Saint Catherine Parish
St Catherine is a parish in the south east of Jamaica. It is located in the county of Middlesex, and is one of the islands largest and most economically valued parishes because of its many resources and it includes the first capital of Jamaica, Spanish Town, originally known as San Jago de la Vega or Santiago de la Vega. St Catherine is located at 18°N 77°W and it is bordered by St Andrew in the east, Clarendon in the west, and by St Mary and St Ann in the north. It has an area of 1,192 km², making it one of Jamaicas largest parishes, except for the Hellshire Hills near the coast, the south of the parish is virtually flat. The central and northern sections are very mountainous, the border is on Mount Diablo, which crosses over into St Ann. A plain of approximately 230 square kilometres occupies the part of the Rio Cobre basin. The Rio Cobre is the river that runs along the southern plain. It provides water to irrigate over 73 square kilometres on the plain, out of all the parishes Saint Catherine shows the most potential for urban development.
With its good water resources, virtually flat landscape, and nearness to the capital, agriculture remains the main source of employment in the parish. The larger properties produce sugar cane and citrus mainly for export, dairy farms are found in the parish. One of these is a 4.0 square kilometres farm in Old Harbour, the Salt Ponds District between Spanish Town, Port Henderson and Passage Fort is noted for the fine fish especially calipera. St Catherine is second only to Kingston as an industrial center, industrial plants are some of the biggest employers in the parish. Spanish Town has the largest salt producing plant in the Caribbean, while Jamaica Milk Products, the largest power plant in the island and several factories are located in Old Harbour. Twickenham Park, near Spanish Town, is another industrial estate with mainly light industries including cigarettes, batteries, plastic items, Jamaicas emancipation Square can be found in Spanish Town. This is the only Georgian square in Jamaica, kings House and the House of Assembly on the west and east sides, were erected in 1762.
The Courthouse was built in 1819 and used as a chapel, the Rio Cobre River and Gorge is one of the largest in the island. Sinking at a place called River Sink at Worthy Park, it runs underground for nearly six kilometres, before entering the gorge it is joined by a number of tributaries, such as the Thomas River, the Rio DOro and the Rio Pedro. In the early 1770s, a road was opened through the gorge, the Flat Bridge was originally constructed of logs, which were washed away in a flood
The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and historically of the Caribbean. The term Arawak originally applied specifically to the South American group who self-identified as Arawak and their language, the Arawak language, gives its name to the Arawakan language family. Arawakan speakers in the Caribbean were known as the Taíno. In 1871, ethnologist Daniel Garrison Brinton proposed calling the Caribbean populace Island Arawak due to their cultural, subsequent scholars shortened this convention to Arawak, creating confusion between the island and mainland groups. In the 20th century, scholars such as Irving Rouse resumed using Taíno for the Caribbean group to emphasize their distinct culture, the Arawakan languages may have emerged in the Orinoco River valley. The group that self-identified as the Arawak, known as the Lokono, settled the areas of what is now Guyana, Suriname and parts of the island of Trinidad. At some point, the Arawakan-speaking Taíno culture emerged in the Caribbean, contact with Europeans exposed the Taino to diseases, particularly smallpox, influenza and typhus, that they no prior contact with, and thus no natural immunity.
By 1504, the Spanish had overthrown the last of the Taino cacique chiefdoms on Hispaniola, and firmly established the supreme authority of the Spanish colonists over the now-subjugated Taino. The population of Hispanoila at the point of first European contact is estimated at several hundred thousand, to over a million people, but by 1514, it had dropped to a mere 35,000. By 1509, the Spanish had successfully conquered Puerto Rico and subjugated the ~30,000 Taino inhabitants, by 1530 there were 1148 Taino left alive in Puerto Rico. Taíno influence has survived even today, though, as can be seen in the religions, languages. The Lokono and other South American groups resisted colonization for a period. In the early 17th century, they allied with the Spanish against the neighboring Kalina and their population declined until the 20th century, when it began to increase again. The Spaniards who arrived in the Bahamas and Hispaniola in 1492, the explorers mated with the Taíno women, who bore mestizo children as a result.
