The School of Athens
The School of Athens is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphaels commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, the picture has long been seen as Raphaels masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the Renaissance. The School of Athens is one of a group of four main frescoes on the walls of the Stanza that depict distinct branches of knowledge, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry and Law. The traditional title is not Raphaels, indeed and Aristotle appear to be the central figures in the scene. However, all the philosophers depicted sought knowledge of first causes, many lived before Plato and Aristotle, and hardly a third were Athenians. The architecture contains Roman elements, but the general semi-circular setting having Plato, compounding the problem, Raphael had to invent a system of iconography to allude to various figures for whom there were no traditional visual types.
For example, while the Socrates figure is immediately recognizable from Classical busts, aside from the identities of the figures depicted, many aspects of the fresco have been variously interpreted, but few such interpretations are unanimously accepted among scholars. The popular idea that the gestures of Plato and Aristotle are kinds of pointing is very likely. Aristotle, with his four-elements theory, held that all change on Earth was owing to motions of the heavens, in the painting Aristotle carries his Ethics, which he denied could be reduced to a mathematical science. Finally, according to Vasari, the scene includes Raphael himself, however, as Heinrich Wölfflin observed, it is quite wrong to attempt interpretations of the School of Athens as an esoteric treatise. The all-important thing was the motive which expressed a physical or spiritual state. An interpretation of the fresco relating to hidden symmetries of the figures, the identities of some of the philosophers in the picture, such as Plato or Aristotle, are certain.
Beyond that, identifications of Raphaels figures have always been hypothetical, to complicate matters, beginning from Vasaris efforts, some have received multiple identifications, not only as ancients but as figures contemporary with Raphael. Vasari mentions portraits of the young Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, leaning over Bramante with his hands raised near the bottom right and he was writing over 40 years after the painting, and never knew Raphael, but no doubt reflects what was believed in his time. Many other popular identifications of portraits are very dubious, luitpold Dussler counts among those who can be identified with some certainty, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Ptolemy, Raphael and Diogenes. Other identifications he holds to be more or less speculative, both figures hold modern, bound copies of their books in their left hands, while gesturing with their right. Plato holds Timaeus, Aristotle his Nicomachean Ethics, Plato is depicted as old, wise-looking, and bare-foot. By contrast Aristotle, slightly ahead of him, is in manhood, well-shod and dressed with gold
Sala delle Asse
During the painting of his Last Supper, Leonardo was presented with a room in the Sforza Castle for his own use by the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza. Leonardo was responsible for the decoration of the ceiling and the walls, the painting covers the ceiling and upper walls of the Sala delle Asse. The dense network of branches and foliage, according to Frank Zöllner, seems to break through the wall of the closed room, theoretical traces of decoration plant motifs can be found in the chapter Trees and vegetables of the Treatise on Painting by Leonardo. The room had various uses, notably it served as hangar, the fresco, in 1901-1902, a first restoration by Luca Beltrami took place, he did not hesitate to paint over damaged or missing parts. In 1954 a new campaign was completed by removing as much as possible what was not original. Currently the mural painting are under Conservation, milena Magnano, collana I Geni dellarte, Mondadori Arte, Milano 2007, pag
A self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. With better and cheaper mirrors, and the advent of the panel portrait, Portrait of a Man in a Turban by Jan van Eyck of 1433 may well be the earliest known panel self-portrait. He painted a portrait of his wife, and he belonged to the social group that had begun to commission portraits. The genre is venerable, but not until the Renaissance, with increased wealth and interest in the individual as a subject, a self-portrait may be a portrait of the artist, or a portrait included in a larger work, including a group portrait. Many painters are said to have included depictions of specific individuals, including themselves, in these works, the artist usually appears as a face in the crowd or group, often towards the edges or corner of the work and behind the main participants. Rubenss The Four Philosophers is a good example and this culminated in the 17th century with the work of Jan de Bray.
