Maria I of Portugal
Dona Maria I was Queen of Portugal from 1777 until her death. Known as Maria the Pious in Portugal and Maria the Mad in Brazil, she was the first undisputed queen regnant of Portugal and the first monarch of Brazil. With Napoleon's European conquests, her court under the direction of her son João, the Prince Regent, moved to Brazil a Portuguese colony. On, Brazil would be elevated from the rank of a colony to that of a kingdom, with the consequential formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Maria was born at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon and baptized Maria Francisca Isabel Josefa Antónia Gertrudes Rita Joana. On the day of her birth, her grandfather, King John V of Portugal, appointed her the Princess of Beira; when her father succeeded to the throne in 1750 as Joseph I, Maria, at age 16 and as his eldest child, became his heir presumptive and was given the traditional titles of Princess of Brazil and Duchess of Braganza. Maria grew up in a time when her father's government was dominated by the first Marquis of Pombal.
Her father would retire to the Palace of Queluz, given to Maria and her husband. The Marquis took control of the government after the terrible 1755 Lisbon earthquake of 1 November 1755, in which around 100,000 people lost their lives. After the earthquake, Maria's father was uncomfortable at the thought of staying in enclosed spaces, suffered from claustrophobia; the king had a palace built in Ajuda, away from the city centre. This palace became known as Real Barraca de Ajuda; the family spent much time at the large palace, it was the birthplace of Maria's first child. In 1794 the palace burned to the ground and the Palace of Ajuda was built in its place. In 1760 Maria married her uncle Pedro, younger brother of her father Jose I, they had six children, of whom the eldest surviving son succeeded Maria as João VI on her death in 1816. In 1777, Maria became the first undisputed queen regnant of Portugal. With Maria's accession, her husband became king as Peter III. Despite Peter's status as king and the nominal joint reign, the actual regal authority was vested in Maria, as she was the lineal heir of the crown.
As Peter's kingship was iure uxoris only, his reign would cease in the event of Maria's death, the crown would pass to Maria's descendants. However, Peter predeceased his wife. Maria is considered as having been a good ruler in the period prior to her madness, her first act as queen was to dismiss the popular Secretary of State of the kingdom, the Marquess of Pombal, who had broken the power of the reactionary aristocracy via the Távora affair because of Pombal's Enlightenment, anti-Jesuit policies. Noteworthy events of this period include Portugal's membership in the League of Armed Neutrality and the 1781 cession of Delagoa Bay from Austria to Portugal. Queen Maria suffered from religious melancholia; this acute mental illness made her incapable of handling state affairs after 1792. Maria's madness was first noticed in 1786, when Maria had to be carried back to her apartments in a state of delirium. Afterward, the queen's mental state became worse. In May 1786, her husband died. According to a contemporary, state festivities began to resemble religious ceremonies.
Her condition worsened after the death of her eldest son, aged 27, from smallpox, of her confessor, in 1791. In February 1792, she was deemed mentally insane and was treated by Francis Willis, the same physician who attended King George III of Great Britain. Willis wanted to take her to England. Maria's second son and new heir-apparent, took over the government in her name though he only took the title of Prince Regent in 1799; when the Real Barraca de Ajuda burnt down in 1794, the court was forced to move to Queluz, where the ill queen would lie in her apartments all day. Visitors would complain of terrible screams. In 1801 Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy sent an army to invade Portugal with backing from Napoleon, resulting in the War of the Oranges. Though the Spanish ended their invasion, the Treaty of Badajoz on 6 June 1801 forced Portugal to cede Olivença and other border towns to Spain. On September 29, 1801 John VI signed the Treaty of Madrid, ceding half of Portuguese Guyana to France, which became French Guiana.
