Peneda-Gerês National Park
The Peneda-Gerês National Park known as Gerês, is the only national park in Portugal. It is located in the Norte region, in the northwest of Portugal in the districts of Viana do Castelo and Vila Real; the park was created on 8 May 1971 due to its national and international scientific interest, with the aim to protect the soil, flora and landscape, while preserving its value to the existent human and natural resources. Education and tourism are goals of the park; because the Gerês mountains are an inhospitable place, the oldest signs of human presence date only from 6000 BC to 3000 BC. Human activities consisted of animal husbandry and incipient agriculture, archaeological evidence points to the beginning of decrease in forest cover; the Roman Geira, a Roman road, crosses the region, which connected the Roman civitates of Asturgia and Braccara Augusta. Long stretches of the road, along the Homem River are still preserved, along with several Roman bridges and numerous millenarium markers; the Germanic tribe of the Buri accompanied the Suebi in their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and establishment in Gallaecia.
The Buri settled in the region between the Cávado and Homem Rivers, in the area known as Terras de Bouro. The move from the terraced cliffs and slopes to the lowland river valleys brought-on a patterned of new deforestation; the reoccupation of mountain areas started in the 12th century, intensifying in the 16th century with the introduction of maize and potatoes from the Americas. Agricultural fields occupied former pastures, these were displaced to more elevated areas resulting in a mosaic of fields and forests; the reforestation of uncultivated lands, imposed by the government in 1935, reduced the available pastures, contributed to a rural exodus that continued after the 1950s. Yet it was still common practice for the residents of mountain communities to spend part of the year in two locations near Castro Laboreiro. From about Easter to about Christmas, residents would live in homes over 1,000 m above sea level, known as branda. In the remaining part of the year, these inhabitants would occupy homes in the river valley, known as inverneira.
In 1970, the village of Vilarinho das Furnas was flooded by the Vilarinho das Furnas dam on the Homem River. During years with low rainfall, the village ruins stands above the water, attracting thousands of tourists; the creation of the national park envisioned a planning area of mountainous spaces, in order to conserve the environment, while permitting human and natural resource activities, which would include educational and scientific projects. At heart is the conservation of soils, water and fauna, in addition to the preservation of landscapes within the vast mountainous region in the northwest of Portugal. In 1997, Peneda-Gerês was included in the Natura 2000 network, in 1999, designated a Special Protection Area for Wild Birds. Moreover, it encompasses an important area of natural forest, which forms part of the European Network of Biogenetic Reserves, is recognized as a national park by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In 2007, it was accepted in the PAN Parks network that certifies the quality protected areas, according to rigorous criteria of nature conservation, cultural services and sustainability.
The Peneda-Gerês National Park is located in the northwest of Portugal, extending through the municipalities of Melgaço, Arcos de Valdevez and Ponte da Barca, Terras de Bouro, Montalegre. The park includes an area of 702.90 km2, of which 52.75 km2 are public lands, 194.38 km2 are private property and the remaining 455.77 km2 are commons. The park is a vast amphitheatre-shaped space sculpted during the Variscan orogeny by geological forces and water, extends from the Castro Laboreiro to the Mourela plateaus, encompassing the Serra da Peneda, Serra do Soajo, Serra Amarela and the Serra do Gerês; these form a barrier between the plateaus in the east. The highest peaks are Peneda, Amarelo, Gerês and Altar dos Cabrões located on the border with Galicia, continuing into this territory as part of the Serra do Xurés; the granitic rocks that dominate this shield were deposited during the process of continental collision that brought together the lower Iberian peninsula with Europe, between 380 million and 275 million years.
