A Portuguese name is composed of one or two given names, a number of family names. The first additional names are the mother's family surname and the father's family surname. For practicality only the last surname is used in formal greetings; the Portuguese naming system is quite flexible. Portuguese law establishes the need for a child to have at least one given name and one last name from one of the parents; the law establishes the maximum number of names allowed: up to two given names and four surnames. This restriction is not enforced and it is not uncommon to have more than four surnames; the maternal surnames precede the paternal ones, but the opposite is possible. If the father is unknown, or he has not acknowledged the child, only the mother's family name is/are used. A child can receive surnames from their parents' ancestors if those surnames are not part of the parents' names, provided that the parents prove those names were used by their ancestors; some Portuguese family names are made of two words, most not hyphenated, but are not composite names, as they were not the result of combining two family names in past generations.
These include religious references, or other expressions. In this case both words must be cited, it is not uncommon in Portugal that a married woman has two given names and six surnames, two from her mother's family, two from her father's family, the last two coming from her husband. In addition, some of these names may be made of more than one word, so that a full feminine name can have more than 12 words. For instance, the name "Maria do Carmo Mão de Ferro e Cunha de Almeida Santa Rita Santos Abreu" would not be surprising in a married woman. Mão de Ferro and Santa Rita count only as one surname each. In this case, Santos Abreu would have come from this woman's husband. In Portugal, the custom of giving a child four last names is becoming popular, since this way a child can have each of their grandparents' last names. In Portugal and Brazil, some people view this as a sign of snobbery, since it used to be the noble families who had a large number of given names. For instance, the Emperor Pedro I of Brazil had the full name of Pedro de Alcântara Francisco Antônio João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bourbon e Bragança, his son, the Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, had the full name of Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga de Habsburgo-Lorena e Bragança.
For the sake of simplicity, most Portuguese people use only two surnames. For example, if José Santos Almeida and Maria Abreu Melo had a daughter, her name could be Joana Melo Almeida. However, they could give her two given names, for example Joana Gabriela, combine their surnames in various ways, such has Joana Gabriela Melo Almeida, Joana Gabriela Abreu Melo Almeida, Joana Gabriela Abreu Santos Almeida, or Joana Gabriela Abreu Melo Santos Almeida, it would be possible to use surnames that are not part of either parent's legal name, but which the parents would be entitled to use, i.e. a surname from a grandparent or a great-grandparent, not transmitted to the father or the mother. This child would become known by her final surname, Joana Almeida. However, her parents could decide to change the order of surnames and name her Joana Almeida Melo, etc. In this case she would be known as Joana Melo. In Portugal, having only one surname is rare, it happens when both the parents have the same last name, to avoid repetitive combinations such as António Santos Santos.
In Brazil, having only one surname is common in areas with large communities of non-Portuguese immigrants. Portuguese names have a standard spelling, since names are considered as regular nouns, are thus subject to the orthographical rules of the Portuguese language; the spelling of many names has evolved with orthography reforms. The Acordo Ortográfico, valid in Brazil and Portugal, states on Section XI: Os nomes próprios personativos, locativos e de qualquer natureza, sendo portugueses ou aportuguesados, serão sujeitos às mesmas regras estabelecidas para os nomes comuns.. In Portugal, given names have a standard spelling, considered the norm and the rules are enforced by law. The'Instituto dos Registos e do Notariado', under the jurisdiction of the Portuguese Republic, has rules about given names. There is a defined list of allowed names. However, older people who were registered with archaic forms have continued to use them. Regarding
Ned Haig was a butcher and rugby union player notable for founding the sport of rugby sevens. He moved to Melrose. There he took up rugby and joined Melrose Rugby Football Club in 1880. In 1883 Haig suggested hosting a sports tournament to help raise money for the Melrose RFC and came up with the idea of playing with seven rather than 15 a side and reducing the match length to 15 minutes. Haig was born in Jedburgh, he was employed at a butcher's shop. After participating in the traditional annual Fastern's E'en Ba game, he became interested in the similar game of rugby union, joining the local Melrose RFC side in 1880 playing for the seconds before making the first team and playing for South of Scotland. In 1883, with the club short of funds, Haig suggested hosting a tournament as part of a sports day to raise money; as it would not be possible to play several rugby games in one afternoon with a full squad of 15, teams for the tournament were reduced to seven men, with the match time reduced to 15 minutes.
The inaugural Melrose Sports took place on 28 April 1883, included foot races, drop-kicks, dribbling races and place kicking as well as the main attraction of the rugby tournament, which attracted eight teams. Haig played on the Melrose team, which defeated local rivals Gala in the final, receiving a cup donated by the ladies of Melrose; the immediate success of the tournament meant that other clubs in the Borders region set up their own rugby sevens competitions. After Haig retired from competition, he continued to take an active part in the running of the club, serving for several seasons on the General and Match committee, he died in Melrose on 28 March 1939. In 2008, Haig and Melrose RFC were honoured for their role in the creation of rugby sevens with induction to the IRB Hall of Fame; the following inscription can be found on Haig's gravestone in Melrose: Edward'Ned' Haig Born Jedburgh 7th December, 1858 Died Melrose 29th March 1939 Erected by the Border Rugby Clubs in memory of the originator of seven-a-side Rugby.
