The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. Originally organized as the United States National Museum, that ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Virginia, more than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates. The Institutions thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge and its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institutions endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford, Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1,1836.
The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest, Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithsons rather vague mandate for the increase, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842, in 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation, in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research. The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, the Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. The Smithsonian Institution Building began construction in 1849, designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contract Gilbert Cameron and the building opened in 1855.
The Smithsonians first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881, Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonians Department of Living Animals and this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. More than 40 years would pass before the museum, the Museum of History. It was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building on October 7,1968. The first new building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
A custom house or customs house was a building housing the offices for the government officials who processed the paperwork associated with importing and exporting goods into and out of a country. Customs officials collected customs duty on imported goods, the custom house was typically located in a seaport or in a city on a major river, with access to the ocean. These cities acted as a port of entry into a country, the government stationed officials at such locations to collect taxes and regulate commerce. Due to advances in information systems, the increased volume of international trade, and the introduction of air travel. There are many examples of buildings around the world that were used as custom houses but have since been converted for other uses. In the United Kingdom, since 1386, the custom house has been in use over the term customs house. This was after a Custom House was erected at Wool Wharf in Tower Ward, to contain just the officials of the Great Custom on Wool, the singular form was, used even though in years the Custom House was the location of other Customs officials as well
David S. Terry
David Smith Terry was a California jurist and Democratic politician, who was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California, and the primary author of the Constitution of 1879. He won a duel with U. S, senator David C. Broderick in Brodericks second duel in 1859. He died in 1889, after being shot by a bodyguard of U. S. Justice Stephen J. Field, Terry was born in Todd County, Kentucky. In 1831, his family moved and settled in Brazoria County, from 1855 to 1859 he was a California State Supreme Court Justice, serving as the 4th Chief Justice of California from 1857. In 1856, the State of California declared San Francisco to be in a state of insurrection, a prominent incident in Terrys life came about when he took up the cause of the Widow Sanchez. After kidnapping Roach with the help of a gunslinger named Anastacio Garcia. But Roach had bribed a guard to ride to Monterey and urge Roachs family to hide the gold, the treasure was hidden somewhere in Carmel Valley by Roachs brother-in-law, Jerry MacMahon.
MacMahon was killed in a barroom brawl before he could reveal the location of the money, with no more gold left to the widow, Terry lost interest in her case. Terry was a friend of Democratic U. S. Senator from California David Broderick, he accused Broderick, a Free Soil advocate, Terry issued inflammatory comments at a state convention in Sacramento, which offended Broderick. On September 13,1859, Terry and Broderick, having agreed to a duel, Terry won the coin toss to select weapons, and chose pistols that had hair triggers. Brodericks discharged early, leaving him open for Terrys shot, at first Terry thought that he had only wounded Broderick, but the senator died three days later. Although Terry was acquitted of murder he left the state and he fought during the American Civil War, serving in the 8th Texas Cavalry Regiment of the Confederate States Army. This unit was raised by his brother Benjamin Franklin Terry and was known as Terrys Texas Rangers. David Terry became Colonel of the 37th Texas Cavalry Regiment and was wounded at the Battle of Chickamauga and he came back to California in 1868 after the war was over, and while a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, his Progressive plan was adopted.
Terry became entangled in a divorce case in the 1880s. A young woman named Sarah Althea Hill claimed that she was the wife of silver millionaire William Sharon. Sharon denied that they had married, but Hill wanted a divorce
John B. Montgomery
John Berrien Montgomery was an officer in the United States Navy who served during the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. Montgomery was born in Allentown, New Jersey, in 1815 he served in Decaturs squadron in the war with Algiers, was made a lieutenant in 1818, and commander in 1839. His commands included the sloop-of-war Portsmouth in 1844, and the steam frigate Roanoke in 1857 and he served as Commandant of the Boston Navy Yard from June 1862 to December 1863, and of the Washington Navy Yard in 1865. During the Mexican-American War, in early June 1846, Montgomery and the ship he commanded, the USS Portsmouth, arrived in San Francisco Bay, part of Mexican Alta California. As a result, Montgomery was involved, albeit as a witness only, in the events of the Bear Flag Revolt in which foreign residents, mostly American, revolted against the Mexican authorities. As a naval representative of the U. S. Government, he was deferred to by representatives of the Revolt, by representatives of the Alta California government, on June 16,1846, Montgomery sent a mission to Sonoma to investigate the conditions there, following the Revolt.
