Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres was a French Neoclassical painter. Ingres was profoundly influenced by past artistic traditions and aspired to become the guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style. Although he considered himself a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, it is his portraits, both painted and drawn, that are recognized as his greatest legacy, his expressive distortions of form and space made him an important precursor of modern art, influencing Picasso and other modernists. Born into a modest family in Montauban, he travelled to Paris to study in the studio of David. In 1802 he made his Salon debut, won the Prix de Rome for his painting The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. By the time he departed in 1806 for his residency in Rome, his style—revealing his close study of Italian and Flemish Renaissance masters—was developed, would change little for the rest of his life. While working in Rome and subsequently Florence from 1806 to 1824, he sent paintings to the Paris Salon, where they were faulted by critics who found his style bizarre and archaic.
He received few commissions during this period for the history paintings he aspired to paint, but was able to support himself and his wife as a portrait painter and draughtsman. He was recognized at the Salon in 1824, when his Raphaelesque painting of the Vow of Louis XIII was met with acclaim, Ingres was acknowledged as the leader of the Neoclassical school in France. Although the income from commissions for history paintings allowed him to paint fewer portraits, his Portrait of Monsieur Bertin marked his next popular success in 1833; the following year, his indignation at the harsh criticism of his ambitious composition The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian caused him to return to Italy, where he assumed directorship of the French Academy in Rome in 1835. He returned to Paris for good in 1841. In his years he painted new versions of many of his earlier compositions, a series of designs for stained glass windows, several important portraits of women, The Turkish Bath, the last of his several Orientalist paintings of the female nude, which he finished at the age of 83.
Ingres was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, the first of seven children of Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres and his wife Anne Moulet. His father was a successful jack-of-all-trades in the arts, a painter of miniatures, decorative stonemason, amateur musician. From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and instruction in drawing and music, his first known drawing, a study after an antique cast, was made in 1789. Starting in 1786 he attended the local school École des Frères de l'Éducation Chrétienne, but his education was disrupted by the turmoil of the French Revolution, the closing of the school in 1791 marked the end of his conventional education; the deficiency in his schooling would always remain for him a source of insecurity. In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to Toulouse, where the young Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture. There he studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, the neoclassical painter Guillaume-Joseph Roques.
Roques' veneration of Raphael was a decisive influence on the young artist. Ingres won prizes in several disciplines, such as composition, "figure and antique", life studies, his musical talent was developed under the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune, from the ages of thirteen to sixteen he played second violin in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse. From an early age he was determined to be a history painter, which, in the hierarchy of artists established by the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture under Louis XIV, continued well into the 19th Century, was considered the highest level of painting, he did not want to make portraits or illustrations of real life like his father. In March 1797, the Academy awarded Ingres first prize in drawing, in August he traveled to Paris to study in the studio of Jacques-Louis David, France's—and Europe's—leading painter during the revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years. Ingres followed his master's neoclassical example. In 1797 David was working on his enormous masterpiece, The Intervention of the Sabine Women, was modifying his style away from Roman models of rigorous realism to the ideals of purity and simplicity in Greek art.
One of the other students of David, Étienne-Jean Delécluze, who became an art critic, described Ingres as a student: He was distinguished not just by the candor of his character and his disposition to work alone... he was one of the most studious... he took little part in the all the turbulent follies around him, he studied with more perseverance than most of his co-disciples... All of the qualities which characterize today the talent of this artist, the finesse of contour, the true and profound sentiment of the form, a modeling with extraordinary correctness and firmness, could be seen in his early studies. While several of his comrades and David himself signaled a tendency toward exaggeration in his studies, everyone was struck by his grand compositions and recognized his talent, he was admitted to the painting department of the École des Beaux-Arts in October 1799. In 1800 and 1801, he won the grand prize for figure paintin
Center for Research and Restoration of Museums of France
The Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France is the national research centre in France responsible for the documentation and restoration of the items held in the collections of more than 1,200 museums across France. C2RMF carries out extensive scientific studies and data recording for these collections, is active both nationally and internationally in the field of cultural heritage conservation and analysis; the C2RMF is involved in the development of technologies and scientific procedures employed in the preservation of art works and artefacts, both on its own and in partnership with other museums and research institutions across the globe. The centre was established in 1998 by an arrêté issued by Catherine Trautmann, the Minister of Culture and Communications, gazetted in the Journal Officiel on December 30, it was created by merging the functions and facilities of two other research bodies, the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France and the Service de restauration des musées de France and it is organized in 4 departments.