Many artistic media have used, apart from paintings, drawings. In the famous Arnolfini Portrait, Jan van Eyck is probably one of two figures glimpsed in a mirror – a surprisingly modern conceit. The Van Eyck painting may have inspired Diego Velázquez to depict himself in view as the painter creating Las Meninas, as the Van Eyck hung in the palace in Madrid where he worked. This was another modern flourish, given that he appears as the painter, in what may be one of the earliest childhood self-portraits now surviving, Albrecht Dürer depicts himself as in naturalistic style as a 13-year-old boy in 1484. In years he appears variously as a merchant in the background of Biblical scenes, leonardo da Vinci may have drawn a picture of himself at the age of 60, in around 1512. The picture is often reproduced as Da Vincis appearance, although this is not certain. In the 17th century, Rembrandt painted a range of self-portraits and professional group paintings, including the artists depiction, became increasingly common from the 17th century on.
From the 20th century on, video plays a part in self-portraiture. Vigée-Lebrun painted a total of 37 self-portraits, many of which were copies of earlier ones, Women artists have historically embodied a number of roles within their self-portraiture. Most common is the artist at work, showing themselves in the act of painting, or at least holding a brush and palette. Often, the viewer if the clothes worn were those they normally painted in. Images of artists at work are encountered in Ancient Egyptian painting, one of the first self-portraits was made by the Pharaoh Akhenatens chief sculptor Bak in 1365 BC
The Holy Infants Embracing
The Holy Infants Embracing is a lost painting attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. It represents the infant Christ embracing his cousin John the Baptist, the subject of two Infants kissing was an inspirational source of quite a few copies of pupils and followers of Leonardo da Vinci. An early sketch of the subject by da Vinci himself is held at Windsor in the Royal collection, the sheet shows various studies of Madonna and Baby playing with the cat, while at the very bottom we see two infants kissing and embracing each other. The sketch is quite different from the version presented at numerous compositions, the connection between those paintings is evident in two copies made by Marco dOggiono and copy made by Bernardino dei Conti. Madonna, very much like as the one depicted in Virgin of the Rocks is seen blessing two kissing children, representing Jesus and St John the Baptist, other copies show half-length figure of Madonna leaning other the table with figures of embracing children. The painting of Holy Family by Bernardino Luini held at Prado, most of the copies show only the group of two children in a quite different background.
These include copies by Marco dOggiono, depicting children in a background of castle, grotto. Other copies by artist are at Naples and Vienna. Joos van Cleve is responsible for introducing the composition among artists of Northern Europe, 73B832 search for iconclass code the Christ-child and John the Baptist in RKD
St. John the Baptist (Leonardo)
St. John the Baptist is a High Renaissance oil painting on walnut wood by Leonardo da Vinci. Probably completed from 1513 to 1516, it is believed to be his final painting and is now exhibited at the Musée du Louvre in Paris, the piece depicts St. John the Baptist in isolation. Through use of chiaroscuro, the figure appears to emerge from the shadowy background, St. John is dressed in pelts, has long curly hair, and is smiling in an enigmatic manner reminiscent of Leonardos famous Mona Lisa. He holds a cross in his left hand while his right hand points up toward heaven like St Anne in Leonardos Burlington House Cartoon. Kenneth Clark claimed that for Leonardo, St. John represented the eternal question mark, the enigma of creation, barolsky adds that, Describing Saint John emerging from darkness in almost shockingly immediate relation to the beholder, Leonardo magnifies the very ambiguity between spirit and flesh. The grace of Leonardos figure, which has an erotic charge. The dating of St. John the Baptist is disputed and it was seen by Antonio de Beatis in Leonardos workshop at Clos Lucé, his diary entry giving a terminus ante quem of 17 October 1517.
