The earliest incarnation of Stay was developed during the sessions for Achtung Baby. While working in Hansa Ton Studios in Berlin, guitarist The Edge, the track was given the working title Sinatra in reference to the artist whose music inspired it. The group reworked it in preparation of Zooropa, the Edge noted it came to us in installments. Bassist Adam Clayton said it was hard to figure out how we would do it, I mean, no one is going to mistake us for Frank Sinatras backing band. A very humble little combo sound is what we ended up with, the Edge added I was playing around on piano with some old-school chord progressions trying to summon up the spirit of Frank Sinatra. Its definitely not from a rock and roll tradition and he worked out a chord progression based on old Tin Pan Alley songs. As the recording progressed, Wim Wenders approached the band and asked them for a song for his next film, Faraway. The Edge said we heard Wim Wenders was looking for a song, so I had a go at finishing it. U2 watched the film, Faraway, So Close. for inspiration on how to craft the song, Bono said the film was about angels who want to be human and who want to be on Earth. But to do so they have to become mortal and that was a great image to play with - the impossibility of wanting something like this, and then the cost of having it. Close to the completion of the recording Bono renamed the song Stay, wanting to further reference the Wenders film he then changed it once more, to StayStay (Faraway, So Close!) – "Stay (Faraway, So Close!)"
25. PopMart Tour – The PopMart Tour was a worldwide concert tour by rock band U2. Launched in support of the groups 1997 album, Pop, the concerts were performed in stadia. Much like the bands previous Zoo TV Tour, PopMart was elaborately staged and its lavish stage design had a 165-foot wide LED screen, a 100-foot -high golden arch, and a large mirror-ball lemon. The PopMart Tours five legs and 93 shows attracted about 3.9 million fans, the tour took U2 to South America, South Africa and Israel for the first time. The tour was booked while the band were still completing Pop, however, the recording sessions went long, delaying the release until March 1997 and cutting into rehearsal time for the tour. PopMart, although the tour of 1997, was marred by technical difficulties and mixed reviews from critics. The tour was depicted on the concert film PopMart, Live from Mexico City, U2 stage designer Willie Williams and stage architect Mark Fisher began developing the PopMart Tour in late 1995. U2 re-entered their Dublin recording studio in October 1995, shortly before releasing an experimental/ambient album with Brian Eno, entitled Original Soundtracks 1, under the pseudonym Passengers. The band started to work on their studio album, which was set to be finished by mid-1996 and released later that year prior to the Christmas. Around the same time, in late 1995, Williams began developing concepts for the next tour. Among the proposed themes for the tour was a based on the end of the millennium titled U2000. Lead vocalist Bono became interested in one of Williams designs that resembled a supermarket, with the help of Fisher, Williams designed a fantasy entertainment outlet, and decided to create a tour with a consumerism theme. While still in the studio, U2 began scheduling tour dates in early 1996. After risking bankruptcy by self-financing the Zoo TV Tour, U2 decided to seek outside sources to finance the cost of taking the PopMart Tour around the world. Initially, the announced they were looking for sponsors to support the tour. Bids were made with five parties, and eventually a deal was made with Toronto-based concert promoter Michael Cohl for $100 million. Cohl expected a total five to six million attendees at over 100 concerts, to get the album ready for its March 1997 release, the albums recording sessions had to be finished by the end of December. Within one month of the deadline, the album was still untitled and had much work left before it could be completedPopMart Tour – PopMart Tour set
26. Botanic Gardens (Belfast) – Botanic Gardens is a public park in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Occupying 28 acres of south Belfast, the gardens are popular with office workers and they are located on Stranmillis Road in Queens Quarter, with Queens University nearby. The Ulster Museum is located at the main entrance, the gardens opened in 1828 as the private Royal Belfast Botanical Gardens. It continued as a park for many years, only opening to members of the public on Sundays prior to 1895. Then it became a park in 1895 when the Belfast Corporation bought the gardens from the Belfast Botanical and Horticultural Society. The Belfast Corporation was the predecessor of Belfast City Council, the present owner, the gardens most notable feature is the Palm House conservatory. The foundation stone was laid by the Marquess of Donegall in 1839 and it is one of the earliest examples of a curvilinear cast iron glasshouses in the world. Designed by Charles Lanyon and built by Richard Turner, Belfasts Palm House predates the glasshouses at Kew, the Palm House consists of two wings, the cool wing and the tropical wing. Lanyon altered his plans to increase the height of the latter wings dome. In the past these have included an 11 metre tall Globe Spear Lily, the lily, which is native to Australia, finally bloomed in March 2005 after a 23-year wait. The Palm House also features a 400-year-old Xanthorrhoea, the gardens contain another glasshouse, the Tropical Ravine House. Built by head gardener Charles McKimm in 1889, it features a unique design, a sunken ravine runs the length of the building, with a balcony at each side for viewing. The most popular attraction is the Dombeya, which flowers every February, the Palm House and the Tropical Ravine House were symbols of Belfasts growing industrial might and prosperity in the Victorian era and attracted over 10,000 visitors a day. The gardens also feature one of the longest herbaceous borders in the UK, there is also a rose garden built in 1932 and various species of tree, including the hornbeam-oak. A statue of Lord Kelvin stands at the Stranmillis Road entrance, concerts and music festivals are held at the Stranmillis Embankment end of the gardens. From 2002 to 2006 the Tennents ViTal festival was held in the gardens, performers included Kings of Leon, Franz Ferdinand, The Coral, The Streets and The White Stripes. In 2006 Snow Patrol, The Raconteurs, Editors and Kaiser Chiefs played at the festival, on 26 August 1997 U2 played their first Belfast concert in over a decade as part of the PopMart Tour. 40,000 fans attended, with thousands more lining the perimeter fence, local band Ash and Howard B were the support actsBotanic Gardens (Belfast) – Palm House and flower bed
27. Belfast – Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, the second largest on the island of Ireland, and the heart of the tenth largest Primary Urban Area in the United Kingdom. On the River Lagan, it had a population of 286,000 at the 2011 census and 333,871 after the 2015 council reform, Belfast was granted city status in 1888. Belfast played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, and was an industrial centre until the latter half of the 20th century. It has sustained a major aerospace and missiles industry since the mid 1930s, industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Irelands biggest city at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education, business, and law, additionally, Belfast city centre has undergone considerable expansion and regeneration in recent years, notably around Victoria Square. Belfast is served by two airports, George Best Belfast City Airport in the city, and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age. The Giants Ring, a 5, 000-year-old henge, is located near the city, Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. The ONeill clan had a presence in the area, in the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe ONeill built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn ONeill of the Clannaboy ONeills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, evidence of this period of Belfasts growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries, industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, tobacco, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, and at the end of the 19th century, Belfast briefly overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland. The Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, in 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule, which had divided the city. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned, the accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfast was heavily bombed during World War II, in one raid, in 1941, German bombers killed around one thousand people and left tens of thousands homeless. Apart from London, this was the greatest loss of life in a raid during the Blitz. Belfast has been the capital of Northern Ireland since its establishment in 1921 following the Government of Ireland Act 1920 and it had been the scene of various episodes of sectarian conflict between its Catholic and Protestant populations. These opposing groups in conflict are now often termed republican and loyalist respectively. The most recent example of conflict was known as the Troubles – a civil conflict that raged from around 1969 to 1998Belfast – Top: Skyline of Belfast Middle top left to right, Queen's University Belfast, Albert Memorial Clock, Belfast, The Boat, Titanic Belfast Bottom left to right: Belfast City Hall, view of Belfast with Samson and Goliath.
