Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Gdynia is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. For centuries, Gdynia remained an agricultural and fishing village on the Baltic coast. At the beginning of the 20th-century Gdynia became as a resort town. This triggered an increase in local population and it was that the town was given a more cosmopolitan character with modernism being the dominant architectural style and emerged as a city in 1926. The rapid development of Gdynia was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II, although the German troops refrained from deliberate bombing, the newly built port and shipyard were completely destroyed. The population of the city suffered much heavier losses as most of the inhabitants were evicted and expelled, the locals were either displaced to other regions of occupied Poland or sent to Nazi concentration camps throughout Europe. After the war, Gdynia was settled with the inhabitants of Warsaw and lost cities such as Lviv.
The city was gradually regenerating itself with its shipyard being rebuilt, in December 1970 the shipyard workers protest against the increase of prices was bloodily repressed. This greatly contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement in Gdańsk, today the port of Gdynia is a regular stopover on the itinerary of luxurious passenger ships and a new ferry terminal with a civil airport are under realisation. The city won numerous awards in relation to safety, quality of life, in 2013 Gdynia was ranked as Polands best city to live in and topped the rankings in the overarching category of general quality of life. Gdynia is noted for its access to education. There are prestigious universities such as the Polish Naval Academy located nearby, Gdynia hosts the Gdynia Film Festival, the main Polish film festival, and was the venue for the International Random Film Festival in 2014. Late 10th century, Pomerelia was united with Poland, during the reign of Mieszko II Pomerelia seceded from Poland and became independent.
1116/1121, Bolesław III reunited Pomerelia with Poland,1227, Pomerelia again became an independent Duchy. 1253, First known mention of the name Gdynia, as a Pomeranian fishing village, the first church on this part of the Baltic Sea coast was built there. 1294, Pomerelia was inherited by the future Polish king Przemysł II. and remained as part of Poland until – 1309–1310, The Teutonic Order conquered Pomerelia,1380, The owner of the village which became Gdynia, Peter from Rusocin, gave the village to the Cistercian Order. 1382, Gdynia became property of the Cistercian abbey in Oliva, Pomerelia became part of Royal Prussia, a newly established province of the Kingdom of Poland, and on of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1772, In the First Partition of Poland, Royal Prussia was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia, Gdynia became known in German as Gdingen, and was expropriated from the Cistercian Order
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Rauma is a town and municipality of ca.39,700 inhabitants on the west coast of Finland,92 kilometres north of Turku, and 50 kilometres south of Pori. Granted town privileges on 17 April 1442, Rauma is known for its paper and maritime industry, high quality lace and the old architecture of its centre. In the 14th century, before being declared as a town, Rauma had a Franciscan monastery, in 1550, the townsmen of Rauma were ordered to relocate to Helsinki, but this was successfully countered and Rauma could continue its growth. Practically the whole town of Rauma was devastated in the fires of 1640 and 1682. The wooden city centre, which is how large the town was until 1809, has approximately 600 wooden buildings, the neo-renaissance style of many of the houses is a result of prosperity brought on by seafaring. In 1897 Rauma had the largest fleet of sailing boats in Finland, goods were mainly exported to Germany and the Baltic states. In the 1890s, Rauma got a college, which was annexed to the University of Turku.
A part of the department of education still exists in Rauma, the name Rauma comes from the Germanic word strauma, meaning stream. After World War II, Rauma developed into a city, the main industries being shipbuilding and pulp mills. Rauma is the fifth largest port in Finland with almost six million tonnes of shipping per year, olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant is located next to Rauma, in Eurajoki. Near Rauma, there is the plant of Fenno-Skan. Rauma is located between Turku and Pori by the national road 8, Finnish national road 12 starts from Rauma and it was extended to the port of Rauma in 2008. A railway connection from Kokemäki is in active use, as there is a straight connection to the heavy industry areas. The rail passenger traffic ended in 1988, satakunnan Liikenne Oy runs the local bus traffic and it has 3 lines in Rauma. The hub for the buses is located in Savila while the Long distance buses operate from Rauma bus station. The long distance buses take passengers directly to Pori and Turku and to Tampere, the nearest airport is located in Pori.