Traditionally the painting has been considered the artists last and dated to 1513-16, some experts, have compared the hand of St. John to a similar work by a pupil in the Codex Atlanticus, dating the commencement of the picture to around 1509. St. John the Baptist was apparently part of King Francis collection at Fontainebleu in 1542, in 1625 King Charles I received the painting from Louis XIII in return for a Titian Holy Family and Holbeins Portrait of Erasmus. In 1649 Charles collection was sold, whereupon the painting entered into the hands of banker Eberhard Jabach, after a spell in the possession of Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661 the piece once again returned to the King of France – Louis XIV. Following the revolution the painting entered the collection at the Louvre where it remains to this day, prior to this work, St. John had traditionally been portrayed as a gaunt ascetic. Leonardos innovative depiction proved influential upon Raphaels workshop, several portraits of St, numerous copies and variations of St.
John the Baptist made by Leonardeschi exist. The viewer is based on IIPImage
A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas, such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the 17th century, the related term, the term is often used to describe great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance, the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti and this term entered the lexicon during the twentieth century and has now been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance. Renaissance man was first recorded in written English in the early 20th century and it is now used to refer to great thinkers living before, during, or after the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci has often described as the archetype of the Renaissance man. These polymaths had an approach to education that reflected the ideals of the humanists of the time. A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play an instrument, write poetry.
The idea of an education was essential to achieving polymath ability. At this time, universities did not specialize in specific areas but rather trained students in an array of science, philosophy. This universal education gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship toward becoming a master of a specific field, aside from Renaissance man as mentioned above, similar terms in use are Homo Universalis and Uomo Universale, which translate to universal person or universal man. The related term generalist—contrasted with a used to describe a person with a general approach to knowledge. The term Universal Genius or Versatile Genius is used, with Leonardo da Vinci as the prime example again. The term seems to be used especially when a person has made lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was involved. When a person is described as having knowledge, they exhibit a vast scope of knowledge. This designation may be anachronistic, however, in the case of such as Eratosthenes whose reputation for having encyclopedic knowledge predates the existence of any encyclopedic object.
One whose accomplishments are limited to athletics would not be considered a polymath in the sense of the word. An example is Howard Baker, who was called a sporting polymath by the Encyclopedia of British Football for winning high jump titles and playing cricket, many polymaths from across the centuries have their roots in medical applications. One of the well known polymaths, Leonardo da Vinci, was known for his immense interest in human anatomical structure
Ginevra de' Benci
Ginevra de Benci is a portrait painting by Leonardo da Vinci of the 15th-century Florentine aristocrat Ginevra de Benci. The oil-on-wood portrait was acquired by the National Gallery of Art in Washington, the sum of US$5 million—a record price at the time—came from the Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund and was paid to the Princely House of Liechtenstein. It is the painting by Leonardo on public view in the Americas. It is known that Leonardo painted a portrait of Ginevra de Benci in 1474, the paintings imagery and the text on the reverse of the panel support the identification of this picture. Directly behind the lady in the portrait is a juniper tree. The reverse of the portrait is decorated with a juniper sprig encircled by a wreath of laurel, the laurel and palm are in the personal emblem of Bernardo Bembo, Venetian ambassador to Florence, whose platonic relationship with Ginevra is revealed in poems dedicated to them. Infrared examination has revealed Bembos motto Virtue and Honor beneath Ginevras, so it is likely Bembo ordered the emblematic painting on the verso of the portrait.
The portrait is one of the highlights of the National Gallery of Art, Ginevra is beautiful, but austere, she has no hint of a smile and her gaze, although forward, seems indifferent to the viewer. A strip from the bottom of the painting was removed in the past, presumably owing to damage, using the golden section, Susan Dorothea White has drawn an interpretation of how her arms and hands may have been positioned in the original. The adaptation is based on images of hands by Leonardo that are thought to have been executed as studies for this painting, for an unorthodox view on Ginevra de Benci see Angelo Paratico Leonardo Da Vinci. A Chinese Scholar Lost in Renaissance Italy Lascar Publishing,2015 ISBN 978-988-14-1980-4, hand, J. O. National Gallery of Art, Master Paintings from the Collection. New York, National Gallery of Art, Washington and Beauty, Leonardos Ginevra de Benci and Renaissance Portraits of Women
Madonna of the Yarnwinder
The Madonna of the Yarnwinder is a subject depicted by Leonardo da Vinci in at least one, and perhaps two paintings begun in 1499 or later. Leonardo was recorded as being at work on one picture in Florence in 1501 for Florimond Robertet. This may have delivered to the French court in 1507. The subject is known today from several versions of two, called the Buccleuch Madonna and the Lansdowne Madonna, are thought to be partly by Leonardo’s hand. The underdrawings of both paintings show similar changes made to the composition, suggesting that both evolved concurrently in Leonardo’s workshop. The composition shows the Virgin Mary seated in a landscape with the Christ child, the yarnwinder serves both as a symbol of Marys domesticity and as a foreshadowing of the Cross on which Christ was crucified. The paintings dynamic composition and implied narrative was highly influential on High Renaissance depictions of the Madonna and Child by artists such as Raphael and Andrea del Sarto. Isabella was determined to get a painting by Leonardo for her collection.
