John IV of Portugal
John IV, nicknamed John the Restorer, was the King of Portugal whose reign, lasting from 1640 until his death, led to the Portuguese "restoration" of independence from Spanish rule. His accession established the house of Braganza on the Portuguese throne, marked the end of the 60-year-old Iberian Union, by which Portugal and Spain shared the same monarch. Before becoming king, he was John II, 8th Duke of Braganza, he was the grandson of Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, a claimant to the crown during the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580. On the eve of his death in 1656, the Portuguese Empire reached its territorial zenith, spanning the globe. John IV was born at Vila Viçosa and succeeded his father Teodósio II as Duke of Braganza when the latter died insane in 1630, he married Luisa de Guzmán, eldest daughter of Juan Manuel Pérez de Guzmán, 8th Duke of Medina Sidonia, in 1633. John had blue eyes and an average height; when Philip II of Portugal died, he was succeeded by his son Philip III, who had a different approach to Portuguese issues.
Taxes on the Portuguese merchants were raised, the Portuguese nobility began to lose its influence and government posts in Portugal were occupied by Spaniards. Philip III tried to make Portugal a Spanish province, meaning Portuguese nobles stood to lose all of their power; this situation culminated in a revolution organized by the nobility and the bourgeoisie, executed on 1 December 1640, fifty-nine years after the accession of Philip II of Spain to the throne of Portugal. A plot was planned by several associates, known as the Forty Conspirators, who killed the Secretary of State, Miguel de Vasconcelos, imprisoned the king's cousin, Margaret of Savoy, the Vicereine of Portugal, governing the country in the King's name. Philip's troops were at the time fighting the Thirty Years' War and dealing with a revolution in Catalonia which hampered Spain's ability to quash the rebellion. Within a matter of hours and with popular support, John the 8th Duke of Braganza, was acclaimed as King John IV of Portugal claiming legitimate succession through his grandmother Catherine, Duchess of Braganza.
The ensuing conflict with Spain brought Portugal into the Thirty Years' War as, at least, a peripheral player. From 1641 to 1668, the period during which the two nations were at war, Spain sought to isolate Portugal militarily and diplomatically, Portugal tried to find the resources to maintain its independence through political alliances and maintenance of its colonial income, his accession led to a protracted war with neighbouring Spain, a conflict known as the Portuguese Restoration War, which ended with the recognition of Portuguese independence in a subsequent reign. Portugal signed lengthy alliances with France and Sweden but by necessity its only contributions in the Thirty Years' War were in the field against Spain and against Dutch encroachments on the Portuguese colonies; the period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal and Spain, as well as short episodes of more serious warfare, much of it occasioned by Spanish and Portuguese entanglements with non-Iberian powers.
Spain was involved in the Thirty Years' War until 1648 and the Franco–Spanish War until 1659, while Portugal was involved in the Dutch–Portuguese War until 1663. In Spain, a Portuguese invasion force defeated the Spanish at Montijo, near Badajoz, in 1644. Abroad, the Dutch took Portuguese Malacca, the Sultan of Oman captured Muscat; the Portuguese, despite having to divide their forces among Europe and Africa, managed to retake Luanda, in Portuguese Angola, from the Dutch in 1648 and, by 1654, had recovered northern Brazil, which ceased to be a Dutch colony. This was countered by the loss of Portuguese Ceylon to the Dutch, who took Colombo in 1656. King John IV died in 1656 and was succeeded by his son Afonso VI, his daughter, Catherine of Braganza, married King Charles II of England. John was a patron of music and the arts, a sophisticated writer on music. During his reign he collected one of the largest libraries in the world, but it was destroyed in the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. Among his writings is a defense of Palestrina, a Defense of Modern Music.
One famous composition attributed to him is a setting of the Crux fidelis, a work that remains popular during Holy Week amongst church choirs. However, no known manuscript of the work exists, it was first published only in 1869, in France. On stylistic grounds, it is recognized that the work was written in the 19th century. 19 March 1604 – 29 November 1630: His Lordship Dom John of Braganza 29 November 1630 – 1 December 1640: His Excellency The Most Serene Duke of Braganza 1 December 1640 – 6 November 1656: His Majesty The KingJohn's full style as King of Portugal was: By the Grace of God, John IV, King of Portugal and the Algarves before and beyond the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia and India, etc. John married Luisa de Guzmán, daughter of Juan Manuel Pérez de Guzmán, 8th Duke of Medina-Sidonia. From that marriage several children were born; because some of John's children were born and died before their father became king they are not considered infantes or infantas of Portugal.
Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa. VII. Lisbon: Silviana. Free scores by John IV of Portugal in the Choral Public Domain Library (Chor
Afonso VI of Portugal
Afonso VI, known as "the Victorious", was the second King of Portugal of the House of Braganza from 1656 until his death. He was under the regency of his mother, Luisa of Medina-Sidonia, until 1662, when he removed her to a convent and took power with the help of his favourite, the Count of Castelo Melhor. Afonso's reign saw the end of the Restoration War and Spain's recognition of Portugal's independence, he negotiated a French alliance through his marriage. However, the king was mentally weak. In 1668, his brother Pedro conspired to have him declared incapable of ruling, took supreme de facto power as regent, although nominally Afonso was still sovereign. Queen Marie Françoise, Afonso's wife, subsequently married Pedro. Afonso spent the rest of his life and reign a prisoner. At the age of three, Afonso suffered an illness that left him paralyzed on the left side of his body leaving him mentally unstable, his father created. After the death of his eldest brother Teodósio, Prince of Brazil in 1653, Afonso became the heir apparent to the throne of the kingdom.
He received the crown-princely title 2nd Prince of Brazil. He succeeded his father in 1656 at the age of thirteen, his mother, Luisa of Medina-Sidonia, was named regent in his father's will. His mental instability and paralysis, plus his lack of interest in government, left his mother as regent for six years, until 1662. Afonso oversaw decisive military victories over the Spanish at Elvas and Montes Claros, culminating in the final Spanish recognition of sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza, on 13 February 1668 in the Treaty of Lisbon. Colonial affairs saw the Dutch conquest of Jaffnapatam, Portugal's last colony in Portuguese Ceylon and the cession of Bombay and Tangier to England as dowry for Afonso's sister, Catherine of Braganza, who had married King Charles II of England. English mediation in 1661 saw the Netherlands acknowledge Portuguese rule of Brazil in return for uncontested control of Ceylon. In 1662, the Count of Castelo Melhor saw an opportunity to gain power at court by befriending the king.
He managed to convince the king that his mother was out to steal his throne and exile her in Portugal. As a result, Afonso sent his mother to a convent. Afonso married Marie Françoise of Nemours, the daughter of the Duke of Savoy in 1666, but the marriage was short-lived. Marie Françoise, or Maria Francisca in Portuguese, filed for an annulment in 1667 based on the impotence of the king; the Church granted her the annulment, she married Afonso's brother, Duke of Beja. That same year, Pedro managed to gain enough support to force Afonso to relinquish control of the government to him, he became Prince Regent in 1668. While Pedro never formally usurped the throne, Afonso was king in name only for the rest of his life. For seven years after Pedro's coup, Afonso was kept on the island of Terceira in the Azores, his health broken by this captivity, he was permitted to return to the Portuguese mainland, but he remained powerless and kept under guard. At Sintra he died in 1683
5 October 1910 revolution
The 5 October 1910 revolution was the overthrow of the centuries-old Portuguese Monarchy and its replacement by the Portuguese Republic. It was the result of a coup d'état organized by the Portuguese Republican Party. By 1910, the Kingdom of Portugal was in deep crisis: British pressure on Portugal's colonies, the royal family's expenses, the assassination of the King and his heir in 1908, changing religious and social views, instability of the two political parties, the dictatorship of João Franco, the regime's apparent inability to adapt to modern times all led to widespread resentment against the Monarchy; the proponents of the republic the Republican Party, found ways to take advantage of the situation. The Republican Party presented itself as the only one that had a programme, capable of returning to the country its lost status and place Portugal on the way of progress. After a reluctance of the military to combat the nearly two thousand soldiers and sailors that rebelled between 3 and 4 October 1910, the Republic was proclaimed at 9 o'clock of the next day from the balcony of the Paços do Concelho in Lisbon.
After the revolution, a provisional government led by Teófilo Braga directed the fate of the country until the approval of the Constitution in 1911 that marked the beginning of the First Republic. Among other things, with the establishment of the republic, national symbols were changed: the national anthem and the flag; the revolution produced some civil and religious liberties, although there was no advance in women's rights and in workers rights, unlike what happened in other European countries. On 11 January 1890 the British government of Lord Salisbury sent the Portuguese government an ultimatum in the form of a "memorandum", demanding the retreat of the Portuguese military forces led by Serpa Pinto from the territory between the colonies of Angola and Mozambique, an area claimed by Portugal under the Pink Map; the swift yielding by the Portuguese to the British demands was seen as a national humiliation by a broad cross-section of the population and the elite, initiating a movement of deep dissatisfaction in relation with the new king, Carlos I of Portugal, the royal family and the institution of the monarchy, which were seen as responsible for the alleged process of "national decline".
