1. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
2. U.S. state – A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government. States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959. The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substanceU.S. state – U.S. states
3. Washington, D.C. – Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standingWashington, D.C. – Clockwise from top left: Smithsonian Institution Building, Rock Creek Park, National Mall (including the Lincoln Memorial in the foreground), Howard Theatre and the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
4. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
5. Pacific Ocean – The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan, trade, and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese also reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions also discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska, Guam and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nationsPacific Ocean – Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean; see also Waldseemüller map (1507).
6. Bering Sea – The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises a deep basin, which then rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves. The Bering Sea is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula, Bristol Bay is the portion of the Bering Sea which separates the Alaska Peninsula from mainland Alaska. The Bering Sea ecosystem includes resources within the jurisdiction of the United States and Russia, the interaction between currents, sea ice, and weather makes for a vigorous and productive ecosystem. Most scientists believe that during the most recent ice age, sea level was low enough to humans to migrate east on foot from Asia to North America across what is now the Bering Strait. Other animals including megafauna migrated in both directions and this is commonly referred to as the Bering land bridge and is believed by most, though not all scientists, to be the first point of entry of humans into the Americas. There is a portion of the Kula Plate in the Bering Sea. The Kula Plate is an ancient tectonic plate that used to subduct under Alaska, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bering Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limit of the Chuckchi Sea, Islands of the Bering Sea include, Pribilof Islands, including St. Paul Island Komandorski Islands, including Bering Island St. Lawrence Island Diomede Islands King Island St. The Bering Sea shelf break is the dominant driver of productivity in the Bering Sea. This zone, where the continental shelf drops off into the North Aleutians Basin is also known as the “Greenbelt”. Nutrient upwelling from the waters of the Aleutian basin flowing up the slope. The second driver of productivity in the Bering Sea is seasonal sea ice that, in part, seasonal melting of sea ice causes an influx of lower salinity water into the middle and other shelf areas, causing stratification and hydrographic effects which influence productivity. In addition to the hydrographic and productivity influence of melting sea ice, some evidence suggests that great changes to the Bering Sea ecosystem have already occurred. Warm water conditions in the summer of 1997 resulted in a bloom of low energy coccolithophorid phytoplankton. A long record of carbon isotopes, which is reflective of primary trends of the Bering Sea. Trends in carbon isotope ratios in whale baleen samples suggest that a 30–40% decline in average seasonal primary productivity has occurred over the last 50 years, the implication is that the carrying capacity of the Bering Sea is much lower now than it has been in the past. Other marine mammals include walrus, Steller sea lion, northern fur seal, orca, the Bering Sea is very important to the seabirds of the worldBering Sea – Satellite photo of the Bering Sea – Alaska is on the top right, Siberia on the top left
7. Arctic Ocean – The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the worlds five major oceans. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean, located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic Ocean is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America. It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter, the summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The US National Snow and Ice Data Center uses satellite data to provide a record of Arctic sea ice cover. The Arctic may become ice free for the first time in human history within a few years or by 2040, for much of European history, the north polar regions remained largely unexplored and their geography conjectural. He was probably describing loose sea ice known today as growlers or bergy bits, his Thule was probably Norway, early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as land or water. The makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank and this lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an Open Polar Sea was persistent, john Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. In the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, the explorers Elisha Kane, even quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury included a description of the Open Polar Sea in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a crossing of the Arctic Ocean. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard, with air support. The first nautical transit of the pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean, scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometres by ice floes. In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was heavily contested, the Arctic Ocean occupies a roughly circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2, almost the size of Antarctica. The coastline is 45,390 km long and it is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, Greenland, and by several islands. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea, countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are, Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada and the United States. There are several ports and harbours around the Arctic Ocean In Alaska, in Canada, ships may anchor at Churchill in Manitoba, Nanisivik in Nunavut, Tuktoyaktuk or Inuvik in the Northwest territoriesArctic Ocean – A bathymetric / topographic of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
8. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa. The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in later maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the otherAtlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
9. Alaska – Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas, California, and Montana. It is also larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase. The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the regionAlaska – Denali is the highest peak in North America.
10. Hawaii – Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21,1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania and it is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U. S. state not located in the Americas, the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast, Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and the Island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group, it is called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi Island to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania, Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U. S. states. It is the state with an Asian plurality. The states coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida, the state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that was named for Hawaiʻiloa and he is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is very similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori, Rarotongan and Samoan. According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the home, but in Hawaii. A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as an official state language. The title of the constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii, diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the okina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications, department and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel lengthHawaii – Hawaii from space, January 26, 2014
11. Insular area – An insular area is a territory of the United States of America that is neither a part of one of the fifty U. S. states nor the U. S. federal district of Washington, D. C. The term insular possession is sometimes used. The people of American Samoa are U. S. nationals by place of birth, or they are U. S. citizens by parentage, or naturalization after residing in a State for three months. Nationals are free to move around and seek employment within the United States without immigration restrictions but cannot vote or hold office outside of American Samoa. Residents of insular areas do not pay U. S. federal income taxes but are required to pay other U. S. federal taxes such as taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes. Individuals working for the government pay federal income taxes while all residents are required to pay federal payroll taxes. While these nations participate in many otherwise domestic programs, they are distinct from the United States. U. S. insular areas can be incorporated territories or unincorporated territories, since the admission of Hawaii to the Union in 1959, there have been no incorporated territories other than the uninhabited Palmyra Atoll. Several overseas unincorporated territories are now independent countries including the Philippines, the Federated States of Micronesia, unlike within the states, sovereignty over insular areas rests not with the local people, but in Congress. In most areas, Congress has granted considerable self-rule through an Organic Act which functions as a local constitution, the Northwest Ordinance grants territories the right to send a non-voting delegate to the U. S. Congress. The United States government is part of international disputes over the disposition of certain maritime. See International territorial disputes of the United States, several islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific are considered insular areas of the United States. S. Administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations Trust Territory, later the U. S. entered into new political relationships with each of the four political units. One is the Northern Mariana Islands listed above, the others being the three freely associated states below. The freely associated states are the three states with a Compact of Free Association with the United States where the U. S. provides national defense, funding. Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau Philippines, granted to U. S. through the Treaty of Paris in 1898, panama Canal Zone, under effective joint Panama-U. S. control under provisions of the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty from 1903 to 1979. In November 2008 a district judge ruled that a sequence of prior Congressional actions had had the cumulative effect of changing Puerto Ricos status to incorporated. However, as of April 2011 the issue had not yet made its way through the courts, census Bureau, Geographic Areas Reference ManualInsular area – Locations of the insular areas of the United States
12. Declaration of Independence (United States) – Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast, a committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term Declaration of Independence is not used in the document itself, John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The next day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail, The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, but Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was approved. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms and it was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for printing has been lost. Jeffersons original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, the best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, the sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric, and his policies and this has been called one of the best-known sentences in the English language, containing the most potent and consequential words in American history. The passage came to represent a standard to which the United States should strive. Believe me, dear Sir, there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose, and in this, I think I speak the sentiments of America. By the time that the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, relations had been deteriorating between the colonies and the mother country since 1763. Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase revenue from the colonies, such as the Stamp Act of 1765, Parliament believed that these acts were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep them in the British Empire. Many colonists, however, had developed a different conception of the empire, the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, and colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them. This tax dispute was part of a divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliaments authority in the colonies. In the colonies, however, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights that no government could violate, after the Townshend Acts, some essayists even began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at allDeclaration of Independence (United States) – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
13. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
14. 1776 – As of the start of 1776, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. The year is dominated by events of the American Revolutionary War, january 1 – American Revolutionary War, Burning of Norfolk, The town of Norfolk, Virginia, is destroyed by the combined actions of the British Royal Navy and occupying Patriot forces. January 10 – American Revolution, Thomas Paine publishes his pamphlet Common Sense written by an Englishman in Philadelphia arguing for independence from British rule in the Thirteen Colonies. January 20 – American Revolution, South Carolina Loyalists led by Robert Cunningham sign a petition from prison agreeing to all demands for peace by the state government of South Carolina. Several loyalist leaders are killed in the ensuing battle, the patriot victory virtually ends all British authority in the province. March – Restrictions on the trade in Sweden are lifted. March 2–3 – American Revolutionary War, Battle of Nassau, The American Continental Navy and Marines make an assault on Nassau. Battle of the Rice Boats, American Patriots resist the Royal Navy on the Savannah River, British control over the Province of Georgia is lost. March 4 – American Revolutionary War, American Patriots capture Dorchester Heights dominating the port of Boston, march 9 – Scottish economist Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations in London. March 17 – American Revolutionary War, Threatened by Patriot cannons on Dorchester Heights, march 28 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco. May 1 – Adam Weishaupt founds the Illuminati in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, may 4 – Rhode Island becomes the first American colony to renounce allegiance to King George III of Great Britain. May 15–26 – American Revolution, Battle of The Cedars, British forces skirmish with the American Continental Army around Les Cèdres, June 6 – A fire destroys major parts of the town of Askersund, Sweden. June 7 – American Revolution, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposes to the Second Continental Congress that these colonies are. June 8 – American Revolution, Battle of Trois-Rivières, The invading American Continental Army is driven back at Trois-Rivières, June 11 – American Revolution, The Continental Congress appoints a Committee of Five to draft a Declaration of Independence. June 12 – American Revolution, Virginia Declaration of Rights by George Mason adopted by the Virginia Convention of Delegates, June 15 – American Revolution, Delaware Separation Day, The Delaware General Assembly votes to suspend government under the British Crown. June 17 – Lt. June 28 – American Revolutionary War, June 29 – American Revolution, Battle of Turtle Gut Inlet – The American Continental Navy successfully challenges the British Royal Navy blockade off New Jersey. July 2 – American Revolution, The final U. S, the Continental Congress passes the Lee Resolution. July 4 – American Revolution, United States Declaration of Independence, july 8 – American Revolution, The Liberty Bell rings in Philadelphia for the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence1776 – January 10: Common Sense published
15. Treaty of Paris (1783) – The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire and the United States, on lines exceedingly generous to the latter. Details included fishing rights and restoration of property and prisoners of war, only Article 1 of the treaty, which is the legal underpinning of United States existence as a sovereign country, remains in force. Peace negotiations began in April 1782, and continued through the summer, representing the United States were Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, and John Adams. David Hartley and Richard Oswald represented Great Britain, the treaty was signed at the Hotel dYork in Paris on September 3,1783, by Adams, Franklin, Jay, and Hartley. Regarding the American Treaty, the key episodes came in September,1782, France was exhausted by the war, and everyone wanted peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war until it could capture Gibraltar from the British. Vergennes came up with the deal that Spain would accept instead of Gibraltar, the United States would gain its independence but be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain would take the north of the Ohio River. In the area south of that would be set up an independent Indian state under Spanish control and it would be an Indian barrier state. However, the Americans realized that they could get a deal directly from London. John Jay promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France, the British Prime Minister Lord Shelburne agreed. He was in charge of the British negotiations and he now saw a chance to split the United States away from France. The western terms were that the United States would gain all of the area east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, the northern boundary would be almost the same as today. The United States would gain fishing rights off Canadian coasts, and it was a highly favorable treaty for the United States, and deliberately so from the British point of view. Prime Minister Shelburne foresaw highly profitable trade between Britain and the rapidly growing United States, as indeed came to pass. Great Britain also signed agreements with France and Spain. In the treaty with Spain, the territories of East and West Florida were ceded to Spain, Spain also received the island of Minorca, the Bahama Islands, Grenada, and Montserrat, captured by the French and Spanish, were returned to Britain. The treaty with France was mostly about exchanges of captured territory, the United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14,1784. Copies were sent back to Europe for ratification by the parties involvedTreaty of Paris (1783) – Benjamin West 's painting of the delegations at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.
16. Superpower – Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale. This is done through the combined-means of technological, cultural, military and economic strength, as well as international relations. Traditionally, superpowers are preeminent among the great powers, the term was first applied to the British Empire, the United States, and the Soviet Union. At the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, There have been many attempts by historians to apply the term superpower to a variety of past entities. However, since even the most powerful empires of old had little to no means to exert influence over very long distances, no agreed definition of what is a superpower exists, and may differ between sources. This was because the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union had proved themselves to be capable of casting great influence in global politics and military dominance. The term in its current political meaning was coined by Dutch-American geostrategist Nicholas Spykman in a series of lectures in 1943 about the shape of a new post-war world order. A year later, in 1944, William T. R, according to him, there were three states that were superpowers, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union. According to Lyman Miller, The basic components of superpower stature may be measured along four axes of power, military, economic, political, although, many modifications may be made to this basic definition. According to Professor June Teufel Dreyer, A superpower must be able to project its power, soft and hard, in his book, Superpower, Three Choices for Americas Role in the World, Dr. There have been attempts by historians to apply the term superpower retrospectively. Recognition by historians of these states as superpowers may focus on various superlative traits exhibited by them. The two countries opposed each other ideologically, politically, militarily, and economically, the Soviet Union promoted the ideology of communism, planned economy and a one-party state, whilst the United States promoted the ideologies of liberal democracy and the free market. This was reflected in the Warsaw Pact and NATO military alliances, respectively and these alliances implied that these two nations were part of an emerging bipolar world, in contrast with a previously multipolar world. Additionally, much of the conflict between the superpowers was fought in wars, which more often than not involved issues more complex than the standard Cold War oppositions. After the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, the term began to be applied to the United States. This term, popularized by French foreign minister Hubert Védrine in the late 1990s, is controversial, one notable opponent to this theory, Samuel P. Huntington, rejects this theory in favor of a multipolar balance of power. In 1999, Samuel P. However, he rejected the claim that the world was unipolar, but that does not mean that the world is unipolar, describing it instead as a strange hybrid, a uni-multipolar system with one superpower and several major powersSuperpower – U.S. President Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev (right), former leaders of the Cold War 's two rival superpowers, meeting in Geneva in 1985. The Suez Crisis in 1956, which ended the British Empire's status as a superpower, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's only superpower. As of 2015, this status remains unchanged.
17. History of the United States – The date of the start of the history of the United States is a subject of debate among historians. In recent decades American schools and universities typically have shifted back in time to more on the colonial period. Indigenous people lived in what is now the United States for thousands of years before European colonists began to arrive, mostly from England, the Spanish built small settlements in Florida and the Southwest, and the French along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast. By the 1770s, thirteen British colonies contained two and a million people along the Atlantic coast east of the Appalachian Mountains. After the end of the French and Indian Wars in the 1760s, Tax resistance, especially the Boston Tea Party, led to punitive laws by Parliament designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. American Patriots adhered to an ideology called republicanism that emphasized civic duty, virtue. Armed conflict began in 1775 as Patriots drove the royal officials out of every colony and assembled in mass meetings, in 1776, the Second Continental Congress declared that there was a new, independent nation, the United States of America, not just a collection of disparate colonies. With large-scale military and financial support from France and the leadership of General George Washington. The peace treaty of 1783 gave the new nation the land east of the Mississippi River, the central government established by the Articles of Confederation proved ineffectual at providing stability, as it had no authority to collect taxes and had no executive officer. Congress called a convention to meet secretly in Philadelphia in 1787 and it wrote a new Constitution, which was adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights, with Washington as the first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief political and financial adviser, a strong central government was created. When Thomas Jefferson became president he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, a second and final war with Britain was fought in 1812. Encouraged by the notion of Manifest Destiny, federal territory expanded all the way to the Pacific, the U. S. always was large in terms of area, but its population was small, only 4 million in 1790. Population growth was rapid, reaching 7.2 million in 1810,32 million in 1860,76 million in 1900,132 million in 1940, Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was even faster. However, compared to European powers, the military strength was relatively limited in peacetime before 1940. The expansion was driven by a quest for land for yeoman farmers. The expansion of slavery was increasingly controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, the 1860 presidential election of Republican Abraham Lincoln was on a platform of ending the expansion of slavery and putting it on a path to extinction. Seven cotton-based deep South slave states seceded and later founded the Confederacy months before Lincolns inauguration, No nation ever recognized the Confederacy, but it opened the war by attacking Fort Sumter in 1861History of the United States – The Spanish conquistador Coronado explored parts of the American Southwest from 1540 to 1542.
