Early Netherlandish painting
Early Netherlandish painting is the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance in the flourishing cities of Bruges, Mechelen, Louvain and Brussels, all in present-day Belgium. The period begins with Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and lasts at least until the death of Gerard David in 1523, although many scholars extend it to the start of the Dutch Revolt in 1566 or 1568. Early Netherlandish painting coincides with the Early and High Italian Renaissance but the early period is seen as an independent artistic evolution, separate from the Renaissance humanism that characterised developments in Italy, although beginning in the 1490s as increasing numbers of Netherlandish and other Northern painters traveled to Italy, Renaissance ideals and painting styles were incorporated into Netherlandish and other Northern painting; as a result, Early Netherlandish painters are categorised as belonging to both the Northern Renaissance and the Late or International Gothic.
The major Netherlandish painters include Campin, van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Dieric Bouts, Petrus Christus, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes and Hieronymus Bosch. These artists made significant advances in natural representation and illusionism, their work features complex iconography, their subjects are religious scenes or small portraits, with narrative painting or mythological subjects being rare. Landscape is richly described but relegated as a background detail before the early 16th century; the painted works are oil on panel, either as single works or more complex portable or fixed altarpieces in the form of diptychs, triptychs or polyptychs. The period is noted for its sculpture, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass and carved retables; the first generations of artists were active during the height of Burgundian influence in Europe, when the Low Countries became the political and economic centre of Northern Europe, noted for its crafts and luxury goods. Assisted by the workshop system, panels and a variety of crafts were sold to foreign princes or merchants through private engagement or market stalls.
A majority of the works were destroyed during waves of iconoclasm in the 17th centuries. Early northern art in general was not well regarded from the early 17th to the mid-19th century, the painters and their works were not well documented until the mid-19th century. Art historians spent another century determining attributions, studying iconography, establishing bare outlines of the major artists' lives. Attribution of some of the most significant works is still debated. Scholarship of Early Netherlandish painting was one of the main activities of 19th- and 20th-century art history, a major focus of two of the most important art historians of the 20th century: Max J. Friedländer and Erwin Panofsky; the term "Early Netherlandish art" applies broadly to painters active during the 15th and 16th centuries in the northern European areas controlled by the Dukes of Burgundy and the Habsburg dynasty. These artists became an early driving force behind the Northern Renaissance and the move away from the Gothic style.
In this political and art-historical context, the north follows the Burgundian lands which straddled areas that encompass parts of modern France, Germany and the Netherlands. The Netherlandish artists have been known by a variety of terms. "Late Gothic" is an early designation. In the early 20th century, the artists were variously referred to in English as the "Ghent-Bruges school" or the "Old Netherlandish school". "Flemish Primitives" is a traditional art-historical term borrowed from the French primitifs flamands that became popular after the famous exhibition in Bruges in 1902 and remains in use today in Dutch and German. In this context, "primitive" does not refer to a perceived lack of sophistication, but rather identifies the artists as originators of a new tradition in painting. Erwin Panofsky preferred the term ars nova, which linked the movement with innovative composers of music such as Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois, who were favoured by the Burgundian court over artists attached to the lavish French court.
When the Burgundian dukes established centres of power in the Netherlands, they brought with them a more cosmopolitan outlook. According to Otto Pächt a simultaneous shift in art began sometime between 1406 and 1420 when a "revolution took place in painting". In the 19th century the Early Netherlandish artists were classified by nationality, with Jan van Eyck identified as German and van der Weyden as French. Scholars were at times preoccupied as to whether the school's genesis was in Germany; these arguments and distinctions dissipated after World War I, following the leads of Friedländer, Pächt, English-language scholars now universally describe the period as "Early Netherlandish painting", although many art historians view the Flemish term as more correct. In the 14th century, as Gothic art gave way to the International Gothic era, a number of schools developed in northern Europe. Early Netherlandish art originated in French courtly art, is tied to the tradition and conventions of illuminated manuscripts.