28. City of Blinding Lights – City of Blinding Lights is a song by Irish rock band U2. It is the track on their 2004 album How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb and was released as the albums fourth single on 6 June 2005. The song was a top ten hit in Ireland, the United Kingdom, the music video was shot in Vancouver, British Columbia. The earliest incarnation of the song was developed during sessions for the bands 1997 album Pop. The lyrics were inspired by lead singer Bonos recollection of his first trip to London. Other lyrics refer to Bonos relationship with his wife, the songs underlying theme reflects lost innocence and was inspired by an image Bono saw of himself from the early 1980s. The sound has been compared to the tone of U2s 1984 album The Unforgettable Fire, City of Blinding Lights was well received by critics and won a Grammy Award for Best Rock Song at the 2006 ceremony. The song made its debut on the groups 2005 Vertigo Tour, when it was commonly played as the opening song. The track has used in episodes of The Simpsons and Entourage. U. S. President Barack Obama used it at events during the 2008 and 2012 U. S. presidential elections. U2 developed City of Blinding Lights from a song called Scott Walker and this incarnation, written as an homage to the singer of the same name, was only an outline when the recording sessions for Pop concluded. The group reworked it in preparation for their 2000 album All That You Cant Leave Behind and they rewrote the song for their 2004 album How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb. A photographic exhibition in the Netherlands by longtime band photographer Anton Corbijn served as an inspiration for the song. Lead vocalist Bono saw an image of himself boarding a helicopter, a journalist asked him what he would say to his younger self if given the chance, Bono replied, Id tell him hes absolutely right and stop second guessing himself. He explained his comments later, saying, I realized how much Id lost and that way of looking at the world. There was such a clarity to it, but it was so defiant in a way, the chorus was inspired by U2s first concert in New York City following the September 11 attacks during their 2001 Elevation Tour. When the lights illuminated the audience during a performance of Where the Streets Have No Name, upon seeing this raw release of emotion, Bono shouted, Oh you look so beautiful tonight, later, the band integrated the line into the chorus. The fans passion, along with the resolve of the city following the attack, were the inspirations for many of the songs other lyricsCity of Blinding Lights – "City of Blinding Lights"
29. Magnificent (U2 song) – Magnificent is a song by U2. It is the track on the bands 2009 album No Line on the Horizon and was released as the albums second single. The song was originally titled French Disco, but was renamed later in the recording sessions and it is played before the start of every New York Rangers home game at Madison Square Garden. The single was released on 4 May 2009 and reached #42 on the UK Singles Chart, while well received by critics, it was the first domestically-released U2 single not to make the UK Top 40 since A Celebration in 1982. Magnificent originated from the improvised recording sessions with Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois in Fez. The track was created out of a series of changes in the midst of a jam. The Edge noted that The basic chord progression had a power that got everyone inspired, I think we all knew that it was inherently joyful, which is rare. A group of Moroccan percussionists played along with the band, Bono noted that the lyrics were influenced by both Cole Porter and Bach, and that the song is about two lovers holding on to each other and trying to turn their life into worship. Lanois described the origins, We wanted to have something euphoric. And he loved that melody, and stuck with it, and then I was involved in the lyrical process on that, because we wanted to talk about sacrifice that one makes for ones medium or ones art. I thought it had for a setting New York in the 1950s, maybe a Charlie Parker kind of figure. The song has been remixed numerous times, including versions by Dave Audé, Pete Tong, Redanka, Fred Falke, the remixes were made available simultaneously with the single release for the song. In the UK the Magnificent Remixes were the highest climber in the Upfront Club Chart at No,3, and are at No.4 in the Cool Cuts Chart. Will. i. am participated in the creation of an unreleased remix. The synthetized baseline of Redankas 180 Version Remix is similar to Donna Summers 1977 hit song I Feel Love, the radio edit and UK edit are slightly different versions of the song, with the most prominent difference being an alteration in the first lyric. The music video was filmed in Fez, Morocco and it was directed by Alex Courtes, who previously worked with the band on the video for Get On Your Boots. The video premiered online via Yahoo, upon the release of No Line on the Horizon, many critics called Magnificent one of the albums highlights. Mojo praised the song, noting the songs martial snare drums ratchet the Edges vertiginous delayed guitar figures across a landscape that this band realised to near perfection cMagnificent (U2 song) – "Magnificent"
30. Brian Eno – Brian Peter George St John le Baptiste de la Salle Eno, RDI is an English musician, composer, record producer, singer, writer, and visual artist. He is best known for his work in rock, ambient, pop. He has been described as one of musics most influential. Born in Suffolk, Eno studied painting and experimental music at art school in the late 1960s before joining glam rock group Roxy Music as synthesizer player in 1971. He took part in frequent collaborations with such as Robert Fripp, Cluster, David Bowie on his Berlin Trilogy. In subsequent decades, Eno continued to record albums, collaborate, and produce for other artists, including U2, Coldplay, Laurie Anderson, James, Grace Jones. He continues to release music, produce, and write, the unusual surname Eno, long established in Suffolk, derives from the French Huguenot surname Hennot. Maria had already had a daughter, and together William and Maria would have two children, Roger and Arlette. In school, Eno used a tape recorder as an instrument and experimented with his first, sometimes improvisational. From that collaboration, he involved in Cornelius Cardews Scratch Orchestra. The first released recording in which Eno played is the Deutsche Grammophon edition of Cardews The Great Learning, Another early recording was the Berlin Horse soundtrack, by Malcom Le Grice, a nine-minute,2 ×16 mm-double-projection, released in 1970 and presented in 1971. He then progressed to appearing on stage as a member of the group. He quit the band on completing the tour for the bands second album, For Your Pleasure, because of disagreements with lead singer Bryan Ferry. If Id walked ten yards further on the platform, or missed that train, or been in the next carriage, during his period with Roxy Music, and for his first three solo albums, he was credited on records only as Eno. Eno embarked on a career almost immediately. Between 1973 and 1977 he created four albums of electronically inflected art pop, Here Come the Warm Jets, Taking Tiger Mountain, Another Green World, and Before and After Science. Tiger Mountain contains the galloping Third Uncle, one of Enos best-known songs and these four albums were remastered and reissued in 2004 by Virgins Astralwerks label. Due to Enos decision not to add any extra tracks of the original material, in 1972, Eno and Robert Fripp developed the Frippertronics tape delay system, a year later, the pair released the proto-ambient albumBrian Eno – Eno at the Museo MADRE of Naples in June 2008
