E. G. Squier
Ephraim George Squier cited as E. G. Squier, was an American archaeologist and newspaper editor. Squier was born in Bethlehem, New York, the son of a minister of English heritage and his Palatine German wife. In early youth he worked on a farm and taught school, studied engineering, became interested in American antiquities; the Panic of 1837 made an engineering career unfeasible, so he pursued literature and journalism. He was associated in the publication of the New York State Mechanic at Albany 1841-1842. In 1843-1848, he engaged in journalism in Hartford and edited the Chillicothe, weekly newspaper the Scioto Gazette. During this period, Squier collaborated with physician Edwin H. Davis on the book, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, issued in 1848; the work was a landmark in American scientific research, the study of the prehistoric Mound Builders of North America, the early development of archaeology as a scientific discipline. The book was the first volume of the Smithsonian Institution's Contributions to Knowledge series and the Institution's first publication.
Among Squier and Davis' most important achievements was their systematic approach to analyzing and documenting the sites they surveyed, including the Serpent Mound in Peebles, which they discovered in 1846, the mapping of the Mound City Group in Chillicothe, restored using their data and is now part of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park. Squier and Davis's collection of ancient Mound objects is now kept at the British Museum, he was appointed special chargé d'affaires to all the Central American states in 1849, negotiated treaties with Nicaragua and San Salvador. In 1853 he made a second visit to Central America to examine a line for a projected interoceanic railroad, to make further study of the archaeology of the country. In 1856 he received the medal of the French Geographical Society for his researches. In 1858, he married Miriam Florence Folline who had had a previous marriage annulled. About 1860, he became editor-in-chief for Frank Leslie's publishing house, supervised the publication of the first two volumes of Frank Leslie's Pictorial History of the American Civil War.
In 1863 Squier was appointed U. S. commissioner to Peru, where he made an exhaustive investigation of Inca remains and took numerous photographs of them. He gave a series of 12 lectures on "The Inca Empire" for the Lowell Institute for their 1866-67 season. In 1868 he was appointed consul-general of Honduras at New York, in 1871 he was elected the first president of the Anthropological Institute of New York, he conducted ethnological studies in Nicaragua and Peru. On returning from Peru, he continued working for Frank Leslie, but gave it up when his health failed. In 1873, his wife divorced him, married Leslie a year later. In 1874 his health became so impaired as to preclude further original research, though he subsequently recovered sufficiently to direct the final preparation and revision of his work on Peru for publication, the affection resulted in his death, he was a member of numerous historical and scientific societies. He died in New York. Besides many official reports, scientific papers, magazine articles, contributions to the Encyclopædia Britannica and foreign periodicals, his works include: Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New York Serpent Symbols Nicaragua: its People, Scenery and the Proposed Interoceanic Canal Notes on Central America Waikna, or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore The States of Central America Monographs of Authors who have written on the Aboriginal Languages of Central America Tropical Fibres and their Economic Extraction Peru: Incidents and Explorations in the Land of the Incas Barnhart, Terry A..
Ephraim George Squier and the Development of American Anthropology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1321-2. Stiebing, William H. Jr.. Ancient Astronauts, Cosmic Collisions, Other Popular Theories About Man's Past. New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-285-8. Works written by or about Ephraim George Squier at Wikisource
Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture that flourished from Ca. 1000-1750 CE and predominantly inhabited land near the Ohio River valley in the areas of modern-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky, southeastern Indiana and western West Virginia. Although a contemporary of the Mississippian Culture, they are considered a "sister culture" and distinguished from the Mississippian Culture. Although far from agreed upon, there is evidence to suggest that the Fort Ancient Culture were not the direct descendants of the Hopewellian Culture], it is suspected. The Fort Ancient Culture were most the builders of the Great Serpent Mound; the name of the culture originates from the Fort Ohio archeological site. However, the Fort Ancient Site is now thought to have been built by Ohio Hopewellian people, it was occupied by the succeeding Fort Ancient culture. The site is located on a hill above the Little Miami River, close to Ohio. Despite its name, most archaeologists do not believe that Fort Ancient was used as a fortress by either the Ohio Hopewell culture or the Fort Ancient culture.