Modern art historians see
Annunciation (van Eyck, Washington)
The Annunciation is an oil painting by the Early Netherlandish master Jan van Eyck, from around 1434–1436. The panel is housed in the National Gallery of Art, in Washington D. C, it was on panel but has been transferred to canvas. It is thought; the annunciation is a complex work, whose iconography is still debated by art historians. The picture depicts the Annunciation by the Archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she will bear the son of God; the inscription shows his words: AVE GRÃ. PLENA or "Hail, full of grace...". She modestly draws back and responds, ECCE ANCILLA DÑI or "Behold the handmaiden of the Lord"; the words appear upside down because they are directed to God and are therefore inscribed with a God's-eye view. The Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit descend to her on seven rays of light from the upper window to the left, with the dove symbolizing the Holy Spirit following the same path. Through Christ's human incarnation the old era of the Law is transformed into a new era of Grace"; the setting develops this theme.
Mary was believed in the Middle Ages to have been a studious girl, engaged by the Temple of Jerusalem with other selected maidens to spin new curtains for the Holy of Holies. The book she is reading here is too large to be a lady's Book of Hours; the van Eycks were the first to use this setting in panel painting, but it appears earlier in illuminated manuscripts, in an altarpiece of 1397 from the same monastery for which this painting was ordered. The architecture moves from older, round Romanesque forms above, to pointed Gothic arches below, with the higher levels in darkness, the floor level well-lit; the gloom of the Old Covenant is about to be succeeded by the light of the New Covenant. The flat timber roof is with planks out of place; the use of Romanesque architecture to identify Jewish rather than Christian settings is a regular feature of the paintings of van Eyck and his followers, other paintings show both styles in the same building in a symbolic way. The decoration of the temple is all derived from the Old Testament, but the subjects shown are those believed in the Middle Ages to prefigure the coming of Christ the Messiah.
In the floor tiles David's slaying of Goliath, foretells Christ's triumph over the devil. Behind this, Samson pulls down the Temple of the Philistines, prefiguring both the Crucifixion and the Last Judgement, according to medieval authorities. To the left, Delilah is cutting Samson's hair, behind he slays the Philistines; the death of Absalom and that of Abimelech are identified by some art historians, although only tiny sections are visible. Erwin Panofsky, who developed much of this analysis, proposed a scheme for the significance of the astrological symbols in the round border tiles, other versions have been suggested; the rear wall has a single stained glass window, where Jehovah stands, above triple plain-glazed windows below, which suggest the Christian trinity. On either side of the single window are dim wall-paintings of the Finding of Moses by Pharaoh's daughter, Moses receiving the Ten Commandments. Below them are roundels with Isaac and Jacob, for which various symbolic functions have been proposed.
The lilies are a traditional attribute of Mary, standing for purity. The empty stool may be a symbol for Christ going back to early Byzantine art, it has been suggested that Mary has been given the features of Isabella of Portugal, wife of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, who may well have commissioned the painting from van Eyck, his court painter. Mary wears a robe in her usual blue, trimmed in ermine, reserved for royalty, which would suit this theory, although the Middle Ages placed great emphasis on Mary's royal descent in any case; as is usual in the North, Mary's features are less attractive than those of Gabriel. Neither figure has a halo. Mary's posture is ambiguous. Many writers, including Hand, call the figures over-large compared to the architecture; this is a feature of some of van Eyck's depictions of Mary in a Church setting, with a particular theological meaning. In Madonna in the Church in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin where this theme is most developed: the figure of Mary is some sixty feet high, filling much of the height of a tall Gothic church.
It is not so clear. If, for example, the setting were a first floor room, or one giving on to a courtyard, the windows might be lower than is normal in a medieval church; the size of the plain glass roundels does not seem disproportionate with the figures. Another of van Eyck's themes, that of other Early Netherlandish painters, is indicated by the large cope over a dalmatic worn by Gabriel; this would, in a human, mark him as a attendant at a High Mass.. Mary is facing a table with a boo
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Crucifixion (van Eyck)
Crucifixion is a discovered early-15th-century drawing of the death of Jesus now attributed to Jan van Eyck or his workshop. It is variously dated to the early 1430s, implying an original van Eyck, or c. 1440, making it a pastiche by a workshop member after Jan's death. The only other known van Eyck drawing is the Study for Cardinal Niccolò Albergati if you exclude the 1437 Saint Barbara as an unfinished painting, although there are similarities between the two; the quality of draftsmanship is of the first rate, it is the most elaborate and complex surviving drawing from the 16th century. It is executed in gold and silver stylus and brush and lead slate pencil, it is in poor condition, being covered in yellowish varnish which has damaged both the paper and drawing. The drawing is linked to the left hand panel the New York Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych, but not always, attributed to Jan; as such this drawing is either an original preparatory study, or a workshop pastiche by an associate created for commercial sale.