Two letters of reply by the friar survive, the Child has placed his foot on the basket of yarns and has grasped the yarn-winder and gazes attentively at four spokes that are in the form of a cross. As if desirous of the cross he smiles and holds it firm, Robertet’s painting was probably commissioned late in 1499 just before Leonardo left Milan, and was possibly begun there. Scholars disagree on whether Robertet received his painting or not, the Madonna does not, appear in a posthumous inventory of Robertet’s collection made in 1532. One hypothesis holds that it passed from Robertet’s collection into that of the French king and it is unclear, why it would have left the royal collection. In 1525 two inventories were drawn up of the possessions of Leonardo’s assistant and heir Salaì, who died the preceding year and these mention a “Madonna with a Child in her Arms”. This is thought to be evidence that one of the versions of the Madonna of the Yarnwinder remained in Leonardo’s possession while the other was sent to Robertet.
The Virgin’s reaction is ambiguous, a mixture of alarm at the harm her son come to. The gesture of suspense made with her hand is repeated from Leonardo’s Milanese altarpiece The Virgin of the Rocks. The use of a symbol of the Passion as an object of childish play recurs throughout Leonardo’s painted oeuvre, appearing for instance in the Benois Madonna, as with works by Leonardo, the figures appear in a vast unpopulated landscape. The rocky outcrop in the foreground of the Buccleuch Madonna is painted with an attention to geological detail
Leda and the Swan (Leonardo)
The fashionable subject of Leda and the Swan was the subject of two compositions by Leonardo da Vinci from perhaps 1503-10. Neither survive as paintings by Leonardo, but there are a number of drawings for both by him, and copies in oils, especially of the composition, where Leda stands. Leonardo began making studies in 1504 for a painting, apparently never executed, in 1508 Leonardo painted a different composition of the subject. The picture known as Leda and the Swan depicted a nude standing Leda cuddling the swan, unfortunately the picture is in a bad state because it is done on three long panels which have split apart and broken off a certain amount of paint. However the picture is known from copies, of which the earliest are probably the Spiridon Leda, perhaps by a studio assistant and now in the Uffizi. Other copies by Leonardeschi include, possibly Fernando Yanez de la Almedina, oil on panel,51 5/8 x 30 inches
Adoration of the Magi (Leonardo)
The Adoration of the Magi is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo was given the commission by the Augustinian monks of San Donato a Scopeto in Florence and it has been in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence since 1670. The Virgin Mary and Child are depicted in the foreground and form a shape with the Magi kneeling in adoration. Behind them is a semicircle of accompanying figures, including what may be a self-portrait of the young Leonardo, in the background on the left is the ruin of a pagan building, on which workmen can be seen, apparently repairing it. On the right are men on horseback fighting, and a sketch of a rocky landscape, the ruins are a possible reference to the Basilica of Maxentius, according to Medieval legend, the Romans claimed would stand until a virgin gave birth. It is supposed to have collapsed on the night of Christs birth, the ruins dominate a preparatory perspective drawing by Leonardo, which includes the fighting horsemen. The palm tree in the centre has associations with the Virgin Mary, partly due to the phrase You are stately as a tree from the Song of Solomon.