18. Outline of the United States – Within the contential U. S. eight distinct physiographic divisions exist, though each is composed of several smaller physiographic subdivisions. These major divisions are, Laurentian Upland - part of the Canadian Shield that extends into the northern United States Great Lakes area, Atlantic Plain - the coastal regions of the eastern and southern parts includes the continental shelf, the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf Coast. Appalachian Highlands - lying on the side of the United States, it includes the Appalachian Mountains, Adirondacks. Interior Plains - part of the interior contentintal United States, it includes much of what is called the Great Plains, Interior Highlands - also part of the interior contentintal United States, this division includes the Ozark Plateau. Rocky Mountain System - one branch of the Cordilleran system lying far inland in the western states and it is the setting for the Grand Canyon, the Great Basin and Death Valley. Pacific Mountain System - the coastal ranges and features in the west coast of the United States. At the Declaration of Independence, the United States consisted of 13 states, economic Research Service The 50 States of the U. S. A. Collected informational links for each state History Historical Documents Collected by the National Center for Public Policy Research U. S. S, department of the Interior Other U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Official government siteOutline of the United States – An enlargeable topographic map of the contiguous United States
19. 7 World Trade Center – 7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location in the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The current structure is the building to bear that name. The original structure, part of the old World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks, the current building opened in 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York. The original 7 World Trade Center was 47 stories tall, clad in red masonry, an elevated walkway connected the building to the World Trade Center plaza. The building was situated above a Consolidated Edison power substation, which imposed unique structural design constraints, when the building opened in 1987, Silverstein had difficulties attracting tenants. In 1988, Salomon Brothers signed a lease, and became the main tenants of the building. On September 11,2001,7 WTC was damaged by debris when the nearby North Tower of the World Trade Center collapsed, the debris also ignited fires, which continued to burn throughout the afternoon on lower floors of the building. Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center began in 2002 and was completed in 2006, the building is 52 stories tall, making it the 28th-tallest in New York. It is built on a smaller footprint than the original, allowing Greenwich Street to be restored from Tribeca through the World Trade Center site, the new building is bounded by Greenwich, Vesey, Washington, and Barclay streets. A small park across Greenwich Street occupies space that was part of the buildings footprint. The current buildings design emphasizes safety, with a concrete core, wider stairways. It also incorporates numerous green design features and it was also one of the first projects accepted to be part of the Councils pilot program for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Core and Shell Development. The original 7 World Trade Center was a 47-story building, designed by Emery Roth & Sons, the building was 610 feet tall, with a trapezoidal footprint that was 330 ft long and 140 ft wide. Tishman Realty & Construction managed construction of the building, which began in 1983, in May 1987, the building opened, becoming the seventh structure of the World Trade Center. The building was constructed above a Con Edison substation that had been on the site since 1967, the substation had a caisson foundation designed to carry the weight of a future building of 25 stories containing 600,000 sq ft. The final design for 7 World Trade Center was for a larger building than originally planned when the substation was built. The structural design of 7 World Trade Center therefore included a system of gravity column transfer trusses and girders, existing caissons installed in 1967 were used, along with new ones, to accommodate the building7 World Trade Center – The new 7 World Trade Center from the southeast (2008)
20. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of OrangeNew York City – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
21. World Trade Center site – The World Trade Center site, formerly known as Ground Zero after the September 11 attacks, is a 14. 6-acre area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks, the site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the sites land, developer Larry Silverstein holds the lease to retail and office space in four of the sites buildings. While the PANYNJ is often identified as the owner of the WTC site and it is unclear who owns 2.5 acres of the site, being land where streets had been before the World Trade Center was built. The western portion of the World Trade Center site was originally under the Hudson River and they built the first European settlement in Manhattan. The remains of the ship were buried under landfill when the shoreline was extended starting in 1797, the remains of a ship from the eighteenth century were found in 2010 during excavation work at the site. The ship, believed to be a Hudson River sloop, was found just south of where the Twin Towers used to stand, the area that was cleared for construction of the original World Trade Center complex was previously occupied by various electronics stores in what was called Radio Row. These streets and stores were demolished in the 1960s to make way for the World Trade Center, the original World Trade Center was thought of as a North American cultural icon. At the time of their completion the Twin Towers, the original 1 World Trade Center, at 417 metres, the other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center,4 WTC,5 WTC,6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985, with a construction cost of $400 million, the complex was located in New York Citys Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet of office space. The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13,1975, a bombing on February 26,1993 and a robbery on January 14,1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a company to manage. The towers collapsed within two hours of the collisions, after the collapse of the World Trade Center, hospital workers and law enforcement officers began referring to the World Trade Center site as Ground Zero. The collapse of the towers spread dust across New York City, to organize the cleanup and search for survivors and for human remains, the New York City Fire Department divided the disaster site into four sectors, each headed by its own chief. Early estimates suggested that debris removal would take a year, but cleanup ended in May 2002, under budget, three years later, in February 2005, the New York City Medical Examiners office ended its process of identifying human remains at the site. According to NIST, when WTC1 collapsed, falling debris struck 7 World Trade Center, the uncontrolled fires ultimately led to the progressive collapse of the structure. Portions of the South Tower also damaged the nearby Deutsche Bank Building, by 2002, Deutsche Bank determined that its building was unsalvageable and it was scheduled for demolition. Cleanup workers trucked most of the materials and debris from Ground Zero to Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten IslandWorld Trade Center site – Aerial photo of the World Trade Center site, as it appeared on September 23, 2001
22. Lower Manhattan – Lower Manhattan is defined most commonly as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, and on the south by New York Harbor. The Lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street and it includes the Financial District and the World Trade Center site. At the islands southern tip is Battery Park, City Hall is just to the north of the Financial District, also south of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area. The neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers on the west side, at the streets east end is the giant Manhattan Municipal Building, North of Chambers Street and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New Yorks oldest Chinatown neighborhood. Many court buildings and other government offices are located in this area. The Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal, North of Canal Street and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy, Nolita, and the East Village. Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, Gramercy, the area that would eventually encompass modern day New York City was inhabited by the Lenape people. These groups of culturally and linguistically identical Native Americans traditionally spoke an Algonquian language now referred to as Unami, European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading post in Lower Manhattan, later called New Amsterdam in 1626. The first fort was built at the Battery to protect New Netherland, soon thereafter, most likely in 1626, construction of Fort Amsterdam began. Later, the Dutch West Indies Company imported African slaves to serve as laborers, they helped to build the wall that defended the town against English, early directors included Willem Verhulst and Peter Minuit. Willem Kieft became director in 1638 but five years later was embroiled in Kiefts War against the Native Americans, the Pavonia Massacre, across the Hudson River in present-day Jersey City resulted in the death of 80 natives in February 1643. Following the massacre, Algonquian tribes joined forces and nearly defeated the Dutch, the Dutch Republic sent additional forces to the aid of Kieft, leading to the overwhelming defeat of the Native Americans and a peace treaty on August 29,1645. On May 27,1647, Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as director general upon his arrival, the colony was granted self-government in 1652, and New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. The first mayors of New Amsterdam, Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier, were appointed in that year, in 1664, the English conquered the area and renamed it New York after the Duke of York. At that time, people of African descent made up 20% of the population of the city, with European settlers numbering approximately 1,500, during the mid 1600s, farms of free blacks covered 130 acres where Washington Square Park later developed. The Dutch briefly regained the city in 1673, renaming the city New Orange, the new English rulers of the formerly Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland renamed the settlement New York. As the colony grew and prospered, sentiment also grew for greater autonomy, by 1700, the Lenape population of New York had diminished to 200. By 1703, 42% of households in New York had slaves, the 1735 libel trial of John Peter Zenger in the city was a seminal influence on freedom of the press in North AmericaLower Manhattan – Lower Manhattan viewed from Brooklyn in September 2014
23. Collapse of the World Trade Center – Two of the four hijacked airliners crashed into the Twin Towers, one into the North Tower and the other into the South Tower. The collapse of the Twin Towers destroyed the rest of the complex, the South Tower collapsed at 9,59 am, less than an hour after being hit by the second hijacked airliner, and at 10,28 am the North Tower collapsed. Later that day,7 World Trade Center collapsed at 5,21 pm from fires that had started when the North Tower collapsed, as a result of the attacks to the towers, a total of 2,763 people died. Of the people who died in the towers,2,192 were civilians,343 were firefighters, aboard the two airplanes,147 civilians and 10 hijackers also died. They also presented recommendations for more detailed engineering studies of the disaster, the BPS team investigation was later followed by a more detailed investigation conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which also consulted outside engineering entities. This investigation was completed in September 2005. S, the cleanup of the site involved round-the-clock operations, many contractors and subcontractors, and cost hundreds of millions of dollars. As of 2014, One World Trade Center,4 World Trade Center and 7 World Trade Center have been replaced, the towers were designed as tube in tube structures, which provided tenants with open floor plans uninterrupted by columns or walls. Numerous, closely spaced perimeter columns provided much of the strength to the structure, above the tenth floor, there were 59 perimeter columns along each face of the building, and there were 47 heavier columns in the core. All of the elevators and stairwells were located in the core, the floors consisted of 4-inch-thick lightweight concrete slabs laid on a fluted steel deck. A grid of lightweight bridging trusses and main trusses supported the floors with shear connections to the concrete slab for composite action, the trusses had a span of 60 feet in the long-span areas and 35 feet in the short-span area. The trusses connected to the perimeter at alternate columns, and were therefore on 6. 8-foot centers, the top chords of the trusses were bolted to seats welded to the spandrels on the exterior side and a channel welded to interior box columns on the interior side. The floors were connected to the perimeter spandrel plates with viscoelastic dampers, the towers also incorporated a hat truss or outrigger truss located between the 107th and 110th floors, which consisted of six trusses along the long axis of core and four along the short axis. The structural engineers working on the World Trade Center considered the possibility that an aircraft could crash into the building, in July 1945, a B-25 bomber that was lost in the fog had crashed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building. A year later, a C-45F Expeditor crashed into the 40 Wall Street building, however, in an interview with the BBC, Robertson states, with the 707, the fuel load was not considered in the design, I dont know how it could have been considered. There would be a horrendous fire, a lot of people would be killed, he said. The building structure would still be there, in April 1970, the New York City Department of Air Resources ordered contractors building the World Trade Center to stop the spraying of asbestos as an insulating material. Fireproofing was incorporated in the construction and more was added after a fire in 1975 that spread to six floors before being extinguished. After the 1993 bombing, inspections found fireproofing to be deficient, jet fuel from the impact traveled down at least one elevator shaft and exploded on the 78th floor of the North Tower, as well as in the main lobbyCollapse of the World Trade Center – The collapse of 2 World Trade Center seen from Williamsburg, Brooklyn