Today the center is affiliated to the CNRS with the label UMR-171. In 2005 Mme. Christiane Naffah was appointed director of the centre by the French Minister of Culture and Communications Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, replacing Jean-Pierre Mohen. Naffah had been a curator in France's national museums since 1977, prior to her appointment had held positions at the Louvre, Musée du Quai Branly and had been director of the Musée de l'institut du monde arabe; the actual director is Mme. Marie Lavandier. Since the early 1930s, over 174,000 paintings and 34,000 objects have been individually studied or restored by the C2RMF, its predecessor organisations LRMF and SRMF; the C2RMF's key activities focus on the study of works of art at both a regional level. It undertakes investigations prior to any acquisition. Equipped with world-class experimental facilities that are being improved, like the particle accelerator AGLAE, the C2RMF focuses its research on several key areas: the physical and chemical characteristics of materials, the ageing of materials, database management, image analysis, digitisation and 3D modelling.
The C2RMF is one of the most experienced centres in the world in the use of scientific techniques on art works. They have an unparalleled knowledge and experience of the current state-of-the-art in the practical capture of 3D data from many different types of artefact; the latest research has concerned the multispectral imaging of paintings and the semantic web and the 3D modelling of objects and paintings. Furthermore, it has achieved significant results with an Open Source database management system that provides multilingual access to specialised vocabularies for the cultural museum sector and a semantic interface to browse the results. Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF official website C2RMF, NTI Department, C2RMF digital imaging technologies
Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar
Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar is a 1659 oil on canvas painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt, one of over 40 self-portraits by Rembrandt. It has been noted as a self-portrayal of subtle and somber qualities, a work in which may be seen "the stresses and strains of a life compounded of creative triumphs and personal and financial reverses". Once owned by Andrew W. Mellon, it has been in the National Gallery of Art since 1937. In Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar Rembrandt is seated in a broadly painted fur cloak, his hands clasped in his lap. Light from the upper right illuminates the face, hollowing the form of the cheek, allowing for the representation of blemishes on the right cheek and ear lobe; the picture is painted in a restrained range of browns and grays, enriched by a red shape that indicates the back of his chair, while another red area at the lower left corner of the canvas may be a tablecloth. The most luminous area, the artist's face, is framed by a large beret and the high collar that flatteringly hides his jowls.
The skin of the face is modeled with thick, tactile pigment, painted with rich and varied colors suggesting both the artist's physical aging and the emotional effects of life experience. At first Rembrandt painted himself wearing a light colored cap before opting for the black beret; the pose is reminiscent of several earlier works by Rembrandt, including an etching from 1639, Self-Portrait Leaning on a Stone Sill, a painted self-portrait of 1640, now in the National Gallery in London. Both earlier pieces have been viewed as referential to the Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione by Raphael, as well as A Man with a Quilted Sleeve by Titian wrongly thought to be a portrait of Ludovico Ariosto, which Rembrandt had seen in Amsterdam; the folded hands and the left arm covered in dark fabric are similar to the Raphael portrait. Reminiscent of the Raphael painting are the positioning of the head and torso, unusual among Rembrandt's painted self-portraits; when painting himself, Rembrandt used the more convenient arrangement for a right-handed artist, placing the mirror to the left of the easel, so as not to have his view impeded by his working arm and hand, with the left side of the face most prominently featured.
There are several frontal self-portraits, but Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar is one of only two, along with Self-Portrait as Zeuxis, that Rembrandt painted in which he is turned to the left, thus revealing more of the right side of his face. It has been suggested that this difference in angle was an intentional variation from the series of self-portraits he was painting at the time. Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar derives from the same period as the more finished and identically titled canvas in the National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh. Both the clothing and physical condition of the face suggest a date close to 1659; the same clothing appears in a unfinished Self-Portrait with Beret in the Musée Granet. Less finished than many other self-portraits by Rembrandt, the rich expressiveness of brushwork in the face, has merited attention. In some passages the manipulation of pigment appears independent of the forms being described. For Rembrandt researcher Ernst van de Wetering "The paint seems to have been applied, as it were, with a shaving brush".