The most extensive of the granitic rocks that occur within the park are the Peneda-Gerês pluton, an exposed relief that became exposed around 290-296 Ma by the Gerês-Lovios fault. Sedimentary layers laid down between 435 and 408 Ma were deformed and metamorphosed into schists and quartzites. Dykes and sills formed from quartz and aplite-pegmatites were mineralized resulting in tin, tungsten and gold; the lithological structures can be divided into three layers: Gerês granite structures - includes Gerês, Carris and Tieiras, and
The Bovidae are the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, wildebeest, gazelles, goats and domestic cattle. A member of this family is called a bovid. With 143 extant species and 300 known extinct species, the family Bovidae consists of eight major subfamilies apart from the disputed Peleinae and Pantholopinae; the family evolved 20 million years ago, in the early Miocene. The bovids show great variation in pelage colouration. Excepting some domesticated forms, all male bovids have two or more horns, in many species females possess horns, too; the size and shape of the horns vary but the basic structure is always one or more pairs of simple bony protrusions without branches having a spiral, twisted or fluted form, each covered in a permanent sheath of keratin. Most bovids bear 30 to 32 teeth. Most bovids are diurnal. Social activity and feeding peak during dawn and dusk. Bovids rest before dawn, during midday, after dark, they have various methods of social organisation and social behaviour, which are classified into solitary and gregarious behaviour.
Bovids use different forms of vocal and tangible communication. Most species alternately ruminate throughout the day. While small bovids forage in dense and closed habitat, larger species feed on high-fiber vegetation in open grasslands. Most bovids are polygynous. Mature bovids mate at least once a year and smaller species may mate twice. In some species, neonate bovids remain hidden for a week to two months nursed by their mothers; the greatest diversities of bovids occur in Africa. The maximum concentration of species is in the savannas of eastern Africa. Other bovid species occur in Europe and North America. Bovidae includes three of the five domesticated mammals whose use has spread outside their original ranges, namely cattle and goats. Dairy products such as milk and cheese are manufactured from domestic cattle. Bovids provide leather and wool; the name "Bovidae" was given by the British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1821. The word "Bovidae" is the combination of the prefix bov- and the suffix -idae.
The family Bovidae is placed in the order Artiodactyla. It includes 143 extant species, accounting for nearly 55% of the ungulates, 300 known extinct species. Molecular studies have supported monophyly in the family Bovidae; the number of subfamilies in Bovidae is disputed, with suggestions of as many as ten and as few as two subfamilies. However, molecular and fossil evidence indicates the existence of eight distinct subfamilies: Aepycerotinae, Antilopinae, Caprinae, Cephalophinae and Reduncinae. In addition, three extinct subfamilies are known: Hypsodontinae and the subfamily Tethytraginae, which contains Tethytragus. In 1992, Alan W. Gentry of the Natural History Museum, London divided the eight major subfamilies of Bovidae into two major clades on the basis of their evolutionary history: the Boodontia, which comprised only the Bovinae, the Aegodontia, which consisted of the rest of the subfamilies. Boodonts have somewhat primitive teeth, resembling those of oxen, whereas aegodonts have more advanced teeth like those of goats.
A controversy exists about the recognition of Peleinae and Patholopinae, comprising the genera Pelea and Pantholops as subfamilies. In 2000, American biologist George Schaller and palaeontologist Elisabeth Vrba suggested the inclusion of Pelea in Reduncinae, though the grey rhebok, the sole species of Pelea, is different from kobs and reduncines in morphology. Pantholops, earlier classified in the Antilopinae, was placed in its own subfamily, Pantholopinae; however and morphological analysis supports the inclusion of Pantholops in Caprinae. Below is a cladogram based on Gatesy et Gentry et al.. In the early Miocene, bovids giraffids; the earliest bovids, whose presence in Africa and Eurasia in the latter part of early Miocene has been ascertained, were small animals, somewhat similar to modern gazelles, lived in woodland environments. Eotragus, the earliest known bovid, weighed 18 kg and was nearly the same in size as the Thompson's gazelle. Early in their evolutionary history, the bovids split into two main clades: Boodontia and Aegodontia.