On July 9,1846, Montgomery and his detachment from the Portsmouth raised the American flag over the plaza in the town of Yerba Buena, the name of the plaza was changed to Portsmouth Square, commemorating Montgomerys ship. At his direction, Lt. Joseph W. Revere lowered the Bear Flag flying at Sonoma, north of San Francisco Bay, the lowered Bear Flag ended up in Montgomerys possession and, in 1848, he delivered it to Naval authorities in Boston. Ultimately, in 1855, the flag was returned to California, in other action of the Mexican-American War, Montgomery blockaded Mazatlan for some months, with the assistance of Captain Lavalette in the Congress, captured Guaymas. He was made a captain in 1853, in 1859, Montgomery commanded the Pacific Squadron until relieved on January 2,1862. Montgomery died at Carlisle, Pennsylvania in March 1872 and his remains were interred at Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington, D. C. Montgomery Street, a street in downtown San Francisco, is named for him. Rogers, Fred Blackburn and the Portsmouth, photo of Admiral Montgomery John B
The Chinese zodiac is a classification scheme that assigns an animal and its reputed attributes to each year in a repeating 12-year cycle. The 12-year cycle is an approximation to the 11. 86-year orbital period of Jupiter, there are major differences, the Chinese 12-part cycle corresponds to years, rather than months. The Chinese zodiac is represented by 12 animals, whereas some of the signs in the Western zodiac are not animals, the animals of the Chinese zodiac are not associated with constellations spanned by the ecliptic plane. The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the Rat, the following are the twelve zodiac signs in order and their characteristics. It is a misconception that the animals assigned by year are the only signs. In fact, there are animal signs assigned by month, by day, while a person might appear to be a Dragon because they were born in the year of the Dragon, they might be a Snake internally, an Ox truly, and a Goat secretively. A conflict between a persons zodiac sign and how they live is known as tai sui or kai sui, within the Four Pillars, the year is the pillar representing information about the persons family background and society or relationship with their grandparents.
The persons age can be deduced from the sign of the person, the current sign of the year. For example, a person who is a Tiger is either 12,24,36 or 48 years old in 2010, in 2011, the year of the Rabbit, that person is one year older. The following table shows the 60-year cycle matched up to the Western calendar for the years 1924–2043, the sexagenary cycle begins at lichun about February 4 according to some astrological sources. Within the Four Pillars, the month is the pillar representing information about the parents or childhood. Many Chinese astrologers consider the month pillar to be the most important one in determining the circumstances of ones adult life, the 12 animals are linked to traditional Chinese agricultural calendar, which runs alongside the better known lunar calendar. Instead of months, this calendar is divided into 24 two week segments known as Solar Terms, each animal is linked to two of these solar terms for a period similar to the Western month. Again unlike the cycle of the years, which begins with the Rat.
Around summer days are longer than days, because it occurs differences of perihelion and aphelion. As each sign is linked to a month of the solar year, each of the elements is linked to a season, and the element that shares a season with a sign is known as that signs fixed element. In other words, that element is believed to some of its characteristics to the sign concerned. The fixed element of each sign applies to the year and hour signs and it is important to note that the fixed element is separate from the cycle of elements which interact with the signs in the 60-year cycle
Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Often, additives are included in the mixture to improve the properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, famous concrete structures include the Hoover Dam, the Panama Canal, and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of technology were the ancient Romans. The Colosseum in Rome was built largely of concrete, and the dome of the Pantheon is the worlds largest unreinforced concrete dome.
Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century, concrete is the most widely used man-made material. The word concrete comes from the Latin word concretus, the passive participle of concrescere, from con-. Perhaps the earliest known occurrence of cement was twelve years ago. A deposit of cement was formed after an occurrence of oil shale located adjacent to a bed of limestone burned due to natural causes and these ancient deposits were investigated in the 1960s and 1970s. On a human timescale, small usages of concrete go back for thousands of years and they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC. They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of houses, concrete floors. The cisterns were kept secret and were one of the reasons the Nabataea were able to thrive in the desert, some of these structures survive to this day.
In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, it was re-discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater, the Romans knew that adding horse hair made concrete less liable to crack while it hardened, and adding blood made it more frost-resistant. Crystallization of strätlingite and the introduction of pyroclastic clays creates further fracture resistance, german archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates roughly to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC, the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, it is one of the two character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the Peoples Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy and they are officially used in the Peoples Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters, Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially. Strictly, the latter refers to simplifications of character structure or body, character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, Simplified character forms were created by decreasing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of traditional Chinese characters.
Some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms, some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character. Finally, many characters were left untouched by simplification, and are identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies. Some simplified characters are very dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters and this often leads opponents not well-versed in the method of simplification to conclude that the overall process of character simplification is arbitrary. In reality, the methods and rules of simplification are few, on the other hand, proponents of simplification often flaunt a few choice simplified characters as ingenious inventions, when in fact these have existed for hundreds of years as ancient variants.
However, the Chinese government never officially dropped its goal of further simplification in the future, in August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters. The new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was promulgated by the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China on June 5,2013, cursive written text almost always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print have always existed, they date back to as early as the Qin dynasty, One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lubi Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China, Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or completely abolished.
Fu Sinian, a leader of the May Fourth Movement, called Chinese characters the writing of ox-demons, lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, If Chinese characters are not destroyed, China will die. Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the problems in China during that time
A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there. While a playground is designed for children, some target other age groups. Berlins Preußenpark for example is designed for people aged 70 or higher, a playground might exclude children below a certain age. Common in modern playgrounds are play structures that many different pieces of equipment. Playgrounds often have facilities for playing games of adult sports, such as a baseball diamond, a skating arena. In some parts of the United States, the term tot lot may be used, a type of playground called a playscape is designed to provide a safe environment for play in a natural setting. Through history, children played in their villages and neighbourhoods, especially in the streets, in the 19th century, developmental psychologists such as Friedrich Fröbel proposed playgrounds as a developmental aid, or to imbue children with a sense of fair play and good manners. In Germany, a few playgrounds were erected in connection to schools, the Outdoor Recreation League provided funds to erect playgrounds on parkland, especially following the 1901 publication of a report on numbers of children being run down by cars in New York City.
Interventionist programs such as by the child savers sought to move children into controlled areas to limit delinquency, one of the first playgrounds in the United States was built in San Franciscos Golden Gate Park in 1887. In 1906 the Playground Association of America was founded and a year Luther Gulick became president and it became the National Recreation Association and the National Recreation and Park Association. Neither do small back yards nor ornamental grass plots meet the needs of any, older children who would play vigorous games must have places especially set aside for them, since play is a fundamental need, playgrounds should be provided for every child as much as schools. This means that they must be distributed over the cities in such a way as to be walking distance of every boy and girl. Playgrounds were a part of urban culture in the USSR. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were playgrounds in almost every park in many Soviet cities, Playground apparatus was reasonably standard all over the country, most of them consisted of metallic bars with relatively few wooden parts, and were manufactured in state-owned factories.
Some of the most common constructions were the carousel, seesaw, bridge, Playground design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience. Separate play areas might be offered to accommodate very young children, large, open parks tend to not to be used by older schoolgirls or less aggressive children, because there is little opportunity for them to escape more aggressive children. By contrast, a park that offers multiple play areas is used equally by boys, professionals recognize that the social skills that children develop on the playground often become lifelong skill sets that are carried forward into their adulthood. Independent research concludes that playgrounds are among the most important environments for children outside the home, most forms of play are essential for healthy development, but free, spontaneous play—the kind that occurs on playgrounds—is the most beneficial type of play
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio