Shallow Inlet is a marine inlet, opening onto Waratah Bay on the western side of the Yanakie Isthmus in South Gippsland, south-eastern Australia. It lies close to the small holiday communities of Sandy Point and Yanakie, as well as to Wilsons Promontory and the Wilsons Promontory National Park; the inlet is a 18 km2 tidal embayment with a single channel to the sea. On the seaward side it is enclosed by a barrier of sandy spits and mobile dunes; the extensive intertidal mudflats and areas of sand shorebirds. Fringing the mudflats are areas of saltmarsh; the inlet has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports over 1% of the world populations of double-banded plovers and red-necked stints, has supported the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot. Other birds recorded as using the site in significant numbers include eastern curlews, Pacific golden plovers, curlew sandpipers and sanderlings
Corio Bay is one of numerous bays in the southwest corner of Australia's Port Phillip, is the bay on which abuts the City of Geelong. The nearby suburb of Corio takes its name from Corio Bay; when Hamilton Hume and William Hovell arrived at the bay in 1824 they met with the local Wautharong people who referred to the bay as "Jillong" and the surround land "Corayo", but by the time the area was surveyed in the late 1830s the Aboriginal names had been swapped. The names "Corayo" and "Jillong" had since been Anglicised to "Corio" and "Geelong"; the Port of Geelong is located on the shores of Corio Bay, is the sixth largest port in Australia by tonnage. Before the initial settlement of Geelong, a sandbar across the bay from Point Lillias to Point Henry prevented ships from entering the inner harbour. Ships were required to drop anchor in the bay, cargo was brought into Geelong on small barges. At times it was possible to walk across the bay on the sandbar at low tide; the first channel through the sandbar was started in 1853, providing less than 4 metres draught for ships.
This channel was dredged at a depth of 6 metres in the 1860s. In 1881 a new channel started, it was named the Hopetoun Channel after Lord Hopetoun who opened it on December 20, 1893. Management of the channels and port was the responsibility of the Geelong Harbour Trust, formed in December 1905. In 1981, the Port of Geelong Authority took over from the trust; the authority was privatised by the State Government in mid 1996, being sold to TNT Logistics for $49.6 million. It was re-branded as'GeelongPort'; the shores of Corio Bay have been a popular playground for Geelong residents. Since the 1930s Eastern Beach has been a popular swimming location. Boating is popular, with a number of public boat ramps and piers provided; the bay is the home of the Royal Geelong Yacht Club, established in 1859, the adjacent Bay City Marina, constructed in the 1980s. Sometimes and dolphins can be seen in the bay. Commercial net fishing in Corio Bay ended in 2018 after campaigning by recreational fishing groups. Industrial activity around Corio bay has resulted in pollution to the bay: In 1974, severe cadmium contamination of mussels from Corio Bay was reported.
Levels as high as 41.5 µg/g had been found. The Corio Bay contamination was traced to an industrial effluent which ceased. After that time, cadmium levels in Corio Bay mussels decreased to below the NH&MRC limits. Lead levels were high in mussels in Corio Bay in 1977-78 and remained above the maximum permitted concentration of 2.5 µg/g up to the last measurements made prior to 1992 In 2002, Shell Australia was fined for three separate oil spills into Corio Bay. In 2003, Shell refinery had 63 spills to the bay up until September 8 of that year. In 2004 Shell Australia was ordered to pay $75,000 towards an environmental project near its Geelong refinery after it was convicted of polluting Corio Bay during three oil spills in 2003. In 2009 Shell Australia was fined over oil leaks on land. In 2014, spills of 3500 litres and 6300 litres of an ammonia derivative chemical used in oil refining by Viva Energy from the bayside oil refinery occurred. In 2016, Incitec Pivot was fined twice for illegally discharging about 1.7 million litres of treated wastewater and untreated stormwater into Corio Bay.