The refusal of the Portuguese government to join the French-sponsored Continental Blockade against Britain culminated in the late 1807 Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal led by General Junot. The ultimate Napoleonic plan for Portugal was to split it into three sections; the northern parts of Portugal, from the Douro to the Minho, would become the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania, its throne was promised to King Louis II of Etruria. The Alentejo Province and Kingdom of the Algarve would be merged to form the Principality of the Algarves, of which Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy would be sovereign; the remaining portion of Portugal would have been directly ruled by France. At the urging of the British government, the entire Braganza Dynasty decided to flee on 29 November 1807 to establish a government in exile in the Portuguese Viceroyalty of Brazil. Along with the royal family, Maria was transported aboard the carrack Príncipe Real. During her move from t
Carthage was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of a Punic empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC; the legendary Queen Dido is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into strips, she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would become, through the Punic Wars, the only existential threat to Rome until the coming of the Vandals several centuries later; the ancient city was destroyed by the Roman Republic in the Third Punic War in 146 BC and re-developed as Roman Carthage, which became the major city of the Roman Empire in the province of Africa. The city was sacked and destroyed in the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in 698.
The site remained uninhabited, the regional power shifting to the Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th century, when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis, incorporated as Carthage municipality in 1919. The archaeological site was first surveyed by Danish consul Christian Tuxen Falbe. Excavations were performed in the second half of the 19th century by Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis Delattre; the Carthage National Museum was founded in 1875 by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie. Excavations performed by French archaeologists in the 1920s first attracted an extraordinary amount of attention because of the evidence they produced for child sacrifice. There has been considerable disagreement among scholars concerning whether or not child sacrifice was practiced by ancient Carthage; the open-air Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibits excavated under the auspices of UNESCO from 1975 to 1984. The name Carthage /ˈkarθɪdʒ/ is the Early Modern anglicisation of French Carthage /kaʁ.taʒ/, from Latin Carthāgō and Karthāgō from the Punic qrt-ḥdšt "new city", implying it was a "new Tyre".
The Latin adjective pūnicus, meaning "Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from Latin—notably the Punic Wars and the Punic language. The Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج is an adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name. Carthage was built on a promontory with sea inlets to the south; the city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily and the coast of Tunisia, where Carthage was built, affording it great power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within the city, one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbors; the city had 37 km in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls were located on the shore, thus could be less impressive, as Carthaginian control of the sea made attack from that direction difficult.
The 4.0 to 4.8 km of wall on the isthmus to the west were massive and were never penetrated. The city had a huge necropolis or burial ground, religious area, market places, council house, a theater, was divided into four sized residential areas with the same layout. In the middle of the city stood a high citadel called the Byrsa. Carthage was one of the largest cities of the Hellenistic period and was among the largest cities in preindustrial history. Whereas by AD 14, Rome had at least 750,000 inhabitants and in the following century may have reached 1 million, the cities of Alexandria and Antioch numbered only a few hundred thousand or less. According to the not always reliable history of Herodian, Carthage rivaled Alexandria for second place in the Roman empire. On top of Byrsa hill, the location of the Roman Forum, a residential area from the last century of existence of the Punic city was excavated by the French archaeologist Serge Lancel; the neighborhood, with its houses and private spaces, is significant for what it reveals about daily life there over 2100 years ago.
The remains have been preserved under embankments, the substructures of the Roman forum, whose foundation piles dot the district. The housing blocks are separated by a grid of straight streets about 6 m wide, with a roadway consisting of clay. Construction of this type presupposes organization and political will, has inspired the name of the neighborhood, "Hannibal district", referring to the legendary Punic general or sufet at the beginning of the second century BCE; the habitat is typical stereotypical. The street was used as a storefront/shopfront. In some places, the ground is covered with mosaics called punica pavement, sometimes using a characteristic red mortar; the merchant harbor at Carthage was developed, after settlement of the nearby Punic town of Utica. The surrounding countryside was brought into the orbit of the Punic urban centers, first commercially politically. Direct management over cultivation of neighbouring lands by Punic owners followed. A 28-volume work on agriculture written in Punic by Mago, a retired army general, was trans
Blue Flag beach
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education that a beach, marina, or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its stringent standards. The Blue Flag is a trademark owned by FEE, a not-for-profit non-governmental organisation consisting of 65 organisations in 60 member countries. FEE's Blue Flag criteria include standards for quality, environmental education and information, the provision of services and general environmental management criteria; the Blue Flag is sought for beaches and sustainable boating tourism operators as an indication of their high environmental and quality standards. Certificates, which FEE refers to as awards, are issued on an annual basis to beaches and marinas of FEE member countries; the awards are announced yearly on 5 June for Europe, Morocco and other countries in a similar geographic location, on 1 November for the Caribbean, New Zealand, South Africa, other countries in the southern hemisphere. In the European Union, the water quality standards are incorporated in the EC Water Framework Directive.
