Portell de Morella
Portell de Morella is a municipality located in the province of Castellón, Valencian Community, Spain
Ports de Morella
Ports de Morella, is a historical Valencian comarca. It takes its name from the city of Morella, its capital and the only place in the region having been granted the title of'city', it overlaps with the present-day Ports comarca except for the municipal areas surrounding Catí and Vilafranca that were excluded from the present-day Ports administrative division. Maestrat Tinença de Benifassà Juan Piqueras, Geografia de les comarques valencianes, Foro Ediciones SL, Valencia 1995. ISBN 84-8186-018-2 Mª José Ribera Ortún & Bernardí Cabrer Borrás, Los desequilibrios espaciales: Una comarcalización del Pais Valenciano. Ed. Institut de Estudios de Administración Local. Valencia, 1979. 40°37′24″N 0°4′22.02″E
Tinença de Benifassà
Tinença de Benifassà is a historical comarca of the Valencian Community, Spain. It is nowadays part of the Baix Maestrat, one of the present-day Comarques of the Valencian Community though commercial and human relationships have been stronger with Els Ports in the west, the Terres de l'Ebre in the northeast and the Matarranya in the northwest in historical times; the Tinença de Benifassà is situated within a mountainous area known as Muntanyes de Benifassà located in the southern region of the Ports de Tortosa-Beseit. The main villages are Castell de Cabres, la Pobla de Benifassà, el Bellestar, el Boixar, Coratxà, Fredes and Bel; the Ulldecona Dam, a scenic reservoir supplied by three tributaries of the Sénia river, is located within the La Pobla de Benifassà municipal limits. With a surface of 116 hectares and a capacity of 11 cubic hectometres, the reservoir plays a important role in the irrigation of agricultural crops in the surrounding region. One of the main products of the area is good-quality honey, commercialized as Mel de la Tinença de Benifassà.
The ranges of this sparsely-populated mountain area have the most important forested zone of the region. Thus the area of the Tinença de Benifassà together with the neighboring Serra del Turmell and Serra de Vallivana mountain chains was declared a Site of Community Importance by the European Union under the name Tinença de Benifassà, Turmell i Vallivana; the area was conquered by the saracens in 1230 and was administered by the Principality of Catalonia between 1260 and 1262 along with Vallibona and Rossell. La Tinença de Benifassà was documented as a comarca in the map Comarques naturals del Regne de València made by Emili Beüt in 1934. Most of the villages in the historical comarca have become depopulated in recent decades owing to the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices by the local youth and the lifestyle changes that swept over rural Spain during the second half of the 20th century; the Generalitat Valenciana administration declared the whole area of the historical comarca a Natural Park under the name Parc Natural de la Tinença de Benifassà in May 2006.
Santa Maria de Benifassà Ports de Tortosa-Beseit El Bobalar de Sant Jordi Ulldecona Reservoir Web turística de la Tinença de Benifassà Parc Natural de la Tinença de Benifassà Carta Pobla del Bellestar de 1279 Walking trails through the natural park of Tinença de Benifassa
Morella is an ancient walled city located on a hill-top in the province of Castellón, Valencian Community, Spain. The town is the capital and administrative centre of the comarca of Els Ports, in the historic Maestrat region. There are traces of settlement by the Iberians, succeeded by the Greeks and Romans and the Moors. From the early 17th century to the Spanish Civil War, the town was fought over, due to its strategic situation between the Ebro and the coastal plain of Valencia. Morella is part of the Taula del Sénia free association of municipalities; every six years the citizens celebrate the Sexenni, a commemoration of the town's recovery from the plague in the seventeenth century. Tourism now plays an important part in the local economy, along with agriculture. In the 20th century the town and surrounding area became depopulated, a trend that has only been reversed in the early 21st century; the population of Morella in 2008 was 2,854, having declined from a figure of 7,335 in 1900. One of the typical gastronomic products of Morella is sweets known as flaons.
