In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes referred to as an executable, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful. The exact interpretation depends upon the use - while "instructions" is traditionally taken to mean machine code instructions for a physical CPU, in some contexts a file containing bytecode or scripting language instructions may be considered executable. Executable files can be hand-coded in machine language, although it is far more convenient to develop software as source code in a high-level language that can be understood by humans. In some cases, source code might be specified in assembly language instead, which remains human-readable while being associated with machine code instructions; the high-level language is compiled into either an executable machine code file or a non-executable machine-code object file of some sort.
Several object files are linked to create the executable. Object files, executable or not, are in a container format, such as Executable and Linkable Format; this structures the generated machine code, for example dividing it into sections such as the.text.data, and.rodata. In order to be executed by the system, an executable file must conform to the system's application binary interface. Most a file is executed by loading the file into memory and jumping to the start of the address space and executing from there, but in more complicated interfaces executable files have additional metadata, specifying a separate entry point. For example, in ELF, the entry point is specified in the header in the e_entry field, which specifies the memory address at which to start execution. In the GCC this field is set by the linker based on the _start symbol. Executable files also include a runtime system, which implements runtime language features and interactions with the operating system, notably passing arguments and returning an exit status, together with other startup and shutdown features such as releasing resources like file handles.
For C, this is done by linking in the crt0 object, which contains the actual entry point and does setup and shutdown by calling the runtime library. Executable files thus contain significant additional machine code beyond that directly generated from the specific source code. In some cases it is desirable to omit this, for example for embedded systems development or to understand how compilation and loading work. In C this can be done by omitting the usual runtime, instead explicitly specifying a linker script, which generates the entry point and handles startup and shutdown, such as calling main to start and returning exit status to kernel at end. Comparison of executable file formats EXE File Format at What Is
Richard Allen Garriott de Cayeux is an English-American video game developer and entrepreneur. He is known as his alter egos Lord British in Ultima and General British in Tabula Rasa. A well-known figure in the video game industry, Garriott was a game designer and programmer and now engages in various aspects of computer game development and business; the son of NASA astronaut Owen Garriott, on October 12, 2008, Richard Garriott flew aboard Soyuz TMA-13 to the International Space Station as a private astronaut, returning 12 days aboard Soyuz TMA-12. He became the second astronaut, first from the U. S. who had a parent, a space traveler. Garriott founded a new video game development company in 2009, called Portalarium, his current project is Shroud of the Avatar: Forsaken Virtues where his primary role is as CEO and Creative Director. In 2011, Garriott married Laetitia de Cayeux. Both changed their last names to Garriott de Cayeux. Richard was born in Cambridge, the son of American parents Helen Mary Garriott née Walker and Owen K. Garriott, one of NASA's first scientist-astronauts, who flew on Skylab 3 and Space Shuttle mission STS-9.
He was raised in the United States in Nassau Bay, Texas. What Garriott described as "my first real exposure to computers" occurred in 1975, during his freshman year of high school at Clear Creek High School; as he wanted more experience beyond the single one-semester BASIC class the school offered, as a fan of The Lord of the Rings and Dungeons & Dragons, Garriott convinced the school to let him create a self-directed course in programming, in which he created fantasy computer games on the school's teletype machine. Garriott estimated that he wrote 28 computer fantasy games during high school. In the summer of 1977, his parents sent him to the University of Oklahoma for a seven-week computer camp. Shortly after he arrived, some of the other boys attending the camp introduced themselves; when Garriott replied to their greeting of "Hi" with "Hello" they decided he sounded like he was from Britain, gave him the nickname "British". Garriott uses the name to this day for his various gaming characters, including Ultima character Lord British and Tabula Rasa character General British.
Garriott began writing computer games in 1974. His first games were created for teletype terminals; the code was stored on paper tape spools and the game was displayed as an ongoing print-out on the spools of printer paper produced by teletype machines. In summer 1979, Garriott worked at a ComputerLand store where he had his first encounter with Apple computers. Inspired by their video monitors with color graphics, he began to add perspective view to his own games. After he created Akalabeth for fun, the owner of the store convinced Garriott. Garriott spent US$200 printing copies of a manual and cover sheet that his mother had drawn he put copies of the game in Ziploc bags to sell at the store. Although Garriott sold fewer than a dozen copies of Akalabeth at the store, one copy made it to California Pacific, who signed a deal with him; the game sold over 30,000 copies, Garriott received $5 for each copy sold. Akalabeth is considered the first published Computer Role Playing Game. In the fall, Garriott entered the University of Texas at Austin, joined the school's fencing team and joined the Society for Creative Anachronism.