Spain has held the 1st position for nearly three decades since the awards began in 1987. As a result of the 2015 awards, a total of 4,154 Blue Flags are waving around the world; the table below lists the Blue Flags awarded and in force in 2015. The table can be sorted to show the total number of Blue Flags per country and the number of Blue Flags per population, per area or per the length of the coastline of each country. Note: Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have always been treated as individual countries e.g. in 2015 Northern Ireland had 10 Blue Flag beaches and marinas, England had 61, Wales had 41 and Scotland 1. The Blue Flag was created in France in 1985, as a pilot scheme from the Office of the Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe where French coastal municipalities were awarded the Blue Flag on the basis of criteria covering sewage treatment and bathing water quality. 11 French municipalities got the award in 1985. 1987 was the "European Year of the Environment" and the European Commission was responsible for developing the European Community activities of that year.
The Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe presented the concept of the Blue Flag to the Commission, it was agreed to launch the Blue Flag Programme as one of several "European Year of the Environment" activities in the Community. The French concept of the Blue Flag was developed on European level to include other areas of environmental management, such as waste management and coastal planning and protection. Besides beaches marinas became eligible for the Blue Flag. In 1987, 244 beaches and 208 marinas from 10 countries were awarded the Blue Flag. There have been increases in the numbers of Blue Flags awarded each year; the criteria have during these years been changed to more strict criteria. As an example, in 1992 the Programme started using the restrictive guideline values in the EEC Bathing Water Directive as imperative criteria, this was the year where all Blue Flag criteria became the same in all participating countries. In 2001, FEEE rules were changed to allow non-European national organisations, sharing the objectives of FEEE, to become members, changed its name by dropping Europe from its name, becoming the Foundation for Environmental Education.
Several organisations and authorities outside the European Union have joined FEE. In 2001, South Africa and several Caribbean countries joined. FEE has been cooperating with UN WTO on extending the Programme to areas outside Europe. South Africa, Morocco, New Zealand and four countries in the Caribbean region are members of FEE. Aruba and Brazil are in the pilot phase of the Programme and Jordan, Turks & Caicos Islands and United Arab Emirates have started the implementation of the Blue Flag Programme. FEE standards allow for regional variations in beach criteria to reflect specific environmental conditions of a region; as of 2006 an international set of criteria is being used with some variations. In 2016, Blue Flag extended its programme boat-based tourism activities like nature watching, recreational fishing and crewed charter tours. Certified tour operators have to comply with criteria regarding the sustainable operation of their boats and their business as a whole. In 2015 over 4,154 beaches and marinas globally were awarded the Blue Flag.47 countries are participating in the Blue Flag Programme: Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Jordan, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Poland, Puerto Rico, Serbia, Sint Marteen, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Tunisia and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, Ukraine, US Virgin Islands and Wales.
Information relating to coastal zone ecosystems and natural, sensitive areas in the coastal zone must be displayed Information about bathing water quality must be displayed Information about the Blue Flag Programme must be displayed Code of conduct for the beach area must be displayed and the laws governing beach use must be available to the public upon request A minimum of 5 environmental education activities must be offered Compliance with the requirements and standards for excellent bathing water quality No industrial or sewage related discharges may affect the beach area Monitoring on the health of coral reefs located in the vicinity of
Odemira is a town and a municipality in Beja District in the Portuguese region of Alentejo. The population in 2011 was 26,066, in an area of 1720.60 km², making it the largest municipality of Portugal by area. It is famous for being home to a significant Dutch and German community; the village of Zambujeira do Mar is home to the Festival do Sudoeste, one of the biggest rock festivals in Europe. The municipality of Odemira has great agricultural potential, specially in the western area of the region, is home to major operations of important agricultural companies like Vitacress, world leader in the salad market; the present Mayor is José Alberto Guerreiro, elected by the Socialist Party. The municipal holiday is 8 September. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 13 civil parishes: Town Hall official website Photos from Odemira
Fort of Pessegueiro Island
The Fort of Pessegueiro Island is a fort situated on the island of Pessegueiro, off the coast of the civil parish of Porto Covo, municipality of Sines, in the southern Alentejo of Portugal. There are still visible on the island of Pessegueiro enormous blocks cut from the rocks of the island, sunk in the waters around it. There have been discovered various tanks for salting fish, that were used during the early Roman occupation of the region; these tanks were used in the salting and processing of fish, traded and transported to Rome. In 1588, Terzi began the planning for a fort on the island, as part of a project to construct an artificial port that would link the island to the coast. Alexandre Massay substituted Terzi in 1590, beginning the construction of the port, while work on the artificial port continued; the construction was interrupted in 1598, when Massay was transferred to Vila Nova de Milfontes, to begin work on the construction of a fort to defend the inlet to the River Mira. Construction were interrupted shortly later.