Although the painting's attribution has been questioned due to its freedom of execution, it is that Rembrandt chose to leave the canvas at an intermediate stage of development, for x-radiographs have revealed that other portraits by his hand have thickly applied passages that were subsequently worked over with thinner, more refined touches of paint. The palpable sense of plastic form in the face of Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar is the result not of careful transitions of value and color, but rather, of the textural vibrancy of the brushwork. For all the rough dynamism of the painting's surface, there is no compromise in the illusion of atmospheric quality, as some passages are painted to appear in sharper focus, while others are less so. Strokes of thick paint, warm in tone, pool up to represent areas of reflected light on the forehead and cheek. Adjacent to these passages, at the temple, around the furrows of the right eye and the wing of the nostril, are interstices of green-gray underpainting.
The right eyeball is painted with a series of transparent glazes, atop, placed a drop of white lead pigment for the highlight. This eye is surrounded by a complex variety of brushwork: the brow is formed by an uneven series of strokes. A blunt object a brush handle, was used to accent a wrinkle beneath the eye, to score into the wet paint of the hair, creating sharp curls against which the broader passages of hair recede; the practice of surface variation as a means of illusionism--"kenlijkheyt", or perceptibility—was understood by some of Rembrandt's contemporaries. So, the dramatic differences between the paint application in the face and passages of the drapery and background are unusual for a late self-portrait; the overall impression is that of a complete work, one that presents
Courtauld Institute of Art
The Courtauld Institute of Art referred to as The Courtauld, is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art and conservation. It is among the most prestigious institutions in the world for these disciplines and is known for the disproportionate number of directors of major museums drawn from its small body of alumni; the art collection of the Institute is known for its French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings and is housed in the Courtauld Gallery. The Institute and the Gallery are both in the Strand in London; the Institute was founded in 1932 through the philanthropic efforts of the industrialist and art collector Samuel Courtauld, the diplomat and collector Lord Lee of Fareham, the art historian Sir Robert Witt. The Courtauld Institute was based in Home House, a Robert Adam-designed townhouse in London's Portman Square; the Strand block of Somerset House, designed by William Chambers from 1775–1780, has housed the Courtauld Institute since 1989.
The Courtauld celebrated its 75th anniversary during the 2007–08 academic year. The Courtauld Institute of Art is the major centre for the study of the history and conservation of art and architecture in the United Kingdom, it offers postgraduate teaching to around 400 students each year. Degrees are awarded by the University of London; the Courtauld was ranked first in the United Kingdom for History and History of Art in The Guardian's 2011 University Guide and was confirmed in this rank for research quality in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. The Independent has called it "probably the most prestigious specialist college for the study of the history of art in the world."The Courtauld was ranked, first in the United Kingdom for History and History of Art in The Guardian’s 2017 University Guide. According to the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the Courtauld hosts the highest proportion of the UK's world-leading and internationally excellent research out of all higher education institutions with 95% of research rated in the top two categories, 56% of, rated in the 4* category, tied for highest in the UK with London Business School.
The only undergraduate course offered by the Courtauld is a BA in the History of Art. This is a full-time course designed to introduce students to all aspects of the study of western art. Several taught courses are offered at postgraduate level: master's degrees in history of art, curating the art museum, the history of Buddhist art, the conservation of wall painting are taught alongside diploma courses in the conservation of easel paintings and the history of art. Students in the history of art master's programme have to choose a specialisation ranging from antiquity to early modern to global contemporary artwork. Special options are taught in small class sizes of 5–10 students, allowing an optimal discussion between faculty members and students; the Courtauld has two photographic libraries which started as the private collections of two benefactors: the Conway Library, covering architecture, architectural drawings and illuminated manuscripts, named after the Lord Conway of Allington and the Witt Library, after Sir Robert Witt, covering paintings and engravings and containing over two million reproductions of works by over 70,000 artists.
