Shannon Ann MacMillan is an American retired soccer player, coach, FIFA Women's World Cup champion, Olympic gold and silver medalist. Named U. S. Soccer Athlete of the Year for 2002, MacMillan played for the United States women's national soccer team from 1994–2006 and was part of the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup-winning team, she won gold with silver at the 2000 Summer Olympics. In 2007, MacMillan became an assistant coach for the UCLA Bruins women's soccer team. In 2016, she was inducted in the National Soccer Hall of Fame. MacMillan was born in New York, she attended San Pasqual High School in California. She has Sean. MacMillan played for the University of Portland, where she won the Hermann Trophy for the best female collegiate soccer player of the 1995 season, she earned All-America honors from 1992–95. MacMillan was one of the founding players of the Women's United Soccer Association, playing three seasons for the San Diego Spirit. While still in college, MacMillan joined the US National Team in 1994 as a midfielder.
By 2000, she moved to forward. In the Olympic semifinal against Norway in 1996, she scored the game-winning goal in overtime. In the Olympic final against China, she collected a Mia Hamm shot that rebounded off the post and put it in for the first goal of the match, she was the 2000 Olympic team. She earned a spot on the roster for the 2003 Women's World Cup team after making a miraculously quick recovery from an ACL tear suffered just four months before the tournament began. In 2002, MacMillan scored 17 goals and was voted the U. S. Soccer Female Athlete of the Year, she retired from international play in 2006 at the age of 31. She finished her international career with 60 goals and with 175 caps, the tenth most of any woman in history up to that time, she was the sixth-leading goal scorer in 2005. MacMillan was awarded the MAC Hermann Trophy Award in 1995, she was voted U. S. Soccer Female Athlete of the Year in 2002, she was inducted into the Oregon Sports Hall of Fame on September 25, 2007. In 2007, MacMillan became an assistant coach for the UCLA women's soccer team.
On January 7, 2010, she was named Director of the Competitive Program at the Del Mar Carmel Valley Sharks Soccer Club. List of FIFA Women's World Cup goalscorers List of Olympic medalists in football List of 1996 Summer Olympics medal winners List of 2000 Summer Olympics medal winners History of the United States women's national soccer team Grainey, Beyond Bend It Like Beckham: The Global Phenomenon of Women's Soccer, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-4036-8 Kassouf, Girls Play to Win Soccer, Norwood House Press, ISBN 1-59953-464-9 Lisi, Clemente A; the U. S. Women's Soccer Team: An American Success Story, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-7416-4 Longman, The Girls of Summer: The U. S. Women's Soccer Team and How it Changed the World, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-187768-9 Nash, Tim, It's Not the Glory: The Remarkable First Thirty Years of US Women's Soccer, Lulu, ISBN 1483451534 Rutledge, The Best of the Best in Soccer, First Avenue Edition, ISBN 0761313923 Woolum, Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They are and how They Influenced Sports in America, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 1573561207 Shannon MacMillan – FIFA competition record U.
S. Soccer player profile Shannon MacMillan's U. S. Olympic Team bio
West Coast Conference Women's Basketball Tournament
The West Coast Conference Women's Basketball Tournament is the annual concluding tournament for the NCAA college basketball in the West Coast Conference. The winner receives an automatic berth into the NCAA Women's Basketball Championship; the championship is broadcast nationally on ESPNU. Games were at campus sites from 1992-1994 were played at the same location as the men's tournament, beginning in 1995. Beginning in 2012, the WCC adopted a new format to incorporate a ninth team. In 2012 and 2013, the tournament started on Wednesday instead of Friday, a first round 8 vs. 9 game was added. The winner of the 8/9 game played the 5 seed on Day 2 of the Tournament; the 6 vs. 7 match took place that same day. Day 3, or the Quarterfinals, featured the winner of the 5/8/9 game playing the 4 seed and the winner of the 6/7 game playing the 3 seed; the top two seeds entered in the semifinals on Saturday. All teams were off on Sunday, the championship game was played Monday on ESPNU. BYUtv Sports showed all games on the women's side except for the championship.