The port of Rauma serves only freight ships on frequent basis, Rauma has its own dialect of Finnish, Rauman giäl. The dialect inherits words from languages such as Swedish, the dialect has been diluted into mainstream Finnish in day-to-day use, but it is fairly well studied and practiced as a hobby
Rostock is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is on the Warnow river, the district of Warnemünde 12 kilometres north of the city centre is directly on the Baltic Sea coast, Rostock is home to one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Rostock, founded in 1419. The city territory of Rostock stretches for about 20 km along the Warnow to the Baltic Sea, the largest built-up area of Rostock is on the western side of the river. The eastern part of its territory is dominated by industrial estates, Rostock is considered as the only regiopolis in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc, the Danish king Valdemar I set the town aflame in 1161. Afterwards the place was settled by German traders, initially there were three separate cities, Altstadt around the Alter Markt with St. Petri, Mittelstadt around the Neuer Markt with St. Marien and Neustadt around the Hopfenmarkt with St.
Jakobi. In 1218, Rostock was granted Lübeck law city rights by Heinrich Borwin, during the first partition of Mecklenburg following the death of Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg in 1226, Rostock became the seat of the Lordship of Rostock, which survived for almost a century. In 1251, the city became a member of the Hanseatic League, in the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the biggest city of Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock, the formerly independent fishing village of Warnemünde at the Baltic Sea became a part of Rostock in 1323, to secure the citys access to the Baltic Sea. In 1419, one of the earliest universities in Europe, the University of Rostock, was founded and they took advantage of a riot known as Domfehde, a failed uprising of the impoverished population. Subsequent quarrels with the dukes and persistent plundering led ultimately to a loss of economic, in 1565 there were further clashes with Schwerin that which had far-reaching consequences.
Among other things, was the introduction of a beer excise that favoured the dukes. John Albert I advanced on the city with 500 horsemen, after Rostock had refused to take the oath of allegiance. The citizens slighted the fortress the following spring, from 1575 to 1577 the city walls were rebuilt, as was the Lagebusch tower and the Stein Gate in the Dutch Renaissance style. The inscription sit intra te concordia et publica felicitas, which can still be read on the gate, in 1584 it finally came to the Second Rostock Inheritance Agreement, which resulted in a further loss of former tax privileges. At the same time, these inheritance contracts put paid to Rostocks ambition of achieving imperial immediacy as Lübeck had done in 1226, the strategic location of Rostock provoked the envy of its rivals. Danes and Swedes occupied the city twice, first during the Thirty Years War, the French, under Napoleon, occupied the town for about a decade until 1813. In nearby Lübeck-Ratekau, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, who was born in Rostock and this was only after furious street fighting in the Battle of Lübeck, in which he led some of the cavalry charges himself
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. Port locations are selected to optimize access to land and navigable water, for commercial demand, Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle larger ships. Since ports throughout history handled every kind of traffic and storage facilities vary widely, may extend for miles, some ports have an important military role. One of the worlds oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea, along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Guangzhou was an important port during the ancient times as far back as the Qin Dynasty, canopus was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. Athens port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet, lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 3700 BCE.
Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius, Ports often have cargo-handling equipment, such as cranes and forklifts for use in loading ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located nearby, some ports feature canals, which allow ships further movement inland. Access to intermodal transportation, such as railroads and highways, is critical to a port, so that passengers, Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. Harbor pilots and tugboats may maneuver large ships in tight quarters when near docks, the terms port and seaport are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. An inland port is a port on a lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean. An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Duluth-Superior, a fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish.
