BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the worlds largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaux with more than 250 correspondents around the world. James Harding has been Director of News and Current Affairs since April 2013, the departments annual budget is in excess of £350 million, it has 3,500 staff,2,000 of whom are journalists. BBC News domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, parliamentary coverage is produced and broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland, all nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
As with all media outlets, though, it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum. The British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station 2LO on 14 November 1922, on Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report. The BBC gradually gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, however, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II. Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, a weekly Childrens Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers. The network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London. The publics interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953 and it is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radios audience of 12 million for the first time.
Those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission and that year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, and four and a half million by 1955. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a commentary by John Snagge. It was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were finally introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – mainly at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherds Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it. It was from here that the first Panorama, a new programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of News and Current Affairs and he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole
The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections. The latest novel is Trigger Mortis by Anthony Horowitz, published in September 2015, additionally Charlie Higson wrote a series on a young James Bond, and Kate Westbrook wrote three novels based on the diaries of a recurring series character, Moneypenny. The character has adapted for television, comic strip, video games. As of 2017, there have been twenty-four films in the Eon Productions series, the most recent Bond film, stars Daniel Craig in his fourth portrayal of Bond, he is the sixth actor to play Bond in the Eon series. There have two independent productions of Bond films, Casino Royale and Never Say Never Again. In 2015, the franchise was estimated to be worth $19.9 billion, the Bond films are renowned for a number of features, including the musical accompaniment, with the theme songs having received Academy Award nominations on several occasions, and two wins.
Other important elements which run through most of the films include Bonds cars, his guns, the films are noted for Bonds relationships with various women, who are sometimes referred to as Bond girls. Ian Fleming created the character of James Bond as the central figure for his works. Bond is an officer in the Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Bond is known by his number,007, and was a Royal Naval Reserve Commander. Among those types were his brother, who had involved in behind-the-lines operations in Norway. Aside from Flemings brother, a number of others provided some aspects of Bonds make up, including Conrad OBrien-ffrench, Patrick Dalzel-Job and Bill Biffy Dunderdale. The name James Bond came from that of the American ornithologist James Bond, a Caribbean bird expert and author of the definitive field guide Birds of the West Indies. He further explained that, When I wrote the first one in 1953, I wanted Bond to be a dull, uninteresting man to whom things happened. When I was casting around for a name for my protagonist I thought by God, is the dullest name I ever heard.
On another occasion, Fleming said, I wanted the simplest, plainest-sounding name I could find, James Bond was much better than something more interesting, like Peregrine Carruthers. Exotic things would happen to and around him, but he would be a neutral figure—an anonymous, likewise, in Moonraker, Special Branch Officer Gala Brand thinks that Bond is certainly good-looking. Rather like Hoagy Carmichael in a way and that black hair falling down over the right eyebrow
The Forge (Goya)
The Forge is a c.1817 painting by Francisco Goya, today housed in the Frick Collection in New York City. The large oil on canvas represents three blacksmiths toiling over an anvil, and has described by the art historian Fred Licht as undoubtedly the most complete statement of Goyas late style. Devoid of narrative, the painting is an almost photographic capture of a single moment, set in an ambiguous space, it forms a study in grays and black, punctuated by the blazing red of heated metal. The composition is balanced by the gestures of the figures. The Forge emphasises the muscularity of the men, who are rendered as classically heroic with thick, strong arms, yet their faces indicate a coarseness of temperament—a device likely used to make them more identifiable to the common man. Though a court painter, Goya was sensitive throughout his life to the plight of common men and he often captured their everyday lives, usually emphasising the dignity of work or the suffering of war. Despite similarities between the positions in the drawing and the painting, there are several differences.
Both images may be seen as abstracted rather than realistic visions, as they each lack anecdotal context, as with many of Goyas portraits of ordinary Spanish people, the work was not commissioned and not published or sold during his lifetime. In 1853 it was sold at Christies in London, and was bought for the Frick Collection. Art in an age of Bonapartism, 1800–1815, menzels Realism and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Berlin. London and New Haven, Yale University Press,2002, New York, Alfred A. Knopf,2004. Goya, The Origins of the Modern Temper in Art, ISBN 0-87663-294-0 Roche, Michael Armstrong, et al. Goya and the Spirit of Enlightenment, museum of Fine Arts, Boston,1988. ISBN 0-87846-300-3 Tinterow, Gary, et al, manet/Velázquez, The French Taste for Spanish Painting
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the century to 1900. The Gallery is a charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the collection is free of charge. It is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the British Museum, unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein, after that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two-thirds of the collection. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838.
Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, wilkinss building was often criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space, the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897. The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi, the current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi. The late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe, great Britain, did not emulate the continental model, and the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereigns possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this invaluable treasure and suggested that it be housed in a noble gallery. The twenty-five paintings from that now in the Gallery, including NG1, have arrived by a variety of routes. This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, the collection opened in Britains first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery, in 1814.
The British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, the members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were often mediocre, some resented the Institution. One of the Institutions founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, in 1823 another major art collection came on the market, which had been assembled by the recently deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London, his collection numbered 38 paintings, including works by Raphael, on 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection. The appeal was given added impetus by Beaumonts offer, which came with two conditions, that the government buy Angersteins collection, and that a building was to be found
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
The Second of May 1808
The Second of May 1808, known as The Charge of the Mamelukes, is a painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya. It is a companion to the painting The Third of May 1808 and is set in the Calle de Alcalá near Puerta del Sol, Madrid and it depicts one of the many peoples rebellions against the French occupation of Spain that sparked the Peninsular War. Both paintings were completed in a time frame in 1814. Today they are displayed in Madrids Museo del Prado, Goya witnessed first-hand the French occupation of Spain in 1808, when Napoleon used the pretext of reinforcing his army in Portugal to seize the Spanish throne, leaving his brother Joseph in power. Attempts to remove members of the Spanish royal family from Madrid provoked a widespread rebellion and this popular uprising occurred between the second and third of May 1808, when suppressed by forces under Maréchal Joachim Murat. The Second of May 1808 depicts the beginning of the uprising when the Mamelukes of the French Imperial Guard are ordered to charge, the crowd sees the Mamelukes as Moors, provoking an angry response.
Instead of dispersing, the turned on the charging Mamelukes. Goya was probably not present during the actual Charge of the Mamelukes and his supposed presence was first suggested in a book published 40 years after his death, reporting on conversations the author claimed to have had with Goyas gardener. His paintings were commissioned in 1814, after the expulsion of Napoleons army from Spain and he chose to portray the citizens of Madrid as unknown heroes using the crudest of weapons, such as knives, to attack a professional, occupying army. That did not please the king when he returned, so the paintings were not hung publicly until years later. Goya chose not to paint any single action or to have any single point to emphasize the chaos of the drama. Goyas Saturn Devouring His Son, c, 1819–1823 suggests a familiarity with Rubens 1636 in the Prado. Kenneth Clark considered The Second of May 1808 an artistic failure, perhaps he could not shake off the memory of similar compositions by Rubens. Whether or not he knew copies of the hunts and battles in Munich, at least one original, in 1936, during the Spanish Civil War, when Madrid was bombed by Nationalist troops, the republican government decided to evacuate the paintings from the Prado.
A truck carrying Goyas paintings had an accident, and The Second of May was badly damaged, there were tears, a first restoration was carried out in 1941 when the paintings returned to Madrid. A further restoration was completed between 2007 and 2008, new York, Alfred A. Knopf,2004
Dr. No (film)
No is a 1962 British spy film, starring Sean Connery, with Ursula Andress and Joseph Wiseman, filmed in Jamaica and England, it is the first James Bond film. Based on the 1958 novel of the name by Ian Fleming, it was adapted by Richard Maibaum, Johanna Harwood. The film was produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli, in the film, James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the disappearance of a fellow British agent. The trail leads him to the base of Dr. No. Although the first of the Bond books to be made into a film, No was not the first of Flemings novels, Casino Royale being the debut for the character, the film makes a few references to threads from earlier books. This film introduced the criminal organisation SPECTRE, which would appear in six subsequent films. No was produced on a low budget and was a financial success, while critical reaction was mixed upon release, over time the film has gained a reputation as one of the series best instalments. The film was the first of a series of 24 Bond films.
