Belém, whose name is derived from the Portuguese word for Bethlehem, is the southwesternmost civil parish of the municipality of Lisbon. Until 2012, the area of Belém had its own historic parish, named Santa Maria de Belém. In 2012, the Administrative Reform of Lisbon resulted in the merging of the latter and the parish of São Francisco Xavier, thus creating the new parish of Belém. Located at the mouth of the River Tagus, it is located 6 kilometres west of the city centre and 2 kilometres west of the Ponte 25 de Abril. Many of Portugal's distinctive buildings and landmarks are located in this area, including the Jerónimos Monastery and the Tower of Belém; the population in 2011 was 16,528, in an area of 10.43 km2. Archaeological evidence discovered along the margins of the Tagus indicates that human occupation in the area of Belém dates to the Paleolithic era. With the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal by Afonso III, royal surveys, or inquirições gerais, were made at his command to inspect titles of lands claimed by the nobility and clergy, determined that the population around Lisbon was dispersed throughout the lowlands, which were suitable for agriculture.
Belém was connected to the neighbouring city by a bridge at Alcântara. Belém's proximity to the River Tagus encouraged the development of commercial activities in the small village of Aldeia do Restelo, which attracted mariners and other seafarers seeking safe anchorage and protection from the winds when they entered the river. In the 14th century, Moors settled on and cultivated the surrounding lands, providing the city with produce. Meanwhile, settlement in Restelo grew towards Lisbon, it was "to give religious and spiritual support" to the villagers that Henry the Navigator, as governor in the military-religious Order of Christ, initiated construction near the fishing port of a small church dedicated to Saint Mary. Henry ordered the construction of a fountain and water trough in 1460 to provide drinking water for the people and their animals; the foundation of the church and the Jerónimos Monastery by Manuel I around 1459 on the site of the older church resulted in its transfer from the Order of Christ to the Hieronymite monks, at the same time in its being renamed Santa Maria de Belém.
The existing structure was started on the orders of Manuel I at the courts of Montemor-o-Velho in 1495, as a final resting-place for members of the House of Aviz, in his belief that an Iberian dynastic kingdom would rule after his death. In 1496, King Manuel petitioned the Holy See for permission to construct a monastery at the entrance of the Tagus, it was after the arrival of Vasco da Gama a year with samples of gold he had discovered that the monastery became a symbol of Portuguese expansionism. The church became a house of prayer for seamen entering the port. With the restoration of Portuguese independence in 1640, the monastery regained much of its former importance, becoming the burial place for the royal pantheon. On 29 September 1855, the body of King Afonso VI was transported to the royal pantheon of the House of Braganza in the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, along with his three brothers and sister. During the reign of Peter II, in 1682, the bodies of King Sebastian and Cardinal Henrique were buried in the transept chapels.
The same monarch ordered construction of "a tower of four storeys" on a basaltic outcropping of rocks in the Tagus near its north bank, using some of the stones being collected to build the Monastery of Santa Maria de Belém. This was the foundation of the bastion of the Belém Tower. After completion of these two construction projects, a number of manorss in the surrounding countryside were established by the nobility; as the population continued to grow, the demographics of the suburb changed sufficiently that Friar Nicolau de Oliveira indicated in 1620 that it was within the city limits. New convents appeared in the area, between 1551 and 1591 the civil parish of Ajuda was created, consisting of a vast territory with clerics installed in the Monastery of Belém; the Belém district became popular after King John V acquired estates and properties in the area to develop defenses for Lisbon. Carvalho da Costa noted in his Corografia Portuguesa that "...immediately in front of Junqueira is the locality of Belém, so healthy and appreciable that the naturals and visitors want to live there, those who for want of comfort can not live are continually competing for that site.
In it there are houses, noble estates, nobles of the first order in the Kingdom. In 1770, during the reign of Joseph I, the ecclesiastical parish of São Pedro de Alcântara, including the territory east of the Alcântra River, was established, thus deannexing it from Ajuda; the barrio of Belém was constituted with its own judicial and administrative authority, included the ecclesiastical parish of Ajuda, part of Alcântra and Santa Isabel, as well as the parishes of Benfica, Belas and Carnaxide. Belém and Ajuda were the areas around Lisbon suffering the least destruction in the great Lisbon earthquake and the following tsunami on 1 November 1755. Many of the survivors who lost their homes were installed in numerous tents and sha
National Coach Museum
The National Coach Museum is located on the Afonso de Albuquerque Square in the Belém district of Lisbon in Portugal. The museum has one of the finest collections of historical carriages in the world and is one of the most visited museums of the city; the museum is housed in the Royal Riding Hall of Belém, the former home of the Portuguese School of Equestrian Art. It is part of the larger Belém Palace complex a Royal Palace, now the official residence of the President of Portugal; the Horse Riding Area was built after 1787 following the Neoclassical design of Italian architect Giacomo Azzolini. Several Portuguese artists decorated the interior of the building with paintings and tile panels; the inner arena is 50 m long and 17 m wide, was used for training horses and for horse riding exhibitions and games, which could be watched from its balconies by the Portuguese royal family. The museum was created in 1905 by Queen Amélia to house an extensive collection of carriages belonging to the Portuguese royal family and nobility.
