A gate or gateway is a point of entry to a space, enclosed by walls. Gates may prevent or control the entry or exit of individuals, or they may be decorative. Other terms for gate include port; the word derives from the old Norse "gata", meaning road or path, referred to the gap in the wall or fence, rather than the barrier which closed it. The moving part or parts of a gateway may be called "doors", but used for the whole point of entry door refers to the entry to a building, or an internal opening between different rooms. A gate may have a latch to keep it from a lock for security. Larger gates can be used for a whole building, such as a castle or fortified town, or the actual doors that block entry through the gatehouse. Today, many gate doors are opened by an automated gate operator. Purpose-specific types of gate include: Baby gate a safety gate to protect babies and toddlers City gate of a walled city Hampshire gate Kissing gate on footpaths Lychgate with a roof Mon Japanese: gate; the religious torii compares to the Chinese pailou, Indian torana, Korean hongsalmun.
Mon are widespread, in Japanese gardens. Portcullis of a castle Slip gate on footpaths Turnstile Watergate of a castle by navigable water Bab Barrier Boom barrier Border Gate tower Gopuram Leave the gate as you found it Portal Portcullis Threshold Triumphal arch List of scandals with "-gate" suffix Watergate, as used in politics Photos and locations of gates and stiles in Britain
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. Large figurative elements such as monumental sculpture and their equivalents in decorative art are excluded from the term. Architectural ornament can be carved from stone, wood or precious metals, formed with plaster or clay, or painted or impressed onto a surface as applied ornament. A wide variety of decorative styles and motifs have been developed for architecture and the applied arts, including pottery, metalwork. In textiles and other objects where the decoration may be the main justification for its existence, the terms pattern or design are more to be used; the vast range of motifs used in ornament draw from geometrical shapes and patterns and human and animal figures. Across Eurasia and the Mediterranean world there has been a rich and linked tradition of plant-based ornament for over three thousand years. In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it "surface modulation".
The earliest decoration and ornament survives from prehistoric cultures in simple markings on pottery, where decoration in other materials has been lost. Where the potter's wheel was used, the technology made some kinds of decoration easy. Ornament has been evident in civilizations since the beginning of recorded history, ranging from Ancient Egyptian architecture to the assertive lack of ornament of 20th century Modernist architecture. Ornament implies that the ornamented object has a function that an unornamented equivalent might fulfill. Where the object has no such function, but exists only to be a work of art such as a sculpture or painting, the term is less to be used, except for peripheral elements. In recent centuries a distinction between the fine arts and applied or decorative arts has been applied, with ornament seen as a feature of the latter class; the history of art in many cultures shows a series of wave-like trends where the level of ornament used increases over a period, before a sharp reaction returns to plainer forms, after which ornamentation increases again.
The pattern is clear in post-Roman European art, where the ornamented Insular art of the Book of Kells and other manuscripts influenced continental Europe, but the classically inspired Carolingian and Ottonian art replaced it. Ornament increased over the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but was reduced in Early Renaissance styles, again under classical influence. Another period of increase, in Northern Mannerism, the Baroque and Rococo, was checked by Neoclassicism and the Romantic period, before resuming in the 19th century Victorian decorative arts and their continental equivalents, to be decisively reduced by the Arts and Crafts movement and Modernism; the detailed study of Eurasian ornamental forms was begun by Alois Riegl in his formalist study Stilfragen: Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der Ornamentik of 1893, who in the process developed his influential concept of the Kunstwollen. Riegl traced formalistic continuity and development in decorative plant forms from Ancient Egyptian art and other ancient Near Eastern civilizations through the classical world to the arabesque of Islamic art.
While the concept of the Kunstwollen has few followers today, his basic analysis of the development of forms has been confirmed and refined by the wider corpus of examples known today. Jessica Rawson has extended the analysis to cover Chinese art, which Riegl did not cover, tracing many elements of Chinese decoration back to the same tradition. Styles of ornamentation can be studied in reference to the specific culture which developed unique forms of decoration, or modified ornament from other cultures; the Ancient Egyptian culture is arguably the first civilization to add pure decoration to their buildings. Their ornament takes the forms of the natural world in that climate, decorating the capitals of columns and walls with images of papyrus and palm trees. Assyrian culture produced ornament which shows influence from Egyptian sources and a number of original themes, including figures of plants and animals of the region. Ancient Greek civilization created many new forms of ornament, with regional variations from Doric and Corinthian groups.
The Romans adapted the forms to every purpose. A few medieval notebooks survive, most famously that of Villard de Honnecourt showing how artists and craftsmen recorded designs they saw for future use. With the arrival of the print ornament prints became an important part of the output of printmakers in Germany, played a vital role in the rapid diffusion of new Renaissance styles to makers of all sorts of object; as well as revived classical ornament, both architectural and the grotesque style derived from Roman interior decoration, these included new styles such as the moresque, a European adaptation of the Islamic arabesque. As printing became cheaper, the single ornament print turned into sets, th
Hronský Beňadik is a village in central Slovakia. It has a population of 1233. According to the local tourist information officer, this is the site referred to in what may be the first written mention of present-day Slovak territory; this version of events states that in 172 AD Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius had fought a victorious battle in Hronský Beňadik when it started'raining fire'. The panic this created in his forces led some of the closet Christians among them to start praying, after which the deluge abated and Marcus Aurelius cut short his campaign; the incident was recorded in the emperor's own memoirs. It is situated in the Hron valley between the mountains Pohronský Inovec and Štiavnické vrchy, located around 40 km east of Nitra and 120 km north-east of Bratislava; the territory of the village has been settled since the Neolithic and Hallstatt period, but it is best known for a important Benedictine abbey, which played in important role in the Christianization process and in the development of culture and education.
It was founded in 1075 by King Géza I under the name "Monasterium Ecclesia Sancti Benedicti". The Nitra Gospels, the oldest Latin book from the territory of Slovakia, were written here around 1100; the abbey ceased operations during the 16th century in the course of the Ottoman expansion in present-day Hungary. The church of the monastery contains valuable works of art; the abbey was declared a National Cultural Monument in 1945. The village below the abbey arose in the 14th century and received a city charter in 1347, but was destroyed by the Turks in 1599 and re-built. According to the 2001 census, the village had 1,220 inhabitants. 98.44 % of inhabitants were 0.41 % Roma, 0.33 % Hungarians and 0.25 % Czechs. The religious make-up was 91.89% Roman Catholics, 3.28% people with no religious affiliation and 0.90% Lutherans. Both members of the Slovak pop. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070220044905/http://www.sacr.sk/article?id=112&category=18&lang=en https://web.archive.org/web/20090607180441/http://www.benadik-klastor.sk/ Photos of the Monastery Spectacular Slovakia travelguide - Hronský Beňadik: Fire from heaven
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments. Most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian, tympana contain religious imagery, when on religious buildings. A tympanum over a doorway is often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. In classical architecture, in classicising styles from the Renaissance onwards, major examples are triangular; these shapes influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum. Bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is supported by a decorated pillar called a trumeau. Church architecture Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
A mullion is a vertical or horizontal element that forms a division between units of a window or screen, or is used decoratively. When dividing adjacent window units its primary purpose is a rigid support to the glazing of the window, its secondary purpose is to provide structural support to an arch or lintel above the window opening. Horizontal elements separating the head of a door from a window above are both a head jamb and horizontal mullion and are called "transoms". Stone mullions were used in Armenian and Islamic architecture prior to the 10th century, they became a common and fashionable architectural feature across Europe in Romanesque architecture, with paired windows divided by a mullion, set beneath a single arch. The same structural form was used for open arcades as well as windows, is found in galleries and cloisters. In Gothic architecture windows became larger and arrangements of multiple mullions and openings were used, both for structure and ornament; this is the case in Gothic churches where stained glass is set in lead and ferramenta between the stone mullions.
Mullioned windows of a simpler form continued to be used into the Renaissance and various Revival styles. Italian windows with a single mullion, dividing the window into two equal elements are said to be biforate, or to parallel the Italian, bifore windows. Mullions may be made of any material, but wood and aluminum are most common, although glass is used between windows. I. M. Pei used all-glass mullions in his design of JFK Airport's Terminal 6, unprecedented at the time. Mullions are vertical elements and are confused with transoms, which lie horizontally. In US parlance, the word is confused with the "muntin", the precise word for the small strips of wood or metal that divide a sash into smaller glass "panes" or "lights". A mullion acts as a structural member, in most applications the mullion transfers wind loads and weight of the glazing and upper levels into the structure below. In a curtain wall screen, the mullions only support the weight of the transoms and any opening vents. In the case of a curtain wall screen the weight of glazing can be supported from above this puts the mullions under tension rather than compression.
When a large glazed area was desired before the middle of the nineteenth century, such as in the large windows seen in Gothic churches or Elizabethan palaces, the openings required division into a framework of mullions and transoms of stone. It was further necessary for each glazed panel, sash or casement to be further subdivided by muntins or lead cames because large panes of glass were reserved for use as mirrors, being far too costly to use for glazing windows or doors. In traditional designs today and transoms are used in combination with divided-light windows and doors when glazing porches or other large areas. Came Glass mullion system Mullion wall Muntin Stained glass Transom Müller, W.. Atlante di architettura. Milan: Hoepli. ISBN 88-203-1977-2
Metz is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle department and the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est region. Located near the tripoint along the junction of France and Luxembourg, the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion. Metz has a rich 3,000-year-history, having variously been a Celtic oppidum, an important Gallo-Roman city, the Merovingian capital of Austrasia, the birthplace of the Carolingian dynasty, a cradle of the Gregorian chant, one of the oldest republics in Europe; the city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has been influenced by Germanic culture due to its location and history. Because of its historical and architectural background, Metz has been submitted on France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List; the city features noteworthy buildings such as the Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral with its largest expanse of stained-glass windows in the world, the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains being the oldest church in France, its Imperial Station Palace displaying the apartment of the German Kaiser, or its Opera House, the oldest one working in France.
Metz is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum. A basin of urban ecology, Metz gained its nickname of The Green City, as it has extensive open grounds and public gardens; the historic city centre is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France. A historic garrison town, Metz is the economic heart of the Lorraine region, specialising in information technology and automotive industries. Metz is home to the University of Lorraine and a centre for applied research and development in the materials sector, notably in metallurgy and metallography, the heritage of the Lorraine region's past in the iron and steel industry. In ancient times, the town was known as "city of Mediomatrici", being inhabited by the tribe of the same name. After its integration into the Roman Empire, the city was called Divodurum Mediomatricum, meaning Holy Village or Holy Fortress of the Mediomatrici it was known as Mediomatrix. During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to "Mettis".
Metz has a recorded history dating back over 2,000 years. Before the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, it was the oppidum of the Celtic Mediomatrici tribe. Integrated into the Roman Empire, Metz became one of the principal towns of Gaul with a population of 40,000, until the barbarian depredations and its transfer to the Franks about the end of the 5th century. Between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city was the residence of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia and was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire, being granted semi-independent status. During the 12th century, Metz became a republic and the Republic of Metz stood until the 15th century. With the signature of the Treaty of Chambord in 1552, Metz passed to the hands of the Kings of France; as the German Protestant Princes who traded Metz for the promise of French military assistance, had no authority to cede territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the change of jurisdiction wasn't recognised by the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.
Under French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics and became a strategic fortified town. With creation of the departments by the Estates-General of 1789, Metz was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle. Despite that Metz was a French-speaking city, after the Franco-Prussian War and according to the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871, the city was annexed into the German Empire, being part of the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine and serving as capital of the Bezirk Lothringen. Metz remained German until the end of World War I. However, after the Battle of France during the Second World War, the city was annexed once more by the German Third Reich. In 1944, the attack on the city by the U. S. Third Army freed the city from German rule and Metz reverted one more time to France after World War II. During the 1950s, Metz was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine region. With the creation of the European Community and the European Union, the city has become central to the Greater Region and the SaarLorLux Euroregion.
Metz is located on the banks of the Moselle and the Seille rivers, 43 km from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France and Luxembourg meet. The city was built in a place where many branches of the Moselle river creates several islands, which are encompassed within the urban planning; the terrain of Metz forms part of the Paris Basin and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction. Metz and its surrounding countryside are included in the forest and crop Lorraine Regional Natural Park, covering a total area of 205,000 ha; the climate of Lorraine is a semi-continental climate. The summers are warm and humid, sometimes stormy, the warmest month of the year is July, when daytime temperatures average 25 °C; the winters are snowy with temperature dropping to an average low of − 0.5 °C in January. Lows can be much colder through the night and early morning and the snowy period extends from November to February; the length of the day varies over the course of the year.