In 2009, it was decided that the Witt Library would not continue to add new material to the collection. The book library is one of the UK's largest archives of art history books and exhibition catalogues. There is a slide library which covers films, an IT suite. An online image collection provides access to more than 40,000 images, including paintings and drawings from the Courtauld Gallery, over 35,000 photographs of architecture and sculpture from the Conway Library. Two other websites and sell high resolution digital files to scholars and broadcasters, photographic prints to a wide public audience; the Courtauld uses a virtual learning environment to deliver course material to its students. Since 2004, the Courtauld has published an annual research journal, edited by current members of the research student body; each cover of the journal has been commissioned by a leading contemporary artist. The art collection of the Institute is housed in the Courtauld Gallery; the collection was begun by the founder of the Institute, Samuel Courtauld, who presented an extensive collection of French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings in 1932.
It was enhanced by further gifts in the 1930s and a bequest in 1948, has since received many significant donations and bequests. The Gallery prints; the Courtauld Gallery is not presently open to the public, having closed on 3rd September 2018 for at least two years for a major redevelopment Since 1989 it has been housed in the Strand block of Somerset House, the first home of the Royal Academy, founded in 1768. In April 2013 the Head of the Courtauld Gallery was Ernst Vegelin; the Courtauld is well known for its many graduates who have become directors of art museums around the world. These include the Metropolitan Museum of New York; the number of notable alumni in the fine arts has earned graduates the "Courtauld Mafia" nickname. The faculty of the Courtauld includes: Caroline Arscott Aviva Burnstock Susie Nash David Park Julian Stallabrass Deborah Swallow Sarah Wilson Joanna Woodall Alixe Bovey The Directors of the Courtauld Institute have been: Media related to Courtauld Institute of Art at Wikimedia Commons Offic
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes and historical scenes and mythological themes as well as animal studies, his contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch art, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was prolific and innovative, gave rise to important new genres. Like many artists of the Dutch Golden Age, such as Jan Vermeer of Delft, Rembrandt was an avid art collector and dealer. Rembrandt never went abroad, but he was influenced by the work of the Italian masters and Netherlandish artists who had studied in Italy, like Pieter Lastman, the Utrecht Caravaggists, Flemish Baroque Peter Paul Rubens.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs, his self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. Rembrandt's foremost contribution in the history of printmaking was his transformation of the etching process from a new reproductive technique into a true art form, along with Jacques Callot, his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, his wider reputation was based on them alone.
In his works he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization"; the French sculptor Auguste Rodin said, "Compare me with Rembrandt! What sacrilege! With Rembrandt, the colossus of Art! We should prostrate ourselves before Rembrandt and never compare anyone with him!" Vincent van Gogh wrote, "Rembrandt goes so deep into the mysterious that he says things for which there are no words in any language. It is with justice that they call Rembrandt—magician—that's no easy occupation." Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck, his family was quite well-to-do. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest.
His mother was Roman Catholic, his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk; as a boy he attended Latin school. At the age of 14, he was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting. After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden. Unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime, he opened a studio in Leiden in 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens.
In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague; as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success, he stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh. Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden; when Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives. In the same
The School of Athens
The School of Athens is a fresco by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican; the Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, The School of Athens, representing Philosophy, was the third painting to be finished there, after La Disputa on the opposite wall, the Parnassus. The picture has long been seen as "Raphael's masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the Renaissance"; the School of Athens is one of a group of four main frescoes on the walls of the Stanza that depict distinct branches of knowledge. Each theme is identified above by a separate tondo containing a majestic female figure seated in the clouds, with putti bearing the phrases: "Seek Knowledge of Causes," "Divine Inspiration," "Knowledge of Things Divine", "To Each What Is Due." Accordingly, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry and Law.
The traditional title is not Raphael's. The subject of the "School" is "Philosophy," or at least ancient Greek philosophy, its overhead tondo-label, "Causarum Cognitio", tells us what kind, as it appears to echo Aristotle's emphasis on wisdom as knowing why, hence knowing the causes, in Metaphysics Book I and Physics Book II. Indeed and Aristotle appear to be the central figures in the scene. However, all the philosophers depicted sought knowledge of first causes. Many lived before Plato and Aristotle, hardly a third were Athenians; the architecture contains Roman elements, but the general semi-circular setting having Plato and Aristotle at its centre might be alluding to Pythagoras' circumpunct. Commentators have suggested that nearly every great ancient Greek philosopher can be found in the painting, but determining which are depicted is difficult, since Raphael made no designations outside possible likenesses, no contemporary documents explain the painting. Compounding the problem, Raphael had to invent a system of iconography to allude to various figures for whom there were no traditional visual types.