24. Larry Silverstein – Larry A. Silverstein is an American businessman. Silverstein was born in Brooklyn, and became involved in real estate, together with his father, Silverstein separated from his business partner, Bernard Mendik, in 1977, and bought a number of large office buildings in Midtown and Lower Manhattan in the late 1970s. In 1980, Silverstein won a bid from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to construct 7 World Trade Center, to the north of the World Trade Center site. Silverstein was interested in acquiring the entire World Trade Center complex, Silverstein won the bid when a deal between the initial winner and the Port Authority fell through, and he signed the lease on July 24,2001.55 billion coverage per event. A settlement was reached in 2007, with insurers agreeing to pay out $4.55 billion, Silverstein also ran into multiple disputes with other parties in the rebuilding effort, including with the Port Authority. Silverstein was born in Bedford-Stuyvesant, in Brooklyn in 1931 into a Jewish family, growing up, Silverstein enjoyed classical music and played the piano. He attended the High School of Music and Art in New York, during college, Silverstein worked at a summer camp, where he met his wife, Klara. The couple married in 1956, and had three children, Lisa, Roger and Sharon and his wife worked as a school teacher, supporting the family on her salary for the first few years of their marriage while Silverstein attended classes at Brooklyn Law School. Silverstein became involved in real estate, together with his father, Harry G. Silverstein, in 1957, they established Silverstein Properties, as Harry G. Silverstein & Sons, and bought their first building, in Manhattan. Mendik and Silverstein continued the business after the elder Silversteins death in 1966, in 1977, Mendik divorced Annette Silverstein Mendik, with the business partnership also splitting up at that time. Mendik also cited disagreements over real estate strategies, with Mendik wanting to buy buildings while Silverstein wanted to build, after splitting with Mendik, both remained involved in the real-estate industry, but in separate firms. By 1978, Silverstein owned five buildings on Fifth Avenue, as well as 44 Wall Street, in 1980, he renovated the building at 11 West 42nd Street, and acquired the lease for the Equitable Building at 120 Broadway. In 1983, Silverstein sold the building at 711 Fifth Avenue to Coca-Cola for $57.6 million, also in 1980, Silverstein bought the building at 120 Wall Street, which was constructed in 1930. In 1980, Silverstein won a bid to lease and develop the last undeveloped parcel from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, to build the 47-story building 7 World Trade Center. During the 1990s, New York was suffering from the effects of the 1987 stock market crash, george Pataki became Governor of New York in 1995 on a campaign of cutting costs, including privatizing the World Trade Center. A sale of the property was considered too complex, so it was decided by the Port Authority to open a 99-year lease to competitive bidding. In January 2001, Silverstein, via Silverstein Properties and Westfield America, Silverstein was outbid by $30 million by Vornado Realty, with Boston Properties and Brookfield Properties also competing for the lease. However, Vornado withdrew and Silversteins bid for the lease to the World Trade Center was accepted on July 24,2001 and this was the first time in the buildings 31-year history that the complex had changed managementLarry Silverstein – The new, 52-story 7 World Trade Center
25. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – This 1, 500-square-mile port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York, the agency has its own 1, 600-member Port Authority Police Department. The Port of New York and New Jersey comprised the main point of embarkation for U. S. troops and supplies sent to Europe during World War I, the solution was the 1921 creation of the Port Authority under the supervision of the governors of the two states. By issuing its own bonds, it was independent of either state. It became one of the agencies of the metropolitan area for large-scale projects. In the early years of the 20th century, there were disputes between the states of New Jersey and New York over rail freights and boundaries. At the time, rail lines terminated on the New Jersey side of the harbor, while shipping was centered on Manhattan. Freight had to be shipped across the Hudson River in barges, the Harbor Development Commission, a joint advisory board set-up in 1917, recommended that a bi-state authority be established to oversee efficient economic development of the port district. The Port of New York Authority was established on April 30,1921 and this was the first such agency in the United States, created under a provision in the Constitution of the United States permitting interstate compacts. The idea for the Port Authority was conceived during the Progressive Era, with the Port Authority at a distance from political pressures, it was able to carry longer-term infrastructure projects irrespective of the election cycles and in a more efficient manner. In 1972 it was renamed the Port Authority of New York, throughout its history, there have been concerns about democratic accountability, or lack thereof at the Port Authority. The Port District is irregularly shaped but comprises a 1, 500-square-mile area roughly within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty, at the beginning of the 20th century, there were no road bridge or tunnel crossings between the two states. The initial tunnel crossings were completed privately by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad in 1908 and 1909, under an independent agency, the Holland Tunnel was opened in 1927, with some planning and construction pre-dating the Port Authority. With the rise in traffic, there was demand for more Hudson River crossings. Using its ability to issue bonds and collect revenue, the Port Authority has built, early projects included bridges across the Arthur Kill, which separates Staten Island from New Jersey. The Goethals Bridge, named chief engineer of the Panama Canal Commission General George Washington Goethals, connected Elizabeth, New Jersey and Howland Hook. At the south end of Arthur Kill, the Outerbridge Crossing was built and named after the Port Authoritys first chairman, construction of both bridges was completed in 1928. The Bayonne Bridge, opened in 1931, was built across the Kill van Kull, connecting Staten Island with Bayonne, the bridge was completed in October 1931, ahead of schedule and well under the estimated costsPort Authority of New York and New Jersey – Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority
26. Trapezoid – The parallel sides are called the bases of the trapezoid and the other two sides are called the legs or the lateral sides. A scalene trapezoid is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure, the first recorded use of the Greek word translated trapezoid was by Marinus Proclus in his Commentary on the first book of Euclids Elements. This article uses the term trapezoid in the sense that is current in the United States, in many other languages using a word derived from the Greek for this figure, the form closest to trapezium is used. A right trapezoid has two adjacent right angles, right trapezoids are used in the trapezoidal rule for estimating areas under a curve. An acute trapezoid has two adjacent acute angles on its longer base edge, while an obtuse trapezoid has one acute, an acute trapezoid is also an isosceles trapezoid, if its sides have the same length, and the base angles have the same measure. An obtuse trapezoid with two pairs of sides is a parallelogram. A parallelogram has central 2-fold rotational symmetry, a Saccheri quadrilateral is similar to a trapezoid in the hyperbolic plane, with two adjacent right angles, while it is a rectangle in the Euclidean plane. A Lambert quadrilateral in the plane has 3 right angles. A tangential trapezoid is a trapezoid that has an incircle, there is some disagreement whether parallelograms, which have two pairs of parallel sides, should be regarded as trapezoids. Some define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral having one pair of parallel sides. Others define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides, the latter definition is consistent with its uses in higher mathematics such as calculus. The former definition would make such concepts as the trapezoidal approximation to a definite integral ill-defined and this article uses the inclusive definition and considers parallelograms as special cases of a trapezoid. This is also advocated in the taxonomy of quadrilaterals, under the inclusive definition, all parallelograms are trapezoids. Rectangles have mirror symmetry on mid-edges, rhombuses have mirror symmetry on vertices, while squares have mirror symmetry on both mid-edges and vertices. Four lengths a, c, b, d can constitute the sides of a non-parallelogram trapezoid with a and b parallel only when | d − c | < | b − a | < d + c. The quadrilateral is a parallelogram when d − c = b − a =0, the angle between a side and a diagonal is equal to the angle between the opposite side and the same diagonal. The diagonals cut each other in mutually the same ratio, the diagonals cut the quadrilateral into four triangles of which one opposite pair are similar. The diagonals cut the quadrilateral into four triangles of which one pair have equal areasTrapezoid – The Temple of Dendur in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City
27. Consolidated Edison – In 2015, electric revenues accounted for 70. 35% of consolidated sales, gas revenues 13. 61%, steam revenues 5. 01%, and non-utility revenues of 11. 02%. Though the company provides a service to New York residents. In 1823, Con Edison’s earliest corporate predecessor, the New York Gas Light Company, was founded by a consortium of New York City investors, a year later, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1884, six gas companies combined into the Consolidated Gas Company, the New York Steam Company began providing service in lower Manhattan in 1882. After the “War of Currents”, there were more than 30 companies generating and distributing electricity in New York City, but by 1920 there were far fewer, and the New York Edison Company was clearly the leader. In 1936, with electric sales far outstripping gas sales, the company incorporated, the years that followed brought further amalgamations as Consolidated Edison acquired or merged with more than a dozen companies between 1936 and 1960. Con Edison today is the result of acquisitions, dissolutions and mergers of more than 170 individual electric, gas, on January 1,1998, following the deregulation of the utility industry in New York state, a holding company, Consolidated Edison, Inc. was formed. It is one of the nation’s largest investor-owned energy companies, with approximately $13 billion in annual revenues, the company provides a wide range of energy-related products and services to its customers through two regulated utility subsidiaries and three competitive energy businesses. Under a number of names, the company has been traded on the NYSE without interruption since 1824—longer than any other NYSE stock. The Con Edison electrical transmission system utilizes voltages of 138 kilovolts,345 kV, Con Edison is also interconnected with Public Service Electric and Gas via the Branchburg-Ramapo 500 kV line. Con Eds distribution voltages are 33 kV,27 kV,13 kV, the 93,000 miles of underground cable in the Con Edison system could wrap around the Earth 3.6 times. Nearly 36,000 miles of electric wires complement the underground system—enough cable to stretch between New York and Los Angeles 13 times. Gas service in Brooklyn, Staten Island and the rest of Queens is provided by National Grid USA, with the exception of the Rockaway peninsula, the average volume of gas that travels through Con Edison’s gas system annually could fill the Empire State Building nearly 6,100 times. Craig S. Ivey, President, Consolidated Edison Company of New York Timothy P. Cawley, President and CEO, Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. 1989, A steam pipe explosion in Gramercy Park killed three, injured 24, and required the evacuation of an apartment building due to high levels of asbestos in the air. Workers had failed to drain water from the pipe before turning the steam on, the utility also eventually pleaded guilty to lying about the absence of asbestos contamination, and paid a $2 million fine. 2004, In Manhattan, stray voltage killed a woman walking her dog in the East Village when she stepped on a metal plate. 2006, After the blackout in Queens, the company was criticized by officials for a poor record in the restoration of service to its customersConsolidated Edison – Con Ed plant on the East River at 15th Street in Manhattan, New York City. Following the September 11 attacks, the 15th Street exit from the FDR Drive, announced by the sign on the right, was permanently closed.