This early split between Boodontia and Aegodontia has been attributed to the continental divide between these land masses. When these continents were rejoined, this barrier was removed, either group expanded into the territory of the other; the tribes Bovini and Tragelaphini diverged in the early Miocene. Bovids are known to have reached the Americas in the Pleistocene by crossing the Bering land bridge; the present genera of Alcelaphinae appeared in the Pliocene. The extinct Alcelaphine genus Paramularius, the same in size as the hartebeest, is believed to have come into being in the Pliocene, but became extinct in the middle Pleistocene. Several genera of Hippotraginae are known
Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
The subfamily Caprinae is part of the ruminant family Bovidae, consists of medium-sized bovids. A member of this subfamily is called a caprine. A member is sometimes referred to as a goat-antelope, this term "goat-antelope" does not mean that these animals are true antelopes: a true antelope is a bovid with a cervid-like or antilocaprid-like morphology. Within this subfamily Caprinae, a prominent tribe, includes sheep and goats; some earlier taxonomies considered Caprinae a separate family called Capridae, but now it is considered a subfamily within the family Bovidae, whence a caprine is a kind of bovid. Although most goat-antelopes are gregarious and have stocky builds, they diverge in many other ways – the muskox is adapted to the extreme cold of the tundra; the European mouflon is thought to be the ancestor of the modern domestic sheep. Many species have become extinct since the last ice age largely because of human interaction. Of the survivors: Five are classified as endangered, Eight as vulnerable, Seven as of concern and needing conservation measures, but at lower risk, Seven species are secure.
Members of the group vary in size, from just over 1 m long for a full-grown grey goral, to 2.5 m long for a musk ox, from under 30 kg to more than 350 kg. Musk oxen in captivity have reached over 650 kg; the lifestyles of caprids fall into two broad classes:'resource-defenders', which are territorial and defend a small, food-rich area against other members of the same species. The resource-defenders are the more primitive group: they tend to be smaller in size, dark in colour and females alike, have long, tassellated ears, long manes, dagger-shaped horns; the grazers evolved more recently. They tend to be larger social, rather than mark territory with scent glands, they have evolved dominance behaviours. No sharp line divides the groups, but a continuum varies from the serows at one end of the spectrum to sheep, true goats, musk oxen at the other; the goat-antelope, or caprid, group is known from as early as the Miocene, when members of the group resembled the modern serow in their general body form.
The group did not reach its greatest diversity until the recent ice ages, when many of its members became specialised for marginal extreme, environments: mountains and the subarctic region. The ancestors of the modern sheep and goats are thought to have moved into mountainous regions – sheep becoming specialised occupants of the foothills and nearby plains, relying on flight and flocking for defence against predators, goats adapting to steep terrain where predators are at a disadvantage. FAMILY BOVIDAE Subfamily Caprinae Tribe Ovibovini Genus Budorcas Takin, Budorcas taxicolor Genus Ovibos Muskox, Ovibos moschatus Tribe Caprini Genus Ammotragus Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia Genus Arabitragus Arabian tahr, Arabitragus jayakari Genus Capra West Caucasian tur, Capra caucasica East Caucasian tur, Capra caucasica cylindricornis Markhor, Capra falconeri Wild goat, Capra aegagrus Domestic goat, Capra aegagrus hircus Alpine ibex, Capra ibex Nubian ibex, Capra nubiana Spanish ibex, Capra pyrenaica Siberian ibex, Capra sibirica Walia ibex, Capra walie Genus Hemitragus Himalayan tahr, Hemitragus jemlahicus Genus Ovis Argali, Ovis ammon Domestic sheep, Ovis aries Bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis Dall or thinhorn sheep, Ovis dalli European mouflon, Ovis musimon Marco Polo sheep, Ovis polii Snow sheep, Ovis nivicola Wild sheep, Ovis orientalis Mouflon, Ovis orientalis orientalis Urial, Ovis orientalis vignei Genus Nilgiritragus Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiritragus hylocrius Genus Pseudois Bharal, Pseudois nayaur Dwarf blue sheep, Pseudois schaeferi Tribe Naemorhedini Genus Capricornis Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus Sumatran serow, Capricornis sumatraensis Taiwan serow, Capricornis swinhoei Chinese serow, Capricornis milneedwardsii Red serow, Capricornis rubidus Himalayan serow Capricornis thar Genus Nemorhaedus Red goral, Nemorhaedus baileyi Chinese goral, Nemorhaedus griseus Grey goral, Nemorhaedus goral Long-tailed goral, Naemorhedus caudatus Genus Oreamnos Mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus Genus Rupicapra Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica Alpine chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra The following extinct genera of Caprinae have been identified: Tribe Ovibovini Genus Bootherium † Bootherium bombifrons † Genus Euceratherium † Euceratherium collinum † Genus Makapania † Makapania broomi † Genus Soergelia † Soergelia mayfieldi † Genus Tsaidamotherium † Tsaidamotherium brevirostrum † Tsaidamotherium hedini † Tribe Caprini Genus Myotragus † Myotragus balearicus †Unsorted
An avalanche is an event that occurs when a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow fractures and slides down a steep slope. Avalanches are triggered in a starting zone from a mechanical failure in the snowpack when the forces of the snow exceed its strength but sometimes only with gradual widening. After initiation, avalanches accelerate and grow in mass and volume as they entrain more snow. If the avalanche moves fast enough, some of the snow may mix with the air forming a powder snow avalanche, a type of gravity current. Slides of rocks or debris, behaving in a similar way to snow, are referred to as avalanches; the remainder of this article refers to snow avalanches. The load on the snowpack may be only due to gravity, in which case failure may result either from weakening in the snowpack or increased load due to precipitation. Avalanches initiated by this process are known as spontaneous avalanches. Avalanches can be triggered by other loading conditions such as human or biologically related activities.