The format changed to a traditional 10-team tournament with the addition of Pacific for the 2013–14 season. At the end of each tournament, an all-tournament team is named, with one individual selected as Most Valuable Player. Three players have earned MVP honors more than once—Valerie Gillom of San Francisco and Jill Barta of Gonzaga twice, Gonzaga's Courtney Vandersloot three times. West Coast Conference Men's Basketball Tournament
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc
Megan Anna Rapinoe is an American professional soccer midfielder/winger who plays for and captains Reign FC in the National Women's Soccer League. As a member of the United States women's national soccer team, she helped the U. S. win the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, the gold at the 2012 London Olympics, finish runners-up at the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Since 2018, she co-captains her national team alongside Alex Morgan. Rapinoe is internationally known for her crafty style of play and her precise cross to Abby Wambach in the 122nd minute of the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup quarterfinals against Brazil, which resulted in an equalizer goal and eventual win for the Americans after a penalty kick shootout; the last-minute goal set a record for latest goal scored in a match and was awarded ESPN's 2011 ESPY Award for Best Play of the Year. During the 2012 London Olympics, she scored three goals and tallied a team-high four assists to lead the United States to a gold medal, she is the first player, male or female.
Rapinoe is an advocate for numerous LGBT organizations, including the Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network and Athlete Ally. In 2013, she was awarded the board of directors Award by the Los Angeles Lesbian Center, she is sponsored by Nike, Samsung and DJO Global, has appeared in multiple promotional pieces for clothing company Wildfang, as well as for Nike. She played for the Chicago Red Stars, Philadelphia Independence and magicJack in Women's Professional Soccer as well as Olympique Lyonnais in France's Division 1 Féminine. Rapinoe grew up in Redding, with her parents and Denise, five siblings, including her fraternal twin, Rachael, she spent most of her youth playing with teams coached by her father until high school. Instead of playing soccer at Foothill High School, Rapinoe played for the Elk Grove Pride club team, located south of Sacramento, she competed in track as a sophomore. Rapinoe was named Parade and National Soccer Coaches Association of America All-American as a junior and senior.
She was named to McDonald's All-American Game in 2004. Rapinoe played for the under-14 Northern California state Olympic Development Program team in 1999 as well as the regional ODP team in 2002. From 2002 to 2005, Rapinoe played for Elk Grove Pride in the Women's Premier Soccer League along with her twin sister and future national teammate, Stephanie Cox, she and her family commuted two-and-a-half hours from her hometown to play with the team. During the US Youth Soccer National Championships, she scored an equalizer goal in the 18th minute to tie the game 1–1 against the Peachtree City Lazers. Elk Grove United finished second at the nationals after the Lazers scored a game-winning goal in the second half. Rapinoe and her sister both attended the University of Portland in Oregon; the Rapinoe twins committed to Santa Clara University before choosing to play for the Portland Pilots on full scholarships. Rapinoe played in the 2004 FIFA U-19 Women's World Championship in 2004, where the United States finished third.
The result was. In 2005, as a freshman, Rapinoe helped the Pilots to an undefeated season and the NCAA Division I Women's Soccer Championship. During the College Cup quarterfinal against Notre Dame, she scored twice and served one assist, helping the Pilots win 3–1 and advance to the College Cup. During the College Cup final against UCLA, she scored one goal and served an assist helping the Pilots win 4–0, she was named NSCAA First Team All-American and was on the Soccer America First Team Freshman All-America. Rapinoe made the NCAA Women's Soccer Championship All Tournament Team and was the West Coast Conference Freshman of the Year, she was named to the All-West Coast Conference First Team and the All-West Coast Conference Freshman Team. Rapinoe played and started all 25 games as an attacking midfielder, scoring 15 goals and adding 13 assists for 43 points – ranking fifth for freshman point totals in the school's history; that year, she scored seven game-winning goals. As a sophomore in 2006, Rapinoe was among the nation's leading scorers with ten goals and two assists in eleven matches.
During a match against Washington State University on October 5, she suffered her first season-ending anterior cruciate ligament injury. Despite her injury, she was one of three Portland players in the program's history, including Tiffeny Milbrett and Shannon MacMillan, to score 25 goals and 15 assists in 2 seasons. In 2007, Rapinoe suffered her second season-ending ACL injury two games into the season, she did not use it. After taking her time to recover from her second ACL injury, Rapinoe returned for the 2008 season and was on the starting lineup in all 22 games for the Pilots, she helped the team secure a 20 -- 2 record serving 13 assists. Her 13 assists ranked first for the Pilots as well as in the West Coast Conference and she was named West Coast Conference Player of the Year, she was named a Soccer America First-Team All-American and NSCAA Second Team All-American. Although she had one more season of college eligibility remaining due to her NCAA medical hardship waiver, she opted to enter the Women's Professional Soccer Draft instead.