31. Kaddish (Towering Inferno album) – Kaddish is a 1993 concept album by English experimental music group Towering Inferno. It reflects on the Holocaust and includes East European folk singing, Rabbinical chants, klezmer fiddling, sampled voices, heavy metal guitar, Brian Eno described it as the most frightening record I have ever heard. Kaddish was Towering Infernos debut album and it was released on their own TI Records in 1993, and then globally by Island Records in 1995. Towering Inferno was the duo of musicians Richard Wolfson and Andy Saunders, Wolfson was also a performance artist, cameraman and journalist, and had previously worked with Saunders in several groups. Wolfson and Saunders, both of European-Jewish descent, formed Towering Inferno in 1985 as an ambient, techno and heavy metal multimedia stage project that involved electronics, the duo toured Europe, augmenting their performances with slide and super 8 projectors. Roger Riley, a director who accompanied Wolfson and Saunders across Europe, said that The long gestation of the project gave it a depth. They travelled thousands of miles, performing in Europes underground circuit in venues as diverse as riding stables and slaughterhouses and these images, including those from a visit to the Dachau concentration camp, stimulated the creative process. Saunders said that they were influenced by their experiences as children in synagogue, in particular sounds of the shofar, kaddish. He said he found it unusual the other Jewish musicians like Bob Dylan, Lou Reed, Towering Inferno began performing Kaddish in the mid-1980s, and started recording it in 1991. The duo described the work, which included references to the history and folk-lore of Central and Eastern Europe and to the Shoah, as a dream history of Europe in the wake of the Holocaust. Kaddish was composed and performed by Towering Inferno, with Hungarian folk-songs, the album was recorded by Gregg Skerman, a Swiss engineer who had accompanied the band through Europe as their sound mixer. Recording began at Londons Diorama in 1991, to take advantage of the venues five- to six-second reverb, the drums and acoustic instruments were recorded in the middle of the dome with suspended Neumann KM84 microphones. Some drum-machine samples were used, but these were played back in the Diorama. The use of multiple microphones allowed for the mixing of both close and distant sources, resulting in a sound which Saunders said the best digital reverb in the world couldnt reproduce, later, other instruments were also recorded in the Diorama. The choral segments, which had previously been taped with Kenneth Bowen, Wolfson and Saunders also added into the mix samples of their own unrelated work that they had performed over the previous five years. The Hungarian folk songs were recorded with Szkárosi and Sebestyén at the 3M Studios in Budapest with a Fostex 16-track recorder, Wolfson said It sounds like tape hiss, but its actually rain in Budapest. While in Budapest Wolfson and Saunders interviewed Chief Rabbi Tamas Raj, Towering Inferno experimented constantly with the sound on the albums tracks to create the right atmosphere they wanted, and they tried a number of fuzz boxes on the guitars and other instruments. The metallic sound on Reverse Field was achieved by an Ibanez Roadstar guitar with a RAT distortion pedal fed through a Roland 301 Space Echo, the spoken/sung passages were also distorted, including Rabbi Rajs recitation of the Kaddish, and Szkárosis poetry, where a Fuzz Face was usedKaddish (Towering Inferno album) – Kaddish
32. The Holocaust – The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Adolf Hitlers Nazi Germany, and the World War II collaborators with the Nazis. The victims included 1.5 million children, and represented about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe, killings took place throughout German-occupied Europe, as well as within Nazi Germany, and across all territories controlled by its allies. Other victims of Nazi crimes included ethnic Poles and other Slavs, Soviet citizens and Soviet POWs, communists, homosexuals, Freemasons, Jehovahs Witnesses, some 42,500 detention facilities were utilized in the concentration of victims for the purpose of gross violations of human rights. Over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators, the persecution was carried out in stages, culminating in the policy of extermination of European Jews termed the Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Following Hitlers rise to power, the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, starting in 1933 the Nazis began to establish a network of concentration camps. After the outbreak of war in 1939 both German and foreign Jews were herded into wartime ghettos, in 1941, as Germany began to conquer new territory in the East, all anti-Jewish measures radicalized. Specialized paramilitary units called Einsatzgruppen murdered around two million Jews in mass shootings actions in less than a year, by mid-1942, victims were being regularly transported by freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, most were systematically killed in gas chambers. This continued until the end of World War II in Europe in April–May 1945, the most notable exception was the Warsaw Ghetto uprising of 1943, when thousands of poorly-armed Jewish fighters held the Waffen-SS at bay for four weeks. An estimated 20, 000–30,000 Jewish partisans actively fought against the Nazis, French Jews took part in the French Resistance, which conducted a guerilla campaign against the Nazis and Vichy French authorities. Over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings took place, the term holocaust comes from the Greek adjective holókaustos, a variant of holókautos, referring to an animal sacrifice offered to a god in which the whole animal is completely burnt. Often used substantively in apposition with the noun thysia, the term appears in a fragment of pseudo-Callisthenes, writing in Latin, Jerome Latinized the Greek word as a neuter noun holocaustum, using it to translate references to the Jewish burnt offering in his translations of Exodus and Leviticus. In his Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi, Richard of Devizes, the English poet John Milton had used the word to denote a conflagration in his 1671 poem Samson Agonistes and the word gradually developed to mean a massacre thereon. The term was used in the 1950s by historians as a translation of the Jewish word shoah to refer specifically to the Nazi genocide of Jews, the television mini-series Holocaust is credited with introducing the term into common parlance after 1978. The biblical word shoah, meaning calamity became the standard Hebrew term for the Holocaust as early as the 1940s, especially in Europe and Israel. Shoah is preferred by some Jews for several reasons including the offensive nature of the word holocaust which they take to refer to the Greek pagan custom. The Nazis used the phrase Final Solution to the Jewish Question, all branches of Germanys bureaucracy were engaged in the logistics that led to the genocides, turning the Third Reich into what one Holocaust scholar, Michael Berenbaum, has called a genocidal state. Every arm of the countrys sophisticated bureaucracy was involved in the killing process, as prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property, which was catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled. Berenbaum writes that the Final Solution of the Jewish question was in the eyes of the perpetrators, through a concealed account, the German National Bank helped launder valuables stolen from the victimsThe Holocaust – Hungarian Jews are selected by Nazis to be sent to the gas chamber at Auschwitz concentration camp, May/June 1944.