The other tree in the painting is from the carob family and they measure valuable stones and jewels. This tree and its seeds are associated with crowns suggesting Christ as the king of kings or the Virgin as the future Queen of heaven and the virgin Mary are, in fact, painted yellow, the color of light. It is interesting how the trees are painted blue, a color for trees of any kind. On the right side the most credible self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci as a 30 year old can be seen, see Angelo Paratico Much of the composition of this painting was influenced by an earlier work of the Northern artist Rogier van der Weyden. It is housed in the Uffizi of Florence, domenico Ghirlandaio, completed a separate painting, expanding upon Leonardos theme, in 1488. He concluded that the painting could not be restored without damaging it, another artist was responsible for all of the existing paintwork on top of the underdrawing. Seracini stated that none of the paint we see on the Adoration today was put there by Leonardo, the new images revealed by the diagnostic techniques used by Seracini were initially made public in 2002 in an interview with New York Times reporter Melinda Henneberger.
In 2005, nearing the end of his investigation, Seracini gave another interview and they chose instead to relegate it to a storage house, rather than to destroy the original work. It was only later, and probably in the context of the subsequent rise in value of Leonardo artworks. This re-working of the resulted in alterations to Leonardos original design for the piece. Recently the painting was under restoration at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi of 1475 Costantino, Maria
The painting is a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, and is in oil on a white Lombardy poplar panel, and is believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506. Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as 1517 and it was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic, on permanent display at the Louvre Museum in Paris since 1797. Mona in Italian is a form of address originating as ma donna – similar to Ma’am, Madam. This became madonna, and its contraction mona, the title of the painting, though traditionally spelled Mona, is commonly spelled in modern Italian as Monna Lisa but this is rare in English. Vasaris account of the Mona Lisa comes from his biography of Leonardo published in 1550,31 years after the artists death and it has long been the best-known source of information on the provenance of the work and identity of the sitter. Leonardos assistant Salaì, at his death in 1525, owned a portrait which in his papers was named la Gioconda.
Dated October 1503, the note was written by Leonardos contemporary Agostino Vespucci and this note likens Leonardo to renowned Greek painter Apelles, who is mentioned in the text, and states that Leonardo was at that time working on a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. The model, Lisa del Giocondo, was a member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscany, the painting is thought to have been commissioned for their new home, and to celebrate the birth of their second son, Andrea. The Italian name for the painting, La Gioconda, means jocund or, the jocund one, in French, the title La Joconde has the same meaning. Before that discovery, scholars had developed several alternative views as to the subject of the painting, some argued that Lisa del Giocondo was the subject of a different portrait, identifying at least four other paintings as the Mona Lisa referred to by Vasari. Several other women have been proposed as the subject of the painting, the consensus of art historians in the 21st century maintains the long-held traditional opinion, that the painting depicts Lisa del Giocondo.
Leonardo da Vinci began painting the Mona Lisa in 1503 or 1504 in Florence, although the Louvre states that it was doubtless painted between 1503 and 1506, the art historian Martin Kemp says there are some difficulties in confirming the actual dates with certainty. According to Leonardos contemporary, Giorgio Vasari, after he had lingered over it four years, Leonardo, in his life, is said to have regretted never having completed a single work. In 1516, Leonardo was invited by King François I to work at the Clos Lucé near the castle in Amboise. It is believed that he took the Mona Lisa with him, bambach has concluded that da Vinci probably continued refining the work until 1516 or 1517. Upon his death, the painting was inherited with other works by his pupil, Francis I bought the painting for 4,000 écus and kept it at Palace of Fontainebleau, where it remained until Louis XIV moved the painting to the Palace of Versailles. After the French Revolution, it was moved to the Louvre, during the Franco-Prussian War it was moved from the Louvre to the Brest Arsenal.
In December 2015, it was reported that French scientist Pascal Cotte had found a hidden portrait underneath the surface of the painting using reflective light technology, the portrait is an underlying image of a model looking off to the side