Rapinoe's 88-point career, including 30 goals and 28 assists, ranks tenth in the school's history despite her playing only 60 games. Rapinoe was selected second overall in the 2009 WPS Draft by the Chicago Red Stars for the inaugural season of Women's Professional Soccer, the highest
Kasey C. Keller is an American former soccer player who played professionally in Europe and the United States, as well as being the starting goalkeeper for the U. S. national team. He is a four-time FIFA World Cup participant and was the first American goalkeeper to become a regular in the German Bundesliga, the English Premier League, the Spanish La Liga, he now works as the Sounders' color commentator in local broadcasts, assistant coach for Newport High School Boys Soccer in Bellevue, Washington. Keller was born in Washington, he attended North Thurston High School and played college soccer at the University of Portland under Clive Charles. As a freshman in 1988, he helped lead the team to the NCAA men's soccer final four, he was the 1991 Adidas Goalkeeper of the Year. During the 1989 college off-season, he played for the Portland Timbers of the Western Soccer Alliance, his outstanding play led to his selection as league MVP that year. In 10 games, he allowed only four goals for eight clean sheets.
In 1989, he split his time between the Portland Timbers and the U. S. U-20 national team. Keller once again excelled and was awarded the tournament's Silver Ball as the tournament's second best player. After being a member of the U. S. National Team in the 1990 FIFA World Cup, he was signed by the English club Millwall, playing there and becoming a fan favorite between 1992 and 1996. Keller made his Millwall debut on May 2, 1992 and played his last game on May 5, 1996, making 202 overall appearances for The Lions. Keller was voted Player of The Year 1992–93 by the Lions fans and picked up the Junior Lions and Disabled Millwall Fans' awards; when Millwall were relegated to the Second Division, the team transferred Keller to Leicester City for £900,000 on August 15, 1996. In his first year with Leicester City, Keller played a vital part in the team's success in both a strong league position and winning the 1997 League Cup; the team reached the final again in 1999. That summer, he left the club for Spain on a free transfer.
Keller signed with the newly promoted Spanish club Rayo Vallecano for the 1999–2000 season and played there for two years. In August 2001, Keller returned to England and the Premier League, joining Tottenham Hotspur on a free transfer. Relegated to backup duty for Neil Sullivan early on, he won the starting spot, played every minute for Spurs in both the 2002–03 and the 2003–04 seasons. In the 2004–05 Premiership season, Keller fell out of favor at Tottenham, as Paul Robinson became the first choice keeper. In November 2004, Kasey was loaned out to Southampton, a Premiership club ravaged by injuries to its goalkeepers, for one month. On January 15, 2005, Keller joined German Bundesliga side Borussia Mönchengladbach on a free transfer during the Bundesliga's winter break, he got off to a good start in the Bundesliga, keeping a clean sheet in his first appearance for Borussia. Keller played every minute in the second half of the season and kept a total of seven clean sheets in that period, playing an important role in saving the club from relegation.
Keller lived in Haus Donk, a castle in Tönisvorst, near Mönchengladbach. During the 2006–07 season he was one of the two Bundesliga players to be hobby-columnists for RUND, a German soccer magazine published once each month, reflecting his life in Germany and his Bundesliga career within those lines, he shared that role with VfB Stuttgart's shot-stopper Timo Hildebrand. On August 10, 2006 Keller was selected by his teammates to captain club side Borussia Mönchengladbach during the 2006–07 campaign, he is the second American to captain a top level German club. In August 2007, Keller returned to the Premier League; the length of Keller's contract and financial details were not disclosed by the club. He was bought as a back-up to goalkeeper Antti Niemi, but nagging injuries to Niemi saw him take over as principal goalkeeper at Fulham. However, the day before the Premier League match against Derby County in October, Keller injured his arm in training and was on the sidelines until late January, he returned as a substitute keeper in the 2–1 win over Aston Villa on February 3.
From on he was only second choice until Fulham's match against Blackburn where he started the game, with Niemi on the bench. He went on to start Fulham's remaining games as they defied all odds and avoided relegation on the last day of the season with a 1–0 win over Portsmouth at Fratton Park. On August 14, 2008, Keller returned to the United States to sign with 2009 MLS expansion team Seattle Sounders FC, he was the starting goalkeeper for the MLS team's first-ever match, on March 19, 2009, which the Sounders won 3–0. He continued to have a clean sheet in each of his next three starts, with a score of 2–0 per start, he set the record for most minutes without a goal to start a season in MLS history. His clean sheet streak came to an end on May 2, 2009 at 457 minutes in the second half of a game against the Chicago Fire. Keller played his final regular season home game for the Sounders on October 15, 2011, a game in which the Sounders beat the San Jose Earthquakes 2–1 with goals from Sammy Ochoa and Fredy Montero to send Keller out in style.