While the Taíno have been extinct as a distinct population since the 16th century, a 2003 mitochondrial DNA study under the Taíno genome project determined that 62% of people in Puerto Rico have direct-line maternal ancestry to Taíno/Arawakan ancestors. There are about 10,000 Lokono living primarily in the areas of Venezuela, Guyana and French Guiana. Unlike many indigenous groups in South America, the Lokono population is growing, john P. Bennett -, first Amerindian ordained as an Anglican priest in Guyana and author of An Arawak-English Dictionary. George Simon -, artist and archaeologist from Guyana, st. Lucia and Historical Society
It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets. The term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality, a municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis, a municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, or a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York. The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state, municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento, called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente, in Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality.
Here, the LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia, incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility. In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities, nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Nagar Palika or Municipality is a local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it directly with the state government. Generally, smaller cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are a form of local self-government entrusted with duties and responsibilities. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area.
A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title, in Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of government in this jurisdiction. In the United States, municipality is usually understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, in the Peoples Republic of China, a direct-controlled municipality is a city with equal status to a province, Tianjin and Chongqing. In Taiwan, a municipality is a city with equal status to a province, New Taipei, Tainan, Taipei. In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ, when referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used
Kingston Harbour in Jamaica is the seventh-largest natural harbour in the world. It is an almost landlocked area of water approximately 16 kilometres long by 3.2 kilometres wide, most of it is deep enough to accommodate large ships, even close to shore. The harbour is home to the Kingston Container Terminal, Jamaicas largest port, other docks on Kingston Harbour are at the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica in downtown Kingston and at the Jamaica Flour Mills and the Caribbean Cement Company at Rockfort. Norman Manley International Airport, Jamaicas second busiest international airport, is located in the outer harbor. There is a village at Rockfort and fishing docks at Harbour View. As a large, well-protected harbour, it was used by indigenous people. Initially the main settlement was at Port Royal but following its destruction in the 1692 earthquake, the English founded Kingston and began development of its waterfront. Historically, the harbour was safe from attack with its entrance being protected by two forts, one the tip of the Palisadoes at Port Royal and the other on a small sand spit opposite.
Throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries it handled a large trade and was the chief entrepot for British exports to the Spanish colonies. For the remainder of the 19th century its development as a port was retarded by a decline in the Jamaican economy, throughout this period there was a gradual increase in the number of finger piers and wharves along its long sheltered waterfront. In 1720 the body of Calico Jack was hanged at the entrance of the harbour as a warning to other pirates, in modern times Kingston Harbour has suffered a number of pollution incidents. In one such during 2009,300 tons of acid are said to have been accidentally discharged from one of the wharves. Transport in Jamaica History of Jamaica Cagway bay Aerial view Photos
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Black River, Jamaica
Black River is the capital of St. Elizabeth Parish, in southwestern Jamaica. It developed as a port around the mouth of the river of the same name, today the city is a centre of environmental tourism and a gateway to the Treasure Beach resort area. Treasure Beach and Crane Beach are to the south-east, with Luana Beach to the west, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, it was a thriving sugar port with a market for African slaves. Growing prosperity in the sugar and lumber trade led to the construction of several warehouses, some have been adapted as restaurants or as bases for eco-tours of the river. Black River is one of the oldest European towns in the island of Jamaica and it was designed by the Leyden brothers of England, three wealthy men who were substantial land proprietors in the area. In 1773 Black River replaced Lacovia,19 miles to the north-east, soon after it became the main commercial and transshipment centre of the parish. By the early 1900s, it was only to Kingston in economic importance on the island.
The Logwood tree trunks were floated down the Black River to the port to be shipped to England for making of dyes, into the early 19th century, slaves from Africa and other Caribbean islands were landed here and sold at auction at Farquharson Wharf. In 2007, the United Kingdom celebrated the 200th anniversary of the Slave Trade Act 1807, a monument was installed at Black River in 2007 to memorialize the slaves killed in the Zong massacre of 1781. More than 132 slaves were thrown overboard at sea from the Zong and they were sacrificed by the crew purportedly to save the remainder and the crew because of a shortage of water on board. The Zong finally landed at Black River and its owners sued for insurance claims for the slaves who had been killed, and the case was litigated in 1783 in Britain. The court rejected the claim, as it was shown that the crew had made navigation errors that kept the ship at sea. Abolitionists publicized it, and the became a catalyst for continuing efforts to abolish slavery.