28. Salomon Brothers – Salomon Brothers was a Wall Street investment bank, known as a bulge bracket company. Eventually, Salomon was acquired by Travelers Group in 1998, and, following the merger with Citicorp that same year. John Gutfreund became the partner in 1978, taking the company public. During the 1980s, Salomon was noted for its innovation in the market, selling the first mortgage-backed security. Shortly thereafter, Salomon purchased home mortgages from thrifts throughout the United States and packaged them into mortgage-backed securities, later, it moved away from traditional investment banking to almost exclusively proprietary trading. Salomon had expertise in fixed income securities and trading based on daily swings in the bond market, during this period, the upper management became dissatisfied with the firms performance. Profits were small and the traders were paid in a way that was disconnected from true profitability. There were debates as to which direction the firm should head, finally, the firm decided to imitate Drexel Burnham Lambert, using its investment bankers and its own money to urge companies to restructure or engage in leveraged buyouts. As a result, the firm competed for the buyout of RJR Nabisco. At the time of the September 11,2001, attacks, Salomon Smith Barney was by far the largest tenant in 7 World Trade Center, Salomon was fined $290 million for this infraction, the largest fine ever levied on an investment bank at the time. The firm was weakened by the scandal, which led to its acquisition by Travelers Group, the scandal was then documented in the 1993 book Nightmare on Wall Street. After the acquisition, the parent company proved culturally averse to the profits and losses caused by proprietary trading, instead preferring slower. Salomon suffered a $100 million loss when it incorrectly positioned itself for the merger of MCI Communications with British Telecom which never occurred, subsequently, most of its proprietary trading business was disbanded. Two members of the Salomon Brothers bond arbitrage, John Meriwether and Myron Scholes, later became a founder and a consultant for Long-Term Capital Management, a hedge fund that collapsed in 1998. The firms top bond traders called themselves Big Swinging Dicks, and were the inspiration for the book The Bonfire of the Vanities, Salomon Brothers success and decline in the 1980s is documented in Michael Lewis 1989 book, Liars Poker. Lewis went through Salomons training program and then became a salesman at Salomon Brothers in London. The last years of Salomon Brothers, culminating in its involvement in the Long-Term Capital Management crisis, is chronicled in the 2007 book A Demon of Our Own Design, Salomon Brothers, 1910–1985, Advancing to Leadership. When Genius Failed, The Rise and Fall of Long-Term Capital Management, Nightmare on Wall Street, Salomon Brothers and the Corruption of the MarketplaceSalomon Brothers – Salomon Brothers
29. Debris – Depending on context, debris can refer to a number of different things. The first apparent use of the French word in English is in a 1701 description of the army of Prince Rupert upon its retreat from a battle with the army of Oliver Cromwell, in disaster scenarios, tornados leave behind large pieces of houses and mass destruction overall. This debris also flies around the tornado itself when it is in progress, the tornados winds capture debris it kicks up in its wind orbit, and spins it inside its vortex. The tornados wind radius is larger than the funnel itself, tsunamis and hurricanes also bring large amounts of debris, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Earthquakes rock cities to rubble debris, Geological debris sometimes moves in a stream called a debris flow. In mining, debris called attle usually consists of fragments which contain little or no ore. Marine debris is also called litter or flotsam and jetsam, objects that can constitute marine debris include used automobile tires, detergent bottles, medical wastes, discarded fishing line and nets, soda cans, and bilge waste solids. In addition to being unsightly, it can pose a threat to marine life, boats, swimmers, divers. For example, each year millions of seabirds, sea turtles, fish, as many as 30,000 northern fur seals per year get caught in abandoned fishing nets and either drown or suffocate. Whales mistake plastic bags for squid, and birds may mistake plastic pellets for fish eggs, at other times, animals accidentally eat the plastic while feeding on natural food. The largest concentration of debris is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Marine debris most commonly originates from land-based sources, various international agencies are currently working to reduce marine debris levels around the world. In meteorology, debris usually applies to the remains of human habitation and this debris is also commonly referred to as storm debris. Storm debris commonly consists of roofing material, downed tree limbs, downed signs, downed lines and poles. Storm debris can become a problem immediately after a storm, in that it often blocks access to individuals. This material frequently exists in large quantities that disposing of it becomes a serious issue for a community. In addition, storm debris is often hazardous by its nature, since, for example. Space usually refers to the remains of spacecraft that have fallen to Earth or are still orbiting EarthDebris – Obsidian debris (talus), Obsidian Dome, California.