The situation was aggravated by the severe financial crisis that occurred between 1890 and 1891, when the money sent from emigrants in Brazil decreased by 80% with the so-called crisis of encilhamento following the proclamation of the republic in Brazil two months an event, followed with apprehension by the monarchic government and with jubilation by the defenders of the republic in Portugal. The republicans knew how to take advantage of the dissatisfaction, initiating an increase of their social support base that would climax in the demise of the regime. On 14 January, the progressive government fell and the leader of the Regenerador Party, António de Serpa Pimentel, was chosen to form the new government; the progressivists began to attack the king, voting for republican candidates in the March election of that year, questioning the colonial agreement signed with the British. Feeding an atmosphere of near insurrection, on 23 March 1890, António José de Almeida, at the time a student in the University of Coimbra and on, President of the Republic, published an article entitled "Bragança, o último", considered slanderous against the king and led to Almeida's imprisonment.
On 1 April 1890, the explorer Silva Porto self-immolated wrapped in a Portuguese flag in Kuito, after failed negotiations with the locals, under orders of Paiva Couceiro, which he attributed to the ultimatum. The death of the well-known explorer of the African continent generated a wave of national sentiment, his funeral was followed by a crowd in Porto. On 11 April, Guerra Junqueiro's poetic work Finis Patriae, a satire criticising the King, went on sale. In the city of Porto, on 31 January 1891, a military uprising against the monarchy took place, constituted by sergeants and enlisted ranks; the rebels, who used the nationalist anthem A Portuguesa as their marching song, took the Paços do Concelho, from whose balcony, the republican journalist and politician Augusto Manuel Alves da Veiga proclaimed the establishment of the republic in Portugal and hoisted a red and green flag belonging to the Federal Democratic Centre. The movement was, shortly afterwards, suppressed by a military detachment of the municipal guard that remained loyal to the government, resulting in 40 injured and 12 casualties.
The captured rebels were judged. 250 received 15 years of exile in Africa. A Portuguesa was forbidden. Despite its failure, the rebellion of 31 January 1891 was the first large threat felt by the monarchic regime and a sign of what would come two decades later; the revolutionary movement of 5 October 1910 occurred following the ideological and political action that, since its creation in 1876, the Portuguese Republican Party had been developing with the objective of overthrowing the monarchic regime. By making the national renewal dependent on the end of the monarchy, the Republican Party managed to define itself as distinct from the Portuguese Socialist Party, which defended a collaboration with the regime in exchange for the rights of the working class and attracted the sympathy of the dissatisfied sections of society. Disagreements within the party became more connected with matters of political than ideological strategy; the ideological direction of the Portuguese republicanism had been traced much earlier by the works of José Félix Henriques Nogueira, little changed through the years, except in terms of adaptation to the everyday r
John I of Portugal
John I called John of Aviz, was King of Portugal from 1385 until his death in 1433. He is recognized chiefly for his role in Portugal's victory in a succession war with Castile, preserving his country's independence and establishing the Aviz dynasty on the Portuguese throne, his long reign of 48 years, the most extensive of all Portuguese monarchs, saw the beginning of Portugal's overseas expansion. John's well-remembered reign in his country earned him the epithet of Fond Memory; as part of his efforts to acquire Portuguese territories in Africa, he became the first king of Portugal to use the title "Lord of Ceuta". John was born in Lisbon as the natural son of King Peter I of Portugal by a woman named Teresa, according to the royal chronicler Fernão Lopes, was a noble Galician. In the 18th century, António Caetano de Sousa found a 16th-century document in the archives of the Torre do Tombo in which she was named as Teresa Lourenço. In 1364, by request of Nuno Freire de Andrade, a Galician Grand Master of the Order of Christ, he was created Grand Master of the Order of Aviz.
On the death without a male heir of his half-brother, King Ferdinand I, in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Beatrice, Ferdinand's only daughter. As heir presumptive, Beatrice had married king John I of Castile, but popular sentiment was against an arrangement in which Portugal would have been annexed by Castile; the 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum followed, a period of political anarchy, when no monarch ruled the country. On 6 April 1385, the Council of the Kingdom met in Coimbra and declared John Master of Aviz, to be king of Portugal; this was followed by the liberation of all of the Minho in the course of two months as part of a war against Castile in opposition to its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the king of Castile again invaded Portugal with the purpose of conquering Lisbon and removing John I from the throne. John I of Castile was accompanied by French allied cavalry while English troops and generals took the side of John of Aviz.
John and Nuno Álvares Pereira, his constable and talented supporter, repelled the attack in the decisive Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August 1385. John I of Castile retreated; the Castilian forces abandoned Santarém, Torres Vedras and Torres Novas, many other towns were delivered to John I by Portuguese nobles from the Castilian side. As a result, the stability of the Portuguese throne was permanently secured. On 11 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, who had proved to be a worthy ally; the marriage consolidated an Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. John I of Castile died in 1390 without issue from his wife Beatrice, which meant that a competing legitimate bloodline with a claim to the throne of Portugal died out. John I of Portugal was able to rule in peace and concentrate on the economic development and territorial expansion of his realm; the most significant military actions were the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta by Portugal in 1415, the successful defence of Ceuta from a Moroccan counterattack in 1419.
These measure were intended to help seize control of navigation off the African coast and trade routes from the interior of Africa. The raids and attacks of the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula created captives on both sides who were either ransomed or sold as slaves; the Portuguese crown extended this practice to North Africa. After the attack on Ceuta, the king sought papal recognition of the military action as a Crusade; such a ruling would have enabled those captured to be legitimately sold as slaves. In response to John's request, Pope Martin V issued the Papal bull Sane charissimus of 4 April 1418, which confirmed to the king all of the lands he might win from the Moors. Under the auspices of Prince Henry the Navigator, voyages were organized to explore the African coast; these led to the discovery of the uninhabited islands of Madeira in 1417 and the Azores in 1427. Contemporaneous writers describe John as a man of wit, keen on concentrating power on himself, but at the same time possessed a benevolent and kind demeanor.
His youthful education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king for the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed on to his sons, who are referred to collectively by Portuguese historians as the "illustrious generation": Edward, the future king, was a poet and a writer. In 1430, John's only surviving daughter, married Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, enjoyed an refined court culture in his lands. On 2 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, in Porto. From that marriage were born several famous princes and princesses of Portugal that became known as the "illustrious generation"; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "John I. of Portugal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 443. Williamson, D. 1988. Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe Ana Echevarría Arsuaga: Catalina de Lancaster, edit. Nerea, 2002. ISBN 84-89569-79-7)
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I, the Fortunate, King of Portugal, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese history distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and in the arts. In spite of Portugal’s small size and population in comparison to the great European land powers of France and Spain, the classical Portuguese Armada was the largest in the world at the time. During Manuel's reign Portugal was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions, the first in world history to reach global dimensions; the landmark symbol of the period was the Portuguese discovery of Brazil and South America in April 1500. Manuel's mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal, whereas his father was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal and the younger brother of King Afonso V of Portugal. In 1495, Manuel succeeded his first cousin, King John II of Portugal, his brother-in-law, as husband to Manuel's sister, Eleanor of Viseu.
Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies of the Portuguese upper nobility against King John II. He was aware of many people being exiled, his older brother Diogo, Duke of Viseu, was stabbed to death in 1484 by the king himself. Manuel thus would have had every reason to worry when he received a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, but his fears were groundless: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne after the death of his son Prince Afonso and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son; as a result of this stroke of luck, he was nicknamed the Fortunate. Manuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin John II for his support of Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following achievements were realized: 1498 – The discovery of a maritime route to India by Vasco da Gama. 1500 – The discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral. 1505 – The appointment of Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of India.
1503–1515 – The establishment of monopolies on maritime trade routes to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf by Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, for the benefit of Portugal. The capture of Malacca in modern-day Malaysia in 1511 was the result of a plan by Manuel I to thwart the Muslim trade in the Indian Ocean by capturing Aden, blocking trade through Alexandria, capturing Ormuz to block trade through the Persian Gulf and Beirut, capturing Malacca to control trade with China. All these events made Portugal wealthy from foreign trade as it formally established a vast overseas empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with Ming dynasty of China and the Persian Safavid dynasty. Pope Leo X received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign designed to draw attention to Portugal's newly acquired riches to all of Europe. In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government.
The Portuguese Cortes met only three times during his reign, always in the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights. During his reign, the laws in force in the kingdom of Portugal were recodified with the publication of the Manueline Ordinations. Manuel was a religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to send missionaries to the new colonies, among them Francisco Álvares, sponsor the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel endeavoured to promote another crusade against the Turks, his relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews, made captive during the reign of John II. For the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon heiress of the future united crown of Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492 and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence.
In the marriage contract, Manuel I agreed to persecute the Jews of Portugal. In December 1496, it was decreed that all Jews either convert to Christianity or leave the country without their children. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king; when those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who tried to use coercion and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country. This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed. During the course of the Lisbon massacre of 1506, people invaded the Jewish Quarter and murdered thousands of accused Jews. Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, thus putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had harbored since the reign of King Ferdinand I. Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 at the age of two years, ended these ambitions.
Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was his first wife. Maria died in 1517 but the two sisters were survived by an older sister, Joanna of Castile, born in