Starting in about 1000 CE, terminal Late Woodland groups in the Middle Ohio Valley adopted maize agriculture. They began settling in small, year-round nuclear family households and settlements of no more than 40 to 50 individuals; these small scattered settlements, located along terraces that overlooked rivers and sometimes on flood plains, would be occupied for short periods before the groups moved on to new locations. By 1200 the small villages began to coalesce into larger settlements of up to 300 people, they were occupied for longer periods up to 25 years. During the Early and Middle Fort Ancient period, the houses were designed as single-family dwellings. Fort Ancient buildings are larger multi-family dwellings. Settlements were permanent, as the people moved to a new location after one or two generations, when the natural resources surrounding the old village were exhausted; the people laid out the villages around an open oval central plaza, surrounded by circular and/or rectangular domestic structures facing the plaza.
The arrangement of buildings in Fort Ancient settlements is thought to have served as a sort of solar calendar, marking the positions of the solstices and other significant dates. The people began to build low platform mounds for ceremonial purposes, many villages added defensive palisades to their boundaries; the plaza was the center of village life: the place where ceremonies and other social events were held. The Late Fort Ancient period from 1400 to 1750 is the protohistoric era in the Middle Ohio Valley. During this era, the dispersed populations began to coalesce; the Gist-phase villages became much larger than during the preceding period, with populations as high as 500. Archaeologists have speculated that the larger villages and palisades are evidence that after 1450, warfare and intergroup strife increased, leading the people to consolidate their villages for better protection; this era showed increased contact with Mississippian peoples. The Madisonville horizon of artifacts after 1400 includes high proportions of bowls, salt pans, triangular strap handles, negative painted pottery and beaded rims, some effigies, all items and styles that are associated with the Mississippian cultures of the Lower Ohio Valley, at sites such as Angel Mounds and Kincaid Mounds.
These sites were abandoned during this time period. During the Montour phase, the people inhabited their villages year-round, although less densely in the winter than in the summer months; this may indicate that during the winter, family groups and hunting parties may have returned to the regions occupied by their ancestors. Such a pattern was observed for example, among the Miami and Potawatomi. By their trading, the Fort Ancient people had access to European trade items, such as glass, iron and copper, which have been found as grave goods at sites such as Lower Shawneetown and Hardin Village; such artifacts appeared and were used in the area before the arrival of European explorers or settlers. Although the Fort Ancient peoples did not encounter Europeans at this time, like other groups in the interior of the continent, may have suffered high fatalities from their diseases, transmitted among Native Americans by trade contacts; the next-known inhabitants of the area, who were encountered by French and English explorers, were the historic Shawnee tribe.
Scholars believe that the Fort Ancient society, like the Mississippian cultures to the south and west, may have been disrupted by waves of infectious disease epidemics from the first Spanish explorers in the mid-16th century. After 1525 at the Madisonville Site, the type site for the Madisonville Phase, dwellings were built on a smaller scale and in fewer number; this change indicated the culture was less attached to a sedentary life. Scholars believe that similarities in material culture, art and Shawnee oral history link the historic tribe to the Fort Ancient people; the Fort Ancient culture can be divided into Early, Middle & Late Phases. It is not believed that they merged into a singular society until close to the end of the Middle Phase. At this time, Fort Ancients were poor sedentary societies, they lived. The locals farmed corn, beans & sunflower-- the last of which being a plant
Arledge Mounds I and II
The Arledge Mounds are a pair of Native American mounds in the south central part of the U. S. state of Ohio. Located near Circleville in Pickaway County, the two mounds lie in the middle of a farm field, far from any roads; these two mounds are disparate in size: while the smaller mound's height is 5 feet, the other's is 20 feet, their diameters are 65 feet and 120 feet respectively. Most unusual is the proximity of the mounds to each other — while many groups of mounds are known in Ohio, they are not connected at the base as these two mounds are. Although these mounds have not been excavated, archaeologists have proposed that they were built by the Adena culture, who are known to have built the McMurray Mounds; as undisturbed works of the Adena or some other mound building culture, the Arledge Mounds are a valuable archaeological site. In recognition of this fact, they were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. In 2006 the site was donated to The Archaeological Conservancy and renamed the Adams Archaeological Preserve.