The collection gives a full picture of the development of carriages from the late 16th through the 19th centuries, with carriages made in Italy, France, Spain and England. Among its rarest items is a late 16th/early 17th-century travelling coach used by King Philip II of Portugal to come from Spain to Portugal in 1619. There are several pompous Baroque 18th century carriages decorated with paintings and exuberant gilt woodwork, the most impressive of these being a ceremonial coach given by Pope Clement XI to King John V in 1715, the three coaches of the Portuguese embassador to Pope Clement XI, built in Rome in 1716. A section of the museum is located in Southern Portugal. Media related to Museu Nacional dos Coches at Wikimedia Commons The National Coach Museum on Google Arts & Culture "Paulo Mendes da Rocha / Museu Nacional dos Coches" by Gonçalo M. Tavares, Ana Vaz Milheiro and João Carmo Simões, Lisbon: Monade, 2015
Museu de Arte Popular
The Museu de Arte Popular is a museum in Lisbon, Portugal. It was designed by Veloso Reis and João Simões for the Portuguese World Exhibition's popular life pavilion in 1940, after the exhibition was refurbished and in 1948. Official Museu de Arte Popular website—
Tejo Power Station is a cultural centre that presents the evolution of energy with a Museum of Science and Industrial Archaeology concept, where themed and experimental exhibits live side by side with a great variety of cultural events. Located in the Belém area on terrain Lisbon usurped from the Tagus river at the end of the 19th century, in one of the city's areas with the greatest concentration of historical monuments where one can find, among others, the Jerónimos Monastery, the Belém Cultural Centre, the Tower of Belém, the Padrão dos Descobrimentos, the Portuguese Presidential Palace and Museum, the Coach Museum or the Cordoaria Nacional. A building classified as a Public Interest Project, the Electricity Museum unfolds along the perimeter of the old thermoelectric plant – the Tejo Power Station, which illuminated the city of Lisbon for more than four decades, it opened as a museum in 1990. Ten years the Electricity Museum's buildings and equipment underwent a period of rehabilitation, to reopen in 2006 renovated and with a new discourse and museum proposals.
Today, by virtue of its multidisciplinary nature, visitors can enjoy several events. Tejo Power Station is a part of the heritage and structure of the EDP Foundation, which belongs to the EDP Group – Energias de Portugal, SA. In 2015 EDP announced that from 2016 the museum will form part of Museum of Art and Technology; the entire complex that makes up the Tejo Power Station constitutes an old thermoelectric plant that supplied power to Lisbon and its surrounding area. The building is unique amidst Lisbon's architectural setting, is one of the most beautiful examples of Portuguese industrial architecture from the first half of the 20th century. Tejo Power Station was built between 1908 and 1951, thereby undergoing several stages of expansion throughout this period, its structure follows the western type of architecture of iron covered with brick, which shapes and decorates the facades in artistic styles that range from arte-nouveau, in its older sections, to classicism in the more contemporary parts.
With the station's expansion, additional adjoining terrain and buildings were acquired over the years, becoming the great industrial complex it is today, with various cultural functions, always with the Tagus River, its namesake, in the backdrop. Due to its state of conservation, the Museum underwent restoration work between 2001 and 2005 to consolidate its structure, renew its facades and interior machinery and, with a new museum project, transform it into what it is today. In October 2015 EDP announced that London-based architectural practice AL_A formed by Amanda Levete is designing a Kunsthalle sitting alongside the existing museum, to host a wide-ranging programme of exhibitions under the leadership of Pedro Gadahno; the new building was set to open in 2016 as MAAT - Arquitetura e Tecnologia. It all begins at the Praça do Carvão, the reception space a venue for exhibits and events. In this same square, visitors can observe the sieve, the silos and the bucket elevators that mixed and carried the coal to the building's upper section and the High-Pressure boilers.
Entry into the industrial complex is made through the Sala de Exposições, the building that used to house the Low-Pressure boilers. From here one accesses the Sala das Caldeiras, the building containing the old High-Pressure boilers. Having been musealised, boiler number 15 stands out, thereby enabling visitors to enter it and discover its structure and internal components. Aside from the boilers, this large space tells the story of the construction of the Tejo Power Station and gives a first approach to the difficult working conditions endured by its workers; the Sala dos Cinzeiros is located on the bottom floor, the area where ash from the burned and raw coal was collected. Particular emphasis is given to the hard working conditions in this space, due to the intense heat and breathing in of ash from the coal burning, but the museum content does not end here, examples of forging and transport, as well as the origins and types of coal, are presented. Continuing on the visit, one reaches the Sala do Experimentar, divided into three sections: one dedicated to energy sources, another to the scientists who over history contributed to breakthroughs in electric power production, a third “learning by playing” area where there are several types of educational modules and games dealing with power.