The shortest day is 21 December with 7:30 hours of sunlight. The median cloud cover is 93% and
Portals in fiction
The word "portal" in science fiction and fantasy refers to a technological or magical doorway that connects two distant locations separated by spacetime. It consists of two or more gateways, with an object entering one gateway leaving via the other instantaneously. Places that are linked by a portal include a different spot in the same universe. A parallel world, such as the Wood between the Worlds in C. S. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia, may exist to contain multiple portals to every parallel world in existence. Portals are similar to the cosmological concept of a wormhole, some portals work using wormholes. Portals are used in science fiction to move protagonists into new territory. In video games the concept is used to allow the player to cover territory, explored quickly. A related book plot, used is the struggle to get to the opposite end of a new gate for the first time, before it can be used. In film and television, a portal is portrayed using a ripple effect. Star Trek: The Original Series: One of the earliest examples is the Guardian of Forever, in Star Trek.
The device could open a spacetime portal to any point in history on any world in the universe. It was ring-shaped, with a watery "event horizon"; this device was introduced in the Star Trek: The Original Series episode "The City on the Edge of Forever" in 1967. Other examples of portals include: Buck Rogers in the 25th Century: Portals appeared in the series Buck Rogers in the 25th Century, where interstellar travel was facilitated by a network of portals. Cowboy Bebop: In the anime Cowboy Bebop, hyperspace gates allow for faster—though not instantaneous—travel between the planets and colonies of our solar system. Donnie Darko: In the movie Donnie Darko a portal appears on a cinema screen. A fictional book within the film serves as the basis for fan theories about time travel, parallel universes and portals. Doraemon: A more lighthearted use of portals can be found in the Japanese comic and anime series Doraemon, where the Anywhere Door is used to travel from any point to another; this door operates like an ordinary household door.
The Final Countdown: In the movie The Final Countdown, the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz is transported via a portal to 1941, where its Captain must decide whether to intervene in the Pearl Harbor attack. He-Man and the Masters of the Universe: In the cartoon series He-Man and the Masters of the Universe and She-Ra: Princess of Power the characters are able to travel through time and space by using magic space portals and time corridors, they can be used by characters with magic abilities, are of a yellow colour. Sometimes they can have a purple appearance. In some instances a portal allows travel from one place to another in just a few moments. In other cases, the user travels through a separate dimension and can change his destination en route. Gargoyles: Two types of portal existed in Disney's mid-1990s Gargoyles animated fantasy adventure series. Gravity Falls: In Gravity Falls and Mabel's Great Uncle Ford constructed a portal underneath the Mystery Shack, it was used by his twin brother Stan to bring him back from an unknown dimension.
Howl's Moving Castle: In the Hayao Miyazaki film Howl's Moving Castle, based on the novel by Diana Wynne Jones, Howl's castle has a door with a four color dial above it, each color setting causes a different location to appear on the other side of the door, only one of, outside the castle. Jackie Chan Adventures: In the cartoon series Jackie Chan Adventures, eight demons were sealed away using portals to trap each of them in a different realm; the portals could be opened again. The demons were released but recaptured and returned in the netherworld. A spell was used on each portal to seal it forever, ensuring that the demons could never escape again. Jak and Daxter: "Warp gates" in Jak and Daxter are rings enclosing a rippling blue substance used for transportation; the Legend of Korra: In The Legend of Korra, the two spirit portals, located in the north and south poles, connect the physical world and the spirit world, allowing passage to the spirit world without meditation. However, a new portal was created in the center of Downtown Republic City after Kuvira's sprit energy weapon overloaded.
Lost in Space: The 1998 film Lost in Space featured a space-bound hypergate system. The premise of the film is that the Robinson family will pilot a spaceship to Alpha Centauri to construct a receiving hypergate, allowing instantaneous travel between Earth and Alpha Centauri. Mighty Max: In the Mighty Max television series and toyline, the titular character Max receives a magical baseball cap capable of projecting wormhole-like portals that allow Max to teleport across time and space and travel to alternate dimensions and the astral plane. Monsters, Inc.: The animated film Monsters, Inc. involved portals that open through children's closets. This enabled the inhabitants of the monster world to en