Seismic activity may trigger the failure in the snowpack and avalanches. Although composed of flowing snow and air, large avalanches have the capability to entrain ice, rocks and other surficial material. However, they are distinct from slushflows which have higher water content and more laminar flow, mudslides which have greater fluidity, rock slides which are ice free, serac collapses during an icefall. Avalanches are not rare or random events and are endemic to any mountain range that accumulates a standing snowpack. Avalanches are most common during winter or spring but glacier movements may cause ice and snow avalanches at any time of year. In mountainous terrain, avalanches are among the most serious objective natural hazards to life and property, with their destructive capability resulting from their potential to carry enormous masses of snow at high speeds. There is no universally accepted classification system for different forms of avalanches. Avalanches can be described by their size, their destructive potential, their initiation mechanism, their composition and their dynamics.
Most avalanches occur spontaneously during storms under increased load due to snowfall. The second largest cause of natural avalanches is metamorphic changes in the snowpack such as melting due to solar radiation. Other natural causes include rain, earthquakes and icefall. Artificial triggers of avalanches include skiers and controlled explosive work. Contrary to popular belief, avalanches are not triggered by loud sound. Avalanche initiation can start at a point with only a small amount of snow moving initially. However, if the snow has sintered into a stiff slab overlying a weak layer fractures can propagate rapidly, so that a large volume of snow, that may be thousands of cubic meters, can start moving simultaneously. A snowpack will fail; the load is straightforward. However, the strength of the snowpack is much more difficult to determine and is heterogeneous, it varies in detail with properties of the snow grains, density, temperature, water content. These properties may all metamorphose in time according to the local humidity, water vapour flux and heat flux.
The top of the snowpack is extensively influenced by incoming radiation and the local air flow. One of the aims of avalanche research is to develop and validate computer models that can describe the evolution of the seasonal snowpack over time. A complicating factor is the complex interaction of terrain and weather, which causes significant spatial and temporal variability of the depths, crystal forms, layering of the seasonal snowpack. Slab avalanches form in snow, deposited, or redeposited by wind, they have the characteristic appearance of a block of snow cut out from its surroundings by fractures. Elements of slab avalanches include the following: a crown fracture at the top of the start zone, flank fractures on the sides of the start zones, a fracture at the bottom called the stauchwall; the crown and flank fractures are vertical walls in the snow delineating the snow, entrained in the avalanche from the snow that remained on the slope. Slabs can vary in thickness from a few centimetres to three metres.
Slab avalanches account for around 90% of avalanche-related fatalities in backcountry users. The largest avalanches form turbulent suspension currents known as powder snow avalanches or mixed avalanches; these consist of a powder cloud. They can form from any type of snow or initiation mechanism, but occur with fresh dry powder, they can exceed speeds of 300 kilometres per hour, masses of 10000000 tonnes. In contrast to powder snow avalanches, wet snow avalanches are a low velocity suspension of snow and water, with the flow confined to the track surface; the low speed of travel is due to the friction between the sliding surface of the track and the water saturated flow. Despite the low speed of travel, wet snow avalanches are capable of generating powerful destructive forces, due to the large mass and density; the body of the flow of a wet snow avalanche can plough through soft snow, can scour boulders, earth and other vegetation.