A record crowd of 64,140 people were present. Keller got his first senior team cap against Colombia on February 4, 1990 and was on the roster as Tony Meola's back up at the 1990 FIFA World Cup. After being ignored by U. S. coach Bora Milutinović for the 1994 FIFA World Cup, he made Steve Sampson's ill-fated squad in 1998, played two games at the World Cup. Keller was an overage selection starting all three matches. Ka
Conor Patrick Casey is an American retired soccer player who last played as a forward for Columbus Crew SC in Major League Soccer. He is known as a physical striker with a deceptively deft touch. Casey was born in New Hampshire, but moved to Colorado at age five, considers Denver his hometown, he played soccer at Denver's South High School and went on to play two years of college soccer for the University of Portland from 1999 to 2000. In his first year at the University of Portland, Casey was named best player of the year. In 2000, he led the NCAA in scoring with seven assists. After playing well in the 2000 Summer Olympics Casey signed a four-year contract with German club Borussia Dortmund. After finishing a year of playing with the club, Casey was loaned out in the 2001–02 season to Hannover 96, where he scored seven goals in nineteen games; the subsequent year, Casey stayed with Dortmund, but only saw action in four games, scoring one goal. In 2003–04, he was again loaned to a second division club, Karlsruher SC, scoring fourteen goals in thirty games.
In 2004, Casey signed with Bundesliga club Mainz 05, but scored only two goals and struggled with injuries during two-and-a-half seasons with the club. After being released by Mainz, Casey signed with Major League Soccer. Casey was allocated to Toronto FC and after 2 games with 0 goals and 0 assists, he was traded to his hometown club, Colorado Rapids, on April 19, 2007, in exchange for Riley O'Neill and an undisclosed amount of allocation money, he played 15 games with the Rapids in 2007, scoring 2 goals and 3 assists. In 2008, he scored 2 assists in 21 games. Casey ended the 2009 MLS season, with 16 goals, just one less than leader Jeff Cunningham to go along with 1 assist in 24 games, he was named in the MLS Best XI in 2009. In 2010, Casey became the All Time goal scorer for the Colorado Rapids as he scored 13 goals and 6 assists in 27 games. In 2010, Casey was selected as the MVP for the 2010 MLS Cup championship though the representative of the award sponsor announced "Casey Conor" when awarding it.
In 2011, Casey suffered a season-ending Achilles tendon injury in a July 16 game against the Seattle Sounders as he finished that season with 6 goals and 1 assist in 14 games. In 2012, Casey scored 3 assists in 18 games. On November 16, 2012, Casey was released by the Colorado Rapids. On December 14, 2012, Casey was selected by Philadelphia Union in the first round of the 2012 MLS Re-Entry Draft, Stage 2. On January 23, 2015, it was announced that Casey had signed a new contract with the club for the 2015 season. After three seasons in Philadelphia, Casey signed with Columbus Crew SC on January 26, 2016. Casey played at the 2001 World Youth Championship in Argentina and graduated to the senior United States national team, getting his first cap on March 31, 2004, against Poland. On July 7, 2005, Casey suffered a tear to his ACL while playing against Cuba in the U. S.'s opening game of the Gold Cup. He served as a late sub for the United States during several matches in the 2009 Confederations Cup.
Casey scored twice against Honduras in a critical world cup qualifier at San Pedro Sula, Honduras, on October 10, 2009. The unanimous Man of the Match, Casey scored the U. S.'s first two goals, was fouled to set up the game-winning free-kick goal by Landon Donovan. The win put the United States through to the 2010 World Cup. Sources: Source: Colorado RapidsMajor League Soccer Eastern Conference Championship: 2010 Major League Soccer MLS Cup: 2010United StatesCONCACAF Gold Cup Champions: 2005IndividualMLS Cup Most Valuable Player: 2010 MLS Best XI: 2009 Colorado Rapids – All Time Goal Scorer: 54 Colorado Rapids – All Time Hat Trick: 3 Conor Casey at Major League Soccer Conor Casey at National-Football-Teams.com Conor Casey at Soccerway
2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event, held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events; this was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee after two rounds of voting; the Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed for use at the Games.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities; the official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, is the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, by many accounts "the greatest in the history of Olympics". An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall.
The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia. Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round. Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested. In addition, a number of IOC delegates, athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application; the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion. On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", equivalen