The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
Elkhart is a city in Elkhart County, United States. The city is located 15 miles east of South Bend, Indiana, 110 miles east of Chicago, 150 miles north of Indianapolis, Indiana. Elkhart has the larger population of the two principal cities of the Elkhart-Goshen Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn is part of the South Bend-Elkhart-Mishawaka Combined Statistical Area, in a region known as Michiana; the population was 50,949 at the 2010 census. Despite the shared name, it is not the county seat of Elkhart County; when the Northwest Territory was organized in 1787, the area now known as Elkhart was inhabited by the Ottawa and Potawatomi Indian tribes. In 1829, the Village of Pulaski was established, consisting of a Post Office, a few houses on the north side of the St. Joseph River. Two years Dr. Havilah Beardsley moved westward from Ohio and purchased one square mile of land from Pierre Moran in order to establish a rival town named Elkhart. In 1839, the Pulaski Post Office was changed to Elkhart.
Elkhart County was founded by immigrants from New England. These were old stock "Yankee" immigrants, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s; the completion of the Erie Canal caused a surge in New England immigration to what was the Northwest Territory. The end of the Black Hawk War led to an additional surge of immigration, once again coming exclusively from the six New England states as a result of overpopulation combined with land shortages in that region; some of these settlers were from upstate New York and had parents who had moved to that region from New England shortly after the Revolutionary War. New Englanders and New England transplants from upstate New York were the vast majority of Elkhart County's inhabitants during the first several decades of its history; these settlers were members of the Congregational Church though due to the Second Great Awakening many of them had converted to Methodism and some had become Baptists before coming to what is now Elkhart County.
The Congregational Church subsequently has gone through many divisions and some factions, including those in Elkhart County are now known as the Church of Christ and the United Church of Christ. As a result of this heritage the vast majority of inhabitants in Elkhart County, much like antebellum New England were overwhelmingly in favor of the abolitionist movement during the decades leading up to the Civil War. Correspondingly, many inhabitants of Elkhart County fought in the Union Army during the Civil War. In the late 1880s and early 1890s Irish and German migrants began moving into Elkhart County, most of these immigrants did not move directly from Ireland and Germany, but rather from other areas in the Midwest where they had been living the state of Ohio. By the late 19th century and early 20th century, musical instrument factories, Miles Medical Company, numerous mills set up shop and became the base of the economy. In 1934, the first recreational vehicle factory opened in Elkhart. Similar companies followed suit for the remainder of the decade, the economy continued to grow until the rationing of materials in World War II.
After the war, growth picked back up and, by 1949, Elkhart was dubbed the "RV Capital of the World." In 1851, the Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana Railroad Company built the first rail line through the city, by 1852 the first passenger train passed through town. This, in turn, caused major population growth. Today, Norfolk Southern has the biggest railroad presence in town, although Elkhart has two other railroads: Shortline-Elkhart and Western and Regional-Grand Elk. Amtrak has two trains that stop in Elkhart, Lake Shore Limited and Capitol Limited, both of which stop at the Elkhart station. Canadian Pacific runs 6-8 trains through town on Norfolk Southern's trackage. In 1867, Elkhart Hydraulic Company built the first hydroelectric dam across the St. Joseph River and by 1870, it powered the city. Today, the dam still produces electric power and is operated by Indiana Michigan Power, a subsidiary of American Electric Power. In 1889, the second electric streetcar system in the world began operation on the city's streets.
It has since been decommissioned. The Beardsley Avenue Historic District, Albert R. Beardsley House, Dr. Havilah Beardsley House, Emmanuel C. Bickel House, Bridge Street Bridge, Charles Gerard Conn Mansion, Elkhart Downtown Commercial Historic District, Green Block and Helen Koerting House, Lerner Theatre, Mark L. and Harriet E. Monteith House, Morehous Residential Historic District, State Street-Division Street Historic District, Young Women's Christian Association are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Although a name of German or Germanic origin, the etymology of the city's name is disputed. One source argues. Another source claims that the origin of the city's name was the Shawnee Indian Chief Elkhart, cousin of the famous Chief Tecumseh, the father of Mishawaka, the namesake of neighboring Mishawaka. Other sources state. Elkhart is located at 41°40′59″N 85°58′8″W. According to the 2010 census, Elkhart has a total area of 24.417 square miles, of which 23.45 square miles is land and 0.967 square miles (or
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Gary is a city in Lake County, United States, 25 miles from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary borders southern Lake Michigan. Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation; the city is known for its large steel mills, as the birthplace of the Jackson 5 music group. The population of Gary was 80,294 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in the state of Indiana, it was a prosperous city from the 1920s through the mid-1960s due to its booming steel industry, but overseas competition and restructuring of the steel industry resulted in a decline and a severe loss of jobs. Since the late 1960s, Gary has suffered drastic population loss, falling by 55 percent from its peak of 178,320 in 1960; the city faces the difficulties of many Rust Belt cities, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all houses in the city are abandoned. Gary, was founded in 1906 by the United States Steel Corporation as the home for its new plant, Gary Works.