The even-toed ungulates are ungulates - hoofed animals - which bear weight on two of the five toes: their third and fourth toes. The other three toes are either present, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates bear weight on one of the five toes: the third toe. Another difference between the two is that even-toed ungulates digest plant cellulose in one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as the odd-toed ungulates do; the aquatic cetaceans evolved from even-toed ungulates, so modern taxonomic classification sometimes combines the Artiodactyla and Cetacea into the Cetartiodactyla. The 220 land-based even-toed ungulate species include pigs, hippopotamuses, llamas, mouse deer, giraffes, sheep and cattle. Many of these are of great dietary and cultural importance to humans; the oldest fossils of even-toed ungulates date back to the early Eocene. Since these findings simultaneously appeared in Europe and North America, it is difficult to determine the origin of artiodactyls.
The fossils are classified as belonging to the family Dichobunidae. These were small animals, some as small as a hare, with a slim build, lanky legs, a long tail, their hind legs were much longer than their front legs. The early to middle Eocene saw the emergence of the ancestors of most of today's mammals. Two widespread, but now extinct, families of even-toed ungulates were Enteledontidae and Anthracotheriidae. Entelodonts existed from the middle Eocene to the early Miocene in North America, they had a stocky body with short legs and a massive head, characterized by two humps on the lower jaw bone. Anthracotheres had a large, porcine build, with an elongated muzzle; this group appeared in the middle Eocene up until the Pliocene, spread throughout Eurasia and North America. Anthracothereres are thought to be the ancestors of hippos, probably led a similar aquatic lifestyle. Hippopotamuses appeared in the late Miocene and occupied Africa and Asia – they never got to the Americas; the camels were, during large parts of the Cenozoic, limited to North America.
Among the North American camels were groups like the short-legged Merycoidodontidae. They first developed a great diversity of species in North America. Only in the late Miocene or early Pliocene did they migrate from North America into Eurasia; the North American varieties became extinct around 10,000 years ago. Suina have been around since the Eocene. In the late Eocene or the Oligocene, two families stayed in Africa. South America was settled by even-toed ungulates only in the Pliocene, after the land bridge at the Isthmus of Panama formed some three million years ago. With only the peccaries and various species of capreoline deer, South America has comparatively fewer artiodactyl families than other continents, except Australia, which has no native species; the classification of artiodactyls was hotly debated because the ocean-dwelling cetaceans evolved from the land-dwelling even-toed ungulates. Some semiaquatic even-toed ungulates are more related to the ocean-dwelling cetaceans than to the other even-toed ungulates.
This makes the Artiodactyla as traditionally defined a paraphyletic taxon, since it includes animals descended from a common ancestor, but does not include all of its descendants. Phylogenetic classification only recognizes monophyletic taxa. To address this problem, the traditional order Artiodactyla and infraorder Cetacea are sometimes subsumed into the more inclusive Cetartiodactyla taxon. An alternative approach is to include both land-dwelling even-toed ungulates and ocean-dwelling cetaceans in a revised Artiodactyla taxon. Order Artiodactyla/Clade CetartiodactylaSuborder Tylopoda Family †Anoplotheriidae? Family †Cainotheriidae Family †Merycoidodontidae Family †Agriochoeridae Family Camelidae: camels and lamoids or llamas Family †Oromerycidae Family †Xiphodontidae Clade Artiofabula Suborder Suina Family Suidae: pigs Family Tayassuidae: peccaries Family †Sanitheriidae Clade Cetruminantia Clade CetancodontamorphaGenus †Andrewsarchus? Family †Entelodontidae Suborder Whippomorpha Family †Raoellidae Superfamily Dichobunoidea – paraphyletic to Cetacea and Raoellidae Family †Dichobunidae Family †Helohyidae Family †Choeropotamidae Family †Cebochoeridae Family †Mixtotheriidae Infraorder Ancodonta Family †Anthracotheriidae – paraphyletic to Hippopotamidae Family Hippopotamidae: hippos Infraorder Cetacea: whales Parvorder †Archaeoceti Family †Pakicetidae Family †Ambulocetidae Family †Remingtonocetidae Family †Basilosauridae Parvorder Mysticeti: baleen whales Superfamily Balaenoidea: right whales Family Balaenidae: greater right whales Family Cetotheriidae: pygmy right whale Superfamily Balaenopteroidea: large baleen whales Family Balaenopteridae: slender-back rorquals and humpback whale Family Eschrichtiidae: gray whale Parvorder Odontoceti: toothed whales Superfamily Delphinoidea: oceanic dolphins and others Family Delphinidae: oceanic t