List of burial mounds in the United States
Adena Mound, the type site for the Adena culture of prehistoric mound builders, is a registered historic structure, on the grounds of the Adena Mansion for which it is named, near Chillicothe, was listed in the National Register on June 5, 1975. Graves/Burials Adena culture Media related to Adena Mound at Wikimedia Commons
Portsmouth is a city in and the county seat of Scioto County, United States. Located in southern Ohio 41 miles south of Chillicothe, it lies on the north bank of the Ohio River, across from Kentucky, just east of the mouth of the Scioto River; the population was 20,226 at the 2010 census. According to early 20th-century historian Charles Augustus Hanna, a Shawnee village was founded at the site of modern-day Portsmouth in late 1758, following the destruction of Lower Shawneetown by floods. European-Americans began to settle in the 1790s after the American Revolutionary War, the small town of Alexandria was founded. Located at the confluence, Alexandria was flooded numerous times by the Scioto rivers. In 1803, Henry Massie found a better location east and somewhat removed from the flood plains, he began to plot the new city by distributing the land. Portsmouth was founded in 1803 and was established as a city in 1815, it was designated as the county seat. Settlers left Alexandria, it soon disappeared.
The Ohio state legislature passed "Black Laws" in 1804 that restricted movement of free blacks and required persons to carry papers, in an effort to dissuade blacks from settling in the state. These provisions were intermittently enforced by local governments and law enforcement, sometimes used as an excuse to force African Americans out of settlements. In 1831, Portsmouth drove out African Americans from the city under this pretext. Many settled several miles north in what became known along the Scioto River, its residents Joseph Love and Dan Lucas, provided aid to refugee slaves in the following years and assisted them in moving north. Although southern Ohio was dominated in number by anti-abolitionist settlers from the South, some whites worked to improve conditions for blacks and aid refugee slaves. Portsmouth became important in the antebellum years as part of the Underground Railroad. Fugitive slaves from Kentucky and other parts of the South crossed the Ohio River here; some found their future in Portsmouth.
Many continued into Canada to secure their freedom. A historical marker near the Grant Bridge commemorates this period of Portsmouth's history. James Ashley of Portsmouth pursued a political career. After being elected to Congress, he wrote the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery in 1865 after the American Civil War. Portsmouth developed an industrial base due to its location at the confluence of the Ohio and Scioto rivers. Early industrial growth included having meat packing and shipping facilities for Thomas Worthington's Chillicothe farm, located north of Portsmouth on the Scioto River; the city's growth was stimulated by completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal in the 1820s and 1830s, which provided access to the Great Lakes, opening up northern markets. But the construction of the Norfolk and Western railyards beginning in 1838 and the completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad junction at the city in the late 1850s surpassed the canal in stimulating growth; the railroads soon carried more freight than the canal, with the B&O connecting the city to the Baltimore and Washington, DC markets.
By the end of the 19th century, Portsmouth became one of the most important industrial cities on the Ohio River between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, Ohio. The city's growth continued. By 1916, during World War I, Portsmouth was listed as being a major industrial and jobbing center, the fourth-largest shoe manufacturing center in the country, the largest manufacturer of fire and paving bricks in the United States. Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel employed over one thousand people. There were 100 other manufacturing companies producing goods from furniture to engines; such industrial and shipping growth benefited Boneyfiddle, where grand buildings were constructed with the wealth from the commerce. As time passed, much of the commerce began to move toward Chillicothe Street, which has continued as the main thoroughfare of Portsmouth. While Boneyfiddle is receiving new life, it is a shadow of its former self; the city population peaked at just over 42,000 in 1930. In 1931, the Norfolk Southern Corporation built a grand, art deco passenger station in Portsmouth, that provided a substantial entry to the city.