Britain abolished slavery in its empire in 1833, as a major sea port, Black River became a commercial center on the south coast of Jamaica. Due to its wealth, in 1893 this was the first town in Jamaica to be lit by electricity, ten years later, in 1903 it was the first city on the island to have automobiles. A telephone system was installed 10 years after the instrument was invented
Spanish Town is the capital and the largest town in the parish of St. Catherine in the historic county of Middlesex and the second largest city in the country after Kingston. It was the Spanish and English/British capital of Jamaica from 1534 until 1872, the town is home to numerous memorials, the national archives, and one of the oldest Anglican churches outside England. The Spanish settlement of Villa de la Vega was founded by governor Francisco de Garay in 1534 as the capital of the colony, later, it was called Santiago de la Vega or St. Jago de la Vega. Indigenous Taino had been living in the area for approximately a millennium before this, when the English conquered Jamaica in 1655, they renamed the settlement as Spanish Town. Since the town was damaged during the conquest, Port Royal took on many administrative roles. By the time Port Royal was devastated by an earthquake in 1692, Spanish Town remained the capital until 1872, when the seat of the colony was moved to Kingston. Kingston had been founded in the aftermath of the 1692 earthquake, by 1755, serious rivalry from lobbyists caused increasing speculation about the continued suitability of Spanish Town as the capital.
In 1836, Governor Lionel Smith observed that the capital was in ruins, with no commercial, manufacturing, to worsen the situation, following the Morant Bay Rebellion of 1865, Sir John Peter Grant ordered the removal of the capital in 1872 to Kingston. As a larger port, it had come to be considered the capital of the island. After the seat of government was relocated, Spanish Town lost much of its economic, built on the west bank of the Rio Cobre, the town lies thirteen miles from Kingston on the main road. Its history was shaped by two significant colonial periods, Spanish rule from 1534–1655 and the English from 1655–1872, after that the capital was relocated to Kingston. The Anglican Church took over the 16th century cathedral and Manchester streets were named for the British Colonial Governors, George Nugent and William Montagu, 5th Duke of Manchester. King Street runs past the Kings House, the governors residence, regency buildings in the town centre include the Rodney Memorial and the façade of the Old Kings House, which was the residence of the governors until 1872.
Spanish Town is the site of an early cast-iron bridge, designed by Thomas Wilson and manufactured by Walker and Company of Rotherham, spanning the Rio Cobre, the bridge was erected in 1801 at a cost of £4,000. Its four arched ribs are supported on masonry abutments. After the abutments deteriorated, endangering the structure, it was listed in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund, a restoration project began in 2004, with funding provided by American Express through World Monuments Fund. Progress was slow until 2008, when a restoration effort was made. A first phase of restoration was completed in April 2010, when the repair of the abutments allowed the bridge to be reopened for the public, more recently, violence in the area has prevented the bridge from achieving the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Alligator Pond is a fishing village on the southwestern coast of Jamaica in the parish of Manchester. Weather-worn cookshops and bars line the edge, supplying food staples such as curried goat. Alligator Pond lies at the foot of the Don Figueroa Mountains to the north-east, the name is said by locals to derive from the shape of the mountain range, which viewed from the beach has bumps which suggest an alligators back. The Alligator Pond River is a spot about 2 miles west of the village off the road leading to Port Kaiser. The Little Ochie, a restaurant, is located in several huts on the beach. It has expanded to several hundred and attracts a clientele from far and wide. List of cities and towns in Jamaica List of beaches in Jamaica Photo essay on life in Alligator Pond, Jamaica
Browns Town is one of the principal towns in St. Ann, Jamaica. In 1991, its population was 6,762, the town is a market and road center in an agricultural region. Browns Town is located in northwest St Ann in the Dry Harbour Mountains, the town is about 12.87 km from the islands north coast. The ugli fruit was first discovered in 1914 growing wild near the town, one notable region is called Tobolski. Dr James Johnston who had born in Scotland in 1851 arrived in Jamaica in 1874. He started his Jamaican Evangelical Mission in 1876, Johnston created nine churches but the base of his medical mission and his religious assemblies were in Browns Town. Johnston became the representative for St Anns Parish before he left to explore Africa. In the 1890s he took a team of Afro-Caribbean Jamaicans to England where they were equipped themselves to complete a 20-month journey of 4,500 miles through south central Africa and their journey was photographed and described by a book published in 1893. Browns Town became significant as a centre in the mid-19th century following the abolition of slavery.