Local bakeries are renowned for a number of other traditional pastries and sweets, like mantecadas, prepared in the ancient way. Prehistoric remains in the area include cave paintings in Morella la Vella and Bronze Age graves at Hostal Nou; the Greeks established a treasury at Morella, but the area became the scene of conflict between the Carthaginians and the Roman Empire during the Punic Wars. The town was Romanized and became part of the province of Tarragona; the Moors took the town in 714. El Cid is reputed to have rebuilt the castle which dominates the town and in 1084 he is supposed to have fought in the service of Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud and defeated Sancho Ramírez of Aragon at the Battle of Morella. In 1117, Sancho captured Morella, but it was recaptured by the Moors and only subdued by Blasco de Alagon in 1232. Following Blasco's death in 1239, James I of Aragon established a royal garrison in the city and awarded the inhabitants the title of "Faithful". Morella sided with Philip V during the War of the Spanish Succession in the early eighteenth century and became the centre of a military and political district.
During the Napoleonic Wars, the citizens rose up against the invading forces and the town was captured for Spain in 1813 by Francisco Javier de Elío. In the Carlist Wars of the nineteenth century Morella became the headquarters of the forces of Ramon Cabrera; the town was captured by forces of General Franco in April 1938, towards the end of the Spanish Civil War. Republican guerillas held out in the surrounding mountains until 1956. In the 1960s and 70s many people left the town for work opportunities in the cities and many of the local small industries died, but a slow revitalization has taken place since the transition of Spain to democracy. In the late seventeenth century, Morella was affected by the plague. After twenty years of suffering, the citizens brought a statue of the Virgin Mary from the Sanctuary of Vallivana, 24 kilometres away, at the feet of the Serra de Vallivana range, processed it through the streets, it is said that the plague disappeared from the city and, to remember this, every six years the Sexenni festival takes place for nine days in late August.
The virgin is carried in procession and the traditional town guilds perform ancient dances in her honour. The festivities in 2006 were the first of the 21st century. Morella's municipal area is divided into subdivisions; these are: La Vespa, Els Castellons, Dena Primera del Riu, Dena Segona del Riu, La Font d'en Torres, Els Llivis, Morella la Vella, El Coll i el Moll, La Pobla d'Alcolea, Dena de la Roca, Herbeset, Xiva de Morella and Vallivana. Morella occupies a strategic position between the plains of the river Ebro to the north west and the coastal plains of Valencia and Castellon. Access from the north west lies through the passes of Torre Miró 1,259 metres and Querol 1,020 metres; the old town is enclosed by 2.5 kilometres of ancient stone walls, pierced at seven points by gates or portals. The river Bergantes skirts the southern boundaries of the town as it descends towards the Guadalope which joins the Ebro; the climate is high mountain Mediterranean, with cool summers and cold winters with frequent frosts and heavy snow.
During the winter months the north east mistral, which blows in this area, causes wind chill factors of as much as -20 °C. Morella is now a tourist destination, with many historic buildings and restaurants, it is listed as one of the most beautiful towns in Spain. Some of the top sights to see in Morella are the Castillo de Morella, the aqueduct, La Iglesia de Santa María Morella, Convento de San Francesc Morella and the Morella Museo Temps de Dinosaures. Although not as important as in the past and woollen goods still plays a part in the local economy. One of its most famous products is the Morella blanket, which has a unique design, with a range of colour combinations and horizontal stripes. Agriculture poultry and pig production are important in the surrounding area.with craft products and valued black truffles which are traded at seasonal markets during the winter. Ports Ports de Morella Maestrat Vallivana Web oficial de l'ajuntament de Morella Paco González Ramírez, País Valencià, poble a poble, comarca a comarca Institut Valencià d'Estadística.