30. Greenwich Street, Manhattan – Greenwich Street is a north-south street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. As the World Trade Center is redeveloped, the sections will be reconnected. Main east-west streets crossed include, from north to south, Christopher Street, Houston Street, Canal Street, Greenwich Street travels through the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Hudson Square, and Tribeca. North of Canal Street, traffic travels northbound on Greenwich Street, south of Canal Street, the earliest documentation of Greenwich Street came in the 1790s, when it ran parallel to the Hudson River. At that time it was called Road to Greenwich, as it was the continuous road from Lower Manhattan to Greenwich Village other than Broadway. Greenwich Street still maintained its status as an address in 1820, but by the 1850s, the wealthy residents had fled uptown. One who stayed for a time was hotel owner Amos Eno, in 1873, the Butter and Cheese Exchange opened on the street, not far from where dairy products arrived daily at the freight railroad terminals. By 1882, a generation plant of the New York Steam Company was located at Greenwich. In 1824, painter Thomas Cole, who had arrived in the U. S. in 1818, maintained his residence in a garret on Greenwich Street, exhibiting his paintings in local shops. Also located on Greenwich Street in the mid-1800s was one of the outlets of Madame Restell, actually Ann Lohman. The Greenwich Street location doubled as a facility for women who wanted to bear their child. Restell, who got rich running her enterprises, was arrested a number of times, but was able to buy her way out of trouble, and eventually built a mansion at Fifth Avenue and 52nd Street. In 1867, engineer Charles T. Harvey managed to get permission from the New York State Legislature to build a short stretch of elevated track as an experiment, eventually, this would become the Ninth Avenue El, which was demolished in 1940. Greenwich means Green village, with the derived from Latin vicus through Saxon wick. Of the two roads, Greenwich Street was the shorter, more scenic and popular route to the village, but often flooded until the 19th century, the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line runs under Greenwich Street from Vesey Street south to its end. The Cortlandt Street and Rector Street stations serve it directly, other subway stations serve Greenwich Street from nearby. The Christopher Street PATH train station is located on Christopher Street just east of Greenwich Street, the World Trade Center PATH station is located at Vesey and Greenwich Streets. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub is being built between Greenwich and Church Streets, to connect the five stations at the World Trade Center site, the combined station will connect via the Dey Street Passageway with the Fulton CenterGreenwich Street, Manhattan – Looking south from near North Moore Street
31. TriBeCa – Tribeca /traɪˈbɛkə/, originally written as TriBeCa, is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City. Its name is an abbreviation from Triangle Below Canal Street. The triangle, or more accurately, a trapezoid, is bounded by Canal Street, West Street, Broadway, the neighborhood is home to the Tribeca Film Festival. The Tribeca name came to be applied to the south of Canal Street. Lispenard Street, east–west as is Canal, is two blocks long and creates the first block south of Canal from West Broadway to Broadway. The Canal–Lispenard block that runs from Church Street to Broadway is wide at Church Street but is narrower at Broadway, thus, it appears somewhat triangular on City maps, unlike a rectangle as most city blocks are depicted. The Lispenard Street residents decided to name their group the Triangle Below Canal Block Association, once the “newspaper of record” began referring to the neighborhood as Tribeca, it stuck. This was related by former resident and councilmember for the area, Kathryn Freed, the area was among the first residential neighborhoods developed in New York beyond the boundaries of the city during colonial times, with residential development beginning in the late 18th century. Several streets in the area are named after Anthony Lispenard Bleecker, Lispenard Street, as well as Bleecker Street in NoHo, are named for similar reasons. By the mid-19th century the area transformed into a center, with large numbers of store. The area was served by the IRT Ninth Avenue Line. However, by the 1960s, Tribecas industrial base had all but vanished, since the 1980s, large scale conversion of the area has transformed Tribeca into an upscale residential area. For 15 years, the annual walking tour through artist studios in Tribeca has allowed people to get a unique glimpse into the lives of Tribecas best creative talent. Tribeca suffered both physically and financially after the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks, but government grants, the Tribeca Film Festival was established to help contribute to the long-term recovery of lower Manhattan after 9/11. The festival also celebrates New York City as a filmmaking center. The mission of the festival is to enable the international film community. Tribeca is a filming location for movies and television shows. By the early 21st century, Tribeca became one of Manhattans most fashionable and desirable neighborhoods, in 2006, Forbes magazine ranked its 10013 zip code as New York Citys most expensiveTriBeCa – Hudson Street at North Moore Street in Tribeca
32. Battery Park – Battery Park is a 25-acre public park located at the Battery, the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City, facing New York Harbor. The area and park are named for the batteries that were positioned there in the citys early years to protect the settlement behind them. The southern shoreline of Manhattan Island had long known as The Battery since the 17th century when the area was part of the Dutch Settlement of New Amsterdam. At the time, a battery there served to protect the seaward approaches to the town. The relatively modern park was created by landfill starting from 1855. Skyscrapers now occupy most of the land, stopping abruptly where the park begins. While the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel and Battery Park Underpass were under construction from 1940–52, peter Minuit Plaza was built in 1955, the East Coast Memorial was dedicated in 1963. Battery Park was included within a group of historic waterfront sites designated Harbor Park, by the government of New York State, the Battery Park Conservancy, founded in 1994 by still-current President Warrie Price, has undertaken and funded the restoration and improvement of the once shop-worn park. In 2015, the New York City Department of Parks and the Battery Conservancy announced that the park would revert to its historic name, at the other end of the park is Battery Gardens restaurant, next to the United States Coast Guard Battery Building. Along the waterfront, Statue Cruises offers ferries to the Statue of Liberty, the park is also the site of the East Coast Memorial which commemorates U. S. servicemen who died in coastal waters of the western Atlantic Ocean during World War II, and several other memorials. Castle Clinton, named for mayor DeWitt Clinton, now lies within the park, originally called the West Battery, it was built as a fort just prior to the War of 1812. It became property of the city after the war and was renamed Castle Clinton, when Leased by the city, it became a popular promenade and beer garden. Later roofed over, it one of the premier theatrical venues in the United States. The people who gathered at Battery Park to see a clipper ship get underway came partly to hear the sailors sing their sea songs, which originated early in the nineteenth century, with the Negro stevedores at Mobile and New Orleans. The migration of the citys elite uptown increased concurrently with the mass European emigration of the middle 19th century, as immigrants settled the Battery area, the location was less favorable to theater patrons and Castle Garden was closed. The structure was made into the worlds first immigration depot, processing millions of immigrants beginning in 1855, almost 40 years before its successor, Ellis Island. This period coincided with immigration waves resulting from Irelands Great Famine, the structure then housed the New York Aquarium from 1896 to 1941, when it was threatened with destruction under transportation planner Robert Mosess plans. Made a National Monument in 1946 and restored in 1975, it is known by its original nameBattery Park – Aerial view of Battery Park in 2010. At park's left is Pier A, at park's right is South Ferry Terminal. On the far right is the East River.
33. Greenwich Street (Manhattan) – Greenwich Street is a north-south street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. As the World Trade Center is redeveloped, the sections will be reconnected. Main east-west streets crossed include, from north to south, Christopher Street, Houston Street, Canal Street, Greenwich Street travels through the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Hudson Square, and Tribeca. North of Canal Street, traffic travels northbound on Greenwich Street, south of Canal Street, the earliest documentation of Greenwich Street came in the 1790s, when it ran parallel to the Hudson River. At that time it was called Road to Greenwich, as it was the continuous road from Lower Manhattan to Greenwich Village other than Broadway. Greenwich Street still maintained its status as an address in 1820, but by the 1850s, the wealthy residents had fled uptown. One who stayed for a time was hotel owner Amos Eno, in 1873, the Butter and Cheese Exchange opened on the street, not far from where dairy products arrived daily at the freight railroad terminals. By 1882, a generation plant of the New York Steam Company was located at Greenwich. In 1824, painter Thomas Cole, who had arrived in the U. S. in 1818, maintained his residence in a garret on Greenwich Street, exhibiting his paintings in local shops. Also located on Greenwich Street in the mid-1800s was one of the outlets of Madame Restell, actually Ann Lohman. The Greenwich Street location doubled as a facility for women who wanted to bear their child. Restell, who got rich running her enterprises, was arrested a number of times, but was able to buy her way out of trouble, and eventually built a mansion at Fifth Avenue and 52nd Street. In 1867, engineer Charles T. Harvey managed to get permission from the New York State Legislature to build a short stretch of elevated track as an experiment, eventually, this would become the Ninth Avenue El, which was demolished in 1940. Greenwich means Green village, with the derived from Latin vicus through Saxon wick. Of the two roads, Greenwich Street was the shorter, more scenic and popular route to the village, but often flooded until the 19th century, the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line runs under Greenwich Street from Vesey Street south to its end. The Cortlandt Street and Rector Street stations serve it directly, other subway stations serve Greenwich Street from nearby. The Christopher Street PATH train station is located on Christopher Street just east of Greenwich Street, the World Trade Center PATH station is located at Vesey and Greenwich Streets. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub is being built between Greenwich and Church Streets, to connect the five stations at the World Trade Center site, the combined station will connect via the Dey Street Passageway with the Fulton CenterGreenwich Street (Manhattan) – Looking south from near North Moore Street
34. Vesey Street (Manhattan) – Vesey Street is a street in New York City that runs east-west in Lower Manhattan. The street is named after Rev. William Vesey, the first rector of nearby Trinity Church, prior to the construction of the World Trade Center it ran as continuous street from Broadway to the Hudson River. As of 2013, it is still a street, but it has four discontinuous segments with mixed uses, From Broadway to Church Street for motor vehicles. From Church Street to West Street for pedestrians only and this portion was widened during construction of the World Trade Center, and separates WTC on the streets south side from the Verizon Building on the streets north side. In Battery Park City, from West Street to North End Avenue for motor vehicles, from North End Avenue to River Terrace and the Irish Hunger Memorial, for pedestrians only. The eastern extension of the street at Broadway is Ann Street, adjacent to Vesey Street is St. Pauls Chapel, the Church Street Station Post Office, and the World Trade Center. The street next to the World Trade Center was closed to pedestrians after the terrorist attacks of September 11,2001, and has not yet been reopened to vehicular traffic. A structure left standing after the collapse of the adjacent buildings is known as the Survivors Staircase which has been preserved, in the area from Church Street to Washington Street, tourists attempt to view the ongoing construction, pending the future museum and memorial at the site. The World Trade Center PATH station is accessible from the street at the World Trade Center site, just past the western end of the street is the Irish Hunger Memorial. This end of the street is in the part of Battery Park City. Vesey Street was the birthplace of The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, archived from the original on March 10,2009Vesey Street (Manhattan) – Looking east from the Irish Hunger Memorial, with 3 World Financial Center on the right, and St. Paul's Chapel and 222 Broadway in the distance
35. Washington Street (Manhattan) – Washington Street is a north-south street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. Main east-west streets crossed include Christopher Street, Houston Street and Canal Street, neighborhoods traversed include the Meatpacking District, at points north of Canal Street, traffic on Washington Street travels south, at points south of Canal Street, it travels north. Washington Street was named for George Washington, first President of the United States, the land under the street was owned by Trinity Church, and was ceded to the city in 1808. Washington Street, A New York Songline – virtual walking tour Save Washington Street – A campaign to preserve the remnant of lower Washington Street in ManhattanWashington Street (Manhattan) – These Federal-style townhouses at 651–655 Washington Street are located within the Greenwich Village Historic District Extension
36. Reinforced concrete – The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning, durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress for example. François Coignet was a French industrialist of the century, a pioneer in the development of structural. Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a technique for constructing building structures, in 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris. Coignets descriptions of reinforcing concrete suggests that he did not do it for means of adding strength to the concrete, in 1854, English builder William B. Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-storey house he was constructing. His positioning of the reinforcement demonstrated that, unlike his predecessors, in 1877, Monier was granted another patent for a more advanced technique of reinforcing concrete columns and girders with iron rods placed in a grid pattern. Though Monier undoubtedly knew reinforcing concrete would improve its inner cohesion, before 1877 the use of concrete construction, though dating back to the Roman Empire and reintroduced in the mid to late 1800s, was not yet a proven scientific technology. His work played a role in the evolution of concrete construction as a proven. Without Hyatts work, more dangerous trial and error methods would have largely depended on for the advancement in the technology. G. A. Wayss was a German civil engineer and a pioneer of the iron, in 1879 Wayss bought the German rights to Moniers patents and in 1884 started the first commercial use for reinforced concrete in his firm Wayss & Freytag. Up until the 1890s Wayss and his firm greatly contributed to the advancement of Moniers system of reinforcing, ernest L. Ransome was an English-born engineer and early innovator of the reinforced concrete techniques in the end of the 19th century. With the knowledge of reinforced concrete developed during the previous 50 years, ransomes key innovation was to twist the reinforcing steel bar improving bonding with the concrete. Gaining increasing fame from his concrete constructed buildings Ransome was able to build two of the first reinforced concrete bridges in North America, one of the first concrete buildings constructed in the United States, was a private home, designed by William Ward in 1871. The home was designed to be fireproof for his wife, one of the first skyscrapers made with reinforced concrete was the 16-storey Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, constructed in 1904. Many different types of structures and components of structures can be built using reinforced concrete including slabs, walls, beams, columns, foundations, frames, Reinforced concrete can be classified as precast or cast-in-place concrete. Designing and implementing the most efficient floor system is key to creating optimal building structures, small changes in the design of a floor system can have significant impact on material costs, construction schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of a buildingReinforced concrete – The novel shape of the Philips Pavilion was allowed by reinforced concrete.