He created Ultima I while at the university. It was published by California Pacific Computers and sold in Ziploc plastic bags, as was common in those days. Steve Jackson Games maintained a friendly relationship with Garriott and, when he visited the SJG office one day, Garriott was so impressed by the artwork of Denis Loubet that he commissioned him to paint the cover of Ultima I. Loubet subsequently painted many other covers for Garriott's games. In the early 1980s, Garriott continued to develop the Ultima series of computer games leaving university to author them on a full-time basis. Programmed for the Apple II, the Ultima series became available on several platforms. Ultima II was published by Sierra On-Line, as they were the only company that would agree to publish it in a box together with a printed cloth map. By the time he developed Ultima III, together with his brother Robert, their father Owen and Chuck Bueche established their own video game publisher, Origin Systems, to handle publishing and distribution, in part due to controversy with Sierra over royalties for the PC port of Ultima II.
Garriott sold Origin Systems to Electronic Arts in September 1992 for 30 million dollars. In 1997, he coined the term massively multiplayer online role-playing game, giving a new identity to the nascent genre known as graphical MUDs. In 1999 and 2000, EA canceled all of Origin's new development projects, including Privateer Online, Harry Potter Online. In the midst of these events, Garriott resigned from the company and returned to the industry by forming Destination Games in April 2000 with his brother and Starr Long. Once Garriott's non-compete agreement with EA expired a year Destination partnered with NCsoft where he acted as a producer and designer of MMORPGs. After that, he became the CEO of NCsoft Austin known as NC Interactive. Tabula Rasa failed to generate a significant amount of money during its initial release, despite its seven-year development period. On November 11, 2008, in an open letter on the Tabula Rasa website, Garriott announced his plans to leave NCsoft to pursue new interests sparked by his spaceflight experiences.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system to behave like another computer system. An emulator enables the host system to run software or use peripheral devices designed for the guest system. Emulation refers to the ability of a computer program in an electronic device to emulate another program or device. Many printers, for example, are designed to emulate Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printers because so much software is written for HP printers. If a non-HP printer emulates an HP printer, any software written for a real HP printer will run in the non-HP printer emulation and produce equivalent printing. Since at least the 1990s, many video game enthusiasts have used emulators to play classic arcade games from the 1980s using the games' original 1980s machine code and data, interpreted by a current-era system. A hardware emulator is an emulator. Examples include the DOS-compatible card installed in some 1990s-era Macintosh computers like the Centris 610 or Performa 630 that allowed them to run personal computer software programs and FPGA-based hardware emulators.
In a theoretical sense, the Church-Turing thesis implies that any operating environment can be emulated within any other environment. However, in practice, it can be quite difficult when the exact behavior of the system to be emulated is not documented and has to be deduced through reverse engineering, it says nothing about timing constraints. Emulation is a strategy in digital preservation to combat obsolescence. Emulation focuses on recreating an original computer environment, which can be time-consuming and difficult to achieve, but valuable because of its ability to maintain a closer connection to the authenticity of the digital object. Emulation addresses the original hardware and software environment of the digital object, recreates it on a current machine; the emulator allows the user to have access to any kind of application or operating system on a current platform, while the software runs as it did in its original environment. Jeffery Rothenberg, an early proponent of emulation as a digital preservation strategy states, "the ideal approach would provide a single extensible, long-term solution that can be designed once and for all and applied uniformly, in synchrony to all types of documents and media".
He further states that this should not only apply to out of date systems, but be upwardly mobile to future unknown systems. Speaking, when a certain application is released in a new version, rather than address compatibility issues and migration for every digital object created in the previous version of that application, one could create an emulator for the application, allowing access to all of said digital objects. Better graphics quality than original hardware. Additional features original hardware didn't have. Emulators maintain the original look and behavior of the digital object, just as important as the digital data itself. Despite the original cost of developing an emulator, it may prove to be the more cost efficient solution over time. Reduces labor hours, because rather than continuing an ongoing task of continual data migration for every digital object, once the library of past and present operating systems and application software is established in an emulator, these same technologies are used for every document using those platforms.