No launched a genre of secret agent films that flourished in the 1960s, the film spawned a spin-off comic book and soundtrack album as part of its promotion and marketing. Production designer Ken Adam established a visual style that is one of the hallmarks of the film series. Strangways, the British Intelligence Station Chief in Jamaica, is ambushed and killed and they break into Strangeways home/office, kill his secretary, and steal documents related to Crab Key and Dr. No. In response, MI6 agent James Bond is summoned to the office of his superior, M, Bond leaves for Kingston, but not before spending a night with a woman named Sylvia Trench. Upon his arrival at Kingston Airport, a female photographer tries to take Bonds picture and he is picked up by a chauffeur claiming to have been sent to take him to Government House, whom Bond determines to be an enemy agent. Bond instructs him to leave the road and, after a brief fight, Bond starts to interrogate the driver. During his investigation in Strangways house, Bond sees a photograph of a boatman with Strangways, Bond locates the boatman, named Quarrel, but finds him to be uncooperative.
Bond recognises Quarrel to have been the driver of the car that followed him from the airport, the CIA has traced the mysterious radio jamming of American rockets to the vicinity of Jamaica, but aerial photography cannot determine the exact location of its origin. Quarrel reveals that he has been guiding Strangways around the islands to collect mineral samples. During a search of Strangways house, Bond finds a receipt, Bond meets with Dent who says he assayed the samples for Strangways and determined them to be ordinary rocks
Charles IV of Spain and His Family
Charles IV of Spain and His Family is an oil on canvas painting by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya who began work on this painting in 1800 and completed it in the summer of 1801. It features life sized depictions of Charles IV of Spain and his family, ostentatiously dressed in fine costume, the painting was modeled after Velázquezs Las Meninas when setting the royal subjects in a naturalistic and plausible setting. The royal family is apparently paying a visit to the artists studio, the barely visible man in the background shadows at the left is Goya himself. 69–73 Davies, Hofrichter, Roberts, Simon
The Colossus (painting)
The Colossus, is known in Spanish as El Coloso and El Gigante, El Pánico and La Tormenta. It is a painting attributed to Francisco de Goya that shows a giant in the centre of the canvas walking towards the left hand side of the picture. Mountains obscure his legs up to his thighs and clouds surround his body, a dark valley containing a crowd of people and herds of cattle fleeing in all directions occupies the lower third of the painting. The painting became the property of Goyas son, Javier Goya, the painting was owned by Pedro Fernández Durán, who bequeathed his collection to Madrids Museo del Prado, where it has been kept since 1931. The painting became part of the Museo del Prados collection in 1931, the first documented attribution of the painting to Goya dates from 1946 when Francisco Javier Sánchez Cantón published the inventory of the estate of Josefa Bayeu, Goyas wife, on her death in 1812. The inventory describes a painting of a giant with the measurements as The Colossus, which was identified with an X.
The painting is listed in the estate of Paula Bernaldo de Quirós on her death in 1877. The large body of the giant occupies the centre of the composition and it appears to be adopting a fighting pose due to the position of its one visible arm and its clenched fist. The picture was painted during the Peninsular War so it could be a representation of that war. Nigel Glendinning states that the picture is based on a poem written by Juan Bautista Arriaza called Pyrenean Prophecy published in 1810. The poem represents the Spanish people as a giant arising from the Pyrenees in order to oppose the Napoleonic invasion, Goyas painting The Eagle, which was found in the possession of Goyas son in 1836, is similar in size and allegorical character to The Colossus. Nigel Glendinning considers this proof that Goya conceived of paintings with a concept to The Colossus. The giants posture has been the object of a number of interpretations and it is unknown if it is walking or firmly planted with legs spread apart.
The giants position is ambiguous, it could be behind the mountains or buried up to above its knees. Some experts have suggested that the giant appears to have his eyes shut, in contrast to the erect figure of the giant are the tiny figures in the valley that are fleeing in all directions. The only exception is a donkey that is standing still, Juan J. Luna has suggested that this figure could represent an incomprehension of the horrors of war. The technique used in painting is similar to that used in Goyas Black Paintings. A date for the painting of the picture has even been suggested, Nigel Glendinning has refuted this dating with arguments solely based on stylistic features of the painting
Adoration of the Name of God
The work in its final execution displays the stereotypes of Late Baroque Catholic religious painting. In them Goya planned a composition of great contrast in the colouring and the illumination, name of God in Christianity Bozal, Francisco Goya, vida y obra,1 vol. Universidad de Zaragoza, catalogue of Goyas works