37. Environmentally friendly – Companies use these ambiguous terms to promote goods and services, sometimes with additional, more specific certifications, such as ecolabels. Their overuse can be referred to as greenwashing, products located in members of the European Union can use the EUs Eco-label pending the EUs approval. EMAS is another EU label that signifies whether an organization management is green as opposed to the product, germany also uses the Blue Angel, based on Germanys standard. In the United States, environmental marketing claims require caution, ambiguous titles such as environmentally friendly can be confusing without a specific definition, some regulators are providing guidance. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has deemed some ecolabels misleading in determining whether a product is truly green, in Canada, one label is that of the Environmental Choice Program. Created in 1988, only approved by the program are allowed to display the label. The Energy Rating Label is a Type III label that provides information on energy service per unit of energy consumption and it was first created in 1986, but negotiations led to a redesign in 2000. The environmentally friendly trends are marketed with a different color association, using the blue for clean air and clean water. Japanese and Korean built hybrid vehicles use the blue instead of green all throughout the vehicle. Energy Star is a program with a goal of increasing energy efficiency. Energy Star has different sections for different nations or areas, including the United States, the program, which was founded in the United States, also exists in Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and TaiwanEnvironmentally friendly – A sewage treatment plant that uses solar energy, located at Santuari de Lluc monastery.
38. List of birds of Georgia (U.S. state) – Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Georgia as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. There are 414 species on the Georgia state checklist and this list is presented in taxonomic order and follows The Check-list of North American Birds, published by the American Ornithologists Union. The table of contents is grouped into passerines and non-passerines, the family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, casual, accidental, extirpated and extinct species are included in the species counts for North America. Order, Anseriformes Family, Anatidae The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese,40 species of Anatidae have been recorded in Georgia. They were introduced to Sapelo Island, Georgia in 1923, only one species of New World quail has been recorded in Georgia. Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus Order, Galliformes Family, Phasianidae The Phasianidae is the family containing the pheasants and these are terrestrial birds, variable in size but generally plump, with broad, relatively short wings. Many are gamebirds or have been domesticated as a source for humans. Two species of Phasianidae have been recorded in Georgia, ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus Wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Order, Gaviiformes Family, Gaviidae Loons are aquatic birds the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. With mostly black plumage and spear-shaped bills, loons swim well and fly adequately but, four species of loons have occurred in Georgia. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers, however, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Five species of grebe have been recorded in Georgia, six species of procellarids have been recorded in Georgia. Three species of storm petrels have been recorded in Georgia and their long wings have black markings, as does the head. Two species of tropicbirds have been recorded in Georgia and they lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a syrinx and are mute, a single species of stork has been recorded in Georgia. Wood stork, Mycteria americana Order, Suliformes Family, Fregatidae Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans and they are large, black or black and white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches, one species of frigatebird has been recorded in Georgia. Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets, both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fishList of birds of Georgia (U.S. state) – The brown thrasher is the state bird of Georgia.
39. Brown Thrasher – The brown thrasher is a bird in the family Mimidae, which also includes the New World catbirds and mockingbirds. It is the bird of Georgia. As a member of the genus Toxostoma, the bird is a large-sized thrasher and it has brown upper parts with a white under part with dark streaks. Because of this, it is confused with the smaller wood thrush. The brown thrasher is noted for having over 1000 song types, however, each note is usually repeated in two or three phrases. The brown thrasher is an omnivore, with its ranging from insects to fruits and nuts. The usual nesting areas are shrubs, small trees, or at times on ground level, Brown thrashers are generally inconspicuous but territorial birds, especially when defending their nests, and will attack species as large as humans. The brown thrasher was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae as Turdus rufus, the genus name Toxostoma comes from the Ancient Greek toxon, bow or arch and stoma, mouth. The specific rufum is Latin for red, but covers a range of hues than the English term. Although not in the family, this bird is sometimes erroneously called the brown thrush. The name misconception could be because the word thrasher is believed to derive from the word thrush, the naturalist Mark Catesby called it the fox-coloured thrush. Genetic studies have found that the thrasher is most closely related to the long-billed and Cozumel thrashers. The brown thrasher is bright reddish-brown above with thin, dark streaks on its buffy underparts and it has a whitish-colored chest with distinguished teardrop-shaped markings on its chest. Its long, rufous tail is rounded with paler corners, and its bill is brownish, long, and curves downward. Both male and females are similar in appearance, the juvenile appearance of the brown thrasher from the adult is not remarkably different, except for plumage texture, indiscreet upper part markings, and the irises having an olive color. Adults measure around 23.5 to 30.5 cm long with a wingspan of 29 to 33 cm, and weigh 61 to 89 g, with an average of 68 g. Among standard measurements, the chord is 9.5 to 11.5 cm, the tail is 10.9 to 14.1 cm, the culmen is 2.2 to 2.9 cm. The western brown thrasher is distinguished by a more cinnamon upper part, whiter wing bars, and darker breast spots than T. rufum rufumBrown Thrasher – Brown thrasher
40. Georgia (U.S. state) – Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861. The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the CherokeeGeorgia (U.S. state) – A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.
41. United States military – The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures. For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was also the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution also allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require. This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the PresidentUnited States military – The U.S. Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer, Virginia in October 2001.
42. Catfish – Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither having scales, despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbel. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull, Catfish are of considerable commercial importance, many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal, but others are crepuscular or diurnal, extant catfish species live inland or in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another, Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America, Asia and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe. More than half of all species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar, Australia and they are found in freshwater environments, though most inhabit shallow, running water. Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are also troglobitic, one such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of names, such as mud cat, polliwogs. These nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname chucklehead, while in state or region. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting, however, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, and have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna. Walking catfish have also introduced in the freshwaters of Florida. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is also a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages, pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have also established feral populations in many warm waters around the world. In general, they are buoyant, which means that they will usually sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder. Catfish have a variety of shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoilCatfish – Walking catfish is an invasive species in Florida.