Many emulators have been developed and released under the GNU General Public License through the open source environment, allowing for wide scale collaboration. Emulators allow software exclusive to one system to be used on another. For example, a PlayStation 2 exclusive video game could be played on a PC using an emulator; this is useful when the original system is difficult to obtain, or incompatible with modern equipment. Intellectual property - Many technology vendors implemented non-standard features during program development in order to establish their niche in the market, while applying ongoing upgrades to remain competitive. While this may have advanced the technology industry and increased vendor's market share, it has left users lost in a preservation nightmare with little supporting documentation due to the proprietary nature of the hardware and software. Copyright laws are not yet in effect to address saving the documentation and specifications of proprietary software and hardware in an emulator module.
Emulators are used as a copyright infringement tool, since they allow users to play video games without having to buy the console, make any attempt to prevent the use of illegal copies. This leads to a number of legal uncertainties regarding emulation, leads to software being programmed to refuse to work if it can tell the host is an emulator; these protections make it more difficult to design emulators, since they must be accurate enough to avoid triggering the protections, whose effects may not be obvious. Emulators require better hardware; because of its primary use of digital formats
Video game console
A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a console machine designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers. An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, game controller and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. While arcades and computers are expensive or “technical” devices, video game consoles were designed with affordability and accessibility to the general public in mind. Unlike similar consumer electronics such as music players and movie players, which use industry-wide standard formats, video game consoles use proprietary formats which compete with each other for market share. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles, handheld game consoles and dedicated consoles.
Although Ralph Baer had built working game consoles by 1966, it was nearly a decade before the Pong game made them commonplace in regular people's living rooms. Through evolution over the 1990s and 2000s, game consoles have expanded to offer additional functions such as CD players, DVD players, Blu-ray disc players, web browsers, set-top boxes and more; the first video games appeared in the 1960s. They were played on massive computers connected to vector displays, not analog televisions. Ralph H. Baer conceived the idea of a home video game in 1951. In the late 1960s, while working for Sanders Associates, Baer created a series of video game console designs. One of these designs, which gained the nickname of the 1966 "Brown Box", featured changeable game modes and was demonstrated to several TV manufacturers leading to an agreement between Sanders Associates and Magnavox. In 1972, Magnavox released the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set. Ralph Baer's initial design had called for a huge row of switches that would allow players to turn on and off certain components of the console to create different games like tennis, volleyball and chase.
Magnavox replaced the switch design with separate cartridges for each game. Although Baer had sketched up ideas for cartridges that could include new components for new games, the carts released by Magnavox all served the same function as the switches and allowed players to choose from the Odyssey's built-in games; the Odyssey sold about 100,000 units, making it moderately successful, it was not until Atari's arcade game Pong popularized video games that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By autumn 1975, bowing to the popularity of Pong, canceled the Odyssey and released a scaled-down version that played only Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added on-screen scoring, up to four players, a third game—Smash. Released with Atari's own home Pong console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. All three of the new consoles used simpler designs than the original Odyssey did with no board game pieces or extra cartridges.
In the years that followed, the market saw many companies rushing similar consoles to market. After General Instrument released their inexpensive microchips, each containing a complete console on a single chip, many small developers began releasing consoles that looked different externally, but internally were playing the same games. Most of the consoles from this era were dedicated consoles playing only the games that came with the console; these video game consoles were just called video games because there was little reason to distinguish the two yet. While a few companies like Atari and newcomer Coleco pushed the envelope, the market became flooded with simple, similar video games. Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches or the console itself was empty and the cartridge contained all of the game components.
The VES, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II and the Atari 2600, respectively; the first handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges was the Microvision designed by Smith Engineering, distributed and sold by Milton-Bradley in 1979. Crippled by a small, fragile LCD display and a narrow selection of games, it was discontinued two years later; the Epoch Game Pocket Computer was released in Japan in 1984. The Game Pocket Computer featured an LCD screen with 75 X 64 resolution and could produce graphics at about the same level as early Atari 2600 games; the system sold poorly, as a result, only five games were made for it. Nintendo's Game & Watch series of dedicated game systems proved more successful, it helped to establish handheld gaming as popular and lasted until 1991. Many Game & Watch games were re-released on Nintendo's subsequent handheld systems.