For example, while the Socrates figure is recognizable from Classical busts, the alleged Epicurus is far removed from his standard type. Aside from the identities of the figures depicted, many aspects of the fresco have been variously interpreted, but few such interpretations are unanimously accepted among scholars; the popular idea that the rhetorical gestures of Plato and Aristotle are kinds of pointing is likely. But Plato's Timaeus –, the book Raphael places in his hand – was a sophisticated treatment of space and change, including the Earth, which guided mathematical sciences for over a millennium. Aristotle, with his four-elements theory, held that all change on Earth was owing to motions of the heavens. In the painting Aristotle carries his Ethics, which he denied could be reduced to a mathematical science, it is not certain how much the young Raphael knew of ancient philosophy, what guidance he might have had from people such as Bramante, or whether a detailed program was dictated by his sponsor, Pope Julius II.
The fresco has recently been interpreted as an exhortation to philosophy and, in a deeper way, as a visual representation of the role of Love in elevating people toward upper knowledge in consonance with contemporary theories of Marsilio Ficino and other neo-Platonic thinkers linked to Raphael. According to Vasari, the scene includes Raphael himself, the Duke of Mantua and some Evangelists. However, to Heinrich Wölfflin, "it is quite wrong to attempt interpretations of the School of Athens as an esoteric treatise... The all-important thing was the artistic motive which expressed a physical or spiritual state, the name of the person was a matter of indifference" in Raphael's time. Raphael's artistry orchestrates a beautiful space, continuous with that of viewers in the Stanza, in which a great variety of human figures, each one expressing "mental states by physical actions," interact, in a "polyphony" unlike anything in earlier art, in the ongoing dialogue of Philosophy. An interpretation of the fresco relating to hidden symmetries of the figures and the star constructed by Bramante was given by Guerino Mazzola and collaborators.
The main basis are two mirrored triangles on the drawing from Bramante, which correspond to the feet positions of certain figures. The identities of some of the philosophers in the picture, such as Plato and Aristotle, are certain. Beyond that, identifications of Raphael's figures have always been hypothetical. To complicate matters, beginning from Vasari's efforts, some have received multiple identifications, not only as ancients but as figures contemporary with Raphael. Vasari mentions portraits of the young Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, leaning over Bramante with his hands raised near the bottom right, Raphael himself, he was writing over 40 years after the painting, never knew Raphael, but no doubt reflects what was believed in his time. Many other popular identifications of portraits are dubious. Luitpold Dussler counts among those who can be identified with some certainty: Plato, Socrates, Euclid, Zoroaster, Raphael and Diogenes of Sinope. Other identifications he holds to be "more or less speculative".
A more comprehensive list of proposed identifications is given below: 1: Zeno of Citium 2: Epicurus 3: unknown 4: Boethius or Anaximander 5: Averroes 6: Pythagoras 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great or Pericles 8: Antisthe
Oddi Altarpiece (Raphael)
The Oddi Altarpiece is an altarpiece of the Coronation of the Virgin painted in 1502-1504 by the Italian Renaissance master Raphael for the altar of the Oddi family chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato in Perugia, now in the Vatican Pinacoteca. The altarpiece was commissioned for the Oddi family chapel in San Francesco al Prato in Perugia, was taken to Paris in 1797 and with 1815 brought back to Italy, not to Perugia but to the Vatican Pinacoteca; the actions of the painting occur in one in heaven and the other terrestrial. Above the coronation shows the Virgin being crowned by Jesus. St Thomas holds in his hands the girdle; the saints raise their eyes to the heavenly spectacle. The predella is composed of three 27 × 50 cm paintings, showing scenes of The Life of the Virgin: The Annunciation, The Adoration of the Magi, Presentation in the Temple The altarpiece and the predella at the Vatican Pinacotheca; the altarpiece and the left and right part of the predella at the Web Gallery of Art