Portal de la Direcció General d'Administració Local de la Generalitat
Vilafranca is a municipality in the comarca of Alt Maestrat, Castellón, Spain. Its official Castilian name is Villafranca del Cid; the royal town of Villafranca del Cid is situated on the western boundary of the province of Castellón, 95 km from the capital. The village lies on a high plateau at 1,125 m above sea level. Despite this, the rest of the term is rugged, most notably the main point "'Tossal dels Montllats'", "'Tossal of the Over Coder'", "'Tossal Mas d'Altava'", "'Over Tosca de Dalt'", "'Tossal d'Arriello' " and the side of"'Picaio' ". By contrast the lower part is in the Río Monleón 710 m. above sea level. The highest points are formed by limestone erosion that has beveled sometimes deeply; the dissolution of limestone has managed whimsical molded in " Les Coves del Forcall'.'" You reach this location from Castellón taking the CV-10 and the CV-15. The town of Villafranca del Cid limited with the following locations: Portell de Morella, Ares del Maestre and Vistabella del Maestrazgo all inside the province of Castellón, Mosqueruela and La Iglesuela del Cid inside the province of Teruel.
Its origins are lost in the prehistory. So say the town of Bronze Age of "Ereta Castellar" numerous Iberian sites that dot the term, occasional rock paintings and remains Roman found, but the birth of the current Villafranca was dated February 7, 1239. Its founder was Don Blasco de Alagon, which he called "'Rivus Truitarum'" or " Riu de les Truites'"; the Gothic-Roman bridge across the "Riu de les Truites", the king Jaime I crossed and first set foot on the land of Castellon. After belonging to the house of Alagon, of Anglesola after and again to Alagon, he joined the "Términos Generales del Castillo de Morella" on May 14, 1303. On December 27, 1333, the people from Vilafranca rebelled against the decisions of Morella's juries, starting with this act the struggle for independence that lasted nearly four centuries and other villages joined. There were a number of lawsuits with Mosqueruela losing Mallo castle and the village of Estrella between 1335 and 1340. King Pedro IV of Aragon authorized the construction of walls and granted independence to Morella on June 8, 1358.
Felipe IV understood the financial burden posed this to the villages, in payment for services rendered by the villagers in the wars of France and Catalonia, the independent will. Joan Baptista Penyarroja of Carlos II was the notary who succeeded the independence of all the villages and the erection in royal villas February 8, 1691. In the Succession War, the town took the side of Archduke Charles of Austria. Although there was always an important traditionalist core and was the son of the village as the famous guerrilla "El Serrador" Villafranca took part by liberals Elizabeth II, it was another strong liberal stronghold again until being abandoned, as it was trapped between the Carlist domains. In the area of the town, two memorable battles were fought: the Mas de la Carrasca and "Pla de Mosorro" on June 28, 1875, won by Jovellar and Villaviciosa against Dorregaray and Villalaín; this battle has been considered as the beginning of the end of the war in the centre of Spain and Valencia. In 1943 the provincial council choose the mayor of Vilafranca, Juan Antonio Aznar Inigo, for the position of procurador in the I Legislature of the Cortes Españolas, representing the municipalities of the province
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Palanques is a small town and municipality located at the northern end of the Ports comarca, province of Castelló, part of the autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. According to the 2009 census, it has a total population of 35 inhabitants, it is located near Morella. The town's main church is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary and the Ermita de la Verge dels Dolors is a small church dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows that lies within the town's municipal limit. Palanques was a Muslim town until nearby Morella was conquered by James I of Aragon in the 13th century. There are remains of an ancient tower in the town's main square; the town has lost much population in the last 100 years. After the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices, like dryland farming and sheep and goat rearing, by the local youth and General Franco's Plan de Estabilización in 1959 the population has declined progressively as people emigrated towards the industrial areas of Barcelona and coastal Castelló Province in search of jobs.
By 2000 Palanques had only a residual population of 21 inhabitants. Nowadays some of the houses of the town are in ruins and others have been converted into summer houses. Palanques revives during the summer season when many former residents return to the town to spend the holidays, for its climate is continental with mild temperatures on summer nights. Morella - Ajuntament de Palanques Institut Valencià d'Estadística. Portal de la Direcció General d'Administració Local de la Generalitat