The VES continued to be sold at a profit after 1977, both Bally and Magnavox brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, i
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
The Seven Cities of Gold (video game)
The Seven Cities of Gold is a strategy video game created by Dan Bunten and Ozark Softscape and published by Electronic Arts in 1984. The player takes the role of a late 15th-century explorer for the Spanish Empire, setting sail to the New World in order to explore the map and interact with the natives in order to win gold and please the Spanish court; the name derives from the "seven cities" of Quivira and Cíbola that were said to be located somewhere in the Southwest United States. It is considered to be one of the earliest open world video games; the game begins with the player having been given an exploration fleet by the Spanish crown, consisting of four ships, one hundred men, some trade goods. The game appears showing a city in Spain, a simplified 2D side-scrolling representation of the town consisting of the player's home, a palace, a pub and an outfitters; the player can walk about the town with the joystick, walking into the buildings in order to interact with them via menus. For instance, walking into the outfitters will bring up a menu allowing the user to buy supplies and trade goods.
Interaction in Spain is limited. Most of the game is played on a game screen with a small scrolling top-down map in the center and a number of status displays surrounding it. After leaving port the display switches to this map, the player guides the ship to the New World. At any point the player can bring up a menu with contents based on the player's current location. For instance, if the menu is brought up while on the ship, the items allow you to view the map, or "drop stuff off", the selection allowing exploration parties to be created by dropping off men and supplies from the ships; when the player is on land as part of an exploration party, the same menu item creates a fort when men are dropped off in it. Upon arriving in the new world, the player can explore the coastline, set up missionaries and forts, interact with the native peoples. Approaching the villages results in the map zooming in to show the village, represented by four buildings, the natives moving about. In the center is the village chieftain, approaching him and opening the menu allows trade for gold and food.
The player has the option to peacefully trade with or conquer the natives, can sometimes convert them, turning the village into a mission. The natives can be attacked by moving onto them. A few accidental killings is acceptable to the village, sometimes unavoidable, but too many and the natives will become hostile and attack the party. In many cases the Spanish can overwhelm the natives, who will give up fighting and allow the Spanish to plunder the town. Ambushes are common, between the towns. Much of Seven Cities of Gold was influenced by historical accounts of the era. Interactions with the natives could be peaceful or hostile, or become hostile due to the language barrier. While it could be assumed that the goal of the game is to return with riches from the New World, there are no goals at all; the game has no scoring system and provides the player with feedback from the King, but no interference, if they slaughter the natives. According to Bunten, from an interview in Antic: The peaceful approach works best.
I have not used a depraved approach and won. You've got to have some friends somewhere. If something goes wrong, you need a friendly mission where you can go back and not have to worry about an insurrection or something. A place you can know that there will be food, for example. You need a series of these safe places if you are going on a conquest mission. If you continually abuse the natives you will see a message from the king saying'Don't treat the natives so badly, but keep the gold coming.' This double standard is straight out of history." The size of the New World was one of the concepts. As a result, data storage and retrieval became a major issue as the developers did not want lengthy load times to interfere with the game; as described by Bunten, "Our only way out was to use technologies we didn't have until we were forced to invent them." The game used a streaming system to allow the map to be loaded in without interrupting game play. The game ships with a single "world" modeled on the real one, including details as small as the Florida Keys and most well-known rivers.
The game includes a world creating engine that allows the user to build a new New World, saving it to a user supplied disk. Game maps include one or more "lost cities" that are hidden by a mountain icon in locations that are far from other land masses. Explorers that stumble on one of these hidden cities will be greeted with the message "Sir, we have discovered a lost city." Inhabitants of this type of village are docile and run from the player and when the chief of the village is approached, the game will inform the player that "We may take what we want as tribute!" and the user will be able to acquire a sizable amount of gold without having to trade. Bunten considered the Atari 8-bit family version of Seven Cities of Gold the only "full" version, while the others were ports of which Bunten said "we did the best we could with what we had". Versions for the Commodore 64 and Apple II were released soon after in the same year, followed by the Macintosh and Amiga in 1985 and the PC in 1987. Seven Cities of Gold won the "Strategy Game of the Year" award from Computer Gaming World's 1985 reader poll, sold over 100,000 copies.
In 1984, COMPUTE! called Seven Cities "a riveting new adventure game... a graphically enhanced strategy game that challenges and educates as well as e
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne