Cross Road, Adelaide
Cross Road is a major arterial road that travels east–west through the inner southern suburbs of the Australian city of Adelaide. Its western terminus is at Anzac Highway, travelling east and ending at Glen Osmond and the Adelaide Hills, joining the junction of Glen Osmond Road, Portrush Road, South Eastern Freeway. There are three railway level crossings along Cross Road: the Glenelg Tram in Plympton, the Seaford railway line at Emerson Crossing and the Belair railway line and Adelaide-Melbourne railway in Unley Park. South Road passes over the Emerson level crossing on a large overpass, it was built between 1982 and 1984 to reduce the traffic congestion caused by the junction and level crossing. All other junctions are at-grade, with traffic lights at main roads. There are a number of suburbs which Cross Road borders; these are: In a 1949 street directory, Cross Road had its current route, but was named "Cross Roads" and is shown as the aggregation of a number of local street names including: High Terrace Napier Terrace South Terrace Glen Osmond Road Plympton Terrace
Glen Osmond Road, Adelaide
Glen Osmond Road is a major section of the Princes Highway and state Highway 1 in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. Connecting the Adelaide city centre with the Adelaide Hills via the South Eastern Freeway, it has intersections at Fullarton Road, Cross Road and Portrush Road. Glen Osmond Road houses a strip shopping precinct on the section between Greenhill and Fullarton Roads; the precinct is populated by independent boutiques. It is a community main street stationed in the leafy suburbs of Adelaide’s south east, it was earlier known as "The Gateway" because of its connection between the Adelaide CBD and Hills. The Glen Osmond Road Precinct Association is an association guiding the growth and development of Glen Osmond Road and marketing the local business community. GORPA is funded by an exclusive rate applied to properties on the City of Unley side of Glen Osmond Road. Glen Osmond Road forms the boundary of two Council areas -- the City of City of Burnside; the councils work together to promote the local community.
Each council has staff dedicated for Economic Development. Australian Roads portal Highway 1 Highway 1 Glen Osmond Road Precinct Directory
Greenhill Road, Adelaide
Greenhill Road is a major road in Adelaide, South Australia, that provides a connection to the eastern and hills suburbs. The eastern end of Greenhill Road is in Balhannah in the Adelaide Hills, it winds through Carey Gully, Uraidla and Greenhill as a two-lane road. In the metropolitan area, it is four lanes and passes by the City of Burnside suburbs of Burnside, Hazelwood Park, Linden Park, Toorak Gardens and Glenside until it reaches the edge of the Adelaide Parklands; the road expands to six lanes and heads past Eastwood and the City of Unley suburbs of Parkside and Wayville as part of the City Ring Route. This section was designated "Park Terrace". Greenhill Road continues west as Richmond Road from the intersection of Anzac Highway. Australian Roads portal
The River Torrens is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains and was one of the reasons for the siting of the city of Adelaide, capital of South Australia. It flows 85 kilometres from its source in the Adelaide Hills near Mount Pleasant, across the Adelaide Plains, past the city centre and empties into Gulf St Vincent between Henley Beach South and West Beach; the upper stretches of the river and the reservoirs in its watershed supply a significant part of the city's water supply. The river's long linear parks and a constructed lake in the lower stretch are iconic of the city. At its 1836 discovery an inland bend was chosen as the site of the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide; the river is named after Colonel Robert Torrens, chairman of the colonial commissioners and a significant figure in the city's founding. The river is known by its native Kaurna name Karra wirra-parri; the river and its tributaries are variable in flow, together drain an area of 508 square kilometres. They range from sometimes raging torrents, damaging bridges and flooding city areas, to trickles and dry in summer.
Winter and spring flooding has prompted the construction of flood reduction works. A constructed sea outlet, landscaped linear parks and three holding reservoirs contain peak flow; the river's flora and fauna have accidentally impacted since settlement. In the 19th century, native forests were cleared, gravel removed for construction and many foreign species introduced. With construction of the linear parks, many species native to the river have been replanted, introduced species have been controlled as weeds. Since European settlement the river has been a touted tourist attraction. During the early years of settlement, the river acted as both the city's primary water source and main sewer, leading to outbreaks of typhoid and cholera; the River Torrens runs westward from the Adelaide Hills, through the centre of Adelaide to the Gulf St Vincent. It originates close to the eastern fault scarp of the Mount Lofty Ranges, near Mount Pleasant 480 metres above sea level, it runs predominantly along faulted north-south ground structures, which were formed over 250 million years ago during the Paleozoic era further dislocated during the Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary.