43. Beyond the First Amendment – It was published by Johns Hopkins University Press in 2005. In it, Nelson discusses how the general notion of free speech differs from that specifically applied to the First Amendment in American law. The book was received in reviews from academic and legal journals. Law and Politics Book Review concluded Beyond the First Amendment is an intriguing, Samuel Peter Nelson graduated from Northwestern University with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He subsequently obtained a PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Nelson is an associate professor in the department of political science and public administration at the University of Toledo, having joined the department in 2001. Nelsons work discusses the differences between concepts in the United States involving the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Nelson introduces the concept of a pluralist framework to address the various factors which drive free speech. In a review of the book in The Journal of Politics, doctrinal scholarship is dominated by law professors who have special training in making legal arguments. His is indeed a theory fraught with possibilities both favorable and unfavorable to a scope for the contents of free speech. Lichtman commented, The most important contribution of Beyond the First Amendment is its attempt to offer up a new model for understanding and safeguarding free speech. He praised the author for supporting his model with case history, As a purely philosophical matter, the model must be more than a mere talking point, though, and Nelson wisely endeavors to show how the pluralist framework can be deployed as a means of resolving actual cases. Lichtman concluded by recommending the work for scholars, Beyond the First Amendment is an intriguing. While it is likely beyond the grasp of all but the most talented undergraduates, for scholars, it is a challenging and provocative work sure to cause us to reassess how we teach and write about the subject. Contested Words, Legal Restrictions on Freedom of Speech in Liberal Democracies, Free Speech, The People’s Darling Privilege, Struggles for Freedom of Expression in American History. Cyber Rights, Defending Free Speech in the Digital Age, the First Amendment in Cross-Cultural Perspective, A Comparative Legal Analysis of the Freedom of Speech. Freedom of Expression, Resistance and Repression in the Age of Intellectual Property, Samuel P. Nelson, website of author Dr. Samuel Nelson, bio profile at The University of ToledoBeyond the First Amendment – Beyond the First Amendment
44. Freedom of speech – Freedom of speech is the right to articulate ones opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship, or societal sanction. The term freedom of expression is used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas. The right to freedom of expression includes the right to take, concepts of freedom of speech can be found in early human rights documents. Englands Bill of Rights 1689 legally established the right of freedom of speech in Parliament which is still in effect. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted during the French Revolution in 1789, specifically affirmed freedom of speech as an inalienable right. The Declaration provides for freedom of expression in Article 11, which states that, The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, Today, freedom of speech, or the freedom of expression, is recognized in international and regional human rights law. This means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right not only the content. The right to freedom of speech and expression is related to other rights. As a general freedom of expression may not limit the right to privacy, as well as the honor. However greater latitude is given when criticism of public figures is involved, the right to freedom of expression is particularly important for media, which plays a special role as the bearer of the general right to freedom of expression for all. However, freedom of the press is not necessarily enabling freedom of speech, lichtenberg argues that freedom of the press is simply a form of property right summed up by the principle no money, no voice. Freedom of speech is understood to be fundamental in a democracy, the norms on limiting freedom of expression mean that public debate may not be completely suppressed even in times of emergency. One of the most notable proponents of the link between freedom of speech and democracy is Alexander Meiklejohn and he argues that the concept of democracy is that of self-government by the people. For such a system to work an informed electorate is necessary, in order to be appropriately knowledgeable, there must be no constraints on the free flow of information and ideas. According to Meiklejohn, democracy will not be true to its essential ideal if those in power are able to manipulate the electorate by withholding information, Meiklejohn acknowledges that the desire to manipulate opinion can stem from the motive of seeking to benefit society. However, he argues, choosing manipulation negates, in its means, eric Barendt has called this defense of free speech on the grounds of democracy probably the most attractive and certainly the most fashionable free speech theory in modern Western democracies. Emerson expanded on this defense when he argued that freedom of speech helps to provide a balance between stability and change, Freedom of speech acts as a safety valve to let off steam when people might otherwise be bent on revolutionFreedom of speech – A man expressing his views at Speaker's Corner in London
45. Internet – The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, the primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world. In the two decades since then, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet, the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries, the Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage, each constituent network sets its own policies. The term Internet, when used to refer to the global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, is a proper noun. In common use and the media, it is not capitalized. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, the Internet is also often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, however, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services. The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks, the term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks, early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare. European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks, in December 1974, RFC675, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and later RFCs repeated this use. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network, in 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s. Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990Internet – The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz in Holon.
46. First Amendment to the United States Constitution – It was adopted on December 15,1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was originally proposed to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification, initially, the First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, and many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, and is therefore subject to greater regulation. The Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, in Near v. Minnesota and New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in almost all cases. The Petition Clause protects the right to all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, eight of the other thirteen states made similar pledges. However, these declarations were generally considered mere admonitions to state legislatures, after a brief debate, Masons proposal was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. For the constitution to be ratified, however, nine of the thirteen states were required to approve it in state conventions, opposition to ratification was partly based on the Constitutions lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. Constitution was eventually ratified by all thirteen states and this language was greatly condensed by Congress, and passed the House and Senate with almost no recorded debate, complicating future discussion of the Amendments intent. The First Amendment, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights, was submitted to the states for ratification on September 25,1789, and adopted on December 15,1791. In Reynolds v. United States the Supreme Court used these words to declare that it may be accepted almost as a declaration of the scope. Congress was deprived of all power over mere opinion, but was left free to reach actions which were in violation of social duties or subversive of good order. In these two sentences is found the distinction between what properly belongs to the church and what to the State. Originally, the First Amendment applied only to the federal government, Massachusetts, for example, was officially Congregationalist until the 1830s. Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, in the words of Jefferson, the clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect a wall of separation between church and State. That wall must be high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach, in Torcaso v. Watkins, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution prohibits states and the federal government from requiring any kind of religious test for public officeFirst Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Bill of Rights in the National Archives
47. Winfield Scott Hancock – Winfield Scott Hancock was a career U. S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. He served with distinction in the Army for four decades, including service in the Mexican-American War, known to his Army colleagues as Hancock the Superb, he was noted in particular for his personal leadership at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. One military historian wrote, No other Union general at Gettysburg dominated men by the force of their presence more completely than Hancock. As another wrote, his tactical skill had won him the admiration of adversaries who had come to know him as the Thunderbolt of the Army of the Potomac. His military service continued after the Civil War, as Hancock participated in the military Reconstruction of the South, Hancocks reputation as a war hero at Gettysburg, combined with his status as a Unionist and supporter of states rights, made him a potential presidential candidate. His noted integrity was a counterpoint to the corruption of the era, when the Democrats nominated him for President in 1880, he ran a strong campaign, but was narrowly defeated by Republican James A. Garfield. The twins were the sons of Benjamin Franklin Hancock and Elizabeth Hoxworth Hancock, Winfield was named after Winfield Scott, a prominent general in the War of 1812. The Hancock and Hoxworth families had lived in Montgomery County for several generations, Benjamin Hancock was a schoolteacher when his sons were born. A few years after their birth, he moved the family to Norristown, the county seat, Benjamin was also a deacon in the Baptist church and participated in municipal government. Hancock was at first educated at Norristown Academy, but removed to the schools when the first one opened in Norristown in the late 1830s. In 1840, Joseph Fornance, the local Congressman, nominated Hancock to the United States Military Academy at West Point, Hancocks progress at West Point was average. He graduated 18th in his class of 25 in 1844, Hancock was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 6th U. S. Infantry regiment, and initially was stationed in Indian Territory in the Red River Valley, the region was quiet at the time, and Hancocks time there was uneventful. Upon the outbreak of war with Mexico in 1846, Hancock worked to secure himself a place at the front, initially assigned to recruiting duties in Kentucky, he proved so adept at signing up soldiers that his superiors were reluctant to release him from his post. By July 1847, however, Hancock was permitted to join his regiment in Puebla, Mexico, scotts army moved farther inland from Puebla unopposed and attacked Mexico City from the south. During that campaign in 1847, Hancock first encountered battle at Contreras and he was appointed a brevet first lieutenant for gallant and meritorious service in those actions. Hancock was wounded in the knee at Churubusco and developed a fever, although he was well enough to join his regiment at Molino del Rey, fever kept Hancock from participating in the final breakthrough to Mexico City, something he would regret for the rest of his life. After the final victory, Hancock remained in Mexico with the 6th Infantry until the treaty of peace was signed in 1848, Hancock served in a number of assignments as an army quartermaster and adjutant, mostly in Fort Snelling, Minnesota and St. Louis, MissouriWinfield Scott Hancock
48. U.S. Army – The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784, the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed service, the Army is part of the Department of the Army. As a branch of the forces, the mission of the U. S. The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States, the United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S, the army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources, a number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills. The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–81 sometimes used the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, hitting where the British were weakest, to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776, with a decisive victory at Yorktown, and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates, State militias became the new nations sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Points arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops, were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant, and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides, the United States and Great Britain, returned to the status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict, the armys major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars to defeat the Seminoles and move them to OklahomaU.S. Army – Storming of Redoubt #10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States of America.
49. Democratic Party (United States) – The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, while, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has also promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, overall, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. The party also holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party also inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the presidentDemocratic Party (United States) – Andrew Jackson was the first Democratic President of the United States
50. President of the United States – The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislationPresident of the United States – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)