In 2015, Impact Fertilisers was fined for two illegal discharges of contaminated liquid. During its investigations EPA found out, it is that this second discharge would have reached Corio Bay. In 2017, Midway Limited was fined for permitting a significant amount of contaminated water, the company's third spill in 12 months, to leave its site and enter Corio Bay. Eastern Beach Waterfront Geelong Limeburners Bay Timeline of Geelong history
Discovery Bay (Australia)
Discovery Bay is an open oceanic embayment lying along the coast of eastern South Australia and western Victoria in south-eastern Australia. Facing the Southern Ocean, Discovery Bay extends 70 kilometres from Cape Northumberland, near Port MacDonnell, South Australia in the northwest, to Cape Bridgewater in the southeast, 20 kilometres west of Portland in western Victoria. Cape Northumberland is the southernmost point of mainland South Australia; the Glenelg River enters the bay near the town of Nelson. The bay was named by explorer Thomas Mitchell when he came down the river on 20 August 1836; the South Australian section of the bay’s coastline is protected by the Lower South East Marine Park while the Victorian section of the coast is protected in the Discovery Bay Coastal Park. The waters at the eastern end of the bay, adjacent to Cape Bridgewater, are protected by the Discovery Bay Marine National Park. Discovery Bay Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park "Discovery Bay Parks Management Plan".
Parks Victoria. Government of Victoria. 2006. ISBN 0-7311-8335-5. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. "Discovery Bay Coastal Park". Parks Victoria. Government of Victoria. 23 December 2013. Parks Victoria. "Discovery Bay Marine National Park: Marine Natural Values Study Summary". Parks Victoria. Government of Victoria
The Corner Inlet is a 600-square-kilometre bay, located 200 kilometres south-east of Melbourne, in the South Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. Of Victoria's large bays it is both the warmest, it contains intertidal mudflats, salt marsh and seagrass meadows, sheltered from the surf of Bass Strait by a complex of 40 sandy barrier islands, the largest of which are Snake and Saint Margaret Islands. The inlet is protected as a Ramsar site, by the Nooramunga and Corner Inlet Marine and Coastal Parks, by part of it lying within the 1,550-hectare Corner Inlet Marine National Park; the inlet adjoins Wilsons Promontory in the west, extends to Ninety Mile Beach in the east, supports large numbers of migratory waders and other birds as well a rich marine flora and fauna. Corner Inlet lies within the traditional lands of the Brataolong clan of the Gunai nation. In the early 1840s European settlers moved into the area and established agricultural and forestry enterprises. Commercial fishing became established in the 1860s.
The surrounding land was covered by forest which has since been cleared. It has become a popular tourist destination for recreational fishing; some 720 square kilometres of land and water covering Corner Inlet has been recognised by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area. Containing the most extensive intertidal mudflats in Victoria, it supports over 1% of the world populations of chestnut teal, Far Eastern curlew, red-necked stint and sooty oystercatchers and the hooded plover; the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot has been seen there. Agnes River Nooramunga Marine and Coastal Parks
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is called a gulf, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with narrow entrance. A fjord is a steep bay shaped by glacial activity. A bay can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River. Bays may be nested within each other; some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing, they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea called the Law of the Sea, defines a bay as a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast.
An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation. There are various ways; the largest bays have developed through plate tectonics. As the super-continent Pangaea broke up along curved and indented fault lines, the continents moved apart and left large bays. Bays form through coastal erosion by rivers and glaciers. A bay formed by a glacier is a fjord. Rias are characterised by more gradual slopes. Deposits of softer rocks erode more forming bays, while harder rocks erode less leaving headlands. Bay platform Great capes Headlands and bays
Port Phillip, is a port in southern Victoria, Australia. It is nearly surrounded by the city of its suburbs. Geographically, the port covers 1,930 square kilometres and the shore stretches 264 km. Although it is shallow for its size, most of the port is navigable; the deepest portion is only 24 metres, half the region is shallower than 8 m. The volume of the water in the port is around 25 cubic kilometres. Before European settlement the area around Port Phillip was divided between the territories of the Wathaurong and Boonwurrung Nations, its waters and coast are home to seals, dolphins and many kinds of seabirds and migratory waders. The first Europeans to enter the port were the crews of HMS Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray and, ten weeks HMS Investigator commanded by Matthew Flinders, in 1802. Subsequent expeditions into the bay took place in 1803 to establish the first settlement in Victoria, near Sorrento, but was abandoned in 1804. Thirty years settlers from Tasmania returned to establish Melbourne, now the state's capital city, at the mouth of the Yarra River in 1835 and Geelong at Corio Bay in 1838.