Province of León
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. About one quarter of its population of 463,746 lives in León; the climate is cold in winter and hot in summer. This creates the perfect environment for wine and all types of cold meats and sausages like the leonese “Morcilla” and the “Cecina”. There are two famous Roman Catholic cathedrals in the province, the main one in León and another in Astorga; the province shares the Picos de Europa National Park with Asturias. It has 211 municipalities; the province of León was established in 1833 with the new Spanish administrative organisation of regions and provinces to replace former kingdoms. The Leonese Region was composed of the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora; until 1833, the independently administered Kingdom of León, situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula, retained the status of a kingdom, although dynastic union had brought it into the Crown of Castile. The Kingdom of León was founded in 910 A.
D. when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their main seat from Oviedo to the city of León. The Atlantic provinces became the Kingdom of Portugal in 1139; the eastern, inland part of the kingdom was joined dynastically to the Kingdom of Castile first in 1037–1065, again 1077–1109 and 1126–1157, 1230–1296 and from 1301 onward. León retained the status of a kingdom until 1833, being composed by Adelantamientos Mayores, where Leonese Adelantamiento consisted of the territories between the Picos de Europa and the Duero River. According to UNESCO, in 1188 the Kingdom of León developed the first Parliament in Europe. In 1202 its parliament approved economic legislation to regulate trade and guilds; the Leonese language is recognized by the Statute of León. The Provincial Government of León signed accords with language associations for promoting Leonese. Leonese is taught in León city, Mansilla de las Mulas, La Bañeza, Valencia de Don Juan or Ponferrada for adult people, in sixteen schools of León city.
The City Council of León writes some of its announcements in Leonese in order to promote the language. In the western part of the El Bierzo, the westernmost region of the province, Galician language is spoken and taught at schools, it is officially recognized by the Statute of Castile and León. Embutidos Cecina de León: from beef. In the Leonese language, cecina means "meat, salted and dried by means of air, sun or smoke". Cecina de León is made of the hind legs of beef, salted and air-dried in the province of León, has PGI status. Botillo: from pig. Traditionally made in the western Leonese regions, botiellu in Leonese or botelo in Galician, is a dish of meat-stuffed pork intestine, it is a culinary specialty of the county of El Bierzo and of the region of Trás-os-Montes in Portugal. This type of embutido is a meat product made from different pieces left over from the butchering of a pig, including the ribs and bones with a little meat left on them; these are chopped. It can include the pig's tongue, shoulder blade and backbone, but never exceeding 20% of the total volume.
It is consumed cooked, covered with a sheet. It has a PGI status. Cheese Queso de Valdeón: a blue cheese produced in Posada de Valdeon, traditionally wrapped in chestnut or sycamore maple leaves before being sent to market. Wines Bierzo: in the west of the Province of León and covers about 3,000 km²; the area consists of a wide, flat plain. The Denominación de Origen covers 23 municipalities. Tierra de León: in the southeast of the Province of León. Sweets Mantecadas de Astorga Hojaldres de Astorga Lazos de San Guillermo Nicanores de Boñar List of municipalities in León El Bierzo Maragatería Tierra de Campos La Montaña La Ribera La Cabrera Tierras de La Bañeza Tierras de León Kingdom of León Leonese language Montes de León Cave of Valporquero The Official Tourism Website of the Province of Leon Leonese Provincial Government Leonese City Council