The city was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. Gary was the site of civil unrest in the steel strike of 1919. On October 4, 1919, a riot broke out on Broadway, the main north-south street through downtown Gary, between striking steel workers and strike breakers brought in from outside. Three days Indiana governor James P. Goodrich declared martial law. Shortly thereafter, over 4,000 federal troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood arrived to restore order; the jobs offered by the steel industry provided Gary with rapid growth and a diverse population within the first 26 years of its founding. According to the 1920 United States Census, 29.7% of Gary's population at the time was classified as foreign-born from eastern European countries, with another 30.8% classified as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. By the 1930 United States Census, the first census in which Gary's population exceeded 100,000, the city was the fifth largest in Indiana and comparable in size to South Bend, Fort Wayne, Evansville.
At that time, 19.3% of the population was classified as foreign-born, with another 25.9% as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. In addition to white internal migrants, Gary had attracted numerous African-American migrants from the South in the Great Migration, 17.8% of the population was classified as black. 3.5% was classified as Mexican. Gary's fortunes have fallen with those of the steel industry; the growth of the steel industry brought prosperity to the community. Broadway was known as a commercial center for the region. Department stores and architecturally significant movie houses were built in the downtown area and the Glen Park neighborhood. In the 1960s, like many other American urban centers reliant on one particular industry, Gary entered a spiral of decline. Gary's decline was brought on by the growing overseas competitiveness in the steel industry, which had caused U. S. Steel to lay off many workers from the Gary area; the U. S. Steel Gary Works employed over 30,000 in 1970, declined to just 6,000 by 1990, further declined to 5,100 in August 2015.
Attempts to shore up the city's economy with major construction projects, such as a Holiday Inn hotel and the Genesis Convention Center, failed to reverse the decline. Rapid racial change occurred in Gary during the late 20th century; these population changes resulted in political change which reflected the racial demographics of Gary: the non-white share of the city's population increased from 21% in 1930, 39% in 1960, to 53% in 1970. Non-whites were restricted to live in the Midtown section just south of downtown. Gary had one of the nation's first African-American mayors, Richard G. Hatcher, hosted the ground-breaking 1972 National Black Political Convention. Since the 1930s, Gary had developed a reputation as a tough city due to rampant political corruption, racial violence & segregation, labor unrest, industrial pollution. In the 1960s through the 1980s, surrounding suburban localities such as Merrillville, Crown Point and Valparaiso experienced rapid growth, including new homes and shopping districts.
Owing to white flight, economic distress, a perception of skyrocketing crime, many middle-class and affluent residents moved to other cities in the metro area. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gary had the highest percentage of African-Americans of U. S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more, 84%. This no longer applies to Gary since the population of the city has now fallen well below 100,000 residents; as of 2013, the Gary Department of Redevelopment has estimated that one-third of all homes in the city are unoccupied and/or abandoned. U. S. Steel continues to be a major steel producer, but with only a fraction of its former level of employment. While Gary has failed to reestablish a manufacturing base since its population peak, two casinos opened along the Gary lakeshore in the 1990s, although this has been aggravated by the state closing of Cline Avenue, an important access to the area. Today, Gary faces the difficulties of a Rust Belt city, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels.