Melrose Sevens Melrose Rugby Club Rugby World Cup Sevens, whose trophy is known as the Melrose Cup World Rugby Sevens Series Jones, J. R. Encyclopedia of Rugby Union Football "One Man and His Game". Melrose7s.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007. Gordon, Alex. "The first Melrose Sevens match 1883". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 7 June 2007. "Sevens-ology". Edinburgh7s.com. Retrieved 7 June 2007
Dentistry in the Philippines can be divided into five periods of dental practice. Using the timeline of Philippine history as a template, they are: the Pre-Spanish era, the Spanish era, the American era, the Japanese-occupation era and the independent Philippine-Republics era; the practice of extracting teeth has been practiced in the Philippines before the islands became a colony of Spain. Among the early Filipino to act as "dental practitioners" and "curers of toothaches" were barbers, their crude and "queer methods" pulling out teeth from patients involved the use of fingers and nail-pliers. During the Spanish regime in the Philippines, dentistry was not recognized as a profession. There were no royal decrees and laws from the Spanish government to govern and guide the practice of dentists. A professional regulating body was non-existent to oversee the field of dental practice during that time period. At the time, dentists were known as sacamuelas. Any person of the time period who were skillful in pulling teeth could become a sacamuela.
The first dentist in Spanish Philippines to open a dental clinic to practice true dentistry was José "Capitan Cheng-cheng" Arevalo. Arevalo was the first Filipino dentist. Arevalo was assisted by his wife, skilled in "gold craftsmanship". Arevalo's clinic was in Manila. Arevalo became a partner of Monsiuer M. Fertri, a dentist from France, who opened another dental clinic in Quiapo, Manila in 1858, after residing in Hong Kong. Fertri needed Arevalo's expertise as a prosthetist; the development of dentistry as a profession started when the University of Santo Tomas offered a special course with a basic curriculum to train cirujano ministrantes. Their name was changed to cirujano dentistas. During the American administration of the Philippines and licensing of dentists were introduced in the islands. Major General Elwell Otis, the Military Governor of the Philippines at the time, instructed the US Provost Marshal General to assess the skills of the dentists who practicing their craft in the islands.
On August 2, 1899, the US Provost Marshal General established the Board of Dental Examiners. Examinations were held and licenses to practice were issued. In 1903, Act No. 593 known as "The Act of Regulating the Practice of Dentistry in the Philippine Islands" was passed to regulate the practice of dentistry in the Philippines. Through this Act, the Board of Dental Examiners was reorganized on January 10, 1903; the members of the Board of Dental Examiners were appointed by the Commissioner of Public Health after obtaining approval from the Board of Health of the Philippine Islands. The members were two Americans and one Filipino, with Oliver as the chairman while Skidmore as the secretary treasurer; some Filipinos who practiced dentistry in the Philippines at the time were graduates of schools of dentistry in the United States. Among them were Dr. Gregorio R. Mateo, Dr. Francisco Ponce, Dr. Placido Flores and Dr. Joaquin A. Lada; the Sociedad dental de Filipinas, an organization of dentists in the Philippines founded in February 1908, initiated the establishment of dental schools in the Philippines and vied for the improvement of the profession in the islands.
It was located in the corner of Soda Streets. The first school of dentistry in the Philippines -The year 1913 marked the beginning of the De Ocampo Memorial College, it was named Philippine Dental College- the first Dental College recognized by the Philippine government and authorized to confer the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery in March 25, 1916 and Doctor of Dental Medicine in December 19, 1932. The Colegio Dental del Liceo de Manila - was founded in 1913 offering and granting degrees of Doctor of Dental Surgery and Doctor of Dental Medicine; the Colegio Dental del Liceo de Manila was renamed in 1914 as the Philippine Dental College. Afterwards, other universities and colleges opened their own schools of dentistry. Among them were the University of the Philippines in 1915, the National University in 1922, the Centro Escolar University in 1925, the Manila College of Dentistry in 1929; the teachers in these schools were US Army dental officers. Among them were Col. George G. Graham who taught periodontology, Major Harry Smalley who taught a course in prosthesis, Major Thomas Page who taught operative dentistry.
On February 5, 1915, the regulations concerning the holding of dental examinations and dental practice were amended by the Philippine Legislature through Act No. 2462. After the enactment of Act No. 2462, the appointment of the members of the Board of Dental Examiners were relegated to the Director of Health and is to be approved by the Secretary of the Interior. Act No. 2462 was further amended through Act No. 2602. The amendments in Act No. 2602 were related to the qualification and removal of the members of the Board of Dental Examiners and the qualifications of candidates for dental board licensure examinations. Further changes were made through Act No. 3680 and 3681, in relation to reciprocity and removal of age requirement for taking the dental licensure tests. In 1932, the Board of Dental Examiners was placed under the administration of the Department of Public Instruction upon the enactment of Public Act No. 4007. According to Dalanon and Matsuka, Southwestern Colleges in Cebu City, now known as Southwestern University PHINMA was the first dental school outside