There is a 400-metre subsidence along the Para Fault which affects the rivers flow. This subsidence was formed after the Pliocene era. From its origin to Birdwood the river follows rolling level country before entering a hilly section that continues to Gumeracha; the river follows sedimentary rock strata before entering a gorge after Cudlee Creek. It flows through the gorge to Athelstone, passing over the Eden Fault Zone of the Adelaide Hills face and associated escarpment. After the scarp it flows over sedimentary rocks of varying resistance to erosion, which has led to interspersed narrows and broad basins. From the base of the Adelaide Hills to Adelaide's central business district it runs in a shallow valley with a terraced floor down the slope of its own alluvial fan; the structure of this fan shows that the river entered Gulf St Vincent via the Port River. Over time the Torrens deposited sediment; the Torrens is fed by numerous seasonal creeks. There are five main creeks that join from the south side as it crosses the Adelaide Plains east of Adelaide, at least five more in its path through the Adelaide Hills.
The plains tributaries, known as First to Fifth Creeks, with First being the closest to Adelaide's city-centre and the rest numbered consecutively eastward, were named Greenhill, Todd and Ormsley rivulets respectively. They flow vigorously in winter and spring but are otherwise dry, except for small flows in limited areas upstream. "Moriatta" a Kaurna word meaning "ever flowing" is now the official name of Fourth Creek. This name has been adapted to Morialta, now the name of an electoral district and the Morialta Conservation Park through which the creek flows. First and Third Creeks have been heavily modified; some sections have been converted to concrete channels. Much of the original vegetation has disappeared from the creeks those closest to the city. Introduced species including Olives, boxthorn and blackberries have displaced native flora; the largest catchment of the Torrens is Sixth Creek in the Adelaide Hills, which joins the Torrens at Castambul on Gorge Road. At the time of European settlement the river was a summertime chain of waterholes bounded by large gum trees.
Flowing through the area where the city of Adelaide is sited the river was sometimes invisible beneath its gravel stream bed. It flooded in winter and did not reach the sea, instead ending at coastal dunes where its waters created a vast but shallow freshwater wetlands; these wetlands, known as The Reedbeds after the dominant vegetation, occupied a large area of the western Adelaide Plains and were fed by other waterways. The river only flowed to the sea through the Port River, Barker Inlet, Patawalonga River following heavy rain; the river's catchment area of 500 km2 is the largest of any waterway within the Adelaide region. The upper reaches are used to create a potable water supply for metropolitan Adelaide with the river supplying three of Adelaide's eight reservoirs; the upper catchment has an average annual rainfall
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Norwood, South Australia
Norwood is a suburb of Adelaide, about 4 km east of the Adelaide city centre. The suburb is in the City of Norwood Payneham & St Peters, the oldest South Australian local government municipality, with a city population over 34,000. Norwood is named after London, it was first laid out in 1847. The suburb consists of four segments, being divided into north and south by the major thoroughfare of The Parade and east and west by Osmond Terrace, it is bounded on the south by Kensington Road, on the north by Magill Road, on the east by Portrush Road and on the west by Fullarton Road. It is a leafy suburb many of whose streets are lined with plane trees and older houses, though in recent years, due to a State Government initiative of "urban-infill", there have been more higher density developments, it is now a sought-after suburb to live in. Osmond Terrace is a street with a wide median strip featuring a prominent war memorial commemorating ANZAC soldiers who fought in the first and second World Wars.
The most visible landmarks in Norwood are the Norwood Town Hall and the Clayton-Wesley Uniting Church on the north east corner of Portrush Road and The Parade. Located in Beulah Park, the church, built over 150 years ago, is visible all the way up The Parade. Norwood attracted many European migrants post-World War II, it still has a high concentration of people of Italian background. This is reflected in the restaurants and fashion boutiques of The Parade. Norwood's heritage and bohemian character can be ascertained from the political voting patterns. Several Adelaide Metro bus routes serve the suburb. Many route numbers and timetables were changed on 16 January 2011; these routes now run adjacent to Norwood 300: cross city route traversing Portrush Road. B10, H30, H31: Magill Road H20, H21, H22, H23, H24, N22: The Parade 141,142: Kensington Road Norwood Oval on The Parade is home to the Norwood Redlegs, a South Australian National Football League team; the home of Adelaide Bite. The queen of Adelaide’s eastern suburbs: hip and smitten with cafe life.
The Parade contains the business centre of the suburb, which includes some professional services but it is better known for its restaurants, fashion boutiques and hairdressers. Saint Bartholomew's in Norwood and St Matthew's in nearby Kensington are two churches with a close association with each other, with three church ministers involved in both congregations, they are both evangelical and conservative Anglican churches, with a large number of young adult members. Saint Ignatius Catholic Parish Church, built in the 1860s by the Society of Jesus and finished by 1872, is a significant feature in the suburb; the accompanying presbytery housed Mary MacKillop, founder of the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart, where she took refuge after her excommunication by Bishop Shiel. Many famous South Australians have resided in Norwood, including: women's rights campaigner Catherine Helen Spence former Premier Don Dunstan politician Reginald Blundell public servant and Australian Army officer Stanley Price Weir Australia's first beatified saint Mary MacKillop writers C.