33. KBE – There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire, nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, occasionally, honorary appointees are, incorrectly, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bill Gates or Bob Geldof, for example. In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War, when first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was divided into Military. The Orders motto is For God and the Empire, at the foundation of the Order, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the British Empire Medal, in addition, the BEM is awarded by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations. The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, and appoints all members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Mary, and the current Grand Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. The Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross,845 Knights and Dames Commander, and 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the number of members of the fourth and fifth classes. Foreign recipients, as members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, and so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, and second-lowest of knighthood. Because of this, Dame Commander is awarded in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor, for example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges become Knights Bachelor. The Order has six officials, the Prelate, the Dean, the Secretary, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Bishop of London, a senior bishop in the Church of England, serves as the Orders Prelate. The Dean of St Pauls is ex officio the Dean of the Order, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, as are many other heraldic officers. From time to time, individuals are appointed to a higher grade within the Order, thereby ceasing usage of the junior post-nominal lettersKBE – Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
34. Irish people – The Irish people are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies, for most of Irelands recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland, the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities, including Irish, Northern Irish, British, or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, language, music, dance, sports, cuisine, although Irish was their main language in the past, today the huge majority of Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, there have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Irelands conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the fathers of Europe, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the father of chemistry, famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker and James Joyce, notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Robert McClure, Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides, many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, historically, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict, famine and economic issues. People of Irish descent are mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom. There are also significant numbers in Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand, the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears, in its summary of their article Who were the Celts. The National Museum Wales notes It is possible that genetic studies of ancient. However, early studies have, so far, tended to produce implausible conclusions from very small numbers of people and using outdated assumptions about linguistics, nineteenth century anthropology studied the physical characteristics of Irish people in minute detail. During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores, the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived, as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders, Iouerne and Hiverne to the Greeks, other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and GaelIrish people – Carrowmore tomb, circa 3000 BC
35. Frontman – The lead vocalist, lead vocals or lead singer in popular music is typically the member of a group or band whose voice is the most prominent in a performance where multiple voices may be heard. The lead singer either leads the ensemble, or sets against the ensemble as the dominant sound. In vocal group performances, notably in soul and gospel music, and early rock and roll, as an example in rock music, Mick Jagger is the lead singer of The Rolling Stones. Similarly in soul music, Smokey Robinson was the singer of The Miracles. The practice of using a lead singer in vocal groups, however, has a longer history, songs of the late nineteenth century frequently used a leading solo voice, followed by a choral response by other singers. From these various points - including Motown - it went on to become a device in much rock. In some bands - most famously, The Beatles - the role of lead singer alternated, while in others - for example, there are as many types and styles of lead singer as there are styles and genres of music. However, the singer of a group or band is usually the main focus of audiences attention. The lead vocalist of a band is called the front man or front woman. Pink Floyd also can be considered a band with two front men, as both the guitarist David Gilmour and the bassist Roger Waters sang and wrote most of the songs. In the beginning of the career, however, Pink Floyds lead singer and guitarist was Syd Barrett. Particularly before the 1970s, many bands were named for the leader or founder, rather than the lead singer, examples include the Dave Clark Five and Harold Melvin. In modern rock music, the singer is often, but not always, also the bands leader. While lead singers or spokespersons for any musical ensembles can be called a front man, since the position commonly has an expanded role from simple lead vocalists, there have been cases in which the front man for a band is someone other than the lead vocalist. In many bands, such as The Who, Fall Out Boy, Led Zeppelin, Living Colour, Queen and Oasis, usually, this is derived from that guitarists specific role as a co-songwriter, co-founder and/or co-vocalist. Also in some cases, there are two frontmen, such as Underoath, with singers Spencer Chamberlain and Aaron Gillespie sharing vocal duties, another example is Blink-182, in which vocal duties are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Tom DeLonge. Hoppus usually carries out most media either by himself or together with DeLonge, linkin Park has two vocalists as well, Chester Bennington and Mike Shinoda, both considered as frontmen. Another example is the metal band Metallica, in which James HetfieldFrontman – Queen illustrating a typical rock band layout during a 1984 concert. Lead vocalist (frontman) Freddie Mercury stands centre-stage in front of drummer Roger Taylor and positioned between bassist John Deacon and guitarist Brian May.