Today Port Phillip is the most densely populated catchment in Australia with an estimated 4.5 million people living around the bay. Port Phillip formed between the end of the last Ice Age around 8000 BCE and around 6000 BCE, when the sea-level rose to drown what was the lower reaches of the Yarra River, vast river plains and lakes; the Yarra and other tributaries flowed down what is now the middle of the bay, formed a lake in the southern reaches of the bay, dammed by The Heads, subsequently pouring out into Bass Strait. The Aboriginal people were in occupation of the area long before the bay was formed, having arrived at least 20,000 years ago and 40,000 years ago. Large piles of semi-fossilised sea-shells known as middens, can still be seen in places around the shoreline, marking the spots where Aboriginal people held feasts, they made a good living from the abundant sea-life, which included seals. In the cold season, they wore intricate feathered head-dresses. A dry period combined with sand bar formation, may have dried the bay out as as between 800 BCE and 1000 CE.
In 1800, Lieutenant James Grant was the first known European to pass through Bass Strait from west to east in HMS Lady Nelson. He was the first to see, crudely chart, the south coast from Cape Banks in South Australia to Wilsons Promontory in Victoria. Grant gave the name "Governor King's Bay" to the body of water between Cape Otway and Wilsons Promontory, but did not venture in and discover Port Phillip; the first Europeans to discover and enter Port Phillip, were the crew of the Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray, which entered the bay on 15 February 1802. Murray called the bay Port King after the Governor of Philip Gidley King. On 4 September 1805, King formally renamed it Port Phillip, in honour of his predecessor Arthur Phillip. About ten weeks after Murray, Matthew Flinders in HMS Investigator found and entered the port, unaware Murray had been there; the official history of Nicholas Baudin's explorations in Le Géographe claimed they too had sighted the entrance at that time but this is certainly a embellishment or error, being absent from the ship's logs and Baudin's own accounts.
As a result of Murray's and Flinders' reports, King sent Lieutenant Charles Robbins in HMS Cumberland to explore Port Phillip fully. One of his party, Charles Grimes, became the first European to walk right round the bay, thus to discover the mouth of the Yarra, on 2 February 1803. King decided to place a convict settlement at Port Phillip to stake a claim to southern Australia ahead of the French. On 10 October 1803 a convoy of two ships HMS Calcutta and Ocean led by Captain David Collins carrying 402 people entered Port Philip Bay. After some investigation it was decided to establish the settlement at a spot known as Sullivan Bay close to where Sorrento now exists; the expedition landed at Sullivan Bay on 17 October 1803, the first of the "orders" issued by Collins bears that date. On 25 October, the King's birthday, the British flag was hoisted over the tiny settlement and a little salvo of musketry celebrated the royal occasion. On 25 November the first white child was born in Victoria and was baptised on Christmas Day, receiving the name of William James Hobart Thorne.
The first marriage took place on 28 November, when a free woman, Hannah Harvey was wedded to convict Richard Garrett. Lack of fresh water and good timber, led this, the first attempt at European settlement in Victoria, to be abandoned on 27 January 1804; when Collins left Port Phillip, the'Calcutta' proceeded to Sydney, the'Ocean' to Risdon Cove Tasmania, where they arrived on 15 February 1804. Prior to abandonment, a group of convicts including William Buckley, escaped from the settlement. Buckley took up residence in a cave near Point Lonsdale on the western side of the bay's entrance, The Rip. Port Phillip was left undisturbed until 1835, when settlers from Tasmania led by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner established Melbourne on the lower reaches of the Yarra. John Batman encountered Willia
Daveys Bay is a small shallow bay of Port Phillip, located in Victoria, Australia. It is one of several small bays adjoining the town of Mount Eliza and is the closest region of the Shire of Mornington Peninsula to Melbourne. Daveys Bay is named after James Davey. Davey used the jetty to load his ketch with produce destined for the Melbourne markets. Davey's Bay Yacht Club, founded in 1909, is located at the jetty; the north-eastern shoreline of Daveys Bay features an exposure of the Manyung Fault, part of the main Selwyn Fault system. Davey's Bay Yacht Club