Gary has closed several of its schools within the last ten years. While some of the school buildings have been reused, most remain unused since their closing; as of 2014, Gary is consid
Penn Central Transportation Company
The Penn Central Transportation Company abbreviated to Penn Central, was an American Class I railroad headquartered in Philadelphia, that operated from 1968 until 1976. It was created by the 1968 merger of the New York Central railroads; the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad was added to the merger in 1969. S. history. The Penn Central was created as a response to challenges faced by all three railroads in the late 1960s; the Northeast United States is the most densely populated region of the U. S. While railroads elsewhere in North America drew a sizable percentage of revenues from the long-distance shipment of commodities such as coal, lumber and iron ore, northeastern railroads traditionally depended on a more heterogeneous mix of services, including: commuter rail/passenger rail service Railway Express Agency freight service Break-bulk freight service via boxcars Consumer goods and perishables These labor-intensive, short-haul services were vulnerable to competition from automobiles and trucks where facilitated by four-lane highways.
In 1956, the U. S. Congress passed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956; this law authorized construction of the Interstate Highway System, which provided an economic boost to the trucking industry. Another problem was the inability to respond to market conditions. At the time, U. S. railroads were regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission, which did not allow railroads to change rates it charged both shippers and passengers. Reducing costs was the only way to survive and become profitable, but the ICC restricted what cost-cutting could take place. A merger seemed to be a promising way out of a difficult situation; the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad had been significant rivals for most of the 20th century. Both railroads had physical plant not being utilized to capacity. Talks of a merger had been announced as early as 1957; the initial reaction in the industry was utter surprise. Every merger proposal for decades had tried to balance the two giant railroads against each other and create two, three, or four more-or-less equal systems in the east.
Traditionally, the PRR had been allied with the Wabash railroads. Any remaining players were swept up with the Nickel Plate. In addition, tradition favored end-to-end mergers rather than those of parallel railroads. Planning and justifying the merger took nearly a decade, during which time the eastern railroad scene changed in large measure because of the impending merger of the NYC and PRR; the Erie merged with the DL&W to create the Erie Lackawanna Railway in 1960, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway acquired control of the B&O, the N&W took in several railroads, including the Nickel Plate and Wabash. The merger formally closed on February 1, 1968. On that date, the PRR — the nominal survivor of the merger — changed its name to Pennsylvania New York Central Transportation Company, it shortened its name to Penn Central Company on May 8, 1968. On October 1, 1969, Penn Central reorganized as a holding company, with its railroad interests under a wholly owned subsidiary, Penn Central Transportation Company.
The ICC approved the merger on the following conditions: The new company had to take over the freight and passenger operations of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. That occurred on December 31, 1968. PC had to absorb Susquehanna & Western Railway. PC and NYS&W could not agree on a price, NYS&W became part of the Delaware Otsego System. PC had to make the Lehigh Valley Railroad available for merger by either N&W or C&O or, if neither of those railroads wanted it, merge it into PC. LV entered bankruptcy only three days after PC did; the merger was not a success. An implementation plan was drawn up, but not carried out. Attempts to integrate operations and equipment were unsuccessful, due to clashing corporate cultures, incompatible computer systems and union contracts. Little thought had been given to unifying the two railroads, which had different styles of operation. In the decade prior to the merger, the NYC had trimmed its physical plant and assembled a young, eager management group under the leadership of Alfred E. Perlman.
The PRR, headed by Stuart T. Saunders, had been a more traditional operation. Many of NYC's management people saw that the PRR was dominant in PC management and soon left for other positions; those who departed had said the different corporate philosophies could never have merged successfully. The network was so poorly integrated. In addition to the problems of unification, the industrial states of the Northeast and Midwest were fast becoming the Rust Belt; as industries shut down and relocated, railroads found themselves with excess capacity. The PRR was burdened with excess trackage. Though this track was no longer needed, it was still on the tax rolls. West of the Allegheny Mountains, the NYC and PRR duplicated each other at every major point.
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway
The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway, established in 1833 and sometimes referred to as the Lake Shore, was a major part of the New York Central Railroad's Water Level Route from Buffalo, New York, to Chicago, Illinois along the south shore of Lake Erie and across northern Indiana. The line's trackage is still used as a major rail transportation corridor and hosts Amtrak passenger trains, with the ownership in 1998 split at Cleveland between CSX to the east, Norfolk Southern in the west. Toledo to ChicagoOn April 22, 1833, the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad was chartered in the Territory of Michigan to run from the former Port Lawrence, near Lake Erie, northwest to Adrian on the River Raisin; the Toledo War soon gave about one-third of the route to the state of Ohio. Trains commenced operating, pulled by horses, on November 2, 1836. 1, in August 1837. The Buffalo and Mississippi Railroad was chartered in Indiana on February 6, 1835, to run from Buffalo, New York, to the Mississippi River.
The name was changed February 6, 1837, to the Northern Indiana Railroad, which would run from the eastern border of Indiana west to Michigan City on Lake Michigan. Some grading between Michigan City and La Porte was done in 1838. Around 1838, the state of Michigan started to build the Southern Railroad, running from Monroe on Lake Erie west to New Buffalo on Lake Michigan; the first section, from Monroe west to Petersburg, opened in 1839. Extensions opened in 1840 to 1843 to Hillsdale. On May 9, 1846, the completed line was sold to the Michigan Southern Rail Road, which changed the planned western terminal to Chicago using the charter of the Northern Indiana Railroad; the grading, done was not used, as the grade was too steep, instead the original Buffalo and Mississippi Railroad charter was used west of La Porte, IN. The Michigan Southern leased the Erie and Kalamazoo on August 1, 1849, giving it a branch to Toledo, OH and a connection to planned railroads east from Toledo. Due to lobbying by the Michigan Central Railroad, a competitor of the Michigan Southern, the latter's charter prevented it from going within two miles of the Indiana state line east of Constantine.
However the most practical route went closer than two miles west of White Pigeon. To allow for this, Judge Stanfield of South Bend, IN bought the right-of-way from White Pigeon to the state line, leased it to the railroad company for about 10 years until the charter was modified to allow the company to own it; the Northern Indiana and Chicago Railroad was chartered on November 30, 1850. Its initial tracks, from the Michigan Southern at the state line running west-southwest to Elkhart, IN west through Osceola and Mishawaka to South Bend, IN, opened on October 4, 1851; the full line west to Chicago opened on February 20, 1852. A more direct line was soon planned from Elkhart east to Toledo, the Northern Indiana Railroad was chartered in Ohio on March 3, 1851. On July 8, 1853, the Ohio and Indiana companies merged, on February 7, 1855, the Northern Indiana and Chicago Railroad and the Buffalo and Mississippi Railroad were merged into the Northern Indiana Railroad. On April 25, 1855, that company in turn merged with the Michigan Southern Rail Road to form the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad.
In 1858 the new alignment from Elkhart, IN east to Air Line Junction in Toledo, OH was completed. The company now owned a main line from Chicago to Toledo, with an alternate route through southern Michigan east of Elkhart, a branch off that alternate to Monroe, MI. Included was the Detroit and Toledo Railroad, leased July 1, 1856, providing a branch from Toledo past Monroe to Detroit. Erie to ClevelandThe Franklin Canal Company was chartered May 21, 1844, built a railroad from Erie, PA southwest to the Ohio border; the Cleveland and Ashtabula Railroad was incorporated February 18, 1848, to build northeast from Cleveland, OH to join the Canal Company's railroad at the state line, the full line from Erie to Cleveland opened November 20, 1852. The Cleveland and Ashtabula bought the Franklin Canal Company on June 20, 1854. Buffalo to ErieThe Buffalo and State Line Railroad was incorporated October 13, 1849, opened January 1, 1852, from Dunkirk, NY west to Pennsylvania; the rest of the line from Dunkirk to Buffalo opened on February 22.
The Erie and North East Railroad was chartered April 12, 1842, to build the part from the state line west to Erie, PA, opened on January 19, 1852. On November 16, 1853, an agreement was made between the two railroads, built at 6 ft broad gauge, to relay the rails at 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge to match the Franklin Canal Company's railroad on the other side of Erie, for the Buffalo and State Line to operate the Erie and Northeast; this would result in through passengers no longer having to change trains at Erie, on December 7, 1853, the Erie Gauge War began between the railroads and the townspeople. On February 1, 1854, the relaying was finished and the first train passed through Erie. On May 15, 1867, the two companies between Buffalo and Erie merged to form the Buffalo and Erie Railroad. Cleveland to ToledoThe Junction Railroad was chartered March 2, 1846, to build from Cleveland west to Toledo; the Toledo and Cleveland Railroad was chartered March 7, 1850, to build from Toledo east to Grafton on the Cleveland and Cincinnati Railroad.
The latter company opened on January 24, 18