Portea alatisepala is a plant species in the genus Portea. The bromeliad is endemic to Bahia state and to the Atlantic Forest biome, located in southeastern Brazil. BROMELIACEAE DA MATA ATLÂNTICA BRASILEIRA retrieved 22 October 2009
Portea kermesina is a plant species in the genus Portea in the bromeliad family. The bromeliad is endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome and to Bahia state, located in southeastern Brazil.it grows near rivers at sea-level. It is a Critically endangered species. Portea kermesina contains a dozen or so broad green and red leaves, that reach 30 inches long and two inches wide; the plant produces a flower spike with "large, rose bracts and blue-petaled flowers." The inflorescence is characterized by a purplish red color. Porteas from Brazil are some of the most decorative. Portea kermesina thrives in diffused light. Flora of Atlantic Forest Endemic flora of Brazil
The Bromeliaceae are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species native to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana. They are among the basal families within the Poales and are the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries; these inferior ovaries characterize a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae. The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss, terrestrial species, such as the pineapple. Many bromeliads are able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases. However, the family is diverse enough to include the tank bromeliads, grey-leaved epiphyte Tillandsia species that gather water only from leaf structures called trichomes, a large number of desert-dwelling succulents; the largest bromeliad is Puya raimondii, which reaches 3–4 m tall in vegetative growth with a flower spike 9–10 m tall, the smallest is Spanish moss.
Bromeliads are plants. Foliage takes different shapes, from needle-thin to broad and flat, symmetrical to irregular, spiky to soft; the foliage, which grows in a rosette, is patterned and coloured. Leaf colours range through shades of green, to gold. Varieties may have leaves with red, yellow and cream variations. Others may be spotted with purple, red, or cream, while others have different colors on the tops and botecies Tillandsia cyanea have a fragrance resembling that of clove spice. One study found 175,000 bromeliads per hectare in one forest. A wide variety of organisms takes advantage of the pools of water trapped by bromeliads. A study of 209 plants from the Ecuadorian lowlands identified 11,219 animals, representing more than 300 distinct species, many of which are found only on bromeliads. Examples include some species of ostracods, small salamanders about 2.5 cm in length, tree frogs. Jamaican bromeliads are home to Metopaulias depressus, a reddish-brown crab 2 cm across, which has evolved social behavior to protect its young from predation by Diceratobasis macrogaster, a species of damselfly whose larvae live in bromeliads.
Some bromeliads form homes for other species of bromeliads. Plants in the Bromeliaceae are represented in their natural climates across the Americas. One species can be found in Africa, they can be found at altitudes from sea level from rainforests to deserts. 1814 species are epiphytes, some are lithophytes, some are terrestrial. Accordingly, these plants can be found in the Andean highlands, from northern Chile to Colombia, in the Sechura Desert of coastal Peru, in the cloud forests of Central and South America, in southern United States from southern Virginia to Florida to Texas, in far southern Arizona. Bromeliads serve as phytotelmata, accumulating water between their leaves; the aquatic habitat created as a result is host to a diverse array of invertebrates aquatic insect larvae. These bromeliad invertebrates benefit their hosts by increasing nitrogen uptake into the plant. Bromeliads are among the more recent plant groups to have emerged; the greatest number of primitive species resides in the Andean highlands of South America, where they originated in the tepuis of the Guyana Shield.
The most basal genus, Brocchinia, is endemic to these tepuis, is placed as the sister group to the remaining genera in the family. The west African species Pitcairnia feliciana is the only bromeliad not endemic to the Americas, is thought to have reached Africa via long-distance dispersal about 12 million years ago. Bromeliads are able to live in a vast array of environmental conditions due to their many adaptations. Trichomes, in the form of scales or hairs, allow bromeliads to capture water in cloud forests and help to reflect sunlight in desert environments; some bromeliads have developed an adaptation known as the tank habit, which involves them forming a bound structure with their leaves that helps to capture water and nutrients in the absence of a well-developed root system. Bromeliads use crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis to create sugars; this adaptation allows bromeliads in hot or dry climates to open their stomates at night rather than during the day, which reduces water loss.
The family Bromeliaceae is placed in the order Poales. The family Bromeliaceae is organized into eight subfamilies: Brocchinioideae Lindmanioideae Tillandsioideae Hechtioideae Navioideae Pitcairnioideae Puyoideae BromelioideaeBromeliaceae were split into three subfamilies: Bromelioideae and Pitcairnioideae based on morphological characters. However, molecular evidence has revealed that while Bromelioideae and Tillandsioideae are monophyletic, Pitcairnioideae is, in fact and should be split into six subfamilies: Brocchinioideae, Hechtioideae, Navioideae and Puyoideae. Brocchinioideae is defined as the most basal branch of Bromeliaceae based on both morphological and molecular evidence, namely genes in chloroplast DNA. Lindmanioideae is the next most basal branch distinguished from the other subfamilies by convolute sepals and chloroplast DNA. Hechtioideae is defined based on analyses of chloroplast DNA. Navioideae is split from Pitcairnioideae based on its cochlear sepals and chloroplast DNA.
Puyoideae has been re-classified multiple times and its monophyly remains controversial according to analyses of c
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Portea orthopoda is a species in the genus Portea. XPortemea'Puna' BSI Cultivar Registry Retrieved 11 October 2009
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Portea grandiflora is a species in the genus Portea. The bromeliad is endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome and to Bahia state, located in southeastern Brazil. Flora of Atlantic Forest Endemic flora of Brazil DPI.inpe.br: "BROMELIACEAE da MATA ATLÂNTICA BRASILEIRA: Lista de ESPÉCIES, DISTRIBUIÇÃO e CONSERVAÇÃO". Accessed 30 May 2016