It may be a facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the port that depends on an ocean product. In recent decades, regulations to save fishing stock may limit the use of a fishing port, a dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime, because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. A seaport is further categorized as a port or a cargo port. Additionally, cruise ports are known as a home port or a port of call
Helsingborg is a town and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Sweden. It had 132,989 inhabitants in 2013, Helsingborg is the centre of the northern part of western Scania. This makes Helsingborg the fourth largest population area in Sweden, the city is Swedens closest point to Denmark, with the Danish city Helsingør clearly visible on the other side of the Øresund about 4 km to the west, closer than to the citys own remoter areas. If including all population around the part of Øresund, as a Helsingborg-Helsingør metropolitan area. The busy ferry route, known as the HH Ferry route has through history been operated by shipping lines. As of 2014 more than 70 car ferries departures from each harbour every day, following the Swedish orthography reform of 1906 many place names in Sweden got a modernized spelling. In 1912 it was decided to use the form Hälsingborg, in preparation for the local government reform 1971 the Hälsingborg city council proposed that the new, enlarged municipality should be spelled with an e.
This was the decision of the Government of Sweden, effective from 1 January 1971, historic Helsingborg, with its many old buildings, is a scenic coastal city. The buildings are a blend of old-style stone-built churches and a 600-year-old medieval fortress in the city centre, the streets vary from wide avenues to small alley-ways. Kullagatan, the pedestrian shopping street in the city, was the first pedestrian shopping street in Sweden. Helsingborg is one of the oldest cities of what is now Sweden and it has been the site of permanent settlement officially since 21 May 1085. Helsingborgs geographical position at the narrowest part of Øresund made it important for Denmark. From 1429 Eric of Pomerania introduced the Øresundstolden, a levy on all trading vessels passing through the sound between Elsinore and Helsingborg and this was one of the main incomes for the Danish Crown. Crossing traffic, like fishermen, was not subject to the tax, the Sound Dues primarily made Helsingør flourish, but quite a bit spilled over to Helsingborg.
Evidence of this is William Shakespeares masterpiece Hamlet, which unfolda at Kronborg, and the Prince of Denmark may well have hidden himself from his evil uncle in Helsingborg. In any case, the Renaissance was a period for the Kingdom of Denmark. But towards the middle of the 17th Century, dark clouds appeared from the North, following the Dano-Swedish War and the Treaty of Roskilde Denmark had to give up all territory on the southern Scandinavian peninsula, and Helsingborg became submitted to new rulers. King Charles X Gustav of Sweden landed here on 5 March 1658 to take possession of the Scanian lands and was met by a delegation led by the bishop of the Diocese of Lund
Paldiski is a town and Baltic Sea port situated on the Pakri peninsula of north-western Estonia. Originally a Swedish settlement known as Rågervik, it became a Russian naval base in the 18th century, the Russians renamed it Балтийский Порт in 1762. In Estonian the name was spelled Baltiski until 1933 when the Estonian pronunciation Paldiski became the official name, on 23 June 1912 the Russian emperor Nikolai II and German kaiser Wilhelm II met for the last time before World War I in Paldiski. In 1962, Paldiski became a Soviet Navy nuclear submarine training centre, employing some 16,000 people, and with two land-based nuclear reactors, it was the largest such facility in the Soviet Union. Because of its importance, the city was closed off with barbed wire until the last Russian warship left in August 1994. This followed the events of 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed, to house the stationing troops and those in training, many barracks buildings were built, which have since been left in disrepair.
Russia relinquished control of facilities in September 1995, the nuclear reactors were shut down. After Estonia restored its independence, the city had not enough Estonian citizens, located some 45 km west of Tallinn, Paldiski is since a municipality within Harju County. Derelict Soviet-style apartment buildings made up much of the town, the majority of the towns residents are ethnic Russians. The ferry company Tallink operated a regular connection with Kapellskär in Sweden, until recently, the amenities were limited to a single, small hotel. Now there are two grocery stores, an alcohol store, a bank, a tavern, and a bed & breakfast. The renovated train station has a cafe with hot food. The housing blocks in the no longer appear dilapidated and abandoned and have been refitted and re-painted in recent years. There are several new apartment buildings, and the areas along with childrens parks have been restored. Paldiski has two schools, Paldiski Gümnaasium and Vene Gümnaasium, in addition, there is a private pre-school facility, called Paladski Beebi Maja.
There are several churches in town, the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church is dedicated to St Nicholas. Although closed for years, this church has now reopened. There are a Pentecostal church, a Methodist church, Paldiski has a terminus station on the Elron rail line, providing a convenient link to the capital city