It was located at Findlay streets. Passengers used the station for access to both interstate and intrastate train lines, which provided basic transportation for many; the widespread availability of affordable automobiles and changing patterns resulted in reduction in rail passenger traffic here and nationally. The station was used for offices and its keys were turned over to Scioto County in 2003, the building was demolished in 2004. Suburbanization affected the city. By the 1950 census, the population had begun to decline, falling below 40,000; some of this change was due to the effects of highway construction, which stimulated suburban residential development in the postwar years. But during the late 20th century, foreign competition and industrial restructuring resulted in the loss of most of the industrial jobs on which Portsmouth's economy had been based. Further decline occurred in 1980, following the suspension of operations at Empire Detroit Steel's Portsmouth Works, which took place after the sale of the steel plant to Armco Steel.
Armco Steel closed the plant because they did not want to replace the obsolete, Open Hearth Furnaces with the more efficient basic oxygen steel furnaces. The plant ne
The Biggs Site known as the Portsmouth Earthworks Group C, is an Adena culture archaeological site located near South Shore in Greenup County, Kentucky. Group C was a large series of concentric circular embankments and ditches surrounding a central conical burial mound, it was part of a larger complex, the Portsmouth Earthworks located across the Ohio River, now obliterated by agriculture and the developing city of Portsmouth, Ohio. The site was surveyed and mapped by E. G. Squier in 1847 for inclusion in the seminal archaeological and anthrolopological work Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. Hardin Village Site Lower Shawneetown Thompson Site
Scioto County, Ohio
Scioto County is a county located along the Ohio River in the south central region of the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 79,499, its county seat is Portsmouth. The county was founded March 24, 1803 from Adams County and is named for an Indian word referring to deer or deer-hunting. Scioto County comprises OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located at the confluence of the Ohio rivers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 616 square miles, of which 610 square miles is land and 5.9 square miles is water. Many parts of Scioto County are forested in the western half of the county with Shawnee State Park. Pike County Jackson County Lawrence County Greenup County, Kentucky Lewis County, Kentucky Adams County Wayne National Forest Shawnee State Forest and Park, the state's largest with over 88,000 acres, covers most of western Scioto County, Brush Creek State Park touches part of northwestern Scioto County; the county has numerous parks and recreational areas in each of its townships, including Earl Thomas Conley Park on U.
S. 52 west of Portsmouth. Public lands in the county include the Wayne National Forest on the Ironton Ranger District; the 241,000-acre forest encompasses 12,000 acres in three townships in Scioto County. Within the city limits of Portsmouth, there are fourteen parks for the residents and for community use; these parks include Alexandria Park, Allard Park, Bannon Park, Branch Rickey Park, Buckeye Park, Cyndee Secrest Park, Dr. Hartlage Park, Labold Park, Larry Hisle Park, Mound Park, York Park, Spartan Stadium, Tracy Park, Weghorst Park; as of the census of 2000, there were 79,195 people, 30,871 households, 21,362 families residing in the county. The population density was 129 people per square mile. There were 34,054 housing units at an average density of 56 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.88% White, 2.73% Black or African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. 0.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 30,871 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.30% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,008, the median income for a family was $34,691. Males had a median income of $32,063 versus $21,562 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,408. About 15.20% of families and 19.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.40% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 79,499 people, 30,870 households, 20,911 families residing in the county. The population density was 130.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 34,142 housing units at an average density of 56.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.4% white, 2.7% black or African American, 0.5% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.9% were German, 15.0% were Irish, 12.1% were American, 10.1% were English. Of the 30,870 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families, 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 38.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,812 and the median income for a family was $44,122.
Males had a median income of $40,876 versus $29,675 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,778. About 16.4% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.4% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. Portsmouth is the county seat for Scioto County, it was constructed in 1936 during the Great Depression as a public works project. The county jail, once located in the courthouse, is now located in a new facility at the site of the former Norfolk and Western rail depot, near U. S. 23. It was constructed in 2006. Scioto County is the site of the state's Southern Ohio Correctional Facility, located in Lucasville; the facility is Ohio's only maximum security prison and is the site of Ohio's death house, where death row inmates are executed. The county maintenance garag