This is a space for fun and learning, showed at the end of a guided tour so that all may use their energy and acquired knowledge. After experimentation, the Sala da Água is next. In this an
Cultural Centre of Belém
The Cultural Centre of Belém, located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém, is the largest building with cultural facilities in Portugal. The CCB's 140,000 m² spaces was built to accommodate the European Presidency, but adapted to provide spaces for conferences and artistic venues, in addition to political and research congresses, high security meeting halls, a 7,000 m² exhibition area; the decision to construct the Cultural Centre of Belém occurred in January 1988, as part of the Portuguese government's need to construct a building to welcome and accommodate the people involved in Portugal's European Union Presidency. The facility would serve as a core facility for cultural and leisure activities after its term, serve as a venue for conferences and exhibitions. An international architectural competition was held and six proposals were invited to submit a preliminary project, out of the 57 submissions; the final proposal, submitted by the architectural consortium of Vittorio Gregotti and Atelier Risco at the time led by Manuel Salgado, was designed to include five modules: a Conference Centre, a Performing Arts Centre, an Exhibition Centre and complementary equipment zone, but only the Conference Centre, the Performing Arts Centre and the Exhibition Centre were constructed.
Starting in July 1989, the buildings along the waterfront were demolished and many of the infrastructures were reestablished. By January 1992, modules 1, 2 and 3 were completed and ready to accommodate the institutions, communication centre and security of the European Union Presidency. A year the Conference Centre and small auditorium and the Exhibition Centre were opened to the public. By fall of the same year, the main auditorium was inaugurated; the building is located in Santa Maria de Belém, near the riverfront west of Lisbon, between the dual Avenida da Índia-Avenida de Brasília motorway and Rua Bartolomeu Dias. Apart from fronting the Praça do Império, it juxtapositions the Jerónimos Monastery, is surrounded by many historical buildings, such as the Palace and the Tower of Belém, the Museum of Archaeology, the Planetarium, the Monument to the Discoveries; the Belém Cultural Centre has 140,000 m² of construction area and was prepared in a short period. The client of the project was the Portuguese State through the Secretaria de Estado da Cultura.
Completed in 1992, it occupies a total of 100,000 m² and is the work of architects Vittorio Gregotti and Manuel Salgado. Its designed, aligned with the Jerónimos' Monastery, intentionally fronts the Império Square, consists of structural blocks with courtyards and "patio-squares" that interconnect the three principal structures; each centre is separated by transversal "streets", that link the building's interiors which are extensions of the city of Lisbon's historical urban structure. The centrality of the main building extends the urban fabric to the interior creating a public space; this architectural style can best be interpreted by Santana and Matos who refer to as the "patios-squares" versus the "narrow streets" a conflicting dynamic structure. With sophisticated equipment and a wide variety of installed services, it has several areas with different roles: The Conference Centre, provides a close link with the most varied business and professional sectors; the Cultural Centre of Belém won the International Stone Architecture Award at the Verona Fair in 1993.
It has hosted important events like the summit meeting of the Heads of State of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. List of concert halls Notes SourcesFerreira, E..
Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million in an area of 2,395 km2, making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city. Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, its historical core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996; the western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto.
Its English name, evolved from a misinterpretation of the Portuguese pronunciation. Port wine, one of Portugal's most famous exports, is named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, in particular the cellars of Vila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging and export of fortified wine. In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency. Porto is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago; the history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas. During the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the city developed as an important commercial port in the trade between Olissipona and Bracara Augusta. Porto was important during the Suebian and Visigothic times, a centre for the expansion of Christianity during that period. Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.
In 868, Vímara Peres, an Asturian count from Gallaecia, a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure the lands back into Christian hands. This included the area from the Minho to the Douro River: the settlement of Portus Cale and the area, known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the modern name of Portugal. In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering the region north of Douro. In 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; the Portuguese-English alliance is the world's oldest recorded military alliance. In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. From the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco; this expedition by the king and his fleet, which counted among others, Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
The nickname given to the people of Porto began in those days. Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto; the production of port wine gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley, he demarcated the region for production of port. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm; the revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos. Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual icon: the Torre dos Clérigos. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became an important industrial centre and had its size and population increase.
The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the population fled from the advancing French troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas, the bridge collapsed under the weight; this event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I; the French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the Douro River from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar in a brilliant daylight coup de main, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the Fr
Portuguese colonial exhibition
The Portuguese colonial exhibition was a world's fair held in Porto, Portugal in 1934 to display achievements of Portugal's colonies in Africa and Asia. Portugal's director of'Colonial Show Fairs' Henrique Galvão who had represented Portugal at the Paris Colonial Exposition in 1931 was made the technical director for this exhibition, it was decided to re-use the Palácio de Cristal, constructed for an earlier exhibition in Porto. Exhibits came from Portugal itself, Cape Verde, India, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, Timor. There were reproductions of villages from different colonies and of the Padrãos of Dighton and Yellala, along with a zoo, restaurants a theatre, a cinema which showed'The Dawn Patrol and an amusement park, it ran from 16 June to 30 Septemberand by the time it had closed there had been 1.5 million visitors.'Portugal is Not a Small Country' map used to show how big Portuguese colonies were