36. Mount Temple Comprehensive School – Mount Temple Comprehensive School is a secondary school in Clontarf, Dublin, Ireland. The school was established in 1972 following the amalgamation of Mountjoy School, Hibernian Marine School, Hibernian Marine School was a charity school founded in 1766, originally to provide for the orphans and children of seamen. The school was located on the Seafield Road in Clontarf, Dublin, Mountjoy School was a boarding school in Mountjoy Square. It later moved to the current location in Clontarf, Bertrand & Rutland School was in Eccles Street on the northside of Dublin, it was a Church of Ireland School, the Bertrand and Rutland Fund still funds scholarships to Protestant schools in Ireland. Hibernian Marine School amalgamated with Mountjoy School in 1968 and became Mountjoy & Marine School, the school later amalgamated with Bertrand & Rutland and took the name of Mount Temple Comprehensive School in 1972. Mount Temple was the school where the rock band U2 was formed, in September 1976, 14-year-old drummer Larry Mullen, Jr. posted a notice on the schools noticeboard, looking for fellow musicians. All four members of U2 are former pupils of the school, during the summer months the whole school facility is used by The Centre Of English Studies, catering for hundreds of international students who come to Dublin to learn English. Mount Temple Comprehensive School has about 900 students, although it was built to cater for around 500. There have been plans for years for a new school to be built on site to cater for these extra studentsMount Temple Comprehensive School – Nisi Dominus Frustra
37. Ali Hewson – Alison Ali Hewson is an Irish activist and businesswoman. She is the wife of singer and musician Paul Hewson, known as Bono, raised in Raheny, she met her future husband at a young age at Mount Temple Comprehensive School and married him in 1982. She was awarded a degree in politics and sociology from University College Dublin in 1989, the couple have four children together and live at residences in Ireland, France, and the United States. She has inspired several U2 songs, most famously Sweetest Thing, Hewson became involved in anti-nuclear activism in the 1990s. She narrated Black Wind, White Land, a 1993 Irish documentary about the effects of the Chernobyl disaster. She has been a patron of Chernobyl Childrens Project International since 1994 and has participated in a number of aid missions to the exclusion zones of Belarus. She has also campaigned against Sellafield, the northern English nuclear facility, in 2002 she helped lead an effort which sent more than a million postcards, urging the site be closed, to Prime Minister Tony Blair and others. Hewson has repeatedly been discussed by tabloid newspapers as a candidate for political offices. None of these suggestions have come to fruition, Hewson is the co-founder of two ethical businesses, the EDUN fashion line in 2005 and Nude Skincare products in 2007. The former, intended to promote trade with Africa, has struggled to become a viable business. French conglomerate LVMH has made investments into both companies. Alison Stewart was born on 23 March 1961, the daughter of Terry and she has an older brother, Ian, and nephew, aspiring model Ross Stewart, who both live in Australia. The Stewart family, who resided in the suburb of Raheny on Dublins Northside and her father was a self-educated electrical worker who, according to Hewson, was constantly questioning things. Her mother, who was a housewife, had a career in mind for her daughter. Alison studied at Mount Temple Comprehensive School, at the age of twelve, she met Paul Hewson, who was in the year above at the school. He pursued her immediately, but she kept her distance. In September 1974, Pauls mother Iris died suddenly, leaving him emotionally adrift, soon after, Alison began taking care of Paul, cleaning his clothes, walking to school with him, and cooking for him. In September 1976, Paul met the members of what would become U2, the band members adopted nicknamesAli Hewson – Hewson in 2014
38. Lyrics – Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist, the words to an extended musical composition such as an opera are, however, usually known as a libretto and their writer, as a librettist. The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit, some lyrics are abstract, almost unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form, articulation, meter, and symmetry of expression. Rappers can also create lyrics with a variation of rhyming words or words that create, Lyric derives via Latin lyricus from the Greek λυρικός, the adjectival form of lyre. It first appeared in English in the century in reference, to the Earl of Surreys translations of Petrarch. Stainer and Barrett used the word as a substantive, Lyric, poetry or blank verse intended to be set to music. By the 1930s, the present use of the plurale tantum lyrics had begun, the singular form lyric still appears, its present use, however, is to refer to a specific phrase within a songs lyrics. The differences between poem and song may become less meaningful where verse is set to music, to the point that any distinction becomes untenable and this is perhaps recognised in the way popular songs have lyrics. However, the verse may pre-date its tune, or the tune may be lost over time but the words survive, nursery rhymes may be songs, or doggerel, the term doesnt imply a distinction. The ghazal is a form that is considered primarily poetic. See also rapping, roots of hip hop music, analogously, verse drama might normally be judged as poetry, but not consisting of poems. In Baroque music, melodies and their lyrics where prose, rather than paired lines they consist of rhetorical sentences or paragraphs consisting of an opening gesture, an amplification, and a close, in German Vordersatz-Fortspinnung-Epilog. For example, When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child, But when I became a man, I put away childish things. -1 Corinthians 13,11 In the lyrics of music a shifter is a word, often a pronoun, where reference varies according to who is speaking, when. For example, who is the my of My Generation, see Royalties Currently, there are many websites featuring song lyrics. This offering, however, is controversial, since some sites include copyrighted lyrics offered without the holders permission, music Publishers Association, which represents sheet music companies, launched a legal campaign against such websites in December 2005. The MPAs president, Lauren Keiser, said the free lyrics web sites are completely illegal, Lyrics licenses could be obtained worldwide through one of the two aggregators, LyricFind and Musixmatch. The first company to provide licensed lyrics was Yahoo, quickly followed by MetroLyrics and Lyrics. comLyrics – A lyrist on the Standard of Ur, c. 2500 BC.
