The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U. S. state of California. The bay is south of the cities of San Francisco. The county-seat city of Santa Cruz is located at the end of the bay. The city of Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end, the Monterey Bay Area is a local colloquialism sometimes used to describe the whole of the Central Coast communities of Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. The first European to discover Monterey Bay was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo on November 16,1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition. He named the bay Bahía de los Pinos, probably because of the forest of pine trees first encountered while rounding the peninsula at the end of the bay. Cabrillos name for the bay was lost, but the westernmost point of the peninsula is known as Point Pinos. On December 10,1595, Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeño crossed the bay, the present name for the bay was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, who had been tasked by the Spanish government to complete a detailed chart of the coast.
He anchored in what is now the Monterey harbor on December 16, Monterrey is an alternate spelling of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain from which the viceroy and his father originated. All other place names in the vicinity containing Monterey were so named because of their proximity to the bay and this includes the Presidio of Monterey, City of Monterey, County of Monterey and Monterey Canyon. The Monterey Canyon, one of the largest underwater canyons in the world, begins off the coast of Moss Landing, killer whales are found along the coast, especially when Gray whales migrate, as they hunt the whales during their migration north. Many species of fish, mollusks such as abalone and squid, several varieties of kelp grow in the bay, some becoming as tall as trees, forming what is known as a kelp forest. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area and Asilomar State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas in Monterey Bay, like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems.
Clockwise around the bay, generally north to south
Monterey Bay Aquarium
The Monterey Bay Aquarium is a non-profit public aquarium located in Monterey, United States. The aquarium was founded in 1984 and is located on the site of a sardine cannery on Cannery Row. It has an attendance of around two million visitors. It holds thousands of plants and animals, representing more than 600 species on display, the aquarium benefits from a high circulation of fresh ocean water which is obtained through pipes which pump it in continuously from Monterey Bay. The centerpiece of the Oceans Edge Wing, is a 28-foot-high,333, in this exhibit, the aquarium was the first in the world to grow live California Giant Kelp. Visitors are able to inspect the creatures of the kelp forest at several levels in the building, the largest exhibit in the aquarium is a 1,200, 000-U. S. -gallon the Open Sea exhibit, which features one of the worlds largest single-paned windows. It is one of the few aquariums to successfully care for the ocean sunfish in captivity, Sea life on exhibit includes stingrays, sea otters, sea horses, and numerous other native marine species, which can be viewed above and below the waterline.
The Monterey Bay Aquarium is one of few in the world to exhibit both bluefin and yellowfin tuna. For displaying jellyfish, it uses a Kreisel tank, which creates a flow to support. The aquarium does not house mammals other than sea otters that were rescued through its Sea Otter Program, there had been a number of attempts to build an aquarium in the Monterey area dating back almost 100 years. In 1914 an aquarium was proposed to the city council by Frank Booth with a cost of $10,000. A bond issue was sponsored in an attempt to place an aquarium in the basement of the Pacific Grove Museum by Knut Hovden in 1925 and in 1944 an aquarium is suggested for Point Lobos State Reserve. This building was dismantled in 1980, but beginning in 2002 the Monterey Bay Aquarium has blown the original Hovden Cannery steam whistle at each day to commemorate it. The aquariums original building was designed by the architectural firm Esherick Homsey Dodge & Davis, the aquariums mission is to inspire conservation of the oceans.
The aquariums initial financial backing was provided by David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, Packard, an avid blacksmith, personally designed and created several exhibit elements for the aquarium at his forge in Big Sur, including the wave machines in the Kelp Forest and aviary. His daughter, marine biologist Julie Packard, is currently Executive Director of the aquarium, whose life was an inspiration for the eventual building of the aquarium, is famous as the Doc of John Steinbecks Cannery Row and Sweet Thursday. The aquarium itself contains a display of Ricketts items, including some of his personal library, the shop sells a variety of Steinbeck books. The basic design of the aquarium pumps 7,570 litres of seawater from the Monterey Bay per minute and night, during the day the water is filtered for viewing clarity
Marine protected area
Marine protected areas are protected areas of seas, estuaries or large lakes. MPAs restrict human activity for a purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. Such marine resources are protected by local, territorial, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations. This variation includes different limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits and bans on removing or disrupting marine life. In some situations, MPAs provide revenue for countries, potentially equal to the income that they would have if they were to grant companies permissions to fish.55 million km2 in the Ross Sea. MPA is a term for protected areas that includes some area of marine landscape and/or biodiversity. Several types of compliant MPA can be distinguished, A totally marine area with no significant terrestrial parts, an area containing both marine and terrestrial components, which can vary between two extremes, those that are predominantly maritime with little land, or that is mostly terrestrial.