J. Dennis and May Gibbs film director Mario Andreacchio chef and artist Poh Ling Yeow former Police Officer and Police Commissioner Alexander Tolmer List of Adelaide suburbs Antonio Giannoni Woodroofe Electoral district of Norwood
National Highway (Australia)
The National Highway is a system of roads connecting all mainland states and territories of Australia, is the major network of highways and motorways connecting Australia's capital cities and major regional centres. National funding for roads began in the 1920s, with the federal government contributing to major roads managed by the state and territory governments. However, the Federal Government did not fund any roads until 1974, when the Whitlam Government introduced the National Roads Act 1974. Under the act, the states were still responsible for road construction and maintenance, but were compensated for money spent on approved projects. In 1977, the 1974 Act was replaced by the State Grants Act 1977, which contained similar provisions for the definition of "National Highways". In 1988, the National Highway became redefined under the Australian Land Transport Development Act 1988, which had various amendments up to 2003; the 1988 Act was concerned with funding road development in cooperation with the state governments.
The federal transport minister defined the components of the National Highway, a category of "Road of National Importance", with federal funding implications. Section 10.5 of the Act required the state road authorities to place frequent, signs on the National Highways and RONI projects funded by the federal government. In 2005, the National Highway became the National Land Transport Network, under the AusLink Act 2005; the criteria for inclusion in the network was similar to the previous legislation, but expanded to include connections to major commercial centres, inter-modal facilities. All of the roads included in National Land Transport Network as of 2005 were formally defined by regulation in October 2005; the Minister for Transport may alter the list of roads included in the network. Three amendments to the scheduled list of roads have been made, in February 2007, September 2008 and February 2009; the third variation, published in February 2009, is current as of September 2012. Under AusLink a program that operated between July 2004 and 2009, the AusLink National Network had additional links, both road and rail.
The Federal Government encouraged funding from state and local governments and public–private partnerships to upgrade the network and requires state government funding contributions on parts of the network for new links. For example, the Pacific Highway and the Calder Highway are part of the National Network, yet new projects are being funded 50/50 by federal and state governments. State contributions are required on some sections of the old network near major cities; the various superseded Acts defined National Highways as roads, or a series of connected roads, that were the primary connection between two State or Territory capital cities, as well as between Brisbane and Cairns, between Hobart and Burnie. The Melbourne-Devonport ferry route is sometimes described colloquially as the'sea highway', providing a link from Tasmania to the rest of the country by road; the 16,000 kilometres of roads included in the original National Highway system had large variations in road quality. Some sections were no more than dirt tracks, whilst others were four lane dual carriageways.
While 12,496 kilometres was sealed, there was 3,807 kilometres worth of gravel roads. The National Highway was improved, with the sealed proportion increased from 73 per cent in the early 1970s to 88 per cent by 1981; the sealing works were completed in 1989. Since 2005, National Highways were no longer defined in federal legislation. However, the routes were marked with a National Highway route marker up until 2013; these markers have "NATIONAL" printed in the upper portion of the shield, above the highway's number. The shield and number are coloured yellow while the background is dark green – the national colours of Australia. In 2014, the route makers retained the national colours, although the word "NATIONAL" was removed in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, parts of both Queensland and Victoria. National Highway numbering originates from the earlier national route network. Many of the routes that are now National Highways with the signature green and gold shields, continue beyond the official National Highway as the black and white shielded national routes.
Certain stretches of the National Highways have "A" and "M" tag on their shields. They have revised their route numbering, basing it on the British M, A, B, C classifications; these states have retained the original National Highway numbering and shield decal, having added the appropriate M and A classification. Sydney to Melbourne – Hume Motorway/Hume Highway/Hume Freeway Sydney to Brisbane – the Pacific Motorway, New England and Cunningham Highways route and the Pacific Highway route Brisbane to Cairns – Bruce Highway Brisbane to Darwin – Warrego, Landsborough and Stuart Highways Brisbane to Melbourne – Warrego, Gore and Goulburn Valley Highways and Hume Freeway Melbourne to Adelaide – Western Freeway, Western Highway, Dukes Highway and South Eastern Freeway Adelaide to Darwin – Port Wakefield Road, Augusta Highway and Stuart Highway Adelaide to Sydney – Sturt and Hume Highway/Hume Motorway Adelaide to Perth – Port Wakefield Road, Augusta Highway, Coolgardie-Esperance and Great Eastern Highways Perth to Darwin – Great Northern and Stuart Highways Sydney to Canberra – Hume Motorway/Hume Highway and Federal Highway Melbourne to Canberra – Hume Freeway/Hume Highway and Barton Highway Hobart to Burnie including the link from Launceston to Bell Bay – Brooker, Mi