39. Elevation Partners – Elevation Partners is an American private equity firm that invests in intellectual property and media and entertainment companies. The firm has $1.9 billion of assets under management, the firm was founded in 2004 and is headquartered in New York City and Menlo Park, California. It has approximately 20 investment professionals and other employees, Elevation Partners was founded by former Silver Lake Partners professionals Roger McNamee and Marc Bodnick, as well as Fred Anderson and John Riccitiello. Elevation is perhaps best known for its association with Bono, lead singer of the musical group U2, the firm is named after U2s song Elevation. As of January 2011 Marc Bodnick departed to concentrate on the development of Quora, Elevation Partners is not affiliated in any way with The Elevation Group. On March 22,2005, as its first major venture Elevation attempted to purchase Eidos Interactive, however, its bid failed and the video games giant was sold to rival SCi Entertainment. It also invested $100 million in Move, Inc. which operates real estate information services, in August 2006, Elevation announced that it had made an investment in Forbes Media, the parent company of Forbes magazine and Forbes. com. Sources stated that the deal gave Elevation a stake of more than 40 percent at a cost of $250 million to $300 million, after Elevation invested in Forbes, the employee pension plan was frozen. In the years followed, there were numerous rounds of layoffs worldwide. The Forbes family also sold its building on Manhattans 5th Avenue to New York University. On June 4,2007 Elevation Partners announced an investment of $325m for a 25 percent stake in Palm, on December 22,2008 the deal was followed up with an additional $100 million equity investment in Palm, and is made with newly issued preferred stock of convertible type. On July 11,2007 Elevation Partners acquired SDI Media Group, Elevation purchased the company from Warburg Pincus, the private equity firm that acquired SDI Media in 2004. On April 16,2010 Elevation Partners acquired 1% of the company Facebook for $90 Million, through September 2014 the fund had generated an 11. 4% annual returnElevation Partners – Basic investment types
40. EDUN – EDUN is a fashion brand founded by Ali Hewson and Bono in 2005 to promote trade in Africa by sourcing production throughout the continent. In 2009 EDUN became part of the LVMH group, Danielle Sherman was named Creative Director in April 2013. Her first collection debuted during NY Fashion Week, September 2013, the collection includes a range of ready-to-wear, handbags and accessories. In 2005, Hewson and Bono founded the Edun label and it was intended to help bring about positive change in Africa through a fair trade-based relationship rather than by direct aid. Hewson said they wanted to show that you can make a business where everybody in the chain is treated well. Since it was launched, Edun has sourced globally from various countries both in and out of Africa, including Peru, Tunisia, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Morocco, Uganda, the company now produces 85% of its collection in Africa. Edun struggled as a business, and Ali Hewson later admitted that she and Bono had incorrectly focused on the rather than the product. She also admitted that this led to a fall in quality, with their African suppliers, Edun faced problems with the quality and delivery times of the goods, and causing most of the stores to drop it. It lost €9.7 million in 2007 and did still worse in 2008, the New York City and Dublin based company ran up against the limitations of Africa manufacturing. The couple put around $20 million of their own money into the brand and they initially resisted the idea of manufacturing in China, because it might run against the brand’s mission. LVMH Inc. chief executive Mark Weber confirmed the account and added in a statement, While this business is small today, following LVMHs investment in the brand, EDUN appointed a new creative director, Sharon Wauchob. At the same year Ali Hewson and Bono appeared wearing EDUN in a Louis Vuitton campaign, shot by photographer Annie Leibovitz in Africa. In season 2010 Edun brought back the focus to the runaway, eduns new designer, Ms. Wauchob, trained at Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design in London. By March 2011, the company had 8 factories in Africa 37% of the collection in September 2011 was produced in Africa and this number was expected to increase to 40% by 2013, according to Hewson. In April 2013 Danielle Sherman became the director for the brand. Sherman has been with Alexander Wang since 2008, most recently as design director of the mens and womens T by Alexander Wang lines, earlier, she cofounded The Row with Ashley and Mary-Kate Olsen from 2005 to 2007. Bono and I are impressed by her creativity and believe her unique approach, the collection will launch in stores such as Barneys, Colette, Liberty, United Arrows and Beams. Sherman was quoted as in a US Vogue feature documenting her first trip to Africa saying, Matching the design mission, under her direction 85% of the collection will be manufactured in Sub-Saharan AfricaEDUN – EDUN
41. Product Red – Product Red, stylized as RED, is a licensed brand owned by that seeks to engage the private sector in raising awareness and funds to help eliminate HIV/AIDS in 8 African countries. It is licensed to companies including Nike, American Express. The Coca-Cola Company, Starbucks, Converse, Electronic Arts, Head, Buckaroo, Penguin Classics, Gap, Armani, Hallmark, SAP, Beats Electronics, Supercell and the YouTube personality PewDiePie. The concept was founded in 2006 by U2 frontman and activist Bono, together with Bobby Shriver of the ONE Campaign, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a recipient of Product Reds money. As part of a new model, each partner company creates a product with the Product Red logo. In return for the opportunity to increase revenue through the Product Red license, as Product Red is owned by Red, a portion of the contributions received from the partner brands is assigned as profit. Such an amalgamation of humanitarian aid and for-profit businesses is one example of ethical consumerism, in 2012, ONE acquired as a division of ONE. Both organizations were co-founded by Bono and Bobby Shriver, created in 2002, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria supports large-scale prevention, treatment and care programs for these three infectious diseases. Today, a quarter of all funding for HIV/AIDS-related programs, over half for tuberculosis. 100% of the funds generated by Red partners and events goes to Global Fund programs that provide medical care, no overhead is taken by either Red or the Global Fund. Red is the largest private donor to the Global Fund. In November 2013, Jony Ive and Marc Newson hosted an auction at Sothebys to raise millions for the fund, the event was attended by major celebrities including Bono, The Edge, Hayden Panettiere, and Courtney Love. A design company that makes pushchairs for infants and toddlers, bugaboo contributes 1% of its total revenue to The Global Fund. 1% of spending is donated to the Global Fund, Gap sells a line of merchandise including T-shirts, jackets, scarves, gloves, jewelry, bags and purses. Gap donates 50% of all Product Red profits directly to the Global Fund, Converse is selling a shoe made from African mud cloth. Giorgio Armani has announced a line of Emporio Armani products that include clothes, jewelry, perfume, motorola has announced special editions of their SLVR, KRZR and RAZR mobile phones, with a 50% profit of each purchase going to the Global Fund. Canon released a version of their SD990 camera along with a case in 2008/2009. The Independent newspaper is in partnership with Product Red, the Hotel Café tour is presented by MySpace and Product RedProduct Red – A Product Red iPod Nano, one of the products included in Product Red
42. Nobel Peace Prize – Per Alfred Nobels will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year, the prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, and the Parliament. Due to its nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history. Alfred Nobels will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category, as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear, some Nobel scholars suggest it was Nobels way to compensate for developing destructive forces. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime, ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was also instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company and it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobels death. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee specifically invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize, the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was again in 2010 with 237 nominations, in 2011. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, however, have released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for review is created. Advisers usually have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate. The Committee seeks to achieve a decision, but this is not always possible. The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year, the Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. The Nobel laureate receives a diploma, a medal, and a document confirming the prize amount, as of 2013, the prize was worth 10 million SEKNobel Peace Prize – Alfred Nobel
43. Knighthood – A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, furthermore, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, cavalier, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which also meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100. The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, and, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the later Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, equus, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived. Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in LatinKnighthood – David I of Scotland knighting a squire
44. Queen Elizabeth II – Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, however, support for the monarchy remains high. Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Elizabeth, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved. During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, later that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a later son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of successionQueen Elizabeth II – The Queen in March 2015
45. Bill Gates – William Henry Bill Gates III is an American business magnate, investor, author, and philanthropist. In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen co-founded Microsoft, which became the worlds largest PC software company, during his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, and was the largest individual shareholder until May 2014. Gates has authored and co-authored several books, since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the worlds wealthiest people and was the wealthiest from 1995 to 2007, again in 2009, and has been since 2014. Between 2009 and 2014, his wealth doubled from US$40 billion to more than US$82 billion, between 2013 and 2014, his wealth increased by US$15 billion. Gates is currently the richest person in the world, with a net worth of US$85.6 billion as of February 2017. Gates is one of the entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and he gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014, taking on a new post as adviser to support the then newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington on October 28,1955 and he is the son of William H. Gates Sr. and Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German, Irish, and Scots-Irish and his father was a prominent lawyer, and his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates maternal grandfather was JW Maxwell, a bank president. Gates has one sister, Kristi, and one younger sister. He is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or Trey because his father had the II suffix, early on in his life, Gates parents had a law career in mind for him. When Gates was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches. The family encouraged competition, one reported that it didnt matter whether it was hearts or pickleball or swimming to the dock. There was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing, at 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory schoolBill Gates – Gates in June 2015.
46. Melinda Gates – Melinda Ann Gates, DBE is an American philanthropist, former Microsoft employee, and wife of Microsoft founder Bill Gates. She is co-founder of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and she worked at Microsoft, where she was project manager for Microsoft Bob, Encarta and Expedia. Melinda Ann French was born on August 15,1964 in Dallas, Texas and she is the second of four children to Raymond Joseph French Jr. an aerospace engineer, and Elaine Agnes Amerland, a homemaker. French has a sister and two younger brothers. French, a Roman Catholic, attended St. Monica Catholic School and she graduated as valedictorian from Ursuline Academy of Dallas in 1982. She earned a degree in computer science and economics from Duke University in 1986. At Duke, French was a member of the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority, shortly after graduating from college, she joined Microsoft and participated in the development of many of Microsoft’s multimedia products, including Publisher, Microsoft Bob, Encarta, and Expedia. She met Bill Gates while working at Microsoft, in 1994, she married Gates in a private ceremony held in Lanai, Hawaii. Shortly thereafter, she left Microsoft to focus on starting and raising her family and her last position there was General Manager of Information Products. Melinda and Bill Gates have three children, daughters Jennifer Katharine Gates and Phoebe Adele Gates, and son Rory John Gates, the family resides in Bill Gatess house on the shore of Lake Washington near Seattle. Gates served as a member of Duke Universitys board of trustees from 1996 to 2003 and she attends Bilderberg Group conferences and holds a seat on the board of directors of the Washington Post company. She retired from the board of Drugstore. com in August 2006 to spend time working for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. As of 2014, Melinda and Bill Gates have donated $28 billion to the Foundation, Gates and her husband were floated as possible vice presidential picks, according to an email from Hillary Clintons campaign chairman John Podesta. In 2002, Melinda and Bill Gates received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, in December 2005, Melinda and Bill Gates were named by Time as Persons of the Year alongside Bono. Melinda and Bill Gates received the Spanish Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation on May 4,2006, in recognition of their world impact through charitable giving. In May 2006, in honor of her work to improve the lives of children locally and around the world, in 2007, Melinda Gates received an honorary doctorate in medicine from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. On June 12,2009, Melinda and Bill Gates received honorary degrees from the University of Cambridge and their benefaction of $210 million in 2000 set up the Gates Cambridge Trust, which funds postgraduate scholars from outside the UK to study at the University. In 2013, she was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters by Duke University as a tribute for her philanthropic commitment and she was also ranked #3 in Forbes 2013 and 2014 lists of the 100 Most Powerful Women, #4 in 2012 and #6 in 2011Melinda Gates – Melinda Gates at the World Economic Forum in 2011
47. Time Person of the Year – Person of the Year is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that for better or for worse. Has done the most to influence the events of the year, the tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, with Time editors contemplating the news makers of the year. The idea was also an attempt to remedy the editorial embarrassment earlier that year of not having aviator Charles Lindbergh on its cover following his historic trans-Atlantic flight. By the end of the year, it was decided that a story featuring Lindbergh as the Man of the Year would serve both purposes. Despite the name, the title is not just granted to individuals, pairs of people such as married couples and political opponents, classes of people, the computer, and Endangered Earth have all been selected for the special year-end issue. There have been several groups as Time Person of the Year, such as The Peacemakers and he subsequently received the title again in 1959, while in office. Franklin D. Roosevelt is the person to have received the title three times, first as president-elect and later as the incumbent president. In 1999, the title was changed to Person of the Year, Women who have been selected for recognition after the renaming include The Whistleblowers, Melinda Gates, and Angela Merkel in 2015. American Women were recognized as a group in 1975, scientists edition which exclusively featured men on its cover. It wasnt until the 1969 edition on The Middle Americans did the title embrace Man and Woman of the Year, in 1949, Winston Churchill was named Man of the Half-Century, and the last issue of 1989 named Mikhail Gorbachev as Man of the Decade. The December 31,1999 issue of Time named Albert Einstein the Person of the Century, franklin D. Roosevelt and Mahatma Gandhi were chosen as runners-up. However, Time magazine points out that figures such as Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev. Times Person of the Year 2001, immediately following the September 11,2001 attacks, was New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani. The stated rules of selection, the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest effect on the years news, the article seemed to imply that Osama bin Laden was a stronger candidate than Giuliani, as Adolf Hitler was a stronger candidate than Albert Einstein. The selections were based on what the magazine describes as who they believed had a stronger influence on history. Film-maker Michael Moore claims that director Mel Gibson cost him the opportunity to be Person of the Year alongside Gibson in 2004, Moore said in an interview I got a call right after the 04 election from an editor from Time Magazine. He said, Time Magazine has picked you and Mel Gibson to be Times Person of the Year to put on the cover, Right and Left, Mel, the only thing you have to do is pose for a picture with each other. They call Mel up, he agrees and they set the date and time in LATime Person of the Year
48. Ordre des Arts et des Lettres – Its purpose is the recognition of significant contributions to the arts, literature, or the propagation of these fields. Its origin is attributed to the Order of Saint-Michel as acknowledged by French government sources, membership is not, however, limited to French nationals, recipients include numerous foreign luminaries. Foreign recipients are admitted into the Order, without condition of age, the Order has three grades, Commandeur — medallion worn on necklet, up to twenty recipients a year. Officier — medallion worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast, chevalier — medallion worn on ribbon on left breast, up to 200 recipients a year. The reverse central disc features the head of Marianne on a golden background, the Commanders badge is topped by a gilt twisted ring. The ribbon of the Order is green with four white stripes, however, in the statutes there is a clause saying Les Officiers et les Commandeurs de la Légion dhonneur peuvent être directement promus à un grade équivalent dans lOrdre des Arts et des Lettres. Ribbons of the French military and civil awards Ordre des arts et des lettres du Québec, a Quebec order based in part on the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Nominations dans lOrdre des Arts et LettresOrdre des Arts et des Lettres – Medals of the commandeur, officier and chevalier
49. Two Hearts Beat as One – Two Hearts Beat as One is a song by rock band U2. It is the track on their 1983 album, War. Two Hearts Beat as One features a bassline by Adam Clayton and achieved moderate success as a single in the UK. Unlike the other videos from the album, it has never included on any of the bands video compilations. It was released as the second single in the US, UK and Australia, as opposed to Sunday Bloody Sunday. Both singles were released in Japan, the song was first played in concert on 26 February 1983, at the first show of the War Tour and was played at almost all concerts on that tour. On the second leg of the War Tour, Two Hearts Beat as One began to follow Surrender and this transition survived to the Unforgettable Fire Tour. However, on the leg of the Unforgettable Fire Tour, Two Hearts Beat as One was separated from Surrender. Its last tour appearance on 29 April 1985, in Atlanta and it made a further subsequent appearance when it was performed as part of the encore at a Lovetown Tour concert on 27 December 1989, in the Point Depot, Dublin. The song was not played again for 25 years until a New York concert during the Innocence + Experience Tour. A live performance of the song at Red Rocks Amphitheatre appears on the DVD release of the concert film Live at Red Rocks, list of covers of U2 songs – Two Hearts Beat as One Lyrics of this song at MetroLyricsTwo Hearts Beat as One – 7" vinyl
50. War (U2 album) – War is the third studio album by Irish rock band U2. It was produced by Steve Lillywhite, and was released on 28 February 1983 on Island Records, U2 recorded the album from September–November 1982 at Windmill Lane Studios with Lillywhite producing, the groups third consecutive album made at the studio with the producer. Musically, it is also harsher than the previous releases. The album has been described as the record where the band turned pacifism itself into a crusade, War was a commercial success for the band, knocking Michael Jacksons Thriller from the top of the charts to become the bands first number-one album in the UK. It reached number 12 in the US and became their first gold-certified album there, while poorly received by British critics at the time of release, War has since gained critical acclaim. In 2012, the album was ranked number 223 on Rolling Stone magazines list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, the group supported the album with the War Tour through the end of 1983. In August 1982, Bono and Ali honeymooned in Jamaica and it has been noted that it was not a typical honeymoon, as Bono reportedly worked on the lyrics for the upcoming album. The lyrics to New Years Day had its origins in a love song Bono wrote for his wife, the band began recording the album in September 1982 at Windmill Lane Studios in Dublin with producer Steve Lillywhite, their third consecutive record at the studio with the producer. The albums opener, Sunday Bloody Sunday, an ardent protest song, stems from a guitar riff, following an argument with his girlfriend, and a period of doubt in his own song-writing abilities, the Edge – feeling depressed. Channeled fear and frustration and self-loathing into a piece of music, Early versions of the song opened with the line, Dont talk to me about the rights of the IRA, UDA. After Bono had reworked the lyrics, the band recorded the song, the opening drum pattern soon developed into the songs hook. A local violinist, Steve Wickham, approached the Edge one morning at a bus stop, in the studio for only half a day, Wickhams electric violin became the final instrumental contribution to the song. During the sessions for Sunday Bloody Sunday, Lillywhite encouraged drummer Larry Mullen, Jr. to use a click track, a chance meeting with Andy Newmark – a drummer who used a click track religiously – changed Mullens mind. Mullen used the track to stay in time for other songs on the album. Mullen said of the album in a 1983 interview, I think the drumming has always been pretty simple, for War I use a click track, something I havent used before, its a way of keeping time in my headphones. When I listened to the music in time with the click track I knew I had to bring it down to the real basics, hopefully for the next LP it will be more complicated, Ill move on. I think of it as a progression for myself because I learned a lot recording this album, just about my own style. I think there is a style on War where there isnt on the previous albumsWar (U2 album) – War