Marine ecosystems that contain land and intertidal components only, for example, a mangrove forest would contain no open sea or ocean marine environment, but its river-like marine ecosystem nevertheless complies with the definition. IUCN offered seven categories of protected area, based on management objectives, related protected area categories include the following, World Heritage Site – an area exhibiting extensive natural or cultural history. Maritime areas are represented, with only 46 out of over 800 sites. Man and the Biosphere – UNESCO program that promotes a relationship between humans and the biosphere. Under article 4, biosphere reserves must encompass a mosaic of ecological systems, in structure they are similar to Multiple-use MPAs, with a core area ringed by different degrees of protection. Ramsar site – must meet criteria for the definition of Wetland to become part of a global system. These sites do not necessarily receive protection, but are indexed by importance for recommendation to an agency that could designate it a protected area.
While area refers to a single location, terms such as network, system. At the 2004 Convention on Biological Diversity, the agreed to use network on a global level. The network is a mechanism to establish regional and local systems, no take zones, are areas designated in a number of the worlds MPAs, where all forms of exploitation are prohibited and severely limits human activities. These no take zones can cover an entire MPA, or specific portions, for example, the 1,150,000 square kilometres Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, the worlds largest MPA, is a 100% no take zone
California Department of Fish and Wildlife
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife, formerly known as the California Department of Fish and Game, is a state agency under the California Natural Resources Agency. The Department of Fish and Wildlife manages and protects the fish, plant. It is responsible for related recreational, scientific, and it works to prevent illegal poaching. The Game Act was passed in 1852 by the California State Legislature, the Game Act closed seasons in 12 counties for quail, partridge and wood ducks, elk and antelope. A second legislative action enacted the same year protected salmon runs, in 1854, the Legislature extended the act to include all counties of California. In 1860, protection controls were extended for trout, Lake Merritt was made the first game refuge of California in 1869, believed to be the first in the United States. In 1870, the Legislature, with the support of Governor Henry Huntly Haight, the Board stipulated that fish ladders were now required at state dams. The Board outlawed explosives or other substances, and created a $500 fine for violations.
In 1870, the first fish ladder in the state was built on a tributary of the Truckee River, over the next 30 years, the Board of Fish Commissioners were given authority over game in the state as well as establishing hunting and fishing licenses. In 1909, the Board of Fish Commissioners changed its name to the Fish, the Division of Fish and Game was established in 1927, set up within the Department of Natural Resources. In 1951, the Reorganization Act elevated the Division of Fish and Game to the Department of Fish, California Fish and Game collaborated with the indigenous Native American Tribes to ensure their proper fishing rights. The Yurok tribe has collaborated with them as recently as 2011, the Department helped figure out the official count of fish killed in the 2002 Fish Kill on the Klamath River. The Klamath river is important to the tribes that live along that river. By 2012, California was one of only 13 states still using Game in the title of their wildlife agency, the State Legislature changed the Departments name to Fish and Wildlife on January 1,2013.
The legislation followed recommendations of a 51-member stakeholder advisory group,18 other states use the term wildlife, while the others generally use natural resources or conservation, in the titles of their Departments. This change reflects the trend toward expansion of the Agencies missions from sport fishing and hunting alone, to protection of non-game wildlife, in June 2015, the CDFW phased out lead ammunition for hunting on state land in order to keep lead out of backcountry ecosystems. The Department of Fish and Wildlife divides the State of California into seven management regions whose boundaries mostly correspond to county borders, northern Region, Del Norte, Lassen, Modoc, Siskiyou and Trinity counties. North Central Region, Amador, Calaveras, Colusa, El Dorado, Lake, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Sutter and Yuba counties