It shows a mass of people gather around a crucifixion scene, with Christ's followers grieving in the foreground and spectators hanging around in the mid-ground and a portrayal of three crucified bodies in the upper-ground. Both works contain a number of depicted and positions figures, share the same steep perspective, with the city of Jerusalem can be seen in the distance, though at a much lower angle here than in the finished diptych
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, safflower oil; the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired; the paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by painters in western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain popularity until the 15th century, its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became known.
The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in Northern Europe, by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had completely replaced the use of tempera paints in the majority of Europe. In recent years, water miscible. Water-soluble paints are either engineered or an emulsifier has been added that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, allows, when sufficiently diluted fast drying times when compared with traditional oils. Traditional oil painting techniques begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint. Oil paint is mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is'fat over lean', meaning that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will peel; this rule does not ensure permanence.
There are many other media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or'body' of the paint, the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke; these aspects of the paint are related to the expressive capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the painting surface using paintbrushes, but there are other methods, including using palette knives and rags. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew; this can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, but after a while the hardened layer must be scraped. Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, is dry to the touch within a span of two weeks, it is dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year.
Although the history of tempera and related media in Europe indicates that oil painting was discovered there independently, there is evidence that oil painting was used earlier in Afghanistan. Outdoor surfaces and surfaces like shields—both those used in tournaments and those hung as decorations—were more durable when painted in oil-based media than when painted in the traditional tempera paints. Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel supports. However, Theophilus gives instructions for oil-based painting in his treatise, On Various Arts, written in 1125. At this period, it was used for painting sculptures and wood fittings especially for outdoor use. However, early Netherlandish painting with artists like Van Eyck and Robert Campin in the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, only Italy.
Early works were still panel paintings on wood, but around the end of the 15th century canvas became more popular as the support, as it was cheaper, easier to transport, allowed larger works, did not require complicated preliminary layers of gesso. Venice, where sail-canvas was available, was a leader in the move to canvas. Small cabinet paintings were made on metal copper plates; these supports were more expensive but firm, allowing intricately fine detail. Printing plates from printmaking were reused for this purpose; the popularity of oil spread through Italy from the North, starting in Venice in the late 15th century. By 1540, the previous method for painting on panel had become all but extinct, although Italians continued to use chalk-based fresco for wall paintings, less successful and durable in damper northern climates; the linseed oil itself comes from a common fiber crop. Linen, a "support" for oil painting comes from the flax plant. Safflower oil or the walnut or poppyseed oil are sometimes used in formulating lighter colors li
Annunciation (van Eyck, Madrid)
The Annunciation is an oil on wood in grisaille painting by the Early Netherlandish artist Jan van Eyck, dated by art historians as between 1434 and 1436. The panels form a diptych, are in the collection of the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid; the figures and iconography are similar to those in the outer panels of van Eyck's earlier Ghent Altarpiece completed in 1432. However, their relative small scale suggests commission for private worship rather than public celebration; the panels show the Virgin Mary on the right. Both are dressed in white robes; the figures of Mary and Gabriel are disproportionately large in relation to the scale of the rooms they occupy. Art historians agree that this follows the conventions of both the International Gothic and late Byzantine traditions of the icon by showing saints Mary, in a much larger scale than their surroundings; the saints are placed on carved and inscribed architraves. Heavy foldings of lighting fall across the space they occupy and accentuates the heavy fold of their drapery.
Mary holds her typical attribute of a holy book, while a dove hovers above her representing the purity and the Holy Spirit. Despite the dramatic setting and black marble background, the figures are given northern renaissance naturalistic poses and human gestures; the diptych is illusionistic. The predominant colours are multi-layered shades of white and black, intended to mimic stone sculpture creating a sense of living statues; the painted frames and mouldings are early example of trompe l'oeil, with faux spoken inscriptions. They contain the words of the Angel and Mary, read. If the attribution is accepted as by van eyck, it is placed as early in his career and as two outer wings of a triptych. Jacobs, Lynn F. Opening Doors: The Early Netherlandish Triptych Reinterpreted. Penn State University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-271-04840-6 Till-Holgert, Borchert. Jan van Eyck. Kölln: Taschen Verlag, 2008
The Dresden Triptych is a small hinged-triptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. It consists of five individual panel paintings: a central inner panel, two double-sided wings, it is signed and dated 1437, in the permanent collection of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, with the panels still in their original frames. The only extant triptych attributed to van Eyck, the only non-portrait signed with his personal motto, ALC IXH XAN. the triptych can be placed at the midpoint of his known works. It echoes a number of the motifs of his earlier works while marking an advancement in his ability in handling depth of space, establishes iconographic elements of Marian portraiture that were to become widespread by the latter half of the 15th century. Elisabeth Dhanens describes it as "the most charming and appealing work by Jan van Eyck that has survived"; the paintings on the two outer wings become visible. They show the Virgin Mary and Archangel Gabriel in an Annunciation scene painted in grisaille, which because of their near-monochrome colouring give the impression that the figures are sculpted.
The three inner panels are set in an ecclesiastical interior. In the central inner panel Mary holds the Christ Child on her lap. On the left hand wing Archangel Michael presents a kneeling donor, while on the right St. Catherine of Alexandria stands reading a prayer book; the interior panels are outlined with two layers of painted bronze frames, inscribed with Latin lettering. The texts are drawn from a variety of sources, in the central frames from biblical descriptions of the assumption, while the inner wings are lined with fragments of prayers dedicated to saints Michael and Catherine; the work may have been intended for private devotion as a portable altarpiece for a migrant cleric. That the frames are so richly decorated with Latin inscriptions indicates that the donor, whose identity is lost, was educated and cultured; because of a lack of surviving documentary evidence on commissions of 15th century-Northern painting, the identities of donors are established through evidence gathered by modern art historians.
In this work, damaged coats of arms on the borders of the interior wings have been identified with the Giustiniani of Genoa – an influential albergo active from 1362 – who established trade links with Bruges as early as the mid-14th century. The Dresden Triptych was in the possession of the Giustiniani family in the mid- to late-15th century, it is mentioned in a May 10, 1597 record of a purchase by Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, was sold with the Gonzaga Collection to Charles I of England in 1627. After Charles's fall and execution, the painting went to Paris and was owned by Eberhard Jabach, the Cologne-based banker and art dealer for Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin. A year after Jabach's death in 1695, it passed to the Elector of Saxony, next appears in a 1754 inventory of the Dresden Collection, attributed to Albrecht Dürer, until the German historian Aloys Hirt in 1830 established it as a van Eyck. In the mid-19th century the Dresden catalogues first attribute it to Hubert van Eyck and a few years to Jan.
Van Eyck signed and added his motto to the central panel, a fact only discovered when the frame was removed in the course of a mid-20th century restoration, confirmed with the 1959 discovery of the signature, placed along with the words IOHANNIS DE EYCK ME FECIT ET CPLEVIT ANNO D[OMINI MCCCCXXXVII. ALC IXH XAN; the word "completed" may suggest the completion date, but as master painters of the era had workshops to assist on major works, the wording can be seen as aggressively ambitious. This view is reinforced by the fact that it is the only non-portrait to contain van Eyck's motto, ALC IXH XAN; until the discovery of the signature the piece was variously dated to an early piece from the 1420s to his period in the late 1430s. Because the panels are so attributed they are used as a touchstone to date van Eyck's other works; the central panel has been compared to his unsigned and undated Lucca Madonna of c. 1436. That work echoes the central panel of the Dresden triptych in a number of aspects, including the dark green canopy, the figuration and positioning of Mary, her heavily-folded dress, the orange and brown pigments of the floor, the geometric carpet and the wooden carvings.
The Lucca Madonna is thought to be a portrait of Margaret. The work measures 33 by 27.5 centimetres including the frames. Given this miniaturist scale, the triptych functioned as a portable devotional piece, or altare portabile. Members of the upper-classes and nobility acquired these through papal dispensation, to use during travel and during pilgrimage. Van Eyck's patron and employer Philip the Good owned at least one portable triptych of which fragments survive; the three inner panels comprise a typical sacra conversazione, a form established in Italy in the latter half of the 14th century with a patron saint presenting the donor kneeling, to an enthroned "Deity o