Browns Town is considered the capital of St. Ann. Browns Town Community College, located in the town, offers pre-tertiary and tertiary courses from the University of Technology, there are three secondary schools in Browns Town, Browns Town High School, St. Hildas Diocesan High School for Girls, and York Castle High School. In Browns Town, there is a centre and a public health service. The St Anns Bay Regional Hospital and the Alexandria Hospital serve the town, popular sports in Browns Town include football, netball and field, and lawn tennis
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal. In the Americas, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States. The local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation. Greater Kingston, or the Corporate Area refers to areas under the KSAC, however, it does not solely refer to Kingston Parish. Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, and St. Andrew parish had a population of 555,828 in 2001, Kingston is only bordered by Saint Andrew to the east and north. The city proper is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east, communities in urban and suburban Saint Andrew. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt.
Airy, two parts make up the central area of Kingston, the historic Downtown, and New Kingston. Both are served by Norman Manley International Airport and by the smaller, Kingston was founded in July 1692 as a place for survivors of the 1692 earthquake that destroyed Port Royal. Before the earthquake, Kingston’s functions were purely agricultural, the earthquake survivors set up a camp on the sea front. Approximately two thousand people died due to mosquito-borne diseases, initially the people lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barrys Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the destruction of Port Royal by fire in 1703. Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, West, by 1716 it had become the largest town and the centre of trade for Jamaica. The government sold land to people with the regulation that they no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal. Gradually wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the lands north on the plains of Liguanea.
The first free school, was founded in 1729 and there was a theatre, first on Harbour Street, in 1755 the governor, Sir Charles Knowles, had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston. It was thought by some to be a location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston. By the end of the 18th century, the city contained more than 3,000 brick buildings, the harbour fostered trade, and played part in several naval wars of the 18th century
May Pen is the capital and largest town in the parish of Clarendon in the Middlesex County, Jamaica. It is located on the Rio Minho river, and is a market centre for the Parish. The population is estimated at around 60,000, with the suburbs of Sandy Bay, Mineral Heights, Palmers Cross, Denbigh. May Pen was established as a settlement by the British between 1660 and 1683 on a crossing point of the Rio Minho river. May Pen is well located from a point of view in the centre of a largely agricultural parish. Boasting a large open air market and transportation centre along Main Street and Sevens Road, may Pen has many banks, hardware stores and eateries, including Juicy Beef Patties. The town has a large post office and court house, may Pen is an important citrus packing centre, including oranges and a hybrid citrus fruit called an ugli. The Denbigh Agricultural Showground is located three miles west of the centre of the town. May Pens geographical position is situated at near the centre of the entire island, may Pen has long been viewed as one of Jamaicas most important agriculture towns.
During its heyday of Jamaica Bauxite Mining and Sugar productions, the Alcoa mining and refinery in partnership with the Jamaican government, located south of the town, is the single largest employer of the town, and along with Trout Hall Citrus. The Denbigh Agricultural Show Ground is the largest in the English-speaking Caribbean, held annually during Jamaicas Independence Celebration weekend, Denbigh often attracted large crowds from all parts of the island to see Jamaicas best in show and enjoy festive activities. It is the birthplace of reggae and ska singer Frederick Toots Hibbert, statistical Institute of Jamaica Statistics Political Geography