It is unclear, but construction on the island was completed between 1661 and 1690, although the fort and artificial port remained incomplete. The 1755 Lisbon earthquake was responsible for damage to the chapel, the batteries over the casemates; the Fort of Pessegueiro Island dominates the beach and coast of Pessegueiro, an area of southern Porto Covo. The island and fort are located opposite another fort, referred to as the Fort of Pessegueiro. Of the fort that remains on the island, the existing structure exists in ruins, it is a star-shaped fort, consisting of four symmetrical, triangular bulwarks and with casemates in the central part of the fortification. On the opposite end of the main entrance is a hermitage, dedicated to Santo Alberto; the fort was part of group that included an artificial port, defended by a breakwater connected the island to the rocky outcroppings to the north of the island: the Penedo do Cavalo. Notes SourcesCallixto, Carlos, O Forte de Porto Covo, O Dia Callixto, Carlos, O Forte de Porto Covo, Diário de Notícias Falcão, José António, Memória paroquial do Concelho de Sines, Santiago do Cacém, Portugal Mendes, João, Pessegueiro em perigo, Sábado Soledade, Sines: terra de Vasco da Gama, Sines Callixto, Carlos, O Forte de Porto Covo, Diário de Notícias
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, craft, class, family or person. Saints become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active. However, there were cases in Medieval Europe where a city which grew to prominence and obtained for its cathedral the remains or some relics of a famous saint who had lived and was buried elsewhere, thus making him or her the city's patron saint – such a practice conferred considerable prestige on the city concerned. In Latin America and the Philippines and Portuguese explorers named a location for the saint on whose feast or commemoration they first visited the place, with that saint becoming the area's patron. Professions sometimes have a patron saint owing to that individual being involved somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession.
For example, when the unknown profession of photography appeared in the 19th century, Saint Veronica was made its patron, owing to how her veil miraculously received the imprint of Christ's face after she wiped off the blood and sweat. The veneration or "commemoration" and recognition of patron saints or saints in general is found in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, among some Lutherans and Anglicans. Catholics believe that patron saints, having transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede for the needs of their special charges, it is, however discouraged in most Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry. Although Islam has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints, it has been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, cities and villages. Martin Lings wrote: "There is scarcely a region in the empire of Islam which has not a Sufi for its Patron Saint."
As the veneration accorded saints develops purely organically in Islamic climates, in a manner different to Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity, "patron saints" are recognized through popular acclaim rather than through official declaration. Traditionally, it has been understood that the patron saint of a particular place prays for that place's wellbeing and for the health and happiness of all who live therein. However, the Wahhabi and Salafi movements within Sunnism have latterly attacked the veneration of saints, which they claim are a form of idolatry or shirk. More mainstream Sunni clerics have critiqued this argument since Wahhabism first emerged in the 18th century; the critiques notwithstanding, widespread veneration of saints in the Sunni world declined in the 20th century under Wahhabi and Salafi influence. Calendar of saints Guardian angel List of blesseds List of saints Patron saints of ailments and dangers Patron saints of occupations and activities Patron saints of places Patron saints of ethnic groups Saint symbolism Catholic Online: Patron Saints Henry Parkinson.